WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite tracking altimeter

  1. A geopotential model from satellite tracking, altimeter, and surface gravity data: GEM-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Marshall, J. A.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Chinn, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    An improved model of Earth's gravitational field, Goddard Earth Model T-3 (GEM-T3), has been developed from a combination of satellite tracking, satellite altimeter, and surface gravimetric data. GEM-T3 provides a significant improvement in the modeling of the gravity field at half wavelengths of 400 km and longer. This model, complete to degree and order 50, yields more accurate satellite orbits and an improved geoid representation than previous Goddard Earth Models. GEM-T3 uses altimeter data from GEOS 3 (1975-1976), Seasat (1978) and Geosat (1986-1987). Tracking information used in the solution includes more than 1300 arcs of data encompassing 31 different satellites. The recovery of the long-wavelength components of the solution relies mostly on highly precise satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, but also includes Tracking Network (TRANET) Doppler, optical, and satellite-to-satellite tracking acquired between the ATS 6 and GEOS 3 satellites. The main advances over GEM-T2 (beyond the inclusion of altimeter and surface gravity information which is essential for the resolution of the shorter wavelength geoid) are some improved tracking data analysis approaches and additional SLR data. Although the use of altimeter data has greatly enhanced the modeling of the ocean geoid between 65 deg N and 60 deg S latitudes in GEM-T3, the lack of accurate detailed surface gravimetry leaves poor geoid resolution over many continental regions of great tectonic interest (e.g., Himalayas, Andes). Estimates of polar motion, tracking station coordinates, and long-wavelength ocean tidal terms were also made (accounting for 6330 parameters). GEM-T3 has undergone error calibration using a technique based on subset solutions to produce reliable error estimates. The calibration is based on the condition that the expected mean square deviation of a subset gravity solution from the full set values is predicted by the solutions' error covariances. Data weights are iteratively adjusted until

  2. Inference of Altimeter Accuracy on Along-track Gravity Anomaly Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A correlation model between along-track gravity anomaly accuracy, spatial resolution and altimeter accuracy is proposed. This new model is based on along-track gravity anomaly recovery and resolution estimation. Firstly, an error propagation formula of along-track gravity anomaly is derived from the principle of satellite altimetry. Then the mathematics between the SNR (signal to noise ratio and cross spectral coherence is deduced. The analytical correlation between altimeter accuracy and spatial resolution is finally obtained from the results above. Numerical simulation results show that along-track gravity anomaly accuracy is proportional to altimeter accuracy, while spatial resolution has a power relation with altimeter accuracy. e.g., with altimeter accuracy improving m times, gravity anomaly accuracy improves m times while spatial resolution improves m0.4644 times. This model is verified by real-world data.

  3. Validation of Chinese HY-2 satellite radar altimeter significant wave height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Xiaomin; LIN Mingsen; XU Ying

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Haiyang-2(HY-2) satellite is the first Chinese marine dynamic environment satellite. The dual-frequency (Ku and C band) radar altimeter onboard HY-2 has been working effective to provide operational significant wave height (SWH) for more than three years (October 1, 2011 to present).We validated along-track Ku-band SWH data of HY-2 satellite against National Data Buoy Center (NDBC)in-situ measurements over a time period of three years from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2014, the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias of HY-2 SWH is 0.38 m and (–0.13±0.35) m, respectively. We also did cross validation against Jason-2 altimeter SWH data,the RMSE and the mean bias is 0.36m and (–0.22±0.28) m, respectively. In order to compare the statistical results between HY-2 and Jason-2 satellite SWH data, we validated the Jason-2 satellite radar altimeter along-track Ku-band SWH data against NDBC measurements using the same method. The results demonstrate the validation method in this study is scientific and the RMSE and mean bias of Jason-2 SWH data is 0.26 m and (0.00±0.26) m, respectively. We also validated both HY-2 and Jason-2 SWH data every month, the mean bias of Jason-2 SWH data almost equaled to zero all the time, while the mean bias of HY-2 SWH data was no less than –0.31m before April 2013 and dropped to zero after that time. These results indicate that the statistical results for HY-2 altimeter SWH are reliable and HY-2 altimeter along-track SWH data were steady and of high quality in the last three years. The results also indicate that HY-2 SWH data have greatly been improved and have the same accuracy with Jason-2 SWH data after April, 2013. SWH data provided by HY-2 satellite radar altimeter are useful and acceptable for ocean operational applications.

  4. Wind waves in tropical cyclones: satellite altimeter observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkin, Pavel; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Results of investigation of wind-wave generation by tropical cyclones using satellite altimeter data are presented. Tropical cyclones are generally relatively small rapidly moving low pressure systems that are capable of generating severe wave conditions. Translation of a tropical cyclone leads to a prolonged period of time surface waves in the right sector remain under high wind forcing conditions. This effect has been termed extended fetch, trapped fetch or group velocity quasi-resonance. A tropical cyclone wave field is thus likely more asymmetrical than the corresponding wind field: wind waves in the tropical cyclone right sector are more developed with larger heights than waves in the left one. A dataset of satellite altimeter intersections of the Western Pacific tropical cyclones was created for 2010-2013. Data from four missions were considered, i.e., Jason-1, Jason-2, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa. Measurements in the rear-left and front-right sectors of tropical cyclones were examined for the presence of significant wave asymmetry. An analytical model is then derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution in a moving tropical cyclone. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The model provides a criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves. If forced during a sufficient timescale interval, also defined from this generalized self-similar wave growth model, waves can be trapped and large amplification of the wave energy will occur in the front-right storm quadrant. Remarkably, the group velocity and corresponding wavelength of outrunning wave systems will become wind speed independent and solely relate to the translating velocity. The resulting significant wave height also only weakly depends on wind speed, and more strongly on the translation velocity. Satellite

  5. Geodetic Mobil Solar Spectrometer for JASON Altimeter Satellite Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Becker-Ross, H.; Florek, S.; Okruss, M.

    Atmospheric water vapor is a crucial factor in achieving highest accuracies for space geodetic measurements. Water vapor causes a delay of the propagation time of the altimeter satellite signal, which propagates into errors for the determination of surface heights. Knowledge of the precipitable water vapor (PW) enables a tropospheric correction of the satellite signal. Therefore, different remote sensing techniques have been pursued to measure the PW continuously. The prototype Geodetic Mobil Solar Spectrometer (GEMOSS) was developed at the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory (GGL, ETH Zurich) in cooperation with the Institute of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (ISAS) (Berlin, Germany). A new optical approach allows the simultaneous measurement of numerous single absorption lines of water vapor in the wide range between 728 nm and 915 nm. The large number of available absorption lines increases the accuracy of the absolute PW retrievals considerably. GEMOSS has been deployed during two campaigns in Greece in the framework of the EU-project GAVDOS, which deals with the calibration of the altimeter satellite JASON. During the overfly of JASON, the ground-based determination of PW enables the correction of the satellite measurements due to tropospheric water vapor. Comparisons with radiometer and radiosondes data allow to assess the accuracy and reliability of GEMOSS. The instrumental advancement of GEMOSS is presented together with the results of the campaigns carried out.

  6. What Limits an Altimeter's Resolution of Along-Track Geoid Slope? Insights from Saral and Cryosat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite altimeter data collected along densely spaced ground tracks can map the marine gravity field, revealing the tectonic fabric of the sea floor. This application requires high accuracy of the along-track derivative of sea surface height over distances shorter than 80 km, and so is very sensitive to the instrument's range precision and any factors that produce short-scale along-track correlation of range measurement errors. To date the altimeters that have collected data over a dense network of ground tracks all acquired their largest data sets in Ku band and employing conventional (incoherent) processing. Two new altimeters go beyond conventional Ku instruments. SARAL AltiKa operates as an incoherent altimeter at Ka-band, and CryoSat collects some Ku-band data in a SAR mode to permit coherent processing for aperture synthesis and delay-Doppler calculations. The along-track range noise correlation characteristics of each of these new measurements are different from what has been seen in previous altimeters. SARAL AltiKa has a lower noise floor than pre-Cryosat Ku-band instruments and its noise spectrum shows decorrelation at different wavelengths, in partial agreement with theoretical work on speckle noise decorrelation over homogeneous surfaces. This improved noise performance results in demonstrable improvement in the resolution of geoid anomalies over small seamounts. Retracking of Cryosat's SAR mode multi-looked waveform yields a decorrelation of range errors unlike that found in conventional instruments, such that it doesn't require two-pass retracking to get the best geoid slope resolution. This is due mainly to the waveform's shape, which yields partial derivatives with respect to geophysical parameter estimates that are more nearly orthogonal than in conventional Ku-band Brown model waveforms. Further understanding of the limits on range precision in these instruments will require understanding of the heterogeneities in reflecting surfaces that are

  7. A preliminary estimate of geoid-induced variations in repeat orbit satellite altimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita C.; Beckley, B. D.; Koblinsky, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Altimeter satellites are often maintained in a repeating orbit to facilitate the separation of sea-height variations from the geoid. However, atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure cause a satellite orbit to drift. For Geosat this drift causes the ground track to vary by + or - 1 km about the nominal repeat path. This misalignment leads to an error in the estimates of sea surface height variations because of the local slope in the geoid. This error has been estimated globally for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission using a mean sea surface constructed from Geos 3 and Seasat altimeter data. Over most of the ocean the geoid gradient is small, and the repeat-track misalignment leads to errors of only 1 to 2 cm. However, in the vicinity of trenches, continental shelves, islands, and seamounts, errors can exceed 20 cm. The estimated error is compared with direct estimates from Geosat altimetry, and a strong correlation is found in the vicinity of the Tonga and Aleutian trenches. This correlation increases as the orbit error is reduced because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. A preliminary estimate of geoid-induced variations in repeat orbit satellite altimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita C.; Beckley, B. D.; Koblinsky, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Altimeter satellites are often maintained in a repeating orbit to facilitate the separation of sea-height variations from the geoid. However, atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure cause a satellite orbit to drift. For Geosat this drift causes the ground track to vary by + or - 1 km about the nominal repeat path. This misalignment leads to an error in the estimates of sea surface height variations because of the local slope in the geoid. This error has been estimated globally for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission using a mean sea surface constructed from Geos 3 and Seasat altimeter data. Over most of the ocean the geoid gradient is small, and the repeat-track misalignment leads to errors of only 1 to 2 cm. However, in the vicinity of trenches, continental shelves, islands, and seamounts, errors can exceed 20 cm. The estimated error is compared with direct estimates from Geosat altimetry, and a strong correlation is found in the vicinity of the Tonga and Aleutian trenches. This correlation increases as the orbit error is reduced because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. The Rigorous Geometric Model of Satellite Laser Altimeter and Preliminarily Accuracy Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Xinming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been paid attention to improving the elevation accuracy of satellite stereo images aided by laser altimeter. The GF-7 satellite scheduled to launch in 2018 will be equipped with optical stereo cameras and a laser altimeter. ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite with GLAS(Geo-science Laser Altimeter System is the first and still only laser altimeter satellite for earth observation until now. In this paper, the comprehensively analysis about the rigorous geometric model and accuracy analysis of laser altimeter is presented. The error induced by laser pointing aberration and mounting is proposed, and the data processing workflow of ICESat/GLAS from level 0 to level 2 is introduced. What's more, the geo-location accuracy between this paper and GLAS product is compared and the model is validated by the result that the accuracy based on the model is about 3 cm and 11 cm in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. The laser altimeter data loaded on the ZY3-02 satellite has been processed and validated preliminarily. The conclusion of this paper is valuable and can be viewed as reference for the subsequent domestic laser altimeter satellites.

  10. Improved interpretation of satellite altimeter data using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Kenneth; Lybanon, Matthew

    1992-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GA) are optimization techniques that are based on the mechanics of evolution and natural selection. They take advantage of the power of cumulative selection, in which successive incremental improvements in a solution structure become the basis for continued development. A GA is an iterative procedure that maintains a 'population' of 'organisms' (candidate solutions). Through successive 'generations' (iterations) the population as a whole improves in simulation of Darwin's 'survival of the fittest'. GA's have been shown to be successful where noise significantly reduces the ability of other search techniques to work effectively. Satellite altimetry provides useful information about oceanographic phenomena. It provides rapid global coverage of the oceans and is not as severely hampered by cloud cover as infrared imagery. Despite these and other benefits, several factors lead to significant difficulty in interpretation. The GA approach to the improved interpretation of satellite data involves the representation of the ocean surface model as a string of parameters or coefficients from the model. The GA searches in parallel, a population of such representations (organisms) to obtain the individual that is best suited to 'survive', that is, the fittest as measured with respect to some 'fitness' function. The fittest organism is the one that best represents the ocean surface model with respect to the altimeter data.

  11. Mean Sea Surface (mss) Model Determination for Malaysian Seas Using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Musa, T. A.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, A. H.; Tugi, A.; Yazid, N. M.; Abdullah, N. M.; Wahab, M. I. A.

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of satellite altimeter technology has generated many evolutions to oceanographic and geophysical studies. A multi-mission satellite altimeter consists with TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2, ERS-2, Envisat-1, CryoSat-2 and Saral are extracted in this study and has been processed using Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) for the period of January 2005 to December 2015 to produce the sea surface height (hereinafter referred to SSH). The monthly climatology data from SSH is generated and averaged to understand the variation of SSH during monsoon season. Then, SSH data are required to determine the localised and new mean sea surface (MSS). The differences between Localised MSS and DTU13 MSS Global Model is plotted with root mean square error value is 2.217 metres. The localised MSS is important towards several applications for instance, as a reference for sea level variation, bathymetry prediction and derivation of mean dynamic topography.

  12. MEAN SEA SURFACE (MSS MODEL DETERMINATION FOR MALAYSIAN SEAS USING MULTI-MISSION SATELLITE ALTIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Z. Yahaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of satellite altimeter technology has generated many evolutions to oceanographic and geophysical studies. A multi-mission satellite altimeter consists with TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2, ERS-2, Envisat-1, CryoSat-2 and Saral are extracted in this study and has been processed using Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS for the period of January 2005 to December 2015 to produce the sea surface height (hereinafter referred to SSH. The monthly climatology data from SSH is generated and averaged to understand the variation of SSH during monsoon season. Then, SSH data are required to determine the localised and new mean sea surface (MSS. The differences between Localised MSS and DTU13 MSS Global Model is plotted with root mean square error value is 2.217 metres. The localised MSS is important towards several applications for instance, as a reference for sea level variation, bathymetry prediction and derivation of mean dynamic topography.

  13. Gravimetric geodesy and sea surface topography studies by means of satellite-to-satellite tracking and satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A satellite-to-satellite tracking experiment is planned between ATS-F and GEOS-C with a range accuracy of 2-meters and a range rate accuracy of 0.035 centimeters per second for a 10-second integration time. This experiment is planned for 1974. It is anticipated that it will improve the spatial resolution of the satellite geoid by half an order of magnitude to about 6 degrees. Longer integration times should also permit a modest increase in the acceleration resolution. Satellite altimeter data will also be obtained by means of GEOS-C. An overall accuracy of 5-meters in altitude is the goal. The altimeter, per se, is expected to have an instrumental precision of about 2 meters, and an additional capability to observe with a precision of about 0.2 meters for limited periods.

  14. Detection of Solid Tides on Europa Through Ground-Tracking of a Low-Altitude, Altimeter- Equipped Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, S.; Padovan, S.; Bardella, M.

    2007-12-01

    The possibility of detecting a global liquid ocean beneath the icy crust of Europa without the use of landers or ice penetrators rests on the measurement of the Love numbers h2 and k2. These are respectively related to the radial deformation of the surface and the consequent tidally-induced variation of the gravitational field of this icy satellite. Depending on the rigidity of the icy crust, the response of the Europan surface to the tidal forces gives an indication of the depth of a possible subsurface ocean. Previous studies in this area have addressed the detection of tidal surface deformations through the analysis of the tidally induced orbital perturbations of a Europan orbiter. As a preliminary study in preparation for future missions to Europa, as in the LAPLACE proposal to the European Space Agency, the approach followed here is to introduce the presence of an onboard altimeter. In this study we then generate synthetic measurements taken from an altimeter-equipped, low-altitude orbiter, supplemented with Earth-based tracking of the orbiter. For simplicity, ground-tracking is simulated as a range data-type. Altimeter measurements are simulated using parameters based on available models for the interior of Europa derived from Galileo mission data. Reference orbits were obtained by numerical investigations of the dynamically unstable near-Europa environment. Orbits were found to be stable over periods of approximately one to three months at altitudes of 100 km and inclinations varying from 75 degrees to 105 degrees. The measurements are consequently simulated over a period of one to two months. Under the hypothesis that Europan gravity field information of sufficient accuracy has been obtained in the first phase of the mission, the simulations address the detection of the solid tide related Love parameters h2 and k2. Results of this sensitivity study will be presented for a variety of orbital configurations with the aim to help in the design of future Europa

  15. ALTWAVE: Toolbox for use of satellite L2P altimeter data for wave model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, Christian M.; Camacho-Magaña, Víctor; Breña-Naranjo, José Agustín

    2016-03-01

    To characterize some of the world's ocean physical processes such as its wave height, wind speed and sea surface elevation is a major need for coastal and marine infrastructure planning and design, tourism activities, wave power and storm surge risk assessment, among others. Over the last decades, satellite remote sensing tools have provided quasi-global measurements of ocean altimetry by merging data from different satellite missions. While there is a widely use of altimeter data for model validation, practical tools for model validation remain scarce. Our purpose is to fill this gap by introducing ALTWAVE, a MATLAB user-oriented toolbox for oceanographers and coastal engineers developed to validate wave model results based on visual features and statistical estimates against satellite derived altimetry. Our toolbox uses altimetry information from the GlobWave initiative, and provides a sample application to validate a one year wave hindcast for the Gulf of Mexico. ALTWAVE also offers an effective toolbox to validate wave model results using altimeter data, as well as a guidance for non-experienced satellite data users. This article is intended for wave modelers with no experience using altimeter data to validate their results.

  16. Simulation of the satellite radar altimeter sea ice thickness retrieval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Tonboe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that radar waves penetrate into snow and sea ice, the exact mechanisms for radar-altimeter scattering and its link to the depth of the effective scattering surface from sea ice are still unknown. Previously proposed mechanisms linked the snow ice interface, i.e. the dominating scattering horizon, directly with the depth of the effective scattering surface. However, simulations using a multilayer radar scattering model show that the effective scattering surface is affected by snow-cover and ice properties. With the coming Cryosat-2 (planned launch 2009 satellite radar altimeter it is proposed that sea ice thickness can be derived by measuring its freeboard. In this study we evaluate the radar altimeter sea ice thickness retrieval uncertainty in terms of floe buoyancy, radar penetration and ice type distribution using both a scattering model and ''Archimedes' principle''. The effect of the snow cover on the floe buoyancy and the radar penetration and on the ice cover spatial and temporal variability is assessed from field campaign measurements in the Arctic and Antarctic. In addition to these well known uncertainties we use high resolution RADARSAT SAR data to simulate errors due to the variability of the effective scattering surface as a result of the sub-footprint spatial backscatter and elevation distribution sometimes called preferential sampling. In particular in areas where ridges represent a significant part of the ice volume (e.g. the Lincoln Sea the simulated altimeter thickness estimate is lower than the real average footprint thickness. This means that the errors are large, yet manageable if the relevant quantities are known a priori. A discussion of the radar altimeter ice thickness retrieval uncertainties concludes the paper.

  17. Simulation of the satellite radar altimeter sea ice thickness retrieval uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonboe, R. T.; Pedersen, L. T.; Haas, C.

    2009-07-01

    Although it is well known that radar waves penetrate into snow and sea ice, the exact mechanisms for radar-altimeter scattering and its link to the depth of the effective scattering surface from sea ice are still unknown. Previously proposed mechanisms linked the snow ice interface, i.e. the dominating scattering horizon, directly with the depth of the effective scattering surface. However, simulations using a multilayer radar scattering model show that the effective scattering surface is affected by snow-cover and ice properties. With the coming Cryosat-2 (planned launch 2009) satellite radar altimeter it is proposed that sea ice thickness can be derived by measuring its freeboard. In this study we evaluate the radar altimeter sea ice thickness retrieval uncertainty in terms of floe buoyancy, radar penetration and ice type distribution using both a scattering model and ''Archimedes' principle''. The effect of the snow cover on the floe buoyancy and the radar penetration and on the ice cover spatial and temporal variability is assessed from field campaign measurements in the Arctic and Antarctic. In addition to these well known uncertainties we use high resolution RADARSAT SAR data to simulate errors due to the variability of the effective scattering surface as a result of the sub-footprint spatial backscatter and elevation distribution sometimes called preferential sampling. In particular in areas where ridges represent a significant part of the ice volume (e.g. the Lincoln Sea) the simulated altimeter thickness estimate is lower than the real average footprint thickness. This means that the errors are large, yet manageable if the relevant quantities are known a priori. A discussion of the radar altimeter ice thickness retrieval uncertainties concludes the paper.

  18. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Kawase, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  19. A study of possible sea state information in the sample and hold gate statistics for the GEOS-3 satellite altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, W. T.; Borman, K. L.; Mitchell, R. D.; Dempsey, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical variations in the sample gate outputs of the GEOS-3 satellite altimeter were studied for possible sea state information. After examination of a large number of statistical characteristics of the altimeter waveforms, it was found that the best sea predictor for H-1/3 in the range of 0 to 3 meters was the 75th percentile of sample and hold gate number 11.

  20. Satellite Tracking Astrometric Network (STAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Gai, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of precise orbit tracking and determination of different types of satellites has been explored for at least some 25 years (Arimoto et al., 1990). Proposals in this sense made use mainly of astrometric observations, but multiple tracking techniques combining transfer and laser ranging was also suggested (Guo et al., 2009; Montojo et al., 2011), with different requirements and performances ranging from $\\sim100$~m to tenths of meters.In this work we explore the possible improvements and a novel implementation of a technique relying on large angle, high precision astrometry from ground for the determination of satellite orbits. The concept is based on combined observation of geostationary satellites and other near-Earth space objects from two or more telescopes, applying the triangulation principle over widely separated regions of the sky. An accuracy of a few $10^{-2}$~m can be attained with 1-meter-class telescopes and a field of vied of some arcminutes.We discuss the feasibility of the technique, some of the implementation aspects, and the limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence. The potential benefits for satellite orbit control and navigation systems are presented, depending on the number and position of the contributing telescopes.We also discuss the possibility that, by reversing the roles of stars and satellites, the same kind of observations can be used for verification and maintenance of astrometric catalogs.

  1. Validation, Analysis of the Chinese HY-2 Satellite Altimeter Data and their Applications in the China Sea and its Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jungang; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Wei; Zhao, Xinhua; Han, Weixiao; Martinez, Bernat

    2016-08-01

    Chinese first altimetry satellite HY-2 has been on obit almost 5 years by now and a large amount of marine observing data of HY-2 altimeter have acquired. In this paper, sea surface height (SSH) data of HY-2 altimeter are validated by the SSH difference at the self- crossover of the HY-2 ascending and descending obit, and at the mutual-crossover of HY-2 and Jason-2 obit. Significant wave height (SWH) data of HY-2 altimeter are validated by the data of NDBC buoys. On the data application of HY-2 altimeter, mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea and the western Pacific Ocean, the characteristics of ocean wave in the China Sea and the characteristics of Kuroshio are analyzed by combing with Envsiat RA-2, Jason-1/2 data.

  2. Improved threshold retracker for satellite altimeter waveform retracking over coastal sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jinyun; HWANG Cheiway; CHANG Xiaotao; LIU Yuting

    2006-01-01

    Data quality is a key factor for the application of satellite altimetry to geodesy and oceanography. Accuracy of altimetry is limited in the coastal area because the altimeter waveforms are seriously contaminated by topography and environmental pollution. So waveform retracking is needed to compute the range correction of geophysical data records (GDRs) for better accuracy. In this paper, a new waveform retracker named the improved threshold retracker (ITR) is put forward. The retracker first builds sub-waveforms based on leading edges detected in a waveform, then determines the middle point of each leading edge to compute the retracking range correction,finally calculates the referenced sea surface heights according to the geoid undulation from a local geopotential model and tide heights from an ocean tide model, and compares it with all retracking ranges to determine the best one. As a test, altimeter waveforms of Geosat/GM are retracked around the Taiwan coastal area. The result shows that accuracy of ITR method is two times better than that of theβ-5-parameter function-fitting method and threshold method, and three times better than that of GDRs. ITR can efficiently improve the altimetry accuracy of the coastal sea area.

  3. Variations in transport derived from satellite altimeter data over the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, E.; Lambert, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Variations in total change of sea surface height (delta h) across the Gulf Stream are observed using Seasat radar altimeter data. The sea surface height is related to transport within the stream by a two layer model. Variations in delta h are compared with previously observed changes in transport found to increase with distance downstream. No such increase is apparent since the satellite transports show no significant dependence on distance. Though most discrepancies are less than 50 percent, a few cases differ by about 100 percent and more. Several possible reasons for these discrepancies are advanced, including geoid error, but only two oceanographic contributions to the variability are examined, namely, limitations in the two layer model and meanders in the current. It is concluded that some of the discrepancies could be explained as changes in the density structure not accounted for by the two layer model.

  4. The accuracy of satellite radar altimeter data over the Greenland ice sheet determined from airborne laser data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamber, J.L.; Ekholm, Simon; Krabill, W.

    1998-01-01

    The 336 days of the geodetic phase of ERS-1 provides dense coverage, by satellite radar altimetry, of the whole of the Greenland ice sheet. These data have been used to produce a digital elevation model of the ice sheet. The errors present in the altimeter data were investigated via a comparison...... with airborne laser altimeter data an absolute accuracy typically in the range 2-10 cm +/- 10 cm. Comparison of differences between the radar and laser derived elevations, showed a correlation with surface slope. The difference between the two data sets ranged from 84 cm +/- 79 cm for slopes below 0.1 degrees...

  5. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  6. ACCELERATION OF SEA LEVEL RISE OVER MALAYSIAN SEAS FROM SATELLITE ALTIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS. Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  7. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  8. Assimilation of Satellite Altimeter Data With a Four Dimensional Model of the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Naoki; Ichiro, Fukumori; Jong-Hwan, Yoon

    1999-01-01

    A data assimilation is carried out to detect the variability of the Japan Sea circulation in the range from a few days to several years and from eddy to basin scale. The model applied in this study is the same 1/6 degree GFDL MOM1 as Kim and Yoon (1999) but is driven by ECMWF daily wind stress, heat and fresh water fluxes. The satellite altimeter data of TOPEX/POSEIDON, ERS-1 (phase C and G) and -2 are assimilated by an approximate Kalman filter (Fukumori and M.Rizzoli, 1995). The approximation is made by seeking an asymptotic steady error covariance matrix (Fukumori et al., 1993) and by introducing a coarser grid model for the innovation (data-model misfit). The coarse grid model is defined on 1/2 degree horizontal resolution and consists of the barotropic stream function, first baroclinic displacement and velocity amplitudes. The assimilated estimates explain about 6cm sea level variability of the data (approximately 12cm in the southern part), which is much larger than the previous reduced-gravity model and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data assimilation (Hirose et al., 1999). The impacts of the T/P and ERS data on the filtered estimates are comparable. The result also shows high correlation to subsurface water temperatures measured by CTD. Many of the mesoscale eddies/disturbances travel east-northeastward with the advection speed of 1-3cm/s though most of them generated in the western region can not pass over the Oki Spur. The quasi-biennial variability found by Hirose and Ostrovskii (1999) did not show clear propagation pattern. The shallow Oki Spur may work as a "western boundary" to this signal. This is more plausible estimation than by the R-G model which has no bottom topography.

  9. GPS Survey of the salar de Uyuni, Bolivia, for Satellite Altimeter Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Fricker, H. A.; Bills, B. G.; Carabajal, C. C.; Quinn, K.; Minster, J. B.; Schutz, B.

    2002-12-01

    The salar de Uyuni, a 100km x 100km salt flat in the Andean Altiplano of southern Bolivia, is the largest dry lake on Earth. The size, high albedo and remarkable flatness of the salar make it an ideal reference surface for satellite-based altimeters - in particular, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to be flown on the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) - especially with regard to range measurements and waveform analysis of return signals. A simple reference surface such as the salar can be mapped by ground-based surveying, although the sheer size of the area requires adaptations to standard survey techniques. We describe a survey of the salar de Uyuni carried out with car-mounted kinematic GPS over a seven-day period in September 2002. We divided the salar surface into a number of survey grids that were driven in multiple directions to yield redundant measurements and corresponding error statistics at grid crossover points. Adjacent grids were overlapped so we could also determine errors between grids and over multi-day time periods. In addition, we set up five fixed GPS sites on the salar to serve as local survey control in post-processing. These fixed sites will be used to map ionospheric effects and interpolate them to the roving GPS receivers. If successful, this will allow reprocessing of GPS solutions using L1 data only, with a corresponding reduction in noise compared to solutions using the standard ionosphere-free LC combination. We present our surveyed topography of the eastern half of the salar de Uyuni, comparing it to previously-published elevation measurements and to the best geoid model available for the region. We show the close relationship between the topography of the salar and the shape of the geoid, a result we had expected since the salar is flooded each austral summer to an almost uniform depth. We also demonstrate knowledge of the surface height of the salar to within the measurement error specified for the GLAS

  10. Inversion of marine gravity anomalies over southeastern China seas from multi-satellite altimeter vertical deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengjun; Sandwell, David T.; Jin, Taoyong; Li, Dawei

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy and resolution of marine gravity field derived from satellite altimetry mainly depends on the range precision and dense spatial distribution. This paper aims at modeling a regional marine gravity field with improved accuracy and higher resolution (1‧ × 1‧) over Southeastern China Seas using additional data from CryoSat-2 as well as new data from AltiKa. Three approaches are used to enhance the precision level of satellite-derived gravity anomalies. Firstly we evaluate a suite of published retracking algorithms and find the two-step retracker is optimal for open ocean waveforms. Secondly, we evaluate the filtering and resampling procedure used to reduce the full 20 or 40 Hz data to a lower rate having lower noise. We adopt a uniform low-pass filter for all altimeter missions and resample at 5 Hz and then perform a second editing based on sea surface slope estimates from previous models. Thirdly, we selected WHU12 model to update the corrections provided in geophysical data record. We finally calculated the 1‧ × 1‧ marine gravity field model by using EGM2008 model as reference field during the remove/restore procedure. The root mean squares of the discrepancies between the new result and DTU10, DTU13, V23.1, EGM2008 are within the range of 1.8- 3.9 mGal, while the verification with respect to shipboard gravity data shows that the accuracy of the new result reached a comparable level with DTU13 and was slightly superior to V23.1, DTU10 and EGM2008 models. Moreover, the new result has a 2 mGal better accuracy over open seas than coastal areas with shallow water depth.

  11. Unabated global mean sea-level rise over the satellite altimeter era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher S.; White, Neil J.; Church, John A.; King, Matt A.; Burgette, Reed J.; Legresy, Benoit

    2015-06-01

    The rate of global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise has been suggested to be lower for the past decade compared with the preceding decade as a result of natural variability, with an average rate of rise since 1993 of +3.2 +/- 0.4 mm yr-1 (refs , ). However, satellite-based GMSL estimates do not include an allowance for potential instrumental drifts (bias drift). Here, we report improved bias drift estimates for individual altimeter missions from a refined estimation approach that incorporates new Global Positioning System (GPS) estimates of vertical land movement (VLM). In contrast to previous results (for example, refs , ), we identify significant non-zero systematic drifts that are satellite-specific, most notably affecting the first 6 years of the GMSL record. Applying the bias drift corrections has two implications. First, the GMSL rate (1993 to mid-2014) is systematically reduced to between +2.6 +/- 0.4 mm yr-1 and +2.9 +/- 0.4 mm yr-1, depending on the choice of VLM applied. These rates are in closer agreement with the rate derived from the sum of the observed contributions, GMSL estimated from a comprehensive network of tide gauges with GPS-based VLM applied (updated from ref. ) and reprocessed ERS-2/Envisat altimetry. Second, in contrast to the previously reported slowing in the rate during the past two decades, our corrected GMSL data set indicates an acceleration in sea-level rise (independent of the VLM used), which is of opposite sign to previous estimates and comparable to the accelerated loss of ice from Greenland and to recent projections, and larger than the twentieth-century acceleration.

  12. Orbit Determination Using Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) data can be used to determine the orbits of spacecraft in two ways. One is combined orbit determination, which combines SST data with ground-based tracking data and exploits the enhanced tracking geometry. The other is the autonomous orbit determination, which uses only SST. The latter only fits some particular circumstances since it suffers the rank defect problem in other circumstances. The proof of this statement is presented. The na ture of the problem is also investigated in order to find an effective solution. Several methods of solution are discussed. The feasibility of the methods is demonstrated by their apphcation to a simulation.

  13. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  14. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  15. Gavdos/West Crete Cal-Val Site: Over a Decade Calibrations for Jason Series, SARAL/AltiKa, Cryosat-2, Sentinel-3 and Hy-2 Altimeter Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; DonLon, Craig; Mavrochordatos, Constantin; Tziavos, Ilias; Galanakis, Demitris; Vergos, George; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles; Frantzis, Xenofon; Lin, Mingsen; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and compares the latest altimeter calibration results for Jason series, the SARAL/AltiKa the Chinese HY-2 missions and the ESA missions of CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3, conducted at the Gavdos/Crete calibration/validation facilities. At first, the Jason altimeter calibration values will be given for the ascending Pass No.109 and the descending Pass No.18, based on the GDR-E (Jason-1), GDR-D (Jason- 2) and GDR-T (Jason-3) products. Secondly, these values will be cross-examined against the altimeter bias for the SARAL/AltiKa (GDR-T) satellite at Gavdos Cal/Val using its reference ascending orbit No. 571. The Chinese HY-2 satellite altimeter bias will be presented using the CRS1 permanent site in southwest Crete for the descending HY-2 Pass No. 280, at 20 Hz based on SGDR data products. Finally, values will be compared against the Sentinel-3 altimeter. Additionally, altimeter biases as determined by locally developed Mean Sea Surface models, will be presented and compared with the conventional sea-surface calibration methodology.

  16. Advanced tracking and data relay satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this communication satellite system are as follows: to provide NASA needs for satellite tracking and communications through the year 2012; to maintain and augment the current TDRS system when available satellite resources are expended in the latter part of the decade; to provide the necessary ground upgrade to support the augmented services; and to introduce new technology to reduce the system life cycle cost. It is concluded that no ATDRS spacecraft requirement for new modulation techniques, that data rate of 650 MBps is required, and that Space Station Freedom requirement is for 650 MBps data some time after the year 2000.

  17. Satellite animal tracking feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    A study was initiated in Tsavo National Park to determine movements and home ranges of individual elephants and their relations to overall distribution patterns and environmental factors such as rainfall. Methods used were radio tracking and observations of visually identifiable individuals. Aerial counts provided data on overall distribution. Two bulls and two cows were radio-tagged in Tsavo West and two bulls and four cows in Tsavo East, providing home range and movement data. The movements of individuals were useful in interpreting relatively major shifts in elephant distribution. Results point to the following preliminary conclusions: (1) elephants in the Tsavo area undertook long distance movements in fairly direct response to localized rainfall; (2) a subdivision of the overall population into locally distinct units may exist during the dry season but did not occur after significant rainfall; and (3) food appears to be the primary factor governing movements and distribution of elephants in the area.

  18. Prediction of bathymetry from satellite altimeter based gravity in the Arabian Sea: Mapping of two unnamed deep seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, B.; Kurian, P. J.; Swain, D.; Tyagi, A.; Ravindra, R.

    2012-06-01

    This work attempts to predict bathymetry from satellite altimeter based gravity in the Arabian Sea. A collocated match-up database (n = 17,016) was created on Multibeam Echosounder (MBES) bathymetry and satellite gravity values (˜1 min spatial resolution) derived from remote sensing satellites. A Radial Basis Function (RBF) based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to predict bathymetry from satellite gravity values. The ANN model was trained with variable undersea features such as seamount, knoll, abyssal plain, hill, etc. to familiarize the network with all possible geomorphic features as inputs through learning and the corresponding target outputs. The performance of the predictive model was evaluated by comparing bathymetric values with MBES datasets that were not used during the training and verification steps of the ANN model formulation. The model was then compared with MBES surveyed seamount observations (those were not used during ANN analysis) and global model bathymetry products. Results demonstrate better performance of ANN model compared to global model products for mapping of two unnamed seamounts in the Arabian Sea. These two unnamed seamounts have been predicted, mapped and their morphology is reported for the first time through this work.

  19. New Radar Altimeter Missions are Providing a Dramatically Sharper Image of Global Marine Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Müller, D.; Garcia, E.; Matthews, K. J.; Smith, W. H. F.; Zaron, E.; Zhang, S.; Bassett, D.; Francis, R.

    2015-12-01

    Marine gravity, derived from satellite radar altimetry, is a powerful tool for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. The ability to infer seafloor tectonics from space was first demonstrated in 1978 using Seasat altimeter data but the spatial coverage was incomplete because of the short three-month lifetime of the satellite. Most ocean altimeters have repeat ground tracks with spacings of hundreds of kilometers so they do not resolve tectonic structures. Adequate altimeter coverage became available in 1995 when the United States Navy declassified the Geosat radar altimeter data and the ERS-1 altimeter completed a 1-year mapping phase. These mid-1990's altimeter-derived images of the ocean basins remained static for 15 years because there were no new non-repeat altimeter missions. This situation changed dramatically in 2010 when CryoSat-2, with its advanced radar altimeter, was launched into a non-repeat orbit and continues to collect data until perhaps 2020. In addition the Jason-1 altimeter was placed into a 14-month geodetic phase at the end of its lifetime. More recently the 1.5 times higher precision measurements from the AltiKa altimeter aboard the SARAL spacecraft began to drift away from its 35-day repeat trackline. The Chinese HY-2 altimeter is scheduled to begin a dense mapping phase in early 2016. Moreover in 2020 we may enjoy significantly higher resolution maps of the ocean basins from the planned SWOT altimeter mission with its advanced swath mapping ability. All of this new data will provide a much sharper image of the tectonics of the deep ocean basins and continental margins. During this talk we will tour of the new tectonic structures revealed by CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 and speculate on the tectonic views of the ocean basins in 2020 and beyond.

  20. Geodynamics implication of GPS and satellite altimeter and gravity observations to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled H. Zahran

    2012-06-01

    Results show important zones of mass discontinuity in this region correlated with the seismological activities and temporal gravity variations agree with the crustal deformation obtained from GPS observations. The current study indicates that satellite gravity data is a valuable source of data in understanding the geodynamical behavior of the studied region and that satellite gravity data is an important contemporary source of data in the geodynamical studies.

  1. A wave energy resource assessment in the China's seas based on multi-satellite merged radar altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy resources are abundant in both offshore and nearshore areas of the China's seas. A reliable assessment of the wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. First, for a water depth in offshore waters of China, a parameterized wave power density model that considers the effects of the water depth is introduced to improve the calculating accuracy of the wave power density. Second, wave heights and wind speeds on the surface of the China's seas are retrieved from an AVISO multi-satellite altim-eter data set for the period from 2009 to 2013. Three mean wave period inversion models are developed and used to calculate the wave energy period. Third, a practical application value for developing the wave energy is analyzed based on buoy data. Finally, the wave power density is then calculated using the wave field data. Using the distribution of wave power density, the energy level frequency, the time variability indexes, the to-tal wave energy and the distribution of total wave energy density according to a wave state, the offshore wave energy in the China's seas is assessed. The results show that the areas of abundant and stable wave energy are primarily located in the north-central part of the South China Sea, the Luzon Strait, southeast of Taiwan in the China's seas; the wave power density values in these areas are approximately 14.0–18.5 kW/m. The wave energy in the China’s seas presents obvious seasonal variations and optimal seasons for a wave energy utilization are in winter and autumn. Except for very coastal waters, in other sea areas in the China's seas, the energy is primarily from the wave state with 0.5 m≤Hs≤4 m, 4 s≤Te≤10 s whereHs is a significant wave height andTe is an energy period; within this wave state, the wave energy accounts for 80% above of the total wave energy. This characteristic is advantageous to designing wave energy convertors (WECs). The practical application value of the wave energy is higher

  2. High Precision Control of Ship-Mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Soltani; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    The telecommunication on a modern merchandise ship is maintained by means of satellite communication. The task of the tracking system is to position the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellite. The control system is capable of rejecting the external disturbances which affect on the under......-actuated antenna and ensures that it remains locked on the satellite. In this paper, a nonlinear internal model controller (NIMC), which achieves asymptotic tracking for the nonlinear antenna system with nonlinear exogenous dynamics, is proposed. Computer simulations as well as practical tests verify...... the effectiveness of this method to cope with the external disturbances that are imposed to the satellite tracking antenna (STA)....

  3. High Precision Control of Ship-Mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Soltani; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    The telecommunication on a modern merchandise ship is maintained by means of satellite communication. The task of the tracking system is to position the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellite. The control system is capable of rejecting the external disturbances which affect on the under......-actuated antenna and ensures that it remains locked on the satellite. In this paper, a nonlinear internal model controller (NIMC), which achieves asymptotic tracking for the nonlinear antenna system with nonlinear exogenous dynamics, is proposed. Computer simulations as well as practical tests verify...... the effectiveness of this method to cope with the external disturbances that are imposed to the satellite tracking antenna (STA)....

  4. Controls on ERS altimeter measurements over ice sheets: Footprint-scale topography, backscatter fluctuations, and the dependence of microwave penetration depth on satellite orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthern, R. J.; Wingham, D. J.; Ridout, A. L.

    2001-12-01

    We consider the reliability of radar altimeter measurements of ice sheet elevation and snowpack properties in the presence of surface undulations. We demonstrate that over ice sheets the common practice of averaging echoes by aligning the first return from the surface at the origin can result in a redistribution of power to later times in the average echo, mimicking the effects of microwave penetration into the snowpack. Algorithms that assume the topography affects the radar echo shape in the same way that waves affect altimeter echoes over the ocean will therefore lead to biased estimates of elevation. This assumption will also cause errors in the retrieval of echoshape parameters intended to quantify the penetration of the microwave pulse into the snowpack. Using numerical simulations, we estimate the errors in retrievals of extinction coefficient, surface backscatter, and volume backscatter for various undulating topographies. In the flatter portions of the Antarctic plateau, useful estimates of these parameters may be recovered by averaging altimeter echoes recorded by the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1). By numerical deconvolution of the average echoes we resolve the depths in the snowpack at which temporal changes and satellite travel-direction effects occur, both of which have the potential to corrupt measurements of ice sheet elevation change. The temporal changes are isolated in the surface-backscatter cross section, while directional effects are confined to the extinction coefficient and are stable from year to year. This allows the removal of the directional effect from measurement of ice-sheet elevation change.

  5. The eSurge-Venice project: altimeter and scatterometer satellite data to improve the storm surge forecasting in the city of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchetto, Stefano; De Biasio, Francesco; Umgiesser, Georg; Bajo, Marco; Vignudelli, Stefano; Papa, Alvise; Donlon, Craig; Bellafiore, Debora

    2013-04-01

    On the framework of the Data User Element (DUE) program, the European Space Agency is funding a project to use altimeter Total Water Level Envelope (TWLE) and scatterometer wind data to improve the storm surge forecasting in the Adriatic Sea and in the city of Venice. The project will: a) Select a number of Storm Surge Events occurred in the Venice lagoon in the period 1999-present day b) Provide the available satellite Earth Observation (EO) data related to the Storm Surge Events, mainly satellite winds and altimeter data, as well as all the available in-situ data and model forecasts c) Provide a demonstration Near Real Time service of EO data products and services in support of operational and experimental forecasting and warning services d) Run a number of re-analysis cases, both for historical and contemporary storm surge events, to demonstrate the usefulness of EO data The re-analysis experiments, based on hindcasts performed by the finite element 2-D oceanographic model SHYFEM (https://sites.google.com/site/shyfem/), will 1. use different forcing wind fields (calibrated and not calibrated with satellite wind data) 2. use Storm Surge Model initial conditions determined from altimeter TWLE data. The experience gained working with scatterometer and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) winds in the Adriatic Sea tells us that the bias NWP-Scatt wind is negative and spatially and temporally not uniform. In particular, a well established point is that the bias is higher close to coasts then offshore. Therefore, NWP wind speed calibration will be carried out on each single grid point in the Adriatic Sea domain over the period of a Storm Surge Event, taking into account of existing published methods. Point #2 considers two different methodologies to be used in re-analysis tests. One is based on the use of the TWLE values from altimeter data in the Storm Surge Model (SSM), applying data assimilation methodologies and trying to optimize the initial conditions of the

  6. Further development of an improved altimeter wind speed algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelton, Dudley B.; Wentz, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    A previous altimeter wind speed retrieval algorithm was developed on the basis of wind speeds in the limited range from about 4 to 14 m/s. In this paper, a new approach which gives a wind speed model function applicable over the range 0 to 21 m/s is used. The method is based on comparing 50 km along-track averages of the altimeter normalized radar cross section measurements with neighboring off-nadir scatterometer wind speed measurements. The scatterometer winds are constructed from 100 km binned measurements of radar cross section and are located approximately 200 km from the satellite subtrack. The new model function agrees very well with earlier versions up to wind speeds of 14 m/s, but differs significantly at higher wind speeds. The relevance of these results to the Geosat altimeter launched in March 1985 is discussed.

  7. Uncertainties in Steric Sea Level Change Estimation During the Satellite Altimeter Era: Concepts and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, C. R.; Merchant, C. J.; von Schuckmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a review of current practice in estimating steric sea level change, focussed on the treatment of uncertainty. Steric sea level change is the contribution to the change in sea level arising from the dependence of density on temperature and salinity. It is a significant component of sea level rise and a reflection of changing ocean heat content. However, tracking these steric changes still remains a significant challenge for the scientific community. We review the importance of understanding the uncertainty in estimates of steric sea level change. Relevant concepts of uncertainty are discussed and illustrated with the example of observational uncertainty propagation from a single profile of temperature and salinity measurements to steric height. We summarise and discuss the recent literature on methodologies and techniques used to estimate steric sea level in the context of the treatment of uncertainty. Our conclusions are that progress in quantifying steric sea level uncertainty will benefit from: greater clarity and transparency in published discussions of uncertainty, including exploitation of international standards for quantifying and expressing uncertainty in measurement; and the development of community "recipes" for quantifying the error covariances in observations and from sparse sampling and for estimating and propagating uncertainty across spatio-temporal scales.

  8. Uncertainties in Steric Sea Level Change Estimation During the Satellite Altimeter Era: Concepts and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, C. R.; Merchant, C. J.; von Schuckmann, K.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a review of current practice in estimating steric sea level change, focussed on the treatment of uncertainty. Steric sea level change is the contribution to the change in sea level arising from the dependence of density on temperature and salinity. It is a significant component of sea level rise and a reflection of changing ocean heat content. However, tracking these steric changes still remains a significant challenge for the scientific community. We review the importance of understanding the uncertainty in estimates of steric sea level change. Relevant concepts of uncertainty are discussed and illustrated with the example of observational uncertainty propagation from a single profile of temperature and salinity measurements to steric height. We summarise and discuss the recent literature on methodologies and techniques used to estimate steric sea level in the context of the treatment of uncertainty. Our conclusions are that progress in quantifying steric sea level uncertainty will benefit from: greater clarity and transparency in published discussions of uncertainty, including exploitation of international standards for quantifying and expressing uncertainty in measurement; and the development of community "recipes" for quantifying the error covariances in observations and from sparse sampling and for estimating and propagating uncertainty across spatio-temporal scales.

  9. Trends of wave height and period in the Central Arabian Sea from 1996 to 2012: A study based on satellite altimeter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hithin, N.K.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    : Ocean Eng., Vol.108; 2015; 416-425. Trends of wave height and period in the Central Arabian Sea from 1996 to 2012: A study based on satellite altimeter data N.K. Hithin, V. Sanil Kumar*, P.R. Shanas+ Ocean Engineering Division, CSIR... measures wind speed at 3 m above the sea surface and SWH at a 3-h interval. Wind observation is a 10-minute average with wind speed and direction sampled at 1 Hz by a cup anemometer with vane. The accuracy of wind speed measurements is 1.5% of full scale...

  10. A satellite-tracking millimeter-wave reflector antenna system for mobile satellite-tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur C. (Inventor); Jamnejad, Vahraz (Inventor); Woo, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual-band two-way mobile satellite tracking antenna system mounted on a movable ground vehicle includes a miniature parabolic reflector dish having an elliptical aperture with major and minor elliptical axes aligned horizontally and vertically, respectively, to maximize azimuthal directionality and minimize elevational directionality to an extent corresponding to expected pitch excursions of the movable ground vehicle. A feed-horn has a back end and an open front end facing the reflector dish and has vertical side walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a lesser horn angle and horizontal top and bottom walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a greater horn angle. An RF circuit couples two different signal bands between the feed-horn and the user. An antenna attitude controller maintains an antenna azimuth direction relative to the satellite by rotating it in azimuth in response to sensed yaw motions of the movable ground vehicle so as to compensate for the yaw motions to within a pointing error angle. The controller sinusoidally dithers the antenna through a small azimuth dither angle greater than the pointing error angle while sensing a signal from the satellite received at the reflector dish, and deduces the pointing angle error from dither-induced fluctuations in the received signal.

  11. Satellite-Tracking Millimeter-Wave Reflector Antenna System For Mobile Satellite-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur C. (Inventor); Jamnejad, Vahraz (Inventor); Woo, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature dual-band two-way mobile satellite-tracking antenna system mounted on a movable vehicle includes a miniature parabolic reflector dish having an elliptical aperture with major and minor elliptical axes aligned horizontally and vertically, respectively, to maximize azimuthal directionality and minimize elevational directionality to an extent corresponding to expected pitch excursions of the movable ground vehicle. A feed-horn has a back end and an open front end facing the reflector dish and has vertical side walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a lesser horn angle and horizontal top and bottom walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a greater horn angle. An RF circuit couples two different signal bands between the feed-horn and the user. An antenna attitude controller maintains an antenna azimuth direction relative to the satellite by rotating it in azimuth in response to sensed yaw motions of the movable ground vehicle so as to compensate for the yaw motions to within a pointing error angle. The controller sinusoidally dithers the antenna through a small azimuth dither angle greater than the pointing error angle while sensing a signal from the satellite received at the reflector dish, and deduces the pointing angle error from dither-induced fluctuations in the received signal.

  12. Advanced spacecraft tracking techniques using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System /TDRSS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, J.; Ayres, C.

    1977-01-01

    The TDRSS will consist initially of two geosynchronous satellites and a common ground station at White Sands, New Mexico. According to current schedules, operations are to begin in November 1980. The overall TDRSS will provide high and low bit-rate telemetry, commands, and satellite-to-satellite tracking services. Each Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) will have four antenna systems for NASA use. The common ground station at White Sands will have three 18-meter K-band antennas. The tracking equipment at the ground station is required to meet the following specifications: (1) 0.1-radian root-mean-square (rms) phase noise on nondestruct Doppler measurements; (2) 10-nanosecond rms range noise; (3) 50-nanosecond maximum systematic range error. Attention is given to two-way range and Doppler measurements, the bilateration tracking of TDRS, and an experiment using differenced one-way Doppler measurements.

  13. OBIS - ARGOS Satellite Tracking of Animals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various species have been tracked using ARGOS PTT trackers since the early 1990's. These include Emperor, King and Adelie pengiuns, Light-mantled Sooty, Grey-headed...

  14. A digital elevation model of the Greenland ice sheet and validation with airborne laser altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Jonathan L.; Ekholm, Simon; Krabill, William B.

    1997-01-01

    A 2.5 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Greenland ice sheet was produced from the 336 days of the geodetic phase of ERS-1. During this period the altimeter was operating in ice-mode over land surfaces providing improved tracking around the margins of the ice sheet. Combined with the high density of tracks during the geodetic phase, a unique data set was available for deriving a DEM of the whole ice sheet. The errors present in the altimeter data were investigated via a comparison with airborne laser altimeter data obtained for the southern half of Greenland. Comparison with coincident satellite data showed a correlation with surface slope. An explanation for the behavior of the bias as a function of surface slope is given in terms of the pattern of surface roughness on the ice sheet.

  15. A satellite formation flying approach providing both positioning and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2016-05-01

    A magnetic field approach is presented whereby a large number of closely located satellites can be positioned and oriented relative to each other, but can also be tracked in six degrees of freedom. This is accomplished by using frequency-multiplexed magnetic fields where coils are placed on each satellite to allow them to generate magnetic fields, to interact with the magnetic fields from other satellites, and to sample the surrounding magnetic fields. By doing this, a satellite can choose which alternating field to push or pull against, to provide torque about, or to sample in order to determine its location and orientation relative to the other satellites. Theory is provided demonstrating the capability of this approach along with its advantages and limitations. An experimental system allowing 3 degrees-of-freedom was constructed and used to demonstrate a feedback and control system where a satellite is told to move to a location and it does this by interacting with the surrounding satellites to both generate forces and torques and to track its position and orientation.

  16. Altimeter Setting Indicator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Altimeter Setting Indicator (ASI) is an aneroid system used at airports to provide an altimeter setting for aircraft altimeters. This indicator may be an analog...

  17. NASA-GSFC ionospheric corrections to satellite tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, P. E.; Bent, R. B.; Llewellyn, S. K.; Nesterczuk, G.; Rangaswamy, S.

    1971-01-01

    An overview is presented of the development, verification, and recent implementation of the NASA-GSFC ionospheric model for satellite tracking data corrections. This model was incorporated into the Goddard Trajectory Determination System which is providing continuous trajectory computation support for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-B launched on 10 June 1973.

  18. Polarization-Basis Tracking Scheme in Satellite Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morio Toyoshima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite quantum key distribution is a promising technique that overcomes the limited transmission distance in optical-fiber-based systems. The polarization tracking technique is one of the key techniques in the satellite quantum key distribution. With free-space quantum key distribution between an optical ground station and a satellite, the photon polarization state will be changed according to the satellite movement. To enable polarization based quantum key distribution between mobile terminals, we developed a polarization-basis tracking scheme allowing a common frame of reference to be shared. It is possible to orient two platforms along a common axis by detecting the reference optical signal only on the receiver side with no prior information about the transmitter's orientation. We developed a prototype system for free-space quantum key distribution with the polarization-basis tracking scheme. Polarization tracking performance was 0.092° by conducting quantum key distribution experiments over a 1 km free space between two buildings in a Tokyo suburb.

  19. Satellite Tracking of Post-nesting Migration of Green Turtles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenzhi; Wang Dongxiao; Wang Huajie; Song Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    @@ During the period August 17-28, 2001, in collaboration with the Provincial Bureau of Oceanography & Fisheries of Guangdong and the South China Institute for Endangered Species, the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, a CAS affiliate in the city of Guangzhou, conducted a sea turtle satellite tracking project at Haigui Bay (Fig. 1) in the vicinity of Gangkou Town, Huidong County, Guangdong Province.

  20. Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J

    2014-10-14

    A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

  1. Detection of ship tracks in ATSR2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Campmany

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ships modify cloud microphysics by adding cloud condensation nuclei (CCN to a developing or existing cloud. These create lines of larger reflectance in cloud fields that are observed in satellite imagery. Ship tracks are most frequently seen off the west coast of California, and the Atlantic coast of both west Africa and south-western Europe. In order to automate their detection within the Along Track Scanning Radiometer 2 (ATSR2 data set an algorithm was developed and integrated with the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE processing chain. The algorithm firstly identifies intensity ridgelets in clouds which have the potential to be part of a ship track. This identification is done by comparing each pixel with its surrounding ones. If the intensity of three adjacent pixels is greater than the intensity of its neighbours, then it is classified as a ridgelet. These ridgelets are then connected together, according to a set of connectivity rules, to form tracks which are classed as ship tracks if they are long enough. The algorithm has been applied to two years of ATSR2 data. A month of results have been compared with other satellite datasets to validate the algorithm. There is a high ratio of false detections. Nevertheless the global distribution of ship tracks shows a similar pattern to the ship emissions distribution.

  2. Variability of surface velocity in the Kuroshio Current and adjacent waters derived from Argos drifter buoys and satellite altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao; WU Dexing; LIN Xiaopei

    2009-01-01

    By combining Argos drifter buoys and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data, the time series of sea-surface velocity fields in the Kuroshio Current (KC) and adjacent regions are established. And the variability of the KC from the Luzon Strait to the Tokara Strait is studied based on the velocity fields. The results show that the dominant variability period varies in different segments of the KC" The primary period near the Luzon Strait and to the east of Taiwan Island is the intra-seasonal time scale; the KC on the continental shelf of the ECS is the steadiest segment without obvious periodicity, while the Tokara Strait shows the period of seasonal variability. The diverse periods are caused by the Rossby waves propagating from the interior ocean, with adjustments in topography of island chain and local wind stress.

  3. Efficient Algorithm for Railway Tracks Detection Using Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite imagery can produce maps including roads, railway tracks, buildings, bridges, oceans, lakes, rivers, etc. In developed countries like USA, Canada, Australia, Europe, images produced by Google map are of high resolution and good quality. On the other hand, mostly images of the third world countries like Pakistan, Asian and African countries are of poor quality and not clearly visible. Similarly railway tracks of these countries are hardly visible in Google map. We have developed an efficient algorithm for railway track detection from a low quality image of Google map. This would lead to detect damaged railway track, railway crossings and help to schedule/divert locomotive movements in order to avoid catastrophe.

  4. Local gravity disturbance estimation from multiple-high-single-low satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekeli, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    The idea of satellite-to-satellite tracking in the high-low mode has received renewed attention in light of the uncertain future of NASA's proposed low-low mission, Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The principal disadvantage with a high-low system is the increased time interval required to obtain global coverage since the intersatellite visibility is often obscured by Earth. The U.S. Air Force has begun to investigate high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking between the Global Positioning System (GPS) of satellites (high component) and NASA's Space Transportation System (STS), the shuttle (low component). Because the GPS satellites form, or will form, a constellation enabling continuous three-dimensional tracking of a low-altitude orbiter, there will be no data gaps due to lack of intervisibility. Furthermore, all three components of the gravitation vector are estimable at altitude, a given grid of which gives a stronger estimate of gravity on Earth's surface than a similar grid of line-of-sight gravitation components. The proposed Air Force mission is STAGE (Shuttle-GPS Tracking for Anomalous Gravitation Estimation) and is designed for local gravity field determinations since the shuttle will likely not achieve polar orbits. The motivation for STAGE was the feasibility to obtain reasonable accuracies with absolutely minimal cost. Instead of simulating drag-free orbits, STAGE uses direct measurements of the nongravitational forces obtained by an inertial package onboard the shuttle. The sort of accuracies that would be achievable from STAGE vis-a-vis other satellite tracking missions such as GRM and European Space Agency's POPSAT-GRM are analyzed.

  5. Automatic detection of ship tracks in ATSR-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Campmany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ships modify cloud microphysics by adding cloud condensation nuclei (CCN to a developing or existing cloud. These create lines of larger reflectance in cloud fields that are observed in satellite imagery. An algorithm has been developed to automate the detection of ship tracks in Along Track Scanning Radiometer 2 (ATSR-2 imagery. The scheme has been integrated into the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE processing chain. The algorithm firstly identifies intensity ridgelets in clouds which have the potential to be part of a ship track. This identification is done by comparing each pixel with its surrounding ones. If the intensity of three adjacent pixels is greater than the intensity of their neighbours, then it is classified as a ridgelet. These ridgelets are then connected together, according to a set of connectivity rules, to form tracks which are classed as ship tracks if they are long enough. The algorithm has been applied to two years of ATSR-2 data. Ship tracks are most frequently seen off the west coast of California, and the Atlantic coast of both West Africa and South-Western Europe. The global distribution of ship tracks shows strong seasonality, little inter-annual variability and a similar spatial pattern to the distribution of ship emissions.

  6. GAVDOS/west crete cal-val site: Over a decade calibrations for Jason series, SARAL/Altika, cryoSat-2, Sentinel-3 and HY-2 altimeter satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Tziavos, Ilias; Galanakis, Demitris

    for the ascending Pass No.109 and the descending Pass No.18, based on the the GDR-E (Jason-1) and GDR-D (Jason-2) products. Secondly, these values will be cross-examined against the altimeter bias for the SARAL/AltiKa (GDR-T) satellite at Gavdos Cal/Val using its reference ascending orbit No. 571. The Chinese HY-2...

  7. Improved retracking algorithm for oceanic altimeter waveforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifeng Bao; Yang Lu; Yong Wang

    2009-01-01

    Over the deep oceans without land/ice interference, the waveforms created by the return altimeter pulse generally follow the ocean model of Brown, and the corresponding range can be properly determined using the result from an onboard tracker. In the case of com-plex altimeter waveforms corrupted due to a variety of reasons, the processor on the satellite cannot properly determine the center of the leading edge, and range observations can be in error. As an efficacious method to improve the precision of those altimeter observations with complex waveforms, waveform retracking is required to reprocess the original returning pulse. Based on basic altimeter theory and the geometric feature of altimeter waveforms, we developed a new altimeter waveform retracker, which is valid for all altimeter wave-forms once there exists a reasonable returning signal. The performances of the existing Beta-5 retracker, threshold retracker, improved threshold retracker, and the new retracker are assessed in the experimental regions (China Seas and its adjacent regions), and the improvements in the accuracy of sea surface height are investigated by the difference between retracked altimeter observations and ref-erenced geoid. The comparisons denote that the new algorithm gives the best performance in both the open ocean and coastal regions. Also, the new retracker presents a uniform performance in the whole test region. Besides, there is a significant improvement in the short-wavelength precision and the spatial resolution of sea surface height after retracking process.

  8. Time-variable gravity fields from satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettadpur, Srinivas; Cheng, Minkang; Ries, John

    2014-05-01

    At the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR), we routinely deliver time-series of Earth's gravity field variations, some of it spanning more than two decades. These time-series are derived - in a consistent manner - from satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, from low-Earth orbiters tracked using GPS, and from low-low satellite to satellite tracking data from GRACE. In this paper, we review the information content in the gravity field time-series derived from each of these methods. We provide a comparison of the time-series at the decadal and annual time-scales, and identify the spatial modes of variability that are well or poorly estimated by each of the observing systems. The results have important bearing on the prospects of extending GRACE time-variable gravity time-series in the event of gaps between dedicated gravity missions, and for extending the time-series into the past. Support for this research from joint NASA/DLR GRACE mission, the NASA MEASURs program, and the NASA ROSES/GRACE Science Team is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. On gravity from SST, geoid from Seasat, and plate age and fracture zones in the Pacific. [Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.; Marsh, J. G.; Williamson, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Data from an additional 50 satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) passes were combined with earlier measurements of the high degree and order (n, m, 12) gravity in the central Pacific. A composite map was produced which shows good agreement with conventional GEM models. Data from the Seasat altimeter was reduced and found to agree well with both the SST and the GEM fields. The maps are dominated especially in the east, by a pattern of roughly east-west anomalies with a transverse wavelength of about 2000 km. Further comparison with regional bathymetric data shows a remarkably close correlation with plate age. Each anomaly band is framed by those major fracture zones having large offsets. The regular spacing of these fractures seems to account for the fabric in the gravity fields. Other anomalies are accounted for by hot spots. The source of part of these anomalies is in the lithosphere itself. The possible plume size and ascent velocity necessary to supply deep mantle material to the upper mantle without complete thermal equilibration is considered. Previously announced in STAR as N84-11559

  10. Geoid Recovery using Geophysical Inverse Theory Applied to Satellite to Satellite Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.; Frey, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a new method for determination of the geopotential. The analysis is aimed at the GRACE mission. This Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) mission is viewed as a mapping mission The result will be maps of the geoid. The elements of potential theory, celestial mechanics, and Geophysical Inverse Theory are integrated into a computation architecture, and the results of several simulations presented Centimeter accuracy geoids with 50 to 100 km resolution can be recovered with a 30 to 60 day mission.

  11. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatinajafabadi, Mitra; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Kölzsch, Andrea; Nolet, Bart A; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Griffin, Larry; Stahl, Julia; Cabot, David

    2014-01-01

    Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI), has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7). Data were collected over three years (2008-2010). Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%), while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%). Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration), thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  12. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shariatinajafabadi

    Full Text Available Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI, has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7. Data were collected over three years (2008-2010. Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%, while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%. Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration, thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  13. Satellite-derived sea surface height and sea surface wind data fusion for spilled oil tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2003-12-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the trajectory of the spilled oil from the sunken tanker Nakhodka occurred on January 2, 1997 in the Japan Sea by fusing two microwave sensor data, namely ERS-2 altimeter and ADEOS/NSCAT scatterometer data. In this study 'fusion' is defined as the method of more reliable prediction for the trajectory of spilled oil than before. Geostrophic current vectors are derived from ERS-2 altimeter and wind-induced drift vectors are derived from ADEOS/NSCAT scatterometer data These two different satellite-derived vectors are 'fused' together in the surface current model to estimate and evaluate the trajectory of spilled oil from the sunken tanker Nakhodka. The distribution of component of spill vector is mostly accounted for by the distribution of geostrophic velocity component during the study period with some discrepancies during March, 1997.

  14. A case study of the energy dissipation of the gravity wave field based on satellite altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Parsons, C. L.; Long, S. R.; Bliven, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Wave breaking is proposed as the primary energy dissipation mechanism for the gravity wave field. The energy dissipation rate is calculated based on the statistical model proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1969) with a modification of the breaking criterion incorporating the surface stress according to Phillips and Banner (1974). From this modified model, an analytic expression is found for the wave attenuation rate and the half-life time of the wave field which depend only on the significant slope of the wave field and the ratio of friction velocity to initial wave phase velocity. These expressions explain why the freshly generated wave field does not last long, but why swells are capable of propagating long distances without substantial change in energy density. It is shown that breaking is many orders of magnitude more effective in dissipating wave energy than the molecular viscosity, if the significant slope is higher than 0.01. Limited observational data from satellite and laboratory are used to compare with the analytic results, and show good agreement.

  15. On-orbit target tracking and inspection by satellite formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Zhai; Jingrui Zhang; Zhicheng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    A new type of estimator is developed for the satel-lite formation to track and inspect on-orbit targets. The fol ower satel ite in the formation works without relative sensors, and its target pointing commands are derived based on relative orbital dynamics. The centralized estimator based on truth measurement is designed, however, this estimator is proved unstable because of the lack of necessary measurement information. After that, an alternative estimator based on pseudo measurement is designed, and its observability and control ability are analyzed to qualitatively evaluate the convergence performance. Final y, an on-orbit target inspection scenario is numerical y simulated to verify the perfor-mance of the estimator based on pseudo measurement.

  16. Mapping of sea bottom topography over western offshore, India using TOPEX/ERS-1 altimeter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohanty, K.K.; Majumdar, T.J.; Kunte, P.D.; Srivastava, A.K.

    convolution model using satellite altimeter data over the Indian offshore region. The study used TOPEX/POSEIDON as well as ERS-1 altimeter data, along with National Geophysical Data Centre (NGDC), USA ship-borne bathymetry data. The altimeter range data...

  17. First satellite tracks of the Endangered black-capped petrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Ronconi, Robert A.; Rupp, Ernst; Wallace, George E.; Satgé, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    The black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata is an endangered seabird with fewer than 2000 breeding pairs restricted to a few breeding sites in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. To date, use areas at sea have been determined entirely from vessel-based surveys and opportunistic sightings and, as such, spatial and temporal gaps in our understanding of the species’ marine range are likely. To enhance our understanding of marine use areas, we deployed satellite tags on 3 black-capped petrels breeding on Hispaniola, representing the first tracking study for this species and one of the first published tracking studies for any breeding seabird in the Caribbean. During chick rearing, petrels primarily used marine habitats in the southern Caribbean Sea (ca. 18.0° to 11.5°N, 70.0° to 75.5°W) between the breeding site and the coasts of Venezuela and Colombia. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 500 to 1500 km during the chick-rearing period. During the post-breeding period, each bird dispersed north and used waters west of the Gulf Stream offshore of the mid- and southern Atlantic coasts of the USA as well as Gulf Stream waters and deeper pelagic waters east of the Gulf Stream. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 2000 to 2200 km among birds during the nonbreeding period. Petrels used waters located within 14 different exclusive economic zones, suggesting that international collaboration will benefit the development of management strategies for this species.

  18. Robust FDI for A Ship-mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna: A Nonlinear Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Overseas telecommunication is preserved by means of satellite communication. Tracking system postures the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellite while the external disturbances affect the antenna. Certain faults (beam sensor malfunction or signal blocking) cause interruption in the communicat......Overseas telecommunication is preserved by means of satellite communication. Tracking system postures the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellite while the external disturbances affect the antenna. Certain faults (beam sensor malfunction or signal blocking) cause interruption...... in the communication connection resulting in the loss of the tracking functionality. In this paper, an optimization based fault diagnosis system is proposed for the nonlinear model of the satellite tracking antenna (STA). The suggested method is able to estimate the fault for a class of nonlinear systems acting under...

  19. An adaptive Multiplicative Extened Kalman Filter for Attitude Estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Satellite tracking is a challenging task for marine applications due to the disturbance from ocean waves. An Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) for measuring ship attitude, based on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, is a key part for satellite tracking. In this paper......, an adaptive Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) for attitude estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA) is presented with the measurement noise covariance matrix adjusted according to the norm of accelerometer measurements, which can significantly reduce the slamming influence from waves...

  20. High Density GEOSAT/GM Altimeter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The high density Geosat/GM altimeter data south of 30 S have finally arrived. In addition, ERS-1 has completed more than 6 cycles of its 35-day repeat track. These...

  1. First calibration results of Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa satellite altimeters from the Qianli Yan permanent Cal/Val facilities, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhou, Xinghua; Mertikas, S. P.; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Long; Lei, Ning

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the first calibration results for the Jason-2 and the SARAL/AltiKa altimetric missions by using the permanent calibration facilities on the Qianli Yan islet (China). Qianli Yan is located in the Yellow Sea and only ∼3 km from the Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa crossover point. Analysis of the Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa waveform data and geophysical data over the Qianli Yan calibration area has proven that the altimeters and microwave radiometers are not contaminated by the mainland or the islet. The accuracies of the regional geoid model, provided by the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), State Oceanic Administration of China, and the DTU10 MSS model were assessed by a GNSS buoy experiment. The results indicated that the FIO model is suitable for altimeter calibration in the Qianli Yan area. From the observations and the geoid model, the absolute biases for the Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa altimeters (2013-2014) were determined as 21.0 ± 5.9 and -44.0 ± 7.3 mm, respectively. The 2 years' results indicated that the Jason-2 bias had no trend. However, the SARAL/AltiKa bias presented a downward trend that was more stable in 2014 than in 2013. The Qianli Yan results are consistent with those determined by other international dedicated calibration sites and crossover analysis.

  2. Dynamic sea surface topography, gravity, and improved orbit accuracies from the direct evaluation of Seasat altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Lerch, F.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    A gravitational model incorporating Seasat altimetry, surface gravimetry, and satellite tracking data has been determined in terms of global spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 50. This model, PGS-3337, uses altimeter data as a dynamic observation of the satellite's height above the sea surface. A solution for the ocean's dynamic topography is recovered simultaneously with the orbit parameters, gravity, and ocean tidal terms. The recovered dynamic topography reveals the global long wavelength circulation of the oceans with a resolution of 2000 km and is very similar to the mean upper ocean dynamic height derived from historical ship observations. The PGS-3337 geoid has an uncertainty of 60 cm rms globally but 25 cm rms over the ocean because of the altimeter measurements. Seasat orbits determined in this solution have an estimated accuracy for the radial position of 20 cm rms. The difference between the altimeter observed sea height and the geoid plus dynamic topography model is 30 cm rms. Contained in these residuals are the sea height variability, as well as errors from the geoid, orbits, tidal models, and altimeter range measurement. This performance level is 2 to 3 times better than that achieved with previous Goddard gravitational models.

  3. The integrated satellite-acoustic telemetry (iSAT) system for tracking marine megafauna

    KAUST Repository

    De La Torre, Pedro R.

    2012-10-06

    This document describes the integrated satellite-acoustic telemetry (iSAT) system: an autonomous modular system for tracking the movements of large pelagic fish using acoustic telemetry and satellite communications. The sensor platform is described along with the propulsion and navigation systems. An application for tracking the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Red Sea is included along with a discussion of the technical difficulties that such a system faces.

  4. Web-based Altimeter Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, P. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Xing, Z.; Raskin, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a web-based system to allow updating and subsetting of TOPEX data. The Altimeter Service will be operated by PODAAC along with their other provision of oceanographic data. The Service could be easily expanded to other mission data. An Altimeter Service is crucial to the improvement and expanded use of altimeter data. A service is necessary for altimetry because the result of most interest - sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) - is composed of several components that are updated individually and irregularly by specialized experts. This makes it difficult for projects to provide the most up-to-date products. Some components are the subject of ongoing research, so the ability for investigators to make products for comparison or sharing is important. The service will allow investigators/producers to get their component models or processing into widespread use much more quickly. For coastal altimetry, the ability to subset the data to the area of interest and insert specialized models (e.g., tides) or data processing results is crucial. A key part of the Altimeter Service is having data producers provide updated or local models and data. In order for this to succeed, producers need to register their products with the Altimeter Service and to provide the product in a form consistent with the service update methods. We will describe the capabilities of the web service and the methods for providing new components. Currently the Service is providing TOPEX GDRs with Retracking (RGDRs) in netCDF format that has been coordinated with Jason data. Users can add new orbits, tide models, gridded geophysical fields such as mean sea surface, and along-track corrections as they become available and are installed by PODAAC. The updated fields are inserted into the netCDF files while the previous values are retained for comparison. The Service will also generate SSH and SSHA. In addition, the Service showcases a feature that plots any variable from files in netCDF. The

  5. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  6. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna Using Lagrange Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Nourbakhsh, S. M; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA) is a necessary device in ships for receiving satellite signals when they are sailing on the sea. This paper presents a simple methodology to obtain the dynamic equations of MSTA through Lagrange method, which is fundamental in design of modelbased...

  7. Design and observations of satellite laser ranging system for daylight tracking at Shanghai Observatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福民; 肖炽昆; 陈婉珍; 张忠萍; 谭德同; 龚向东; 陈菊平; 黄力; 章建华

    1999-01-01

    The first satellite laser ranging system for daylight tracking in China was set up at Shanghai Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Both false alarm probability due to strong background noises and detection probability of the laser returns with single photon level from satellite in daylight for our system are analysed. The system design and performance characteristics of subsystems, adopted techniques and satellite ranging observations are given.

  8. A MEO Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Constellation Scheme for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ting-yong; WU Shi-qi; LING Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A medium earth orbit (MEO) tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) constellation scheme for China is proposed. This system consists of MEO satellite constellation, inter-satellite links (ISLs) and terrestrial gateway station, which can provide continuous bidirectional data transmission links between low altitude spacecrafts and the terrestrial gateway station in China. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed constellation can cover the global low altitude space sphere and earth surface of China continuously, and has a preferable practical perspective.

  9. First satellite tracks of neonate sea turtles redefine the 'lost years' oceanic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine L; Wyneken, Jeanette; Porter, Warren P; Luo, Jiangang

    2014-04-22

    Few at-sea behavioural data exist for oceanic-stage neonate sea turtles, a life-stage commonly referred to as the sea turtle 'lost years'. Historically, the long-term tracking of small, fast-growing organisms in the open ocean was logistically or technologically impossible. Here, we provide the first long-term satellite tracks of neonate sea turtles. Loggerheads (Caretta caretta) were remotely tracked in the Atlantic Ocean using small solar-powered satellite transmitters. We show that oceanic-stage turtles (i) rarely travel in Continental Shelf waters, (ii) frequently depart the currents associated with the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, (iii) travel quickly when in Gyre currents, and (iv) select sea surface habitats that are likely to provide a thermal benefit or refuge to young sea turtles, supporting growth, foraging and survival. Our satellite tracks help define Atlantic loggerhead nursery grounds and early loggerhead habitat use, allowing us to re-examine sea turtle 'lost years' paradigms.

  10. Cosmic rays tracks in the PICsIT instrument onboard the INTEGRAL satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labanti, C. [IASF - CNR/INAF Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica, sezione di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Marisaldi, M. [IASF - CNR/INAF Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica, sezione di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Segreto, A. [IASF - CNR/INAF Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica, sezione di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    The PICsIT (PIxelated CsI Telescope) instrument is the high energy plane of the IBIS imager onboard the INTEGRAL satellite, launched on October 2002 and currently fully operative. PICsIT consists of a 64x64 detectors array, each composed of a CsI(Tl) scintillating crystal with p-i-n photodiode readout. Since its first in-orbit activation, several count rate spikes have been detected. The tracks in the detector corresponding to those spikes clearly indicate that their origin is the interaction of cosmic rays with the detector or the satellite structure. Several extended elliptical tracks have been detected, indicating the presence of electromagnetic and hadronic showers initiated by primary cosmic rays interacting with the satellite structure. The tracks morphology and statistics is presented. There is strong evidence that tracks events are due to phosphorescence states excited in the CsI(Tl) crystals by a high energy deposit. Since events due to cosmic rays tracks account for a significant fraction of the instrument background, their rejection is important to improve the instrument sensitivity. Tracks rejection is especially important in those instruments, based on large quantities of alkali halide scintillators, designed to trigger on count rate increases, such as gamma-ray burst monitors. In the PICsIT detector operated in photon-by-photon mode, tracks events rejection can be easily accomplished thanks to the tracks peculiar geometrical and timing characteristics.

  11. Augmented tracking and acquisition system for GBL satellite illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Aaron; Goodrich, Alan; Lawson, David G.; Holm, Richard W.

    1991-08-01

    The Augmented Tracking and Acquisition System (ATAS) provides the tracking acquisition aids, line-of-sight stabilization, and active closed-loop beam centering functions at two ground-based laser tracking sites for the Relay Mirror Experiment (RME). Simultaneous, steady illumination of the RME spacecraft with both ground beacons allows for successful beam relay between the two sites off of the orbiting mirror. Described in this paper is an overview of the functions, control system architectures, major subsystem components (steering mirrors and sensors), and mission operation of the ATAS subsystems. A brief discussion of ATAS evolution is included to show that versatility is needed for success.

  12. Hydrological parameter estimation for ungauged basin based on satellite altimeter data and discharge modeling. A simulation for the Caqueta River (Amazonian Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Leon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to review the usefulness of altimetric data in ungauged or very poorly monitored basin. It is shown that altimetric measurements can be combined with a single in-situ gauge to derive a reliable stage-discharge relationship upstream from the gauge. The Caqueta River in the Colombian Amazon Basin was selected to simulate a poorly monitored basin. Thus it was possible to derive the stage-discharge relationship for 13 "virtual gauge stations'' defined at river crossing with radar altimetric ground tracks. Stage measurements are derived from altimetric data following the methodology developed by Leon et al. (2006. Discharge is modeled using PROGUM – a flow routing model based on the Muskingum Cunge (M-C approach considering a diffusion-cum-dynamic wave propagation (Leon et al., 2006 using a single gauge located downstream from the basin under study. Rating curve parameters at virtual stations are estimated by fitting with a power law the temporal series of water surface altitude derived from satellite measurements and the modelled discharges. The methodology allows the ellipsoidal height of effective zero flow to be estimated. This parameter is a good proxy of the mean water depth from which the bottom slope of the reaches can be computed. Validation has been conducted by comparing the results with stages and discharges measured at five other gauges available on the Caqueta basin. Outflow errors range from 10% to 20% between the upper basin and the lower basin, respectively. Mean absolute differences less than 1.10 m between estimated equivalent water depth and measured water depth indicates the reliability of the proposed method. Finally, a 1.2×10−4 mm−1 mean bottom slope has been obtained for the 730 km long reach of the Caqueta main stream considered.

  13. Communications via the radio artificial earth satellite: Design of the tracking diagram and features for conducting QSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrozhanskiy, V.; Rybkin, V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the operation of a transmitting artifical Earth satellite. A tracking diagram for the satellite is constructed. The zone of radio visibility can be determined based on the techniques proposed.

  14. Determining the Cost Effectiveness of Nano-Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Control Network, which has eight Remote Tracking Stations around the globe to communicate with satellites ( Hodges and Woll 2008). The resulting raw...Logan, Utah: AIAA/USU, 2014. Hodges , Len, and Ron Woll. “Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) Support For Operational Responsive Space (ORS...Warfare Systems Command, 2010. Stacy, Nick . “6U Radar Altimeter Concept.” Paper presented at 6U Cubesat Low Cost Space Missions Workshop. Canberra

  15. Reliable Control of Ship-mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Motorized antenna is a key element in overseas satellite telecommunication. The control system directs the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellitewhile the high sea waves disturb the antenna. Certain faults (communication system malfunction or signal blocking) cause interruption in the communi......Motorized antenna is a key element in overseas satellite telecommunication. The control system directs the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellitewhile the high sea waves disturb the antenna. Certain faults (communication system malfunction or signal blocking) cause interruption...

  16. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  17. Ground Simulation of an Autonomous Satellite Rendezvous and Tracking System Using Dual Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube, Matthew J.; Hyslop, Andrew M.; Carignan, Craig R.; Easley, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop ground system was developed for simulating a robotic servicer spacecraft tracking a target satellite at short range. A relative navigation sensor package "Argon" is mounted on the end-effector of a Fanuc 430 manipulator, which functions as the base platform of the robotic spacecraft servicer. Machine vision algorithms estimate the pose of the target spacecraft, mounted on a Rotopod R-2000 platform, relay the solution to a simulation of the servicer spacecraft running in "Freespace", which performs guidance, navigation and control functions, integrates dynamics, and issues motion commands to a Fanuc platform controller so that it tracks the simulated servicer spacecraft. Results will be reviewed for several satellite motion scenarios at different ranges. Key words: robotics, satellite, servicing, guidance, navigation, tracking, control, docking.

  18. Orbit Determination of the SELENE Satellites Using Multi-Satellite Data Types and Evaluation of SELENE Gravity Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.

  19. A MEMS-based Adaptive AHRS for Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Hussain, Dil Muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Satellite tracking is a challenging task for marine applications. An attitude determination system should estimate the wave disturbances on the ship body accurately. To achieve this, an Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, composed...... of three-axis gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer, is developed for Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA). In this paper, the attitude determination algorithm is improved using an adaptive mechanism that tunes the attitude estimator parameters based on an estimation of ship motion frequency...

  20. Neural network based satellite tracking for deep space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozegar, F.; Ruggier, C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions and examine the trade-off between tracing accuracy and communication link performance.

  1. Autonomous Sub-Pixel Satellite Track Endpoint Determination for Space Based Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L M

    2011-03-07

    An algorithm for determining satellite track endpoints with sub-pixel resolution in spaced-based images is presented. The algorithm allows for significant curvature in the imaged track due to rotation of the spacecraft capturing the image. The motivation behind the subpixel endpoint determination is first presented, followed by a description of the methodology used. Results from running the algorithm on real ground-based and simulated spaced-based images are shown to highlight its effectiveness.

  2. Ocean surface waves and winds over the north Indian Ocean from satellite altimeter - preliminary results of SAC-NIO joint project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Rajkumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.; Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    and NIO. Though there had been three cruises during the period, there were very few satellite-ship overlaps. Data pairs (satellite derived and in situ) of surface wind speed, significant wave height and minimum significant swell height were used to find...

  3. Nightfire method to track volcanic eruptions from multispectral satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Grigory; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first results of an application of the Nightfire hotspot algorithm towards volcano activity detection. Nightfire algorithm have been developed to play along with a Suomi-NPP polar satellite launched in 2011, which has a new generation multispectral VIIRS thermal sensor on board, to detect gas flares related to the upstream and downstream production of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously using of nighttime data in SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR sensor bands the algorithm is able to estimate the hotspot temperature, size and radiant heat. Four years of non-filtered observations have been accumulated in a spatio-temporal detection database, which currently totals 125 GB in size. The first part of this work presents results of retrospective cross-match of the detection database with the publicly available observed eruptions databases. The second part discusses how an approximate 3D shape of a lava lake could be modeled based on the apparent source size and satellite zenith angle. The third part presents the results of fusion Landsat-8 and Himawari-8 satellites data with the VIIRS Nightfire for several active volcanoes.

  4. Comparison of gridded multi-mission and along-track mono-mission satellite altimetry wave heights with in situ near-shore buoy data.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Hithin, N.K.

    The applicability of altimeter data for the coastal region is examined by comparing the gridded multi-mission and along-track mono-mission significant wave height (SWH) data with the in situ buoy measurements at four stations off the east and west...

  5. Satellite Tracking of Humpback Whales in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.-P.

    In June 2000, 6 humpback whales (Megaptere novaeangliae) were tagged with satellite transmitters off West Greenland. Contact remained for up to 42 days. The tagging revealed that within the month of June, humpback whales off West Greenland moved between Fiskenæs Banke, Fyllas Banke, Tovqussaq Banke......, Sukkertop Banke and Lille Hellefiske Banke. The whales showed a preference for the continental slopes with depths less than 200 m, however, few dives were recorded down to 500 m. The whales had a preference for dives lasting 7-8 min. (15%) and no dives lasted longer than 15 min....

  6. Satellite Tracking of Humpback Whales in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.-P.

    In June 2000, 6 humpback whales (Megaptere novaeangliae) were tagged with satellite transmitters off West Greenland. Contact remained for up to 42 days. The tagging revealed that within the month of June, humpback whales off West Greenland moved between Fiskenæs Banke, Fyllas Banke, Tovqussaq Banke......, Sukkertop Banke and Lille Hellefiske Banke. The whales showed a preference for the continental slopes with depths less than 200 m, however, few dives were recorded down to 500 m. The whales had a preference for dives lasting 7-8 min. (15%) and no dives lasted longer than 15 min....

  7. The impact of curved satellite tracks on SAR focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the geometric effect of processing single look complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to a reference squint angle different from that given by the center of the real antenna beam. For data acquired on a straight flight line, the required transformation of radar coordinates...... from one Doppler reference to another is independent of the target elevation but for data acquired from a satellite orbit over a rotating Earth that is not true. Also the effect of ignoring Earth rotation is addressed....

  8. An adaptive Multiplicative Extened Kalman Filter for Attitude Estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    , an adaptive Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) for attitude estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA) is presented with the measurement noise covariance matrix adjusted according to the norm of accelerometer measurements, which can significantly reduce the slamming influence from waves...

  9. Satellite-tracked drifting buoy observations in the south equatorial current in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    Three satellite-tracked drifting buoys released in the south equatorial current in the Indian Ocean followed the path of the current moving westward approximately zonally in the vicinity of 10 degrees S latitude. On nearing the east coast of Africa...

  10. China's First Satellite Tracking of Migration Route of Black-necked Cranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with colleagues at home and abroad, CAS scientists launched China's first ever satellite tracking project on Black-necked Cranes in late February at the National Dashanbao Black-necked Crane Natural Reserve in southwest China's Yunnan Province. Its objective is to understand the migration route of the crane's eastern population so as to better protect this rare species.

  11. Integrated Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current Using HF Ocean Radars, Satellite Altimeters, Coastal Tide Gauges, and a Bottom-Mounted ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuchi, N.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.; Wakatsuchi, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soya Warm Current (SWC) is a coastal boundary current, which flows along the coast of Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The SWC flows into the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan through the Soya/La Perouse Strait, which is located between Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, Russia. It supplies warm, saline water in the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk and largely affects the ocean circulation and water mass formation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and local climate, environment and fishery in the region. However, the SWC has never been continuously monitored due to the difficulties involved in field observations related to, for example, severe weather conditions in the winter, political issues at the border strait, and conflicts with fishing activities in the strait. Detailed features of the SWC and its variations have not yet been clarified. In order to monitor variations in the SWC, three HF ocean radar stations were installed around the strait. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. It is shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and subinertial variations of the SWC. The velocity of the SWC reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m/s, in summer, and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 50 km. The surface transport by the Soya Warm Current shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records. The cross-current sea level difference, which is estimated from the sea level anomalies observed by the Jason-1 altimeter and a coastal tide gauge, also exhibits variation in concert with the surface transport and along-current sea level difference.

  12. Tracking wildlife by satellite: Current systems and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard B.; Fancy, Steven G.; Douglas, David C.; Garner, Gerald W.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Pank, Larry F.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has used the Argos Data Collection and Location System (DCLS) and Tiros-N series satellites to monitor movements and activities of 10 species of large mammals in Alaska and the Rocky Mountain region. Reliability of the entire system was generally high. Data were received from instrumented caribou (Rangifer tarandus) during 91% of 318 possible transmitter-months. Transmitters failed prematurely on 5 of 45 caribou, 2 of 6 muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and 1 of 2 gray wolves (Canis lupus). Failure rates were considerably higher for polar (Ursus maritimus) and brown (U. arctos) bears than for caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Efficiency of gathering both locational and sensor data was related to both latitude and topography.Mean error of locations was estimated to be 954 m (median = 543 m) for transmitters on captive animals; 90% of locations were <1,732 m from the true location. Argos's new location class zero processing provided many more locations than normal processing, but mean location error was much higher than locations estimated normally. Locations were biased when animals were at elevations other than those used in Argos's calculations.Long-term and short-term indices of animal activity were developed and evaluated. For several species, the long-term index was correlated with movement patterns and the short-term index was calibrated to specific activity categories (e.g., lying, feeding, walking).Data processing and sampling considerations were evaluated. Algorithms for choosing the most reliable among a series of reported locations were investigated. Applications of satellite telemetry data and problems with lack of independence among locations are discussed.

  13. Pointing and tracking errors due to localized deformation in inter-satellite laser communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liying; Yang, Yuqiang; Ma, Jing; Yu, Jianjie

    2008-08-18

    Instead of Zernike polynomials, ellipse Gaussian model is proposed to represent localized wave-front deformation in researching pointing and tracking errors in inter-satellite laser communication links, which can simplify the calculation. It is shown that both pointing and tracking errors depend on the center deepness h, the radiuses a and b, and the distance d of the Gaussian distortion and change regularly as they increase. The maximum peak values of pointing and tracking errors always appear around h=0.2lambda. The influence of localized deformation is up to 0.7microrad for pointing error, and 0.5microrad for tracking error. To reduce the impact of localized deformation on pointing and tracking errors, the machining precision of optical devices, which should be more greater than 0.2?, is proposed. The principle of choosing the optical devices with localized deformation is presented, and the method that adjusts the pointing direction to compensate pointing and tracking errors is given. We hope the results can be used in the design of inter-satellite lasercom systems.

  14. Local Recovery of Sub-crustal Stress Due to Mantle Convection from Satellite-to-satellite Tracking Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šprlák Michal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two integral transformations between the stress function, differentiation of which gives the meridian and prime vertical components of the sub-crustal stress due to mantle convection, and the satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST data are presented in this article. In the first one, the SST data are the disturbing potential differences between twin-satellites and in the second one the line-of-sight (LOS gravity disturbances. It is shown that the corresponding integral kernels are well-behaving and therefore suitable for inversion and recovery of the stress function from the SST data. Recovery of the stress function and the stress components is also tested in numerical experiments using simulated SST data. Numerical studies over the Himalayas show that inverting the disturbing potential differences leads to a smoother stress function than from inverting LOS gravity disturbances. Application of the presented integral formulae allows for recovery of the stress from the satellite mission GRACE and its planned successor.

  15. First satellite tracks of neonate sea turtles redefine the ‘lost years’ oceanic niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine L.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Porter, Warren P.; Luo, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Few at-sea behavioural data exist for oceanic-stage neonate sea turtles, a life-stage commonly referred to as the sea turtle ‘lost years’. Historically, the long-term tracking of small, fast-growing organisms in the open ocean was logistically or technologically impossible. Here, we provide the first long-term satellite tracks of neonate sea turtles. Loggerheads (Caretta caretta) were remotely tracked in the Atlantic Ocean using small solar-powered satellite transmitters. We show that oceanic-stage turtles (i) rarely travel in Continental Shelf waters, (ii) frequently depart the currents associated with the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, (iii) travel quickly when in Gyre currents, and (iv) select sea surface habitats that are likely to provide a thermal benefit or refuge to young sea turtles, supporting growth, foraging and survival. Our satellite tracks help define Atlantic loggerhead nursery grounds and early loggerhead habitat use, allowing us to re-examine sea turtle ‘lost years’ paradigms. PMID:24598420

  16. Comparison of different "along the track" high resolution satellite stereo-pair for DSM extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2013-10-01

    The possibility to create DEM from stereo pairs is based on the Pythagoras theorem and on the principles of photogrammetry that are applied to aerial photographs stereo pairs for the last seventy years. The application of these principles to digital satellite stereo data was inherent in the first satellite missions. During the last decades the satellite stereo-pairs were acquired across the track in different days (SPOT, ERS etc.). More recently the same-date along the track stereo-data acquisition seems to prevail (Terra ASTER, SPOT5 HRS, Cartosat, ALOS Prism) as it reduces the radiometric image variations (refractive effects, sun illumination, temporal changes) and thus increases the correlation success rate in any image matching.Two of the newest satellite sensors with stereo collection capability is Cartosat and ALOS Prism. Both of them acquire stereopairs along the track with a 2,5m spatial resolution covering areas of 30X30km. In this study we compare two different satellite stereo-pair collected along the track for DSM creation. The first one is created from a Cartosat stereopair and the second one from an ALOS PRISM triplet. The area of study is situated in Chalkidiki Peninsula, Greece. Both DEMs were created using the same ground control points collected with a Differential GPS. After a first control for random or systematic errors a statistical analysis was done. Points of certified elevation have been used to estimate the accuracy of these two DSMs. The elevation difference between the different DEMs was calculated. 2D RMSE, correlation and the percentile value were also computed and the results are presented.

  17. An experimental analysis for the impact of 3D variation assi- milation of satellite data on typhoon track simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hongqin; WU Zengmao; GAO Shanhong

    2004-01-01

    A series of test simulations are performed to evaluate the impact of satellite-derived meteorological data on numerical typhoon track prediction. Geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS-5) and NOAA's TIROS operational vertical sounder (TOVS) observations are used in the experiments. A three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation scheme is developed to assimilate the satellite data directly into the Penn State-NCAR nonhydrostatic meteorological model (MM5). Three-dimensional objective analysis fields based on the T213 results and conventional observations are employed as the background fields of the initialization. The comparisons of the simulated typhoon tracks are carried out, which correspond respectively to assimilate different kinds of satellite data. It is found that, compared with the experiment without satellite data assimilation, the 3D-Var assimilation schemes lead to significant improvements on typhoon track prediction. Track errors reduce from approximately 25% at 24 h to approximately 30% at 48 h for 3D-Var assimilation experiments.

  18. Bird migration and avian influenza: a comparison of hydrogen stable isotopes and satellite tracking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Yamage, Mat; Haque, Enam Ul; Islam, Mohammad Anwarul; Mundkur, Taej; Yavuz, Kiraz Erciyas; Leader, Paul; Leung, Connie Y.H.; Smith, Bena; Spragens, Kyle A.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Saif, Samia; Mohsanin, Samiul; Mikolon, Andrea; Islam, Ausrafal; George, Acty; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based tracking of migratory waterfowl is an important tool for understanding the potential role of wild birds in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However, employing this technique on a continental scale is prohibitively expensive. This study explores the utility of stable isotope ratios in feathers in examining both the distances traveled by migratory birds and variation in migration behavior. We compared the satellite-derived movement data of 22 ducks from 8 species captured at wintering areas in Bangladesh, Turkey, and Hong Kong with deuterium ratios (δD) in the feathers of these and other individuals captured at the same locations. We derived likely molting locations from the satellite tracking data and generated expected isotope ratios based on an interpolated map of δD in rainwater. Although δD was correlated with the distance between wintering and molting locations, surprisingly, measured δD values were not correlated with either expected values or latitudes of molting sites. However, population-level parameters derived from the satellite-tracking data, such as mean distance between wintering and molting locations and variation in migration distance, were reflected by means and variation of the stable isotope values. Our findings call into question the relevance of the rainfall isotope map for Asia for linking feather isotopes to molting locations, and underscore the need for extensive ground truthing in the form of feather-based isoscapes. Nevertheless, stable isotopes from feathers could inform disease models by characterizing the degree to which regional breeding populations interact at common wintering locations. Feather isotopes also could aid in surveying wintering locations to determine where high-resolution tracking techniques (e.g. satellite tracking) could most effectively be employed. Moreover, intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes offer the only means of inferring movement information from

  19. A steady tracking technology adopted to fast FH/BPSK signal under satellite channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, SuLi; Lou, Zhigang; Wang, XiDuo; Xia, ShuangZhi

    2015-07-01

    In order to survive under the conditions with great jamming and interference, fast frequency hopped signal are employed in satellite communication system. This paper discusses the nonlinear phases induced by the equipment and atmosphere, and their influence on the FFH/BPSK tracking loop. Two methods are developed including compensating phase which is based on channel estimation and compensating Doppler frequency based on velocity normalization. Simulation results for a real circuit with proper parameters shows that the degradation due to the demodulation of frequency-hopped is only a fraction of one dB in an AWGN environment under satellite channel.

  20. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Orbit Estimation Using an Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Douglas T.; Dang, Ket D.; Slojkowski, Steve; Blizzard, Mike; Jenkins, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Alternatives to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) orbit estimation procedure were studied to develop a technique that both produces more reliable results and is more amenable to automation than the prior procedure. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra mission has TDRS ephemeris prediction 3(sigma) requirements of 75 meters in position and 5.5 millimeters per second in velocity over a 1.5-day prediction span. Meeting these requirements sometimes required reruns of the prior orbit determination (OD) process, with manual editing of tracking data to get an acceptable solution. After a study of the available alternatives, the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) began using the Real-Time Orbit Determination (RTOD(Registered TradeMark)) Kalman filter program for operational support of TDRSs in February 2007. This extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used for daily support, including within hours after most thrusting, to estimate the spacecraft position, velocity, and solar radiation coefficient of reflectivity (C(sub R)). The tracking data used are from the Bilateration Ranging Transponder System (BRTS), selected TDRS System (TDRSS) User satellite tracking data, and Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TT&C) data. Degraded filter results right after maneuvers and some momentum unloads provided incentive for a hybrid OD technique. The results of combining EKF strengths with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) Differential Correction (DC) program batch-least-squares solutions, as recommended in a 2005 paper on the chain-bias technique, are also presented.

  1. NASA Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder Project. Report 1; Data Processing Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, C. J.; Beckley, Brian D.; Ray, Richard D.; Wang, Yan-Ming; Tsaoussi, Lucia; Brenner, Anita; Williamson, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The NOAA/NASA Pathfinder program was created by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program Office to determine how satellite-based data sets can be processed and used to study global change. The data sets are designed to be long time-sedes data processed with stable calibration and community consensus algorithms to better assist the research community. The Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder Project involves the reprocessing of all altimeter observations with a consistent set of improved algorithms, based on the results from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), into easy-to-use data sets for the oceanographic community for climate research. This report describes the processing schemes used to produce a consistent data set and two of the products derived f rom these data. Other reports have been produced that: a) describe the validation of these data sets against tide gauge measurements and b) evaluate the statistical properties of the data that are relevant to climate change. The use of satellite altimetry for earth observations was proposed in the early 1960s. The first successful space based radar altimeter experiment was flown on SkyLab in 1974. The first successful satellite radar altimeter was flown aboard the Geos-3 spacecraft between 1975 and 1978. While a useful data set was collected from this mission for geophysical studies, the noise in the radar measured and incomplete global coverage precluded ft from inclusion in the Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder program. This program initiated its analysis with the Seasat mission, which was the first satellite radar altimeter flown for oceanography.

  2. Neutron detection on the Foton-M2 satellite by a track etch detector stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfalvi, J K; Szabó, J; Dudás, B

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of a European Space Agency (ESA) project called 'Biology and Physics in Space', a returning satellite, Foton-M2, was orbiting a container, the BIOPAN-5, loaded with biological experiments and facilities for radiation dosimetry (RADO) in the open space. One of the RADO experiments was dedicated to the detection of the primary cosmic rays and secondary neutrons by a track etch detector stack. The system was calibrated at high-energy particle accelerators and neutron generators. The developed detectors were investigated by an image analyser, and from the track parameters the linear energy transfer spectra and the absorbed dose were determined (26 microGy/d). Also, the neutron flux was estimated below 5 MeV and found to be 2.4 cm(-2) s(-1) directly from the space. The construction of the stack allowed to investigate the neutrons also from the direction of the carrying satellite, where the flux was found somewhat higher.

  3. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter Footprint Geolocation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Successfully launched on 30 May 2016, ZY3-02 is the first Chinese surveying and mapping satellite equipped with a lightweight laser altimeter. Calibration is necessary before the laser altimeter becomes operational. Laser footprint location prediction is the first step in calibration that is based on ground infrared detectors, and it is difficult because the sample frequency of the ZY3-02 laser altimeter is 2 Hz, and the distance between two adjacent laser footprints is about 3.5 km. In this paper, we build an on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model referenced to the rigorous geometric model of optical remote sensing satellites. The model includes three kinds of data that must be predicted: pointing angle, orbit parameters, and attitude angles. The proposed method is verified by a ZY3-02 laser altimeter on-orbit geometric calibration test. Five laser footprint prediction experiments are conducted based on the model, and the laser footprint prediction accuracy is better than 150 m on the ground. The effectiveness and accuracy of the on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model are confirmed by the test results. The geolocation is predicted precisely by the proposed method, and this will give a reference to the geolocation prediction of future land laser detectors in other laser altimeter calibration test.

  4. Satellite Perspective of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport: From Qualitative Tracking to Quantitative Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT, beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. After an overview of these advances, we review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  5. Satellite perspective of aerosol intercontinental transport: From qualitative tracking to quantitative characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2013-04-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers the opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. We review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  6. Computer-aided evaluation of the railway track geometry on the basis of satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Chrostowski, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, all over the world there has been a period of intensive development of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) measurement techniques and their extension for the purpose of their applications in the field of surveying and navigation. Moreover, in many countries a rising trend in the development of rail transportation systems has been noticed. In this paper, a method of railway track geometry assessment based on mobile satellite measurements is presented. The paper shows the implementation effects of satellite surveying railway geometry. The investigation process described in the paper is divided on two phases. The first phase is the GNSS mobile surveying and the analysis obtained data. The second phase is the analysis of the track geometry using the flat coordinates from the surveying. The visualization of the measured route, separation and quality assessment of the uniform geometric elements (straight sections, arcs), identification of the track polygon (main directions and intersection angles) are discussed and illustrated by the calculation example within the article.

  7. Ground track maintenance for BeiDou IGSO satellites subject to tesseral resonances and the luni-solar perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Jiang, Chao; Hu, Min

    2017-02-01

    Eight inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites in the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) have been put in orbit until now. IGSO is a special class of geosynchronous circular orbit, with the inclination not equal to zero. It can provide high elevation angle coverage to high-latitude areas. The geography longitude of the ground track cross node is the main factor to affect the ground coverage areas of the IGSO satellites. In order to ensure the navigation performance of the IGSO satellites, the maintenance control of the ground track cross node is required. Considering the tesseral resonances and the luni-solar perturbations, a control approach is proposed to maintain the ground track for the long-term evolution. The drifts of the ground track cross node of the IGSO satellites are analyzed, which is formulated as a function of the bias of the orbit elements and time. Based on the derived function, a method by offsetting the semi-major axis is put forward to maintain the longitude of the ground track cross node, and the offset calculation equation is presented as well. Moreover, the orbit inclination is adjusted to maintain the location angle intervals between each two IGSO satellites. Finally, the precision of the offset calculation equation is analyzed to achieve the operational deployment. Simulation results show that the semi-major axis offset method is effective, and its calculation equation is accurate. The proposed approach has been applied to the maintenance control of BeiDou IGSO satellites.

  8. Constellation design for earth observation based on the characteristics of the satellite ground track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Maocai; Dai, Guangming; Song, Zhiming

    2017-04-01

    This paper responds to the increasing need for Earth observation missions and deals with the design of Repeating Sun-Synchronous Constellations (RSSCs) which takes into consideration of constellations composed of one or more orbital planes. Based on the mature design approach of Repeating Sun-synchronous orbits, a novel technique to design RSSCs is presented, which takes the second gravitational zonal harmonic into consideration. In order to obtain regular cycles of observation of the Earth by a single satellite, the orbital relationships have to be satisfied firstly are illustrated. Then, by making full analyses of the characteristics of the satellite ground track, orbital parameters are properly calculated to make other satellites pass on the same or different ground track of the single satellite. Last, single-plane or multi-plane constellations are used to improve the repetitions of the observation and the ground resolution. RSSCs allow observing the same region once at the same local time in a solar day and several times at the different local time in a solar day. Therefore, this kind of constellations meets all requirements for the remote sensing applications, which need to observe the same region under the same or different visible conditions. Through various case studies, the calculation technique is successfully demonstrated.

  9. Southern Ocean mesocyclones and polar lows from manually tracked satellite mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verezemskaya, Polina; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey; Renfrew, Ian A.; Lazzara, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    A new reference data set of mesocyclone activity over the Southern Ocean has been developed from the manual analysis of high-resolution infrared satellite mosaics for winter 2004. Of the total 1735 mesocyclones which were identified and analyzed, about three quarters were classified as being "polar lows" (i.e., intense systems; see Rasmussen and Turner, 2003). The data set includes mesocyclone track, size, associated cloud vortex type, and background synoptic conditions. Maxima in track density were observed over the Bellingshausen Sea and around East Antarctica and are highly correlated with cyclogenesis regions. A comparison against QuikSCAT and reanalyses wind characteristics shows that the reanalyses, while capturing mesocyclone events, tend to considerably underestimate their wind speed (by up to 10 m s-1). This mesocyclone data set is available as a reference for further analysis of mesocyclones and for the evaluation and development of cyclone-tracking algorithms.

  10. Satellite vehicle tracking aiming to increase traffic safety within the Serbian Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Milanović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to show how to affect the most important factor of traffic safety - an individual, by using some technical solutions of satellite tracking of vehicles. By using units of the Land Forces as an example, a brief analysis of traffic safety for vehicles less than 5 years old has been performed. It is noticed that the number of traffic accidents with these vehicles involved has increased, so we tried to use one software package commercially available in order to show all advantages and disadvantages which could be noticed during this kind of vehicle tracking. The conclusion is that preventive vehicle tracking can improve traffic safety, but that a techno-economic analysis has to be done as well, in order to create all the necessary conditions for the introduction of this system in the units of the Serbian Armed Forces.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Trends, Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment, and Surface Processes from a Joint Inversion of Satellite Altimeter, Gravity, and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Espanol, Alba; Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Clarke, Peter J.; Flament, Thomas; Helm, Veit; King, Matt A.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Petrie, Elizabeth; Remy, Frederique; Schon, Nana; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present spatiotemporal mass balance trends for the Antarctic Ice Sheet from a statistical inversion of satellite altimetry, gravimetry, and elastic-corrected GPS data for the period 2003-2013. Our method simultaneously determines annual trends in ice dynamics, surface mass balance anomalies, and a time-invariant solution for glacio-isostatic adjustment while remaining largely independent of forward models. We establish that over the period 2003-2013, Antarctica has been losing mass at a rateof -84 +/- 22 Gt per yr, with a sustained negative mean trend of dynamic imbalance of -111 +/- 13 Gt per yr. West Antarctica is the largest contributor with -112 +/- 10 Gt per yr, mainly triggered by high thinning rates of glaciers draining into the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a dramatic increase in mass loss in the last decade, with a mean rate of -28 +/- 7 Gt per yr and significantly higher values for the most recent years following the destabilization of the Southern Antarctic Peninsula around 2010. The total mass loss is partly compensated by a significant mass gain of 56 +/- 18 Gt per yr in East Antarctica due to a positive trend of surface mass balance anomalies.

  12. Current Characteristics and Trends of the Tracked Satellite Population in the Human Space Flight Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the Apollo program in 1972, human space flight has been restricted to altitudes below 600 km above the Earth s surface with most missions restricted to a ceiling below 400 km. An investigation of the tracked satellite population transiting and influencing the human space flight regime during the past 11 years (equivalent to a full solar cycle) has recently been completed. The overall effects of satellite breakups and solar activity are typically less pronounced in the human space flight regime than other regions of low Earth orbit. As of January 2006 nearly 1500 tracked objects resided in or traversed the human space flight regime, although two-thirds of these objects were in orbits of moderate to high eccentricity, significantly reducing their effect on human space flight safety. During the period investigated, the spatial density of tracked objects in the 350-400 km altitude regime of the International Space Station demonstrated a steady decline, actually decreasing by 50% by the end of the period. On the other hand, the region immediately above 600 km experienced a significant increase in its population density. This regime is important for future risk assessments, since this region represents the reservoir of debris which will influence human space flight safety in the future. The paper seeks to put into sharper perspective the risks posed to human space flight by the tracked satellite population, as well as the influences of solar activity and the effects of compliance with orbital debris mitigation guidelines on human space flight missions. Finally, the methods and successes of characterizing the population of smaller debris at human space flight regimes are addressed.

  13. System Design and Implementation of the Virginia Tech Optical Satellite Tracking Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, D.; Black, J.

    2016-09-01

    The Virginia Tech Optical Satellite Tracking Telescope (VTOST) aims to test the feasibility of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) designed tracking system for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data contribution. A novel approach is considered, combining two COTS systems, a high-powered telescope, built for astronomy purposes, and a larger field of view (FOV) camera. Using only publicly available two-line element sets (TLEs), orbital propagation accuracy degrades quickly with time from epoch and is often not accurate enough to task a high-powered, small FOV telescope. Under this experimental approach, the larger FOV camera is used to acquire and track the resident space object (RSO) and provide a real-time pointing update to allow the high-powered telescope to track the RSO and provide possible resolved imagery. VTOST is designed as a remotely taskable sensor, based on current network architecture, capable of serving as a platform for further SSA studies, including unresolved and resolved imagery analysis, network tasking, and orbit determination. Initial design considerations are based on the latest Raven class and other COTS based telescope research, including research by the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), ExoAnalytic Solutions, and other university level telescope projects. A holistic system design, including astronomy, image processing, and tracking methods, in a low-budget environment is considered. Method comparisons and results of the system design process are presented.

  14. Simulation of Ship-Track versus Satellite-Sensor Differences in Oceanic Precipitation Using an Island-Based Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Burdanowitz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The point-to-area problem strongly complicates the validation of satellite-based precipitation estimates, using surface-based point measurements. We simulate the limited spatial representation of light-to-moderate oceanic precipitation rates along ship tracks with respect to areal passive microwave satellite estimates using data from a subtropical island-based radar. The radar data serves to estimate the discrepancy between point-like and areal precipitation measurements. From the spatial discrepancy, two statistical adjustments are derived so that along-track precipitation ship data better represent areal precipitation estimates from satellite sensors. The first statistical adjustment uses the average duration of a precipitation event as seen along a ship track, and the second adjustment uses the median-normalized along-track precipitation rate. Both statistical adjustments combined reduce the root mean squared error by 0.24 mm h − 1 (55% compared to the unadjusted average track of 60 radar pixels in length corresponding to a typical ship speed of 24–34 km h − 1 depending on track orientation. Beyond along-track averaging, the statistical adjustments represent an important step towards a more accurate validation of precipitation derived from passive microwave satellite sensors using point-like along-track surface precipitation reference data.

  15. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; Lohani, B.

    2014-11-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the targets using the principle of photogrammetry. The constraints of cost and low-payload restrict the applicability of this approach using UAV platforms. This paper proposes a methodology for determining the geolocation of a target tracked from an aerial platform in a partially GPS devoid environment. The method utilises automatic feature based registration technique of a georeferenced satellite image with an ae rial image which is already stored in UAV's database to retrieve the geolocation of the target. Since it is easier to register subsequent aerial images due to similar viewing parameters, the subsequent overlapping images are registered together sequentially thus resulting in the registration of each of the images with georeferenced satellite image thus leading to geolocation of the target under interest. Using the proposed approach, the target can be tracked in all the frames in which it is visible. The proposed concept is verified experimentally and the results are found satisfactory. Using the proposed method, a user can obtain location of target of interest as well features on ground without requiring any POS on-board the aerial platform. The proposed approach has applications in surveillance for target tracking, target geolocation as well as in disaster management projects like search and rescue operations.

  16. Single photon laser altimeter data processing, analysis and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Michael; Peca, Marek; Michalek, Vojtech; Prochazka, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Spaceborne laser altimeters are common instruments on-board the rendezvous spacecraft. This manuscript deals with the altimeters using a single photon approach, which belongs to the family of time-of-flight range measurements. Moreover, the single photon receiver part of the altimeter may be utilized as an Earth-to-spacecraft link enabling one-way ranging, time transfer and data transfer. The single photon altimeters evaluate actual altitude through the repetitive detections of single photons of the reflected laser pulses. We propose the single photon altimeter signal processing and data mining algorithm based on the Poisson statistic filter (histogram method) and the modified Kalman filter, providing all common altimetry products (altitude, slope, background photon flux and albedo). The Kalman filter is extended for the background noise filtering, the varying slope adaptation and the non-causal extension for an abrupt slope change. Moreover, the algorithm partially removes the major drawback of a single photon altitude reading, namely that the photon detection measurement statistics must be gathered. The developed algorithm deduces the actual altitude on the basis of a single photon detection; thus, being optimal in the sense that each detected signal photon carrying altitude information is tracked and no altitude information is lost. The algorithm was tested on the simulated datasets and partially cross-probed with the experimental data collected using the developed single photon altimeter breadboard based on the microchip laser with the pulse energy on the order of microjoule and the repetition rate of several kilohertz. We demonstrated that such an altimeter configuration may be utilized for landing or hovering a small body (asteroid, comet).

  17. Preliminary study on migration pattern of the Tibetan antelope ( Pantholops hodgsonii) based on satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buho, Hoshino; Jiang, Z.; Liu, C.; Yoshida, T.; Mahamut, Halik; Kaneko, M.; Asakawa, M.; Motokawa, M.; Kaji, K.; Wu, X.; Otaishi, N.; Ganzorig, Sumiya; Masuda, R.

    2011-07-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns of the endangered Tibetan antelope or chiru ( Pantholops hodgsonii) have been studied using satellite-based ARGOS platform transmitter terminal (PTT) tracking data. The data was obtained from the satellite tracking of two female Tibetan antelopes that were collared with satellite transmitters and have been tracked from August 2007 to April 2009. Analysis of the locality data (LC) obtained, shows that both antelopes were migrant individuals, they shared the same calving ground surrounding lake Huiten (or Zhuonai lake), but different wintering pastures. Each antelope covered 250-300 km from the wintering to summer pastures. Annual range consisted of a core area that was used for at least 9 months; a calving ground used for a short time (from 8-20 days); and temporal pastures used during migration to and from the calving ground. Seasonal migration cycle was about 3 months, 27-30 days to reach the calving ground; 8-20 days staying there; and 36-40 days returning to the core area. Examination of the spatial distribution during migration showed that both chiru crossed the Qinghai-Tibetan railway (QTR) and the Golmud-Lhasa highway (GLH) at least two times, and reached calving ground (118-120 km from there) in 8 days, maintaining an average speed of 15 km per day. However, the return migration took twice as long (from 14 to 16 days). Each time, after reaching the QTR and GLH, the antelopes spent 20-40 days in that area, probably looking for passages and waiting. So far, we suppose that the QTR and the GLH have become a hindrance to the migration of the Tibetan antelopes and seriously delay their movement to and from the calving area. Extended aggregation of the herds of Tibetan antelopes along the QTR and the GLH may impact negatively with increased mortality among offspring, the spread of various diseases and overgrazing of pastures.

  18. An Experimental Biotelemetric Study Based on Satellite Tracking During Post-nesting Migrations of Green Turtles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A biotelemetry experiment is conducted to study the migrant behavior of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South China Sea and acquire the physical environment data. The method in use is to track the post-nesting migrant routes of green turtles through the satellite linked transmitters attached on the back of turtles and the global satellite signal transmitting system of Argos. We obtained the posinestions of the post-nesting migrant routes of three green turtles and environment data, which are important in conservation of green turtles and the research of physical oceanography. Based on the test, the concept, principle and method of biotelemetry are also introduced in this paper with a discussion of the further development of this technique and its applying prospection in future.

  19. GEOS-2 refraction program summary document. [ionospheric and tropospheric propagation errors in satellite tracking instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data from an extensive array of collocated instrumentation at the Wallops Island test facility were intercompared in order to (1) determine the practical achievable accuracy limitations of various tropospheric and ionospheric correction techniques; (2) examine the theoretical bases and derivation of improved refraction correction techniques; and (3) estimate internal systematic and random error levels of the various tracking stations. The GEOS 2 satellite was used as the target vehicle. Data were obtained regarding the ionospheric and tropospheric propagation errors, the theoretical and data analysis of which was documented in some 30 separate reports over the last 6 years. An overview of project results is presented.

  20. A modeling and simulation of control system of satellite tracking platform an- tenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaojun; GONG Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the platform of mobile carrier satellite tracking has a wide range of applications. The paper adopts the advanced method of to step response identify, using the data obtained by the experiment model of high-speed acquisition, using the method of the least squares, finally the antenna control system model function was identified. Make use of integral separation algorithm, simu- link simulation and experiment analysis to set the control parameters of it. Stimulate the signal antenna control system under inter- fering. The experiment of the simulation experiment showed that the antenna control system model is stable with little error.

  1. Antenna pointing system for satellite tracking based on Kalman filtering and model predictive control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André L. G.; Ishihara, João Y.; Ferreira, Henrique C.; Borges, Renato A.; Borges, Geovany A.

    2016-12-01

    The present work proposes a new approach for an antenna pointing system for satellite tracking. Such a system uses the received signal to estimate the beam pointing deviation and then adjusts the antenna pointing. The present work has two contributions. First, the estimation is performed by a Kalman filter based conical scan technique. This technique uses the Kalman filter avoiding the batch estimator and applies a mathematical manipulation avoiding the linearization approximations. Secondly, a control technique based on the model predictive control together with an explicit state feedback solution are obtained in order to reduce the computational burden. Numerical examples illustrate the results.

  2. The predictable narwhal: satellite tracking shows behavioural similarities between isolated subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Nielsen, N.H.; Hansen, R. G.;

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of behavioural similarities between subpopulations of species that have been isolated for a long time is important for understanding the general ecology of species that are under pressure from large-scale changes in habitats. Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) east and west of Greenland...... are examples of separated populations that, in different ocean parts, will be coping with similar anthropogenic and climate-driven habitat alterations. To study this, 28 narwhals from the Scoresby Sound fjord system were tracked by satellite in 2010-2013. The average duration of contact with the whales was 124...

  3. De-correlated combination of two low-low Satellite-to-Satellite tracking pairs according to temporal aliasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murböck, Michael; Pail, Roland

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the temporal changes in the Earth's gravity field is of great scientific and societal importance. Within several days a homogeneous global coverage of gravity observations can be obtained with satellite missions. Temporal aliasing of background model errors into global gravity field models will be one of the largest restrictions in future satellite temporal gravity recovery. The largest errors are due to high-frequent tidal and non-tidal atmospheric and oceanic mass variations. Having a double pair low-low Satellite-to-Satellite tracking (SST) scenario on different inclined orbits reduces temporal aliasing errors significantly. In general temporal aliasing effects for a single (-pair) mission strongly depend on the basic orbital rates (Murböck et al. 2013). These are the rates of the argument of the latitude and of the longitude of the ascending node. This means that the revolution time and the length of one nodal day determine how large the temporal aliasing error effects are for each SH order. The combination of two low-low SST missions based on normal equations requires an adequate weighting of the two components. This weighting shall ensure the full de-correlation of each of the two parts. Therefore it is necessary to take the temporal aliasing errors into account. In this study it is analyzed how this can be done based on the resonance orders of the two orbits. Different levels of approximation are applied to the de-correlation approach. The results of several numerical closed-loop simulations are shown including stochastic modeling of realistic future instrument noise. It is shown that this de-correlation approach is important for maximizing the benefit of a double-pair low-low SST mission for temporal gravity recovery. Murböck M, Pail R, Daras I and Gruber T (2013) Optimal orbits for temporal gravity recovery regarding temporal aliasing. Journal of Geodesy, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, ISSN 0949-7714, DOI 10.1007/s00190-013-0671-y

  4. Tracking Low Earth Orbit Small Debris with GPS Satellites as Bistatic Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M.; Qaisar, S.; Benson, C.

    2016-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem and collisions are potentially lethal to satellites. Trajectories for small objects are predicted based on infrequent measurements, and the scale and therefore cost of maneuver required to avoid collisions is a function of trajectory accuracy. Frequent and precise observations will improve trajectory accuracy. In this paper, we extend on aspects of the feasibility of tracking space debris in Low Earth Orbit using emissions from GNSS satellites as bistatic radar illuminators. The wavelengths of GNSS signals are of order 20 cm and our primary focus is to track debris smaller than this, thereby maintaining phase stability of the scattered signals, enabling very long coherent processing intervals. However, the signals scattered by debris will be very weak at a terrestrial receiver, requiring the computationally expensive integration of a large number of signals, over an extended duration and with a large phased array. Detection of such weak signals in the presence of relatively strong direct-arrival signals requires extremely high cross-correlation protection. We show that sufficient cross-correlation protection can be obtained due to the large and varying Doppler shift, and also illustrate a novel processing approach utilizing downshifting of the collected signal to audio frequency. This technique dramatically reduces the cost and complexity of updating debris trajectories. The processing cost of preserving an uncertainty volume of many hundreds of meters around the predicted debris track is very modest, and searching within that uncertainty volume is undertaken at audio sampling rates. Moreover, we explore techniques that further lower the already modest cost of the non-linear search within the preserved uncertainty volume. We conclude with an outline of a system using these techniques that could provide centimetre level tracking of large quantities of small orbital objects at a modest cost.

  5. Research on the acquisition and tracking simulation system of light beacon in satellite-ground optical communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Tao; AI Yong; HUANG Hai-bo; SU Gui-bo

    2010-01-01

    @@ The study on the acquisition and tracking simulation system in satellite-ground optical communications is presented here.By applying global positioning system(GPS)coordinate calculation,the time needed in initial acquisition of light beacon can be reduced largely.Smith predictor is applied to compensate the mechanical hysteresis of tracking system and to improve the dynamic performance of the system.Tracking experiments over a i 6 km distance on the ground are conducted to verify the tracking of light beacon in satellite-ground optical communications.The standard deviation of horizontal coordinates is 35.3568 μrad and the maximum offset is 209.3675 μrad in stable tracking.

  6. An experimenal analysis for the impact of 2D variation assimilation of satellite data on typhoon track simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Hongqin; Wu Zengmao; Gao Shanhong

    2003-01-01

    A series of test simulations are performed to evaluate the impact of satellite-derived meteorological data on numerical typhoon track prediction. Geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS-5) and NOAA's TIROS operational vertical sounder (TOVS) observations are used in the experiments. A twodimensional variation assimilation scheme is developed to assimilate the satellite data directly into the Penn State-NCAR nonhydrostatic meteorological model (MM5). Three-dimensional objective analyses fields based on T213 results and routine observations are employed as the background fields of the initialization. The comparisons of the simulated typhoon tracks are also carried out, which correspond respectively to the initialization scheme with two-dimensional variation (2D- Var), three-dimensional observational nudging and direct assimilation of satellite data. It is found that, comparing with the experiments without satellite data assimilation, the first two assimilation schemes lead to significant improvements on typhoon track prediction. Track errors reduce by 18% at 12 h for 2D- Var and from about 16% at 24 h to about 35% at 48 h for observational nudging. The simulated results based on assimilating different kinds of satellite data are also compared.

  7. Code Tracking Algorithms for Mitigating Multipath Effects in Fading Channels for Satellite-Based Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Renfors

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing public interest in location and positioning services has originated a demand for higher performance global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs. In order to achieve this incremental performance, the estimation of line-of-sight (LOS delay with high accuracy is a prerequisite for all GNSSs. The delay lock loops (DLLs and their enhanced variants (i.e., feedback code tracking loops are the structures of choice for the commercial GNSS receivers, but their performance in severe multipath scenarios is still rather limited. In addition, the new satellite positioning system proposals specify the use of a new modulation, the binary offset carrier (BOC modulation, which triggers a new challenge in the code tracking stage. Therefore, in order to meet this emerging challenge and to improve the accuracy of the delay estimation in severe multipath scenarios, this paper analyzes feedback as well as feedforward code tracking algorithms and proposes the peak tracking (PT methods, which are combinations of both feedback and feedforward structures and utilize the inherent advantages of both structures. We propose and analyze here two variants of PT algorithm: PT with second-order differentiation (Diff2, and PT with Teager Kaiser (TK operator, which will be denoted herein as PT(Diff2 and PT(TK, respectively. In addition to the proposal of the PT methods, the authors propose also an improved early-late-slope (IELS multipath elimination technique which is shown to provide very good mean-time-to-lose-lock (MTLL performance. An implementation of a noncoherent multipath estimating delay locked loop (MEDLL structure is also presented. We also incorporate here an extensive review of the existing feedback and feedforward delay estimation algorithms for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA signals in satellite fading channels, by taking into account the impact of binary phase shift keying (BPSK as well as the newly proposed BOC modulation

  8. Defining management units for cetaceans by combining genetics, morphology, acoustics and satellite tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Sveegaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing animal units is essential in biological conservation and requires spatial and temporal identification of such units. Since even neighbouring populations often have different conservation status and face different levels of anthropogenic pressure, detailed knowledge of population structure, seasonal range and overlap with animals from neighbouring populations is required to manage each unit separately. Previous studies on genetic structure and morphologic separation suggests three distinct populations of harbour porpoises with limited geographic overlap in the North Sea (NS, the Belt Sea (BS and the Baltic Proper (BP region. In this study, we aim to identify a management unit for the BS population of harbour porpoises. We use Argos satellite data and genetics from biopsies of tagged harbour porpoises as well as acoustic data from 40 passive acoustic data loggers to determine management areas with the least overlap between populations and thus the least error when abundance and population status is estimated. Discriminant analysis of the satellite tracking data from the BS and NS populations showed that the best fit of the management unit border during the summer months was an east–west line from Denmark to Sweden at latitude 56.95°N. For the border between BS and BP, satellite tracking data indicate a sharp decline in population density at 13.5°E, with 90% of the locations being west of this line. This was supported by the acoustic data with the average daily detection rate being 27.5 times higher west of 13.5°E as compared to east of 13.5°E. By using this novel multidisciplinary approach, we defined a management unit for the BS harbour porpoise population. We recommend that these boundaries are used for future monitoring efforts of this population under the EU directives. The boundaries may also be used for conservation efforts during the summer months, while seasonal movements of harbour porpoises should be considered during

  9. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stapleton

    Full Text Available Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105 was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152. Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  10. Epipolar Resampling of Cross-Track Pushbroom Satellite Imagery Using the Rigorous Sensor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Mojtaba; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Mokhtarzade, Mehdi

    2017-01-11

    Epipolar resampling aims to eliminate the vertical parallax of stereo images. Due to the dynamic nature of the exterior orientation parameters of linear pushbroom satellite imagery and the complexity of reconstructing the epipolar geometry using rigorous sensor models, so far, no epipolar resampling approach has been proposed based on these models. In this paper for the first time it is shown that the orientation of the instantaneous baseline (IB) of conjugate image points (CIPs) in the linear pushbroom satellite imagery can be modeled with high precision in terms of the rows- and the columns-number of CIPs. Taking advantage of this feature, a novel approach is then presented for epipolar resampling of cross-track linear pushbroom satellite imagery. The proposed method is based on the rigorous sensor model. As the instantaneous position of sensors remains fixed, the digital elevation model of the area of interest is not required in the resampling process. Experimental results obtained from two pairs of SPOT and one pair of RapidEye stereo imagery with different terrain conditions shows that the proposed epipolar resampling approach benefits from a superior accuracy, as the remained vertical parallaxes of all CIPs in the normalized images are close to zero.

  11. Epipolar Resampling of Cross-Track Pushbroom Satellite Imagery Using the Rigorous Sensor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Jannati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epipolar resampling aims to eliminate the vertical parallax of stereo images. Due to the dynamic nature of the exterior orientation parameters of linear pushbroom satellite imagery and the complexity of reconstructing the epipolar geometry using rigorous sensor models, so far, no epipolar resampling approach has been proposed based on these models. In this paper for the first time it is shown that the orientation of the instantaneous baseline (IB of conjugate image points (CIPs in the linear pushbroom satellite imagery can be modeled with high precision in terms of the rows- and the columns-number of CIPs. Taking advantage of this feature, a novel approach is then presented for epipolar resampling of cross-track linear pushbroom satellite imagery. The proposed method is based on the rigorous sensor model. As the instantaneous position of sensors remains fixed, the digital elevation model of the area of interest is not required in the resampling process. Experimental results obtained from two pairs of SPOT and one pair of RapidEye stereo imagery with different terrain conditions shows that the proposed epipolar resampling approach benefits from a superior accuracy, as the remained vertical parallaxes of all CIPs in the normalized images are close to zero.

  12. Automatic tracking of dynamical evolutions of oceanic mesoscale eddies with satellite observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Li, Qiu-Yang

    2017-04-01

    The oceanic mesoscale eddies play a major role in ocean climate system. To analyse spatiotemporal dynamics of oceanic mesoscale eddies, the Genealogical Evolution Model (GEM) based on satellite data is developed, which is an efficient logical model used to track dynamic evolution of mesoscale eddies in the ocean. It can distinguish different dynamic processes (e.g., merging and splitting) within a dynamic evolution pattern, which is difficult to accomplish using other tracking methods. To this end, a mononuclear eddy detection method was firstly developed with simple segmentation strategies, e.g. watershed algorithm. The algorithm is very fast by searching the steepest descent path. Second, the GEM uses a two-dimensional similarity vector (i.e. a pair of ratios of overlap area between two eddies to the area of each eddy) rather than a scalar to measure the similarity between eddies, which effectively solves the ''missing eddy" problem (temporarily lost eddy in tracking). Third, for tracking when an eddy splits, GEM uses both "parent" (the original eddy) and "child" (eddy split from parent) and the dynamic processes are described as birth and death of different generations. Additionally, a new look-ahead approach with selection rules effectively simplifies computation and recording. All of the computational steps are linear and do not include iteration. Given the pixel number of the target region L, the maximum number of eddies M, the number N of look-ahead time steps, and the total number of time steps T, the total computer time is O (LM(N+1)T). The tracking of each eddy is very smooth because we require that the snapshots of each eddy on adjacent days overlap one another. Although eddy splitting or merging is ubiquitous in the ocean, they have different geographic distribution in the Northern Pacific Ocean. Both the merging and splitting rates of the eddies are high, especially at the western boundary, in currents and in "eddy deserts". GEM is useful not only for

  13. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (TranSPORT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Supej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1 how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2 how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car’s roof-rack: a  smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.

  14. Assessment of needs for satellite tracking of birds and suggestions for expediting a program. [experimental design using Nimbus 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, F. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Equipment development and testing, animal-instrument interphase or attachment methods, and the evaluation of various feasibility-tracking experiments with raptors are described as well as suggestions for expediting a future program. Results of animal-instrument interphases work indicate that large free-flying birds can be successfully instrumented with radio packages comparable in weight to satellite-transmitter packages. The 401 MHz frequency proved satisfactory for a combination of satellite and ground tracking of migrating birds. Tests run for nearly a year with the Nimbus 6 satellite and a miniaturized, one-watt prototype RAMS transmitter produced encouraging results in regard to location accuracy, frequency of contact with satellite and use of whip antennas. A future program is recommended with priority given to development of six operational transmitters for feasibility experiments.

  15. A Stochastic Approach to Noise Modeling for Barometric Altimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Maria Sabatini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes, we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions.

  16. A stochastic approach to noise modeling for barometric altimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2013-11-18

    The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes), we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM) random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions.

  17. Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA): A pathfinder for space-based laser altimetry and lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufton, Jack; Blair, Bryan; Cavanaugh, John; Garvin, James

    1995-01-01

    The Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) is a Hitchhiker experiment now being integrated for first flight on STS-72 in November 1995. Four Shuttle flights of the SLA are planned at a rate of about a flight every 18 months. They are aimed at the transition of the Goddard Space Flight Center airborne laser altimeter and lidar technology to low Earth orbit as a pathfinder for operational space-based laser remote sensing devices. Future alser altimeter sensors such as the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), an Earth Observing System facility instrument, and the Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA), the land and vegetation laser altimeter for the NASA TOPSAT (Topography Satellite) Mission, will utilize systems and approaches being tested with SLA. The SLA Instrument measures the distance from the Space Shuttle to the Earth's surface by timing the two-way propagation of short (approximately 10 na noseconds) laser pulses. laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength are generated in a laser transmitter and are detected by a telescope equipped with a silicon avalanche photodiode detector. The SLA data system makes the pulse time interval measurement to a precision of about 10 nsec and also records the temporal shape of the laser echo from the Earth's surface for interpretation of surface height distribution within the 100 m diam. sensor footprint. For example, tree height can be determined by measuring the characteristic double-pulse signature that results from a separation in time of laser backscatter from tree canopies and the underlying ground. This is accomplished with a pulse waveform digitizer that samples the detector output with an adjustable resolution of 2 nanoseconds or wider intervals in a 100 sample window centered on the return pulse echo. The digitizer makes the SLA into a high resolution surface lidar sensor. It can also be used for cloud and atmospheric aerosol lidar measurements by lengthening the sampling window and degrading the waveform resolution. Detailed test

  18. Using Satellite Imagery to Identify Tornado Damage Tracks and Recovery from the April 27, 2011 Severe Weather Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Tony A.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Bell, Jordan R.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency response to natural disasters requires coordination between multiple local, state, and federal agencies. Single, relatively weak tornado events may require comparatively simple response efforts; but larger "outbreak" events with multiple strong, long-track tornadoes can benefit from additional tools to help expedite these efforts. Meteorologists from NOAA's National Weather Service conduct field surveys to map tornado tracks, assess damage, and determine the tornado intensity following each event. Moderate and high resolution satellite imagery can support these surveys by providing a high-level view of the affected areas. Satellite imagery could then be used to target areas for immediate survey or to corroborate the results of the survey after it is completed. In this study, the feasibility of using satellite imagery to identify tornado damage tracks was determined by comparing the characteristics of tracks observed from low-earth orbit to tracks assessed during the official NWS storm survey process. Of the 68 NWS confirmed centerlines, 24 tracks (35.3%) could be distinguished from other surface features using satellite imagery. Within each EF category, 0% of EF-0, 3% of EF-1, 50% of EF-2, 77.7% of EF-3, 87.5% of EF-4 and 100% of EF-5 tornadoes were detected. It was shown that satellite data can be used to identify tornado damage tracks in MODIS and ASTER NDVI imagery, where damage to vegetation creates a sharp drop in values though the minimum EF-category which can be detected is dependent upon the type of sensor used and underlying vegetation. Near-real time data from moderate resolution sensors compare favorably to field surveys after the event and suggest that the data can provide some value in the assessment process.

  19. Offshore limit of coastal ocean variability identified from hydrography and altimeter data in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In this communication, we describe a hitherto-unknown offshore limit to the coastal ocean variability signatures away from the continental shelf in the eastern Arabian Sea, based on hydrographic observations and satellite altimeter (TOPEX...

  20. Impact of GPS tracking data of LEO satellites on global GPS solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacher, M.; Svehla, D.

    Already at present quite a few Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (SAC-C, CHAMP, JASON-1, GRACE-1 and GRACE-2) are equipped with one or more GPS receivers for precise orbit determination or other applications (atmospheric sounding, gravity field recovery, . . . ). This trend will continue in the near future (e.g., with the GOCE and COSMIC missions) and we will soon have an entire "constellation" of LEO satellites tracked by GPS at our disposal. In this contribution we want to study the impact of LEO GPS measurements (from a single LEO satellite or from a LEO constellation) on global GPS solutions, where GPS satellite orbits and clocks, Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), station coordinates and troposphere zenith delays are determined simultaneously using the data of the global network of the International GPS Service (IGS). In order to assess the impact of the LEO GPS data on global IGS results, we have to perform a combined analysis of the space-borne and the ground-based GPS data. Such a combination may benefit on one hand from the differences between a ground station and a LEO, e.g., (1) the different tracking geometry (coverage of isolated geographical areas by LEOs, rapidly changing geometry, . . . ), (2) that LEOs connect all ground stations within 1-2 hours, (3) that baselines between LEO and ground stations may be longer than station-station baselines, (4) that no tropospheric delays have to be estimated for LEOs, and (5) that LEOs orbit the Earth within the ionosphere and may therefore contribute to global ionosphere models. On the other hand we have to deal with difficult aspects of precise orbit determination for the LEOs: only if we succeed to obtain very accurate dynamic or reduced-dynamic orbits for the LEOs, we will have a chance at all to improve the global GPS results. We present first results concerning the influence of LEO data on GPS orbits, ERPs, site coordinates, and troposphere zenith delays using both, variance-covariance analyses based on

  1. A note on radar altimeter signatures of internal solitary waves in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J. C. B.; Cerqueira, A. L. F.

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that Internal Waves of tidal frequency (i.e. Internal Tides) are successfully detected in seasurface height (SSH) by satellite altimetry [1]. Shorter period Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs), whose periods are an order of magnitude smaller than tidal internal waves, are however generally assumed too small to be detected with standard altimeters (at low sampling rates, i.e. 1 Hz). This is because the Radar Altimeter (RA) footprint is somewhat larger, or of similar size at best, than the ISWs typical wavelengths. Here it will be demonstrated that new generation high sampling rate satellite altimetry data (i.e. 20 Hz) hold a variety of short-period signatures that are consistent with surface manifestations of ISWs in the ocean. Our observational method is based on satellite synergy with imaging sensors such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other high-resolution optical sensors (e.g. 250m resolution MODIS images) with which ISWs are unambiguously recognized. A first order commonly accepted ISW radar imaging mechanism is based on hydrodynamic modulation models [2] [3] in which the straining of surface waves due to ISW orbital currents is known to cause modulation of decimeter-scale surface waves, which have group velocities close to the IW phase velocity. This effect can be readily demonstrated by measurements of wind wave slope variances associated with short-period ISWs, as accomplished in the pioneer work of Hughes and Grant [4]. Mean square slope can be estimated from nadir looking RAs using a geometric optics (specular) scattering model [5][6][7], and directly obtained from normalized backscatter (sigma0) along-track records. We use differential scattering from the dual-band (Ku- and C-bands) microwave pulses of the Jason- 2 high-rate RA to isolate the contribution of small-scale surface waves to mean square slope. The differenced altimeter mean square slope estimate, derived for the nominal wave number range 40-100 rad/m, is then used to detect

  2. Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gredzens

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co

  3. Determination of SLR station coordinates on the basis of tracking 45 GNSS satellites: benefits for future ITRF realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Bury, Grzegorz; Zajdel, Radosław; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Drożdżewski, Mateusz

    2017-04-01

    The SLR station coordinates and SLR-derived Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) are typically derived on the basis of SLR tracking of four spherical geodetic satellites: two LAGEOS and two Etalons. Between 2014 and 2016, the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) initiated four intensive SLR tracking campaigns for Galileo and three campaigns devoted to tracking all GNSS spacecraft. As a result, the number of SLR observations and the number of tracked GNSS satellites have dramatically increased allowing for determining SLR station coordinates and ERPs solely on the basis of SLR tracking of GNSS satellites. This paper shows, for the first time, the solution in which the SLR station coordinates, geocenter motion, and ERPs are determined using the SLR observations to 26 GLONASS, 14 Galileo, 2 BeiDou IGSO, 2 BeiDou MEO, and 1 QZSS satellite. We compare the SLR station coordinate stability derived from GNSS-based results to the LAGEOS-only solution and from a combined 'SLR to GNSS+LAGEOS' solution. We address the issues related to the GNSS orbit determination using sparse SLR data and the issues related to handling range biases in the GNSS solutions. We found that the coordinate stability of those SLR stations which provide a large number of GNSS observations can remarkably be improved. The Length-of-day parameter can be derived from SLR-GNSS solutions with a much better accuracy than from the LAGEOS-only solutions. Finally, we show that the SLR tracking of GNSS satellites improves the consistency between SLR and GNSS solutions, and thus, can be beneficial for the future ITRF realizations.

  4. Surface circulation off Somalia and western equatorial Indian Ocean during summer monsoon of 1988 from Geosat altimeter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; RameshBabu, V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The sea level variability derived from repeating tracks of the Geosat altimeter data during the late phase (August-September) of the summer monsoon of 1988 revealed the presence of multiple meso-scale eddy features with clockwise and anti...

  5. How hazardous is the Sahara Desert crossing for migratory birds? Indications from satellite tracking of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Alerstam, Thomas

    2010-06-23

    We investigated the risk associated with crossing the Sahara Desert for migrating birds by evaluating more than 90 journeys across this desert by four species of raptors (osprey Pandion haliaetus, honey buzzard Pernis apivorus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus and Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo) recorded by satellite telemetry. Forty per cent of the crossings included events of aberrant behaviours, such as abrupt course changes, slow travel speeds, interruptions, aborted crossings followed by retreats from the desert and failed crossings due to death, indicating difficulties for the migrants. The mortality during the Sahara crossing was 31 per cent per crossing attempt for juveniles (first autumn migration), compared with only 2 per cent for adults (autumn and spring combined). Mortality associated with the Sahara passage made up a substantial fraction (up to about half for juveniles) of the total annual mortality, demonstrating that this passage has a profound influence on survival and fitness of migrants. Aberrant behaviours resulted in late arrival at the breeding grounds and an increased probability of breeding failure (carry-over effects). This study also demonstrates that satellite tracking can be a powerful method to reveal when and where birds are exposed to enhanced risk and mortality during their annual cycles.

  6. Surface flow structure of the Gulf Stream from composite imagery and satellite-tracked drifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Mullen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique set of coutemporaneous satellite-tracked drifters and five-day composite Advanced Very High Resolution Radionmeter (AVHRR satellite imagery of the North Atlantic has been analyzed to examine the surface flow structure of the Gulf Stream. The study region was divided into two sections, greater than 37° N and less than 37° N, in order to answer the question of geographic variability. Fractal and spectral analyses methods were applied to the data. Fractal analysis of the Lagrangian trajectories showed a fractal dimension of 1.21 + 0.02 with a scaling range of 83 - 343 km. The fractal dimension of the temperature fronts of the composite imagery is similar for the two regions with D = 1.11 + 0.01 over a scaling range of 4 - 44 km. Spectral analysis also reports a fairly consistent value for the spectral slope and its scaling range. Therefore, we conclude there is no geographic variability in the data set. A suitable scaling range for this contemporaneous data set is 80 - 200 km which is consistent with the expected physical conditions in the region. Finally, we address the idea of using five-day composite imagery to infer the surface flow of the Gulf Stream. Close analyses of the composite thermal fronts and the Lagrangian drifter trajectories show that the former is not a good indicator of the latter.

  7. Tracking Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with GPS Satellite Transmitters Along Their Migration Route Through Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seol-Hee; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jeong, Jipseol; Wang, Seung-Jun; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Yu, Seung-do; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Mo, In-Pil

    2016-05-01

    In this study, Global Positioning System satellite transmitters were attached to three mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in South Korea to track their migration routes, stopover sites, breeding sites, and migration patterns. We successfully tracked only one mallard (no. 108917) from November 15, 2011, to November 29, 2013, and determined separate migration routes in two cases of spring migration and one case of fall migration. The mallard repeatedly migrated to the same final destination, even though the travel path varied. We identified six stopover sites: Hunhe River, Liaohe River, Yinma River, Yalu River, Songjeon Bay, and Dahuofang Reservoir in China and South Korea. The wintering sites of two migration cases were discovered to be identical (Gokgyo River in Asan, South Korea). The terminal sites, which were presumed to be breeding grounds, were the same in both cases (Hinggan League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China). On the basis of the migration routes identified in this study, we suggest that future efforts to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) should not only include avian influenza surveillance but also implement flyway-based strategies, with regard to all countries affected by potential HPAI outbreaks.

  8. Satellite Tracking and Site Fidelity of Short Ocean Sunfish, Mola ramsayi, in the Galapagos Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney M. Thys

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean sunfishes, with their peculiar morphology, large size, and surface habits, are valuable assets in ecotourism destinations worldwide. This study investigates site fidelity and long-range movements of short ocean sunfish, Mola ramsayi (Giglioli 1883, at Punta Vicente Roca (PVR off Isabela Island in the Galapagos Islands. Five individuals were tracked between 32 and 733 days using ultrasonic receivers and transmitters. Two of the 5 were also tracked with towed pop-off satellite tags. One travelled to the equatorial front covering 2700 km in 53 days, with dive depths in the upper 360 m at temperatures between 9.2°C and 22°C. During its westward travel, dives extended to 1112 m (the deepest depth yet recorded for Molidae into temperatures ranging between 4.5°C and 23.2°C. The remaining four individuals demonstrated site fidelity to PVR and were detected at the site between 128–1361 times for a total of 3557 reports. Forty-eight percent of the reports occurred during daytime hours and 52% after dark. Presumed cleaning session durations had a median of 15 minutes and a maximum of nearly 100 minutes. No other ultrasonic arrays around Galapagos or in the Eastern Pacific regional network recorded the presence of tagged individuals. These data are combined with tourist vessel sightings and submersible observations to confirm Punta Vicente Roca as an important sunfish hotspot.

  9. THE EFFECT OF KUROSHIO ON THE CIRCULATION IN CHINA SEAS-FROM SATELLITE-TRACKED DRIFTER DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yi-jun; Su Jing-zhi; Fang Guo-hong; Yin Bao-shu; Cheng Ming-hua

    2003-01-01

    A dataset derived from satellite-tracked drifting buoy archived at the Marine Envimoment Data Service (MEDS) in Canada are analyzed to study the effect of the Kuroshio on the China Seas, and the results can exhibit the spacial difference and temporal difference of the effect of Kuroshio on the circulation in the China Seas.

  10. Attitude-Tracking Control with Path Planning for Agile Satellite Using Double-Gimbal Control Moment Gyros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiling Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the issue of rapid attitude maneuver control of agile satellite, this paper presents an attitude-tracking control algorithm with path planning based on the improved genetic algorithm, adaptive backstepping control as well as sliding mode control. The satellite applies double gimbal control moment gyro as actuator and is subjected to the external disturbance and uncertain inertia properties. Firstly, considering the comprehensive mathematical model of the agile satellite and the double gimbal control moment gyro, an improved genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the attitude path-planning problem. The goal is to find an energy optimal path which satisfies certain maneuverability under the constraints of the input saturation, actuator saturation, slew rate limit and singularity measurement limit. Then, the adaptive backstepping control and sliding mode control are adopted in the design of the attitude-tracking controller to track accurately the desired path comprised of the satellite attitude quaternion and velocity. Finally, simulation results indicate the robustness and good tracking performance of the derived controller as well as its ability to avert the singularity of double gimbal control moment gyro.

  11. Orbit Determination with Angle-only Data from the First Korean Optical Satellite Tracking System, OWL-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Jo, J.

    2016-09-01

    The optical satellite tracking data obtained by the first Korean optical satellite tracking system, Optical Wide-field patrol - Network (OWL-Net), had been examined for precision orbit determination. During the test observation at Israel site, we have successfully observed a satellite with Laser Retro Reflector (LRR) to calibrate the angle-only metric data. The OWL observation system is using a chopper equipment to get dense observation data in one-shot over 100 points for the low Earth orbit objects. After several corrections, orbit determination process was done with validated metric data. The TLE with the same epoch of the end of the first arc was used for the initial orbital parameter. Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for an analysis of a performance of orbit estimation using the angle-only measurements. We have been developing batch style orbit estimator.

  12. Prediction of Gravity Anomalies Over the South China and Philippine Seas from Multi-satellite Altimeter Sea Surface Heights%根据多卫星高度计海面高数据推算南中国海及菲律宾海域重力异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac Dadzie; 李建成; 褚永海

    2008-01-01

    Gravity anomalies on a 2.5×2.5 arc-minute grid in a non-tidal system were derived over the South China and Philippine Seas from multi-satellite altimetry data. North and east components of deflections of the vertical were computed from altimeter-derived sea surface heights at crossover locations, and gridded onto a 2.5×2.5 arc-minute resolution grid. EGM96-derived components of deflections of the vertical and gravity anomalies gridded into 2.5×2.5 arc-minute resolutions were then used as reference global geopotential model quantities in a remove-restore procedure to implement the Inverse Vening Meinesz formula via the 1D-FFT technique to predict the gravity anomalies over the South China and Philippine Seas from the gridded altimeter-derived Components of deflections of the vertical. Statistical comparisons between the altime-ter-derived and the shipboard gravity anomalies showed that there is a root-mean-square agreement of 5.7 mgals between them.

  13. On retrieving sea ice freeboard from ICESat laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Rampal, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Sea ice freeboard derived from satellite altimetry is the basis for the estimation of sea ice thickness using the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. High accuracy of altimeter measurements and freeboard retrieval procedure are, therefore, required. As of today, two approaches for estimating the freeboard using laser altimeter measurements from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), referred to as tie points (TP) and lowest-level elevation (LLE) methods, have been developed and applied in different studies. We reproduced these methods for the ICESat observation periods (2003-2008) in order to assess and analyse the sources of differences found in the retrieved freeboard and corresponding thickness estimates of the Arctic sea ice as produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Three main factors are found to affect the freeboard differences when applying these methods: (a) the approach used for calculation of the local sea surface references in leads (TP or LLE methods), (b) the along-track averaging scales used for this calculation, and (c) the corrections for lead width relative to the ICESat footprint and for snow depth accumulated in refrozen leads. The LLE method with 100 km averaging scale, as used to produce the GSFC data set, and the LLE method with a shorter averaging scale of 25 km both give larger freeboard estimates comparing to those derived by applying the TP method with 25 km averaging scale as used for the JPL product. Two factors, (a) and (b), contribute to the freeboard differences in approximately equal proportions, and their combined effect is, on average, about 6-7 cm. The effect of using different methods varies spatially: the LLE method tends to give lower freeboards (by up to 15 cm) over the thick multiyear ice and higher freeboards (by up to 10 cm) over first-year ice and the thin part of multiyear ice; the higher freeboards dominate. We show that the freeboard underestimation

  14. Measurement-based perturbation theory and differential equation parameter estimation for high-precision high-resolution reconstruction of the Earth's gravitational field from satellite tracking measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Peiliang

    2016-01-01

    The numerical integration method has been routinely used to produce global standard gravitational models from satellite tracking measurements of CHAMP/GRACE types. It is implemented by solving the differential equations of the partial derivatives of a satellite orbit with respect to the unknown harmonic coefficients under the conditions of zero initial values. From the mathematical point of view, satellite gravimetry from satellite tracking is the problem of estimating unknown parameters in the Newton's nonlinear differential equations from satellite tracking measurements. We prove that zero initial values for the partial derivatives are incorrect mathematically and not permitted physically. The numerical integration method, as currently implemented and used in satellite gravimetry and statistics, is groundless. We use three different methods to derive new local solutions to the Newton's nonlinear governing differential equations of motion with a nominal reference orbit. Bearing in mind that satellite orbits ...

  15. Effects of tropospheric and ionospheric refraction errors in the utilization of GEOS-C altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of tropospheric and ionospheric refraction errors are analyzed for the GEOS-C altimeter project in terms of their resultant effects on C-band orbits and the altimeter measurement itself. Operational procedures using surface meteorological measurements at ground stations and monthly means for ocean surface conditions are assumed, with no corrections made for ionospheric effects. Effects on the orbit height due to tropospheric errors are approximately 15 cm for single pass short arcs (such as for calibration) and 10 cm for global orbits of one revolution. Orbit height errors due to neglect of the ionosphere have an amplitude of approximately 40 cm when the orbits are determined from C-band range data with predominantly daylight tracking. Altimeter measurement errors are approximately 10 cm due to residual tropospheric refraction correction errors. Ionospheric effects on the altimeter range measurement are also on the order of 10 cm during the GEOS-C launch and early operation period.

  16. Satellite tracking of two lesser spotted eagles Aquila pomarina, migrating from Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyburg, B.-U.; Ellis, D.H.; Meyburg, C.; Mendelsohn, J.; Scheller, W.

    2001-01-01

    One immature and one subadult Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, were followed by satellite telemetry from their non-breeding areas in Namibia. Both birds were fitted with transmitters (PTTs) in February 1994 and tracked, the immature for six months and two weeks, over distances of 10084 and 16773 km, respectively. During their time in Namibia both birds? movements were in response to good local rainfall. The immature eagle left Namibia at the end of February, the subadult at the end of March. They flew to their respective summer quarters in Hungary and the Ukraine, arriving there 2.5 and 1.5 months later than the breeding adults. The immature eagle took over two months longer on the homeward journey than a breeding male followed by telemetry in a previous study. On returning, the immature eagle followed the narrow flightpath through Africa used by other Lesser Spotted Eagles on their outward migration. It reached this corridor, which runs roughly between longitudes 31? and 36? East from Suez to Lake Tanganyika, veering from the shortest route in a direction east-northeast through Angola and Zambia to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. The route taken by the subadult bird on its return migration differed markedly from that of all Lesser Spotted Eagles tracked to date, running further west through the Democratic Republic of Congo where, level with the equator, it flew over the eastern rainforest of that country. The outward migration, however, followed the same corridor and coincided in time with the migration of adults.

  17. Stable isotope analysis and satellite tracking reveal interspecific resource partitioning of nonbreeding albatrosses off Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryan, R.M.; Fischer, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Albatrosses (Diomedeidae) are the most threatened family of birds globally. The three North Pacific species (Phoebastria Reichenbach, 1853) are listed as either endangered or vulnerable, with the population of Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus (Pallas, 1769)) less than 1% of its historical size. All North Pacific albatross species do not currently breed sympatrically, yet they do co-occur at-sea during the nonbreeding season. We incorporated stable isotope analysis with the first simultaneous satellite-tracking study of all three North Pacific albatross species while sympatric on summer (nonbreeding season) foraging grounds off Alaska. Carbon isotope ratios and tracking data identify differences in primary foraging domains of continental shelf and slope waters for Short-tailed Albatrosses and Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes (Audubon, 1839)) versus oceanic waters for Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria immutabilis (Roths-child, 1893)). Short-tailed and Black-footed albatrosses also fed at higher trophic levels than Laysan Albatrosses. The relative trophic position of Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses, however, appears to differ between nonbreeding and breeding seasons. Spatial segregation also occurred at a broader geographic scale, with Short-tailed Albatrosses ranging more north into the Bering Sea than Black-footed Albatrosses, which ranged more to the southeast, and Laysan Albatrosses more to the southwest. Differences in carbon isotope ratios among North Pacific albatross species during the nonbreeding season likely reflect the relative proportion of neritic (more carbon enriched) versus oceanic (carbon depleted) derived nutrients, and possible differential use of fishery discards, rather than latitudinal differences in distribution.

  18. How useful is satellite positioning system (GPS to track gait parameters? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schutz Yves

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last century, numerous techniques have been developed to analyze the movement of humans while walking and running. The combined use of kinematics and kinetics methods, mainly based on high speed video analysis and forceplate, have permitted a comprehensive description of locomotion process in terms of energetics and biomechanics. While the different phases of a single gait cycle are well understood, there is an increasing interest to know how the neuro-motor system controls gait form stride to stride. Indeed, it was observed that neurodegenerative diseases and aging could impact gait stability and gait parameters steadiness. From both clinical and fundamental research perspectives, there is therefore a need to develop techniques to accurately track gait parameters stride-by-stride over a long period with minimal constraints to patients. In this context, high accuracy satellite positioning can provide an alternative tool to monitor outdoor walking. Indeed, the high-end GPS receivers provide centimeter accuracy positioning with 5–20 Hz sampling rate: this allows the stride-by-stride assessment of a number of basic gait parameters – such as walking speed, step length and step frequency – that can be tracked over several thousand consecutive strides in free-living conditions. Furthermore, long-range correlations and fractal-like pattern was observed in those time series. As compared to other classical methods, GPS seems a promising technology in the field of gait variability analysis. However, relative high complexity and expensiveness – combined with a usability which requires further improvement – remain obstacles to the full development of the GPS technology in human applications.

  19. How useful is satellite positioning system (GPS) to track gait parameters? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Philippe; Schutz, Yves

    2005-09-02

    Over the last century, numerous techniques have been developed to analyze the movement of humans while walking and running. The combined use of kinematics and kinetics methods, mainly based on high speed video analysis and forceplate, have permitted a comprehensive description of locomotion process in terms of energetics and biomechanics. While the different phases of a single gait cycle are well understood, there is an increasing interest to know how the neuro-motor system controls gait form stride to stride. Indeed, it was observed that neurodegenerative diseases and aging could impact gait stability and gait parameters steadiness. From both clinical and fundamental research perspectives, there is therefore a need to develop techniques to accurately track gait parameters stride-by-stride over a long period with minimal constraints to patients. In this context, high accuracy satellite positioning can provide an alternative tool to monitor outdoor walking. Indeed, the high-end GPS receivers provide centimeter accuracy positioning with 5-20 Hz sampling rate: this allows the stride-by-stride assessment of a number of basic gait parameters--such as walking speed, step length and step frequency--that can be tracked over several thousand consecutive strides in free-living conditions. Furthermore, long-range correlations and fractal-like pattern was observed in those time series. As compared to other classical methods, GPS seems a promising technology in the field of gait variability analysis. However, relative high complexity and expensiveness--combined with a usability which requires further improvement--remain obstacles to the full development of the GPS technology in human applications.

  20. Demonstration on the indexes design of gravity satellite orbit parameters in the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaogang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the exigent demand of the development of satellite gravimetry system in China, aiming at the determination of technical indexes of gravity satellite orbit parameters, on the basis of the numerical experiments and results analysis, the design indexes of gravity satellite orbit height, inter-satellite range and the orbit inclination are analyzed and calculated, and the issues towards twin gravity satellites such as coherence requirement of the orbit semi-major axes, control requirement of the pitch angle and time interval requirement to keep twin satellites formation in mobility are discussed. Results show that the satellite orbit height is 400 km to 500 km, the inter-satellite range is about 220 km, the satellite orbit inclination is between polar orbit and sun-synchronous orbit, the semi-major axes difference of twin satellites orbit is within ±70. 146 m, the pitch angle of twin satellites is about 0.9 degree, and the time interval to keep twin satellites formation in mobility is 7 days to 15 days.

  1. Ice Surface Elevation Changes in East Antarctica from Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; DiMarzio, John

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of the overall mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations in the surface mass balance are obtainable from time-series of ice surface elevations measured by satellite altimetry. Beginning in 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter and lidar mission will significantly improve the range accuracy, the orbit accuracy, and the spatial coverage for measurement of ice sheet elevations (to 86 S) , as compared to previous radar altimeters designed for ocean measurements The radar altimeters on Seasat and Geosat provided ice sheet measurements to 72 S, and on ERS-1 and ERS-2 to 81 S. Although radar altimetry has significant limitations in coverage (due to loss of tracking) and accuracy over sloping surfaces, information on ice-sheet surface-elevation changes has been derived for parts of Antarctica. Recently, the accuracy of the ice measurements by Seasat (3 months of 1978) and Geosat (1985 to 1989) have been improved by new calculations of the satellite orbit heights and other altimeter corrections. Residual orbit errors and inter-satellite biases are evaluated by crossover analysis and by global adjustments to an ocean surface derived from altimeter data. The standard deviation of the orbit error is less than 9 cm, and the long-term trend in the error appears to be less than 1 cm/yr. Orbit errors can be further reduced by adjustment to the ocean surface, but false signals of several cm/yr may be also introduced by the adjustments. These false signals are caused mainly by residual errors in the altimeter corrections over the ocean, and secondary by real changes in the ocean surface elevation. Maps of ice sheet elevation changes north of 72 S are derived from Seasat-Geosat crossovers and from 4.5 years of Geosat crossovers. A notable ice thinning rate of about 50 cm/yr is found at elevations below 2200 meters between 70 and 72 S to the East of the Amery ice shelf, in both the Seasat-Geosat and Geosat-Geosat time intervals Above 2200 meters, to the ridge

  2. High Precision Vertical Deflection Over China Marginal Sea and Global Sea Derived from Multi-Satellite Altimeter%联合多种测高数据确定中国边缘海及全球海域的垂线偏差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎彪; 王勇; 陆洋

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of gravity field model (EIGEN_CG01C),together with multi-altimeter data,the improved deflection of the vertical gridded in 2'×2' in China marginal sea and gridded in 5'×5' in the global sea was determined by using the weighted method of along-track least squares,and the accuracy is better than 1.2" in China marginal sea.As for the qual-ity of the deflection of the vertical,it meets the challenge for the gravity field of high resolution and accuracy.It shows that,compared with the shipboard gravimetry in the sea,the accuracy of the gravity anomalies computed with the marine deflec-tion of the vertical by inverse Vening-Meinesz formula is 7.75 m·s-2.

  3. Improving maps of ice-sheet surface elevation change using combined laser altimeter and stereoscopic elevation model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Howat, I. M.; Tscherning, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    laser altimeters have relatively low errors but are spatially limited to the ground tracks, while DEMs have larger errors but provide spatially continuous surfaces. The principle of our method is to fit the DEM surface to the altimeter point clouds in time and space to minimize the DEM errors and use......We combine the complementary characteristics of laser altimeter data and stereoscopic digital elevation models (DEMs) to construct high-resolution (_100 m) maps of surface elevations and elevation changes over rapidly changing outlet glaciers in Greenland. Measurements from spaceborne and airborne...... that surface to extrapolate elevations away from altimeter flight lines. This reduces the DEM registration errors and fills the gap between the altimeter paths. We use data from ICESat and ATM as well as SPOT 5 DEMs from 2007 and 2008 and apply them to the outlet glaciers Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI...

  4. LEO卫星星下点轨迹保持策略优化研究%Optimal research on satellite track keeping strategy for low earth orbit satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔鹏; 傅忠谦

    2013-01-01

    The most LEO(low earth orbit) satellites run in the sun-synchronous orbit.In order to keep their orbit character and achieve the work condition of satellite equipment,satellite track must be kept by orbit control.This paper analyses the local time of descending node is kept by inclination biased and effect for satellite track of inclination biased and decrease of major semi-axis and chronic change of inclination.It gives the keeping method and compute model of adding major semi-axis biased.The simulation results show that the method achieves the demand of track keeping,and the frequency of orbit control is decreased.There is important meaning in practice application.%在轨运行的LEO(low earth orbit)卫星绝大多数是太阳同步回归轨道,为了保持其轨道特性并满足星上载荷工作条件,必须进行星下点轨迹保持.分析了倾角偏置实现降交点地方时保持的同时对星下点轨迹漂移的影响,以及半长轴衰减和倾角长期变化引起的星下点轨迹漂移,给出了增大半长轴偏置量的星下点轨迹保持方法和计算模型.仿真结果显示,此方法不但满足轨迹保持要求,而且减小了轨道维持频度,在工程应用中有重要的意义.

  5. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, Masayuki; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  6. Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The design and operation of the Laser Altimeter of CE-1 Payloads System are presented in this paper.The paper includes the design of the system and spacecraft-level laser,the description of the emitting-system and receiving system,and the testing of the laser altimeter.The CE-1 laser altimeter is the first Chinese deep-space probe using a laser.It has one beam and operates at 1 Hz,with a nominal accuracy of 5 m.The laser altimeter has operated successfully in lunar orbit since November 28,2007.It has obtained 9120 thousand data values about the lunar altitude.

  7. RADS Version 4: An Efficient Way to Analyse the Multi-Mission Altimeter Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharroo, Remko; Leuliette, Eric; Naeije, Marc; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Pires, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    The Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) has grown to become a mature altimeter database. Over the last 18 years it is continuously being developed, first at Delft University of Technology, now also at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).RADS now serves as a fundamental Climate Data Record for sea level. Because of the multiple users involved in vetting the data and the regular updates to the database, RADS is one of the most accurate and complete databases of satellite altimeter data around.RADS version 4 is a major change from the previous version. While the database is compatible with both software versions, the new software provides new tools, allows easier expansion, and has a better and more standardised interface.

  8. Tracking Climate Effects on Plant-Pollinator Interaction Phenology with Satellites and Honey Bee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, Wayne E.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Tan, Bin; Ma, Peter L.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods: The complexity of plant-pollinator interactions, the large number of species involved, and the lack of species response functions present challenges to understanding how these critical interactions may be impacted by climate and land cover change on large scales. Given the importance of this interaction for terrestrial ecosystems, it is desirable to develop new approaches. We monitor the daily weight change of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to record the phenology of the Honey Bee Nectar Flow (HBNF) in a volunteer network (honeybeenet.gsfc.nasa.gov). The records document the successful interaction of a generalist pollinator with a variety of plant resources. We extract useful HBNF phenology metrics for three seasons. Sites currently exist in 35 states/provinces in North America, with a concentration in the Mid-Atlantic region. HBNF metrics are compared to standard phenology metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices from NASA's MODIS sensor and published results from NOAA's A VHRR. At any given time the percentage of plants producing nectar is usually a sma11 fraction of the total satellite sensor signal. We are interested in determining how well the 'bulk' satellite vegetation parameters relate to the phenology of the HBNF, and how it varies spatially on landscape to continental scales. Results/Conclusions: We found the median and peak seasonal HBNF dates to be robust, with variation between replicate scale hives of only a few days. We developed quality assessment protocols to identify abnormal colony artifacts. Temporally, the peak and median of the HBNF in the Mid-Atlantic show a significant advance of 0.58 d/y beginning about 1970, very similar to that observed by the A VHRR since 1982 (0.57 d/y). Spatially, the HBNF metrics are highly correlated with elevation and winter minimum temperature distribution, and exhibit significant but regionally coherent inter-annual variation. The relationship between median of the

  9. iSAT: The Integrated Satellite and Acoustic Telemetry system for tracking marine megafauna

    KAUST Repository

    De La Torre, Pedro R.

    2014-05-01

    In this dissertation an innovative technology to study whale sharks, Rhincodon typus is presented. The Integrated Satellite and Acoustic Telemetry project (iSAT) combines underwater acoustic telemetry, autonomous navigation and radio frequency communications into a standalone system. The whale shark, a resident of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, is the target of the study. The technology presented is designed to help close current gaps in the knowledge of whale shark biology; these are gaps that prohibit the design of optimal conservation strategies. Unfortunately, the various existing tracking technologies each have limitations and are unable to solve all the unanswered questions. Whale shark populations are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as targeted and indirect fishing pressure, creating an urgent need for better management practices. This dissertation addresses the current state-of-the-art of relevant technologies, including autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs), sensors for research in the ocean and remote monitoring of wild fauna (biotelemetry). iSAT contains components of all of these technologies, but the primary achievement of this dissertation is the development of iSAT’s Acoustic Tracking System (ATS). Underwater, the most efficient way of transmitting energy through long distances is sound. An electronic tag is attached to an animal and works as its acoustic identifier. iSAT’s hydrophone array detects the presence and direction of the acoustic signal generated by the tag. The expected performance, range, and capacity to tell the direction to the tag are explained and compared to the actual measured values. The first operational iSAT ATS is demonstrated. This work represents significant advancement towards a fully autonomous iSAT system. Developments on the power electronics, navigation, renewable energy harvesting, and other modules are included in this research. With the recent integration of digital acquisition systems, i

  10. Monitoring and tracking the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols using multi-satellite aerosol optical depth retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Naeger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this study was to generate a near-real time (NRT aerosol optical depth (AOD product capable of providing a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol spatial distribution over the Pacific Ocean in order to better monitor and track the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols. Therefore, we developed a NRT product that takes advantage of observations from both low-earth orbiting and geostationary satellites. In particular, we utilize AOD products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS satellites. Then, we combine these AOD products with our own retrieval algorithms developed for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-15 and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2 to generate a NRT daily AOD composite product. We present examples of the daily AOD composite product for a case study of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution and dust aerosols in mid-March 2014. Overall, the new product successfully tracks this aerosol plume during its trans-Pacific transport to the west coast of North America. However, we identify several areas across the domain of interest from Asia to North America where the new product can encounter significant uncertainties due to the inclusion of the geostationary AOD retrievals. The uncertainties associated with geostationary AOD retrievals are expected to be minimized after the successful launch of the next-generation advanced NOAA GOES-R and recently launched JMA Himawari satellites. Observations from these advanced satellites will ultimately provide an enhanced understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols over the Pacific.

  11. Ungulate Reproductive Parameters Track Satellite Observations of Plant Phenology across Latitude and Climatological Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, David C; Sexton, Joseph O; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Bernales, Heather H; Edwards, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climatically-driven plant phenology on mammalian reproduction is one key to predicting species-specific demographic responses to climate change. Large ungulates face their greatest energetic demands from the later stages of pregnancy through weaning, and so in seasonal environments parturition dates should match periods of high primary productivity. Interannual variation in weather influences the quality and timing of forage availability, which can influence neonatal survival. Here, we evaluated macro-scale patterns in reproductive performance of a widely distributed ungulate (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) across contrasting climatological regimes using satellite-derived indices of primary productivity and plant phenology over eight degrees of latitude (890 km) in the American Southwest. The dataset comprised > 180,000 animal observations taken from 54 populations over eight years (2004-2011). Regionally, both the start and peak of growing season ("Start" and "Peak", respectively) are negatively and significantly correlated with latitude, an unusual pattern stemming from a change in the dominance of spring snowmelt in the north to the influence of the North American Monsoon in the south. Corresponding to the timing and variation in both the Start and Peak, mule deer reproduction was latest, lowest, and most variable at lower latitudes where plant phenology is timed to the onset of monsoonal moisture. Parturition dates closely tracked the growing season across space, lagging behind the Start and preceding the Peak by 27 and 23 days, respectively. Mean juvenile production increased, and variation decreased, with increasing latitude. Temporally, juvenile production was best predicted by primary productivity during summer, which encompassed late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. Our findings offer a parsimonious explanation of two key reproductive parameters in ungulate demography, timing of parturition and mean annual production, across

  12. Simulation of Full-Waveform Laser Altimeter Echowaveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y.; Tong, X. H.; Liu, S. J.; Xie, H.; Luan, K. F.; Liu, J.

    2016-06-01

    Change of globe surface height is an important factor to study human living environment. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on ICESat is the first laser-ranging instrument for continuous global observations of the Earth. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of full-waveform laser altimeter, this study simulated the operating mode of ICESat and modeled different terrains' (platform terrain, slope terrain, and artificial terrain) echo waveforms based on the radar equation. By changing the characteristics of the system and the targets, numerical echo waveforms can be achieved. Hereafter, we mainly discussed the factors affecting the amplitude and size (width) of the echoes. The experimental results implied that the slope of the terrain, backscattering coefficient and reflectivity, target height, target position in the footprint and area reacted with the pulse all can affect the energy distribution of the echo waveform and the receiving time. Finally, Gaussian decomposition is utilized to decompose the echo waveform. From the experiment, it can be noted that the factors which can affect the echo waveform and by this way we can know more about large footprint full-waveform satellite laser altimeter.

  13. Ionospheric refraction effects on TOPEX orbit determination accuracy using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, M. S.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation concerns the effects on Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) spacecraft operational orbit determination of ionospheric refraction error affecting tracking measurements from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Although tracking error from this source is mitigated by the high frequencies (K-band) used for the space-to-ground links and by the high altitudes for the space-to-space links, these effects are of concern for the relatively high-altitude (1334 kilometers) TOPEX mission. This concern is due to the accuracy required for operational orbit-determination by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and to the expectation that solar activity will still be relatively high at TOPEX launch in mid-1992. The ionospheric refraction error on S-band space-to-space links was calculated by a prototype observation-correction algorithm using the Bent model of ionosphere electron densities implemented in the context of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Orbit determination error was evaluated by comparing parallel TOPEX orbit solutions, applying and omitting the correction, using the same simulated TDRSS tracking observations. The tracking scenarios simulated those planned for the observation phase of the TOPEX mission, with a preponderance of one-way return-link Doppler measurements. The results of the analysis showed most TOPEX operational accuracy requirements to be little affected by space-to-space ionospheric error. The determination of along-track velocity changes after ground-track adjustment maneuvers, however, is significantly affected when compared with the stringent 0.1-millimeter-per-second accuracy requirements, assuming uncoupled premaneuver and postmaneuver orbit determination. Space-to-space ionospheric refraction on the 24-hour postmaneuver arc alone causes 0.2 millimeter-per-second errors in along-track delta-v determination using uncoupled solutions. Coupling the premaneuver and postmaneuver solutions

  14. Regional applicability of forest height and aboveground biomass models for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Pflugmacher; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy; Michael. Lefsky

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass are needed to reduce uncertainties in global and regional terrestrial carbon fluxes. In this study we investigated the utility of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite for large-scale biomass inventories. GLAS is the first spaceborne lidar sensor that will...

  15. Satellite tracking reveals habitat use by juvenile green sea turtles Chelonia mydas in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2010-01-01

    We tracked the movements of 6 juvenile green sea turtles captured in coastal areas of southwest Florida within Everglades National Park (ENP) using satellite transmitters for periods of 27 to 62 d in 2007 and 2008 (mean ± SD: 47.7 ± 12.9 d). Turtles ranged in size from 33.4 to 67.5 cm straight carapace length (45.7 ± 12.9 cm) and 4.4 to 40.8 kg in mass (16.0 ± 13.8 kg). These data represent the first satellite tracking data gathered on juveniles of this endangered species at this remote study site, which may represent an important developmental habitat and foraging ground. Satellite tracking results suggested that these immature turtles were resident for several months very close to capture and release sites, in waters from 0 to 10 m in depth. Mean home range for this springtime tracking period as represented by minimum convex polygon (MCP) was 1004.9 ± 618.8 km2 (range 374.1 to 2060.1 km2), with 4 of 6 individuals spending a significant proportion of time within the ENP boundaries in 2008 in areas with dense patches of marine algae. Core use areas determined by 50% kernel density estimates (KDE) ranged from 5.0 to 54.4 km2, with a mean of 22.5 ± 22.1 km2. Overlap of 50% KDE plots for 6 turtles confirmed use of shallow-water nearshore habitats =0.6 m deep within the park boundary. Delineating specific habitats used by juvenile green turtles in this and other remote coastal areas with protected status will help conservation managers to prioritize their efforts and increase efficacy in protecting endangered species.

  16. Monitoring and tracking the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols using multi-satellite aerosol optical depth composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeger, Aaron R.; Gupta, Pawan; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to generate a near-real time (NRT) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product capable of providing a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol spatial distribution over the Pacific Ocean, in order to better monitor and track the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols. Therefore, we developed a NRT product that takes advantage of observations from both low-earth orbiting and geostationary satellites. In particular, we utilize AOD products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellites. Then, we combine these AOD products with our own retrieval algorithms developed for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-15) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2) to generate a NRT daily AOD composite product. We present examples of the daily AOD composite product for a case study of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution and dust aerosols in mid-March 2014. Overall, the new product successfully tracks this aerosol plume during its trans-Pacific transport to the west coast of North America as the frequent geostationary observations lead to a greater coverage of cloud-free AOD retrievals equatorward of about 35° N, while the polar-orbiting satellites provide a greater coverage of AOD poleward of 35° N. However, we note several areas across the domain of interest from Asia to North America where the GOES-15 and MTSAT-2 retrieval algorithms can introduce significant uncertainties into the new product.

  17. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-08-28

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  18. Global tracking and inventory of military hardware via LEO satellite: A system approach and likely scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Estabrook, Polly; Romer, Richard

    1995-01-01

    A system for global inventory control of electronically tagged military hardware is achievable using a LEO satellite constellation. An equipment Tag can communicate directly to the satellite with a power of 5 watts or less at a data rate of 2400 to 50,000 bps. As examples, two proposed commercial LEO systems, IRIDIUM and ORBCOMM, are both capable of providing global coverage but with dramatically different telecom capacities. Investigation of these two LEO systems as applied to the Tag scenario provides insight into satellite design trade-offs, constellation trade-offs and signal dynamics that effect the performance of a satellite-based global inventory control system.

  19. The Gulf Stream front - A comparison between Seasat altimeter observations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T. W.; Cheney, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative comparison is made between a model which gives a universal shape and width of the sea surface height rise anomaly across the Gulf Stream and six Gulf Stream altimeter profiles representing a range of conditions. The closeness of the fit obtained reinforces the validity of both the model and the role of satellite altimetry in ocean dynamics. Further comparisons of the data with the theories of Stommel (1966) and Charney (1955) show that the former is incomplete, accepting only one altimeter-derived parameter.

  20. Home Range and Habitat Use of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae within a Plantation Forest: A Satellite Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tracked two adult and three juvenile New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae in Kaingaroa Forest pine plantation from 2002 to 2008 using Argos satellite technology. The home ranges for both adults and juveniles varied, ranging between 44 and 587 km2. The falcons occasionally utilised areas outside the forest and used stands of all ages within the forest, generally in proportion to their availability. For the most part, the juveniles remained within ca. 8 km of their nests and dispersed at 58, 69, and 68 days after fledging. Falcon movement information was obtained from an average of four location points per tracking day per falcon at a putative accuracy of 350 m. The transmitters, including their solar charge capability, performed well in the forest environment. The use of all stand ages highlights the importance of forestry practises that maintain a mosaic of different aged pine stands.

  1. Robust Control for the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jacob S.

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Laser Altimeter Science Algorithms is a software system for controlling the laser altimeter aboard the Messenger spacecraft, which is to enter into orbit about Mercury in 2011. The software will control the altimeter by dynamically modifying hardware inputs for gain, threshold, channel-disable flags, range-window start location, and range-window width, by using ranging information provided by the spacecraft and noise counts from instrument hardware. In addition, because of severe bandwidth restrictions, the software also selects returns for downlink.

  2. Flexible Low Cost Avionics for NanoSatellite Launch Vehicle Control and GPS Metric Tracking Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems LLC (Tyvak) will develop nano-launch vehicle avionics solutions based on the latest commercial electronics products...

  3. Inertial currents in the Indian Ocean derived from satellite tracked surface drifters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saji, P.K.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Almeida, A.M.; Rao, L.V.G.

    ´sume´ – Courants d’inertie dans l’oce´an Indien estime´s a` partir de flotteurs de surface suivis par satellite. Des flotteurs de surface suivis par satellite ont e´te´ utilise´s pour analyser les caracte´ristiques des courants d’inertie dans l’oce´an Indien...

  4. Finite-Time Control for Attitude Tracking Maneuver of Rigid Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyi Huo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finite-time control for attitude tracking maneuver of a rigid spacecraft is investigated. External disturbance, unknown inertia parameters are addressed. As stepping stone, a sliding mode controller is designed. It requires the upper bound of the lumped uncertainty including disturbance and inertia matrix. However, this upper bound may not be easily obtained. Therefore, an adaptive sliding mode control law is then proposed to release that drawback. Adaptive technique is applied to estimate that bound. It is proved that the closed-loop attitude tracking system is finite-time stable. The tracking errors of the attitude and the angular velocity are asymptotically stabilized. Moreover, the upper bound on the lumped uncertainty can be exactly estimated in finite time. The attitude tracking performance with application of the control scheme is evaluated through a numerical example.

  5. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; B. Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the...

  6. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ruan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0 varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N0. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N0. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  7. Signature of range observable in non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity and the measurements with satellite-satellite tracking missions. Theoretical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, Li-E

    2014-01-01

    Having great accuracy in the range and range rate measurements, the operating GRACE mission and the planed GRACE Follow On mission can in principle be employed to place strong constraints on certain relativistic gravity theories. In this paper, we work out in details the range observable in the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity for these Satellite-Satellite Tracking measurements. We find out that an characteristic time accumulating signal appears in the range observable in the non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity, which has no analogy found in the standard metric theories of gravity. The magnitude of this Chern-Simons range signal will reach to a few times of $(\\frac{\\dot{\\theta}}{100r})meters$ for each free flight of these SST missions, here $\\dot{\\theta}$ measures the length scale of the theory and $r$ denotes the orbital radius of the SST mission. Therefore, with the 12 years data from the GRACE mission and the proper data analysis methods, one expects that the mass scale of the non-dynamical CS gr...

  8. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  9. The Performance of Altimeter Waveform Retrackers at Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchan Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At each of five fixed locations along the ground tracks of JASON-1 and ENVISAT, a repeat-track analysis of 1-Hz sea surface height (SSH data has been conducted to assess the performance of waveform retrackers over Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia. This simple analysis of time series at each point location is needed to minimize the effect of the range correction artifacts in current Geophysical Data Record (GDR data products of radar altimeters in in-land areas. Using the retracked data available in the GDRs as the baseline, two retrackers are evaluated in terms of the number of valid data points produced and the degree of agreement with in-situ data of water level record. The threshold retrackers that are based on the amplitude of the robust OCOG algorithm (Offset Center of Gravity are found to perform the best in Lake Baikal.

  10. Centimeter-level precise orbit determination for the HY-2A satellite using DORIS and SLR tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiaoli; Guo, Jinyun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Chunmei; Chen, Chuanfa

    2017-01-01

    The HY-2A satellite is the first ocean dynamic environment monitoring satellite of China. Centimeter-level radial accuracy is a fundamental requirement for its scientific research and applications. To achieve this goal, we designed the strategies of precise orbit determination (POD) in detail. To achieve the relative optimal orbit for HY-2A, we carried out POD using DORIS-only, SLR-only, and DORIS + SLR tracking data, respectively. POD tests demonstrated that the consistency level of DORIS-only and SLR-only orbits with respect to the CNES orbits were about 1.81 cm and 3.34 cm in radial direction in the dynamic sense, respectively. We designed 6 cases of different weight combinations for DORIS and SLR data, and found that the optimal relative weight group was 0.2 mm/s for DORIS and 15.0 cm for SLR, and RMS of orbit differences with respect to the CNES orbits in radial direction and three-dimensional (3D) were 1.37 cm and 5.87 cm, respectively. These tests indicated that the relative radial and 3D accuracies computed using DORIS + SLR data with the optimal relative weight set were obviously higher than those computed using DORIS-only and SLR-only data, and satisfied the requirement of designed precision. The POD for HY-2A will provide the invaluable experience for the following HY-2B, HY-2C, and HY-2D satellites.

  11. Comparison Between Computer Simulation of Transport and Diffusion of Cloud Seeding Material Within Stratiform Cloud and the NOAA-14 Satellite Cloud Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xing; DAI Jin; LEI Hengchi; FAN Peng

    2005-01-01

    A precipitation enhancement operation using an aircraft was conducted from 1415 to 1549 LST 14 March 2000 in Shaanxi Province. The NOAA-14 satellite data received at 1535 LST soon after the cloud seeding shows that a vivid cloud track appears on the satellite image. The length, average width and maximum width of the cloud track are 301 km, 8.3 and 11 km, respectively. Using a three-dimensional numerical model of transport and diffusion of seeding material within stratiform clouds, the spatial concentration distribution characteristics of seeding material at different times, especially at the satellite receiving time,are simulated. The model results at the satellite receiving time are compared with the features of the cloud track. The transported position of the cloud seeding material coincides with the position of the track. The width, shape and extent of diffusion of the cloud seeding material are similar to that of the cloud track.The spatial variation of width is consistent with that of the track. The simulated length of each segment of the seeding line accords with the length of every segment of the track. Each segment of the cloud track corresponds to the transport and diffusion of each segment of the seeding line. These results suggest that the cloud track is the direct physical reflection of cloud seeding at the cloud top. The comparison demonstrates that the numerical model of transport and diffusion can simulate the main characteristics of transport and diffusion of seeding material, and the simulated results are sound and trustworthy. The area, volume, width, depth, and lateral diffusive rate corresponding to concentrations 1, 4, and 10 L-1are simulated in order to understand the variations of influencing range.

  12. Can modelled harbour porpoise distribution based on satellite tracking be validated from static acoustic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lonnie; Riget, Frank Farsø; Sveegaard, Signe

    Species distribution models are increasingly being used to model habitat suitability from positioning records. Here we use satellite locations from 15 tagged harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the western Baltic Sea to model suitable habitats using the species distribution model MaxEnt (Max...

  13. Satellite tracking of two Montagu's Harriers (Circus pygargus) : Dual pathways during autumn migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Koks, Ben J.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Dijkstra, Cor; Bairlein, Franz

    2007-01-01

    Autumn migration routes of two Dutch female Montagu's Harriers (Circus pygargus) were documented for the first time using satellite telemetry. Both migrated to their African wintering area-one via the Straits of Gibraltar through the Mediterranean and the other via Italy/Tunisia. The rate of travel

  14. Automatic Tracking and Characterization of Cumulonimbus Clouds from FY-2C Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated method to track cumulonimbus (Cb clouds based on cloud classification and characterizes Cb behavior from FengYun-2C (FY-2C. First, a seeded region growing (SRG algorithm is used with artificial neural network (ANN cloud classification as preprocessing to identify consistent homogeneous Cb patches from infrared images. Second, a cross-correlation-based approach is used to track Cb patches within an image sequence. Third, 7 pixel parameters and 19 cloud patch parameters of Cb are derived. To assess the performance of the proposed method, 8 cases exhibiting different life stages and the temporal evolution of a single case are analyzed. The results show that (1 the proposed method is capable of locating and tracking Cb until dissipation and can account for the eventual splitting or merging of clouds; (2 compared to traditional brightness temperature (TB thresholds-based cloud tracking methods, the proposed method reduces the uncertainty stemming from TB thresholds by classifying clouds with multichannel data in an advanced manner; and (3 the configuration and developmental stages of Cb that the method identifies are close to reality, suggesting that the characterization of Cb can provide detailed insight into the study of the motion and development of thunderstorms.

  15. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the GEOS-C altimeter calibration area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.

    1974-01-01

    The GEOS-C spacecraft scheduled for launch in late 1974 will carry a radar altimeter for the purpose of measuring sea surface topography. In order to calibrate and evaluate the performance of the altimeter system, ground truth data are required. In this respect a detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed for the GEOS-C altimeter calibration area in the Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of the U.S. This geoid is based upon a combination of mean free air surface gravity anomalies and the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-6 satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients. Surface gravity anomalies have been used to provide information on the short wave length undulations of the geoid while the satellite-derived coefficients have provided information on the long wave length components. As part of these analyses, GSFC, SAO and OSU satellite-derived gravity models were used in the computations. Although geoid heights based upon the various satellite models differed by as much as 30 meters in the Southern Hemisphere, the differences in this Atlantic Ocean area were less than 4 meters.

  16. Global detailed gravimetric geoid. [based on gravity model derived from satellite tracking and surface gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 deg-by-1 deg mean free air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is + or - 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  17. An Intermediate Frequency Acquisition Scheme for S-band Single Access Link of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A nonzero intermediate frequency (IF) likelihood acquisition scheme designed for S-band Single Access (SSA) link of China's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite S y stem (CTDRSS) is introduced. The received signal is downconv erted to IF, and then direct sampled in IF using a 1-bit A/D. After the digital i zation, the sampled data is detected using a hybrid likelihood acquisition schem e. Using this structure, large noise figure of the analog mixer or active filter s, amplitude and phase imbalance between low-frequency in-phase and quandratur e- phase channel can be avoided. An easy designing algorithm of the acquisition sch eme is also derived. The performance and algorithm are verified by computer simu lation.

  18. Migration of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) Wintering in Japan Using Satellite Tracking: Identification of the Eastern Palearctic Flyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Doko, Tomoko; Fujita, Go; Hijikata, Naoya; Tokita, Ken-Ichi; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Konishi, Kan; Hiraoka, Emiko; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Migration through the Eastern Palearctic (EP) flyway by tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) has not been thoroughly documented. We satellite-tracked the migration of 16 tundra swans that winter in Japan. The objectives of this study were 1) to show the migration pattern of the EP flyway of tundra swans; 2) to compare this pattern with the migration pattern of whooper swans; and 3) to identify stopover sites that are important for these swans' conservation. Tundra swans were captured at Kutcharo Lake, Hokkaido, in 2009-2012 and satellite-tracked. A new method called the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method" was developed. Based on median, the spring migration began on 18 April and ended on 27 May. Autumn migration began on 9 September and ended on 2 November. The median duration of the spring and autumn migrations were 48 and 50 days, respectively. The mean duration at one stopover site was 5.5 days and 6.8 days for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The number of stopover sites was 3.0 and 2.5 for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The mean travel distances for the spring and autumn migrations were 6471 and 6331 km, respectively. Seven migration routes passing Sakhalin, the Amur River, and/or Kamchatka were identified. There were 15, 32, and eight wintering, stopover, and breeding sites, respectively. The migration routes and staging areas of tundra swans partially overlap with those of whooper swans, whose migration patterns have been previously documented. The migration patterns of these two swan species that winter in Japan confirm the importance of the Amur River, Udyl' Lake, Shchastya Bay, Aniva Bay, zaliv Chayvo Lake, zal Piltun Lake, zaliv Baykal Lake, Kolyma River, Buyunda River, Sen-kyuyel' Lake, and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk.

  19. Ocean state indicators from MyOcean altimeter products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bessières

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European MyOcean project (http://www.myocean.eu.org provides observations of the ocean dynamic topography from altimeter measurements. Three specific indicators have been developed, based on altimeter data only, in order to monitor the ocean state. The first ocean indicator observes the positive and negative phases of the ENSO events in the tropical Pacific, the El Niño/La Niña events, since 1992. The second ocean indicator tracks the contracted or extended state of the Kuroshio Extension. The last ocean indicator is dedicated to the Ionian Basin in the Mediterranean Sea and permits separation of "zonal-cyclonic" state (1998–2005 and since 2011 up to now from the "anticyclonic" state (1993–1996 usually discussed in the literature. In addition, it allows identifying a third state in which both the anticyclonic circulation around the northern part of the basin and the strong zonal Mid-Ionian Jet co-exist (2008–2010.

  20. Crossover Analysis of CHANG'E-1 Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.; Yue, Z.; Di, K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary result of crossover analysis and adjustment of Chang'E-1(CE-1) Laser Altimeter (LAM) data of the Moon for global and regional mapping applications. During the operation of Chang'E-1 from November 28, 2007 to December 4, 2008, the laser altimeter acquired 1400 orbital profiles with about 9.12 million altimetric points. In our experiment, we derived more than 1.38 million crossovers from 1395 ground tracks covering the entire lunar surface after eliminating outliers of orbits and altimetric points. A method of least-squares crossover adjustment with a series of basis functions of time (trigonometric functions and polynomials) is developed to reconcile the LAM data by minimizing the crossover residuals globally. The normal equations are very large but sparse; therefore they are stored and solved using sparse matrix technique. In a test area (0°N~60°N, 50°W~0°W), the crossover residuals are reduced from 62.1m to 32.8m, and the quality of the DEM generated from the adjusted LAM data is improved accordingly. We will optimize the method for the global adjustment to generate a high precision consistent global DEM, which can be used as absolute control for lunar mapping with orbital images.

  1. Satellite tracking reveals novel migratory patterns and the importance of seamounts for endangered South Pacific humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigue, Claire; Clapham, Phillip J; Geyer, Ygor; Kennedy, Amy S; Zerbini, Alexandre N

    2015-11-01

    The humpback whale population of New Caledonia appears to display a novel migratory pattern characterized by multiple directions, long migratory paths and frequent pauses over seamounts and other shallow geographical features. Using satellite-monitored radio tags, we tracked 34 whales for between 5 and 110 days, travelling between 270 and 8540 km on their southward migration from a breeding ground in southern New Caledonia. Mean migration speed was 3.53±2.22 km h(-1), while movements within the breeding ground averaged 2.01±1.63 km h(-1). The tag data demonstrate that seamounts play an important role as offshore habitats for this species. Whales displayed an intensive use of oceanic seamounts both in the breeding season and on migration. Seamounts probably serve multiple and important roles as breeding locations, resting areas, navigational landmarks or even supplemental feeding grounds for this species, which can be viewed as a transient component of the seamount communities. Satellite telemetry suggests that seamounts represent an overlooked cryptic habitat for the species. The frequent use by humpback whales of such remote locations has important implications for conservation and management.

  2. A spring stopover of a migratory osprey (Pandion haliaetus in northern Spain as revealed by satellite tracking: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galarza, A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the accuracy of satellite telemetry locations now allow detailed studies on territorial behaviour or use of habitat that can be used to enhance bird conservation. In this paper we describe the behaviour of a satellite-tracked adult female osprey (Pandion haliaetus in the Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (N Spain to evaluate the suitability of this protected area for the species. The data set consisted of 10 complete days with a total of 145 exact fixes received. Night roosts were mainly surrounded by high or intermediate level protected land, separated from roads or buildings by more than 200 m and located less than one km away from the feeding area. During daylight hours, most fixes (76.5% were located in wooded areas. We found that the bird selected holm oak woods and we suggest that this is related to low disturbance from human activity. We also suggest that northern Spanish estuaries are important as stopovers by migrating ospreys for feeding during migration.

  3. The Impacts of Satellite Remotely Sensed Winds and Total Precipitable Vapour in WRF Tropical Cyclone Track Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diandong Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact assimilating the scatterometer near-surface wind observations and total precipitable water from the SSMI, into WRF on genesis and track forecasting of four tropical cyclones (TCs. These TCs are selected to be representative of different intensity categories and basins. Impact is via a series of data denial experiments that systematically exclude the remote sensed information. Compared with the control case, in which only the final analysis atmospheric variables are used to initialize and provide the lateral boundary conditions, the data assimilation runs performed consistently better, but with very different skill levels for the different TCs. Eliassen-Palm flux analyses are employed. It is confirmed that if a polar orbital satellite footprint passes over the TC’s critical genesis region, the forecast will profit most from assimilating the remotely sensed information. If the critical genesis region lies within an interorbital gap then, regardless of how strong the TC later becomes (e.g., Katrina 2005, the improvement from assimilating near-surface winds and total precipitable water in the model prediction is severely limited. This underpins the need for a synergy of data from different scatterometers/radiometers. Other approaches are suggested to improve the accuracy in the prediction of TC genesis and tracks.

  4. Kinematic Orbit Determination Method Optimization and Test Analysis for BDS Satellites with Short-arc Tracking Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Rui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid orbit recovery is a puzzle for the BDS satellites after orbit maneuvers. Two kinematic orbit determination methods are studied, with two orbit determination models being established. The receiver system error and serious multipath error exist in the BDS system. The co-location method is proposed to estimate and calibrate the receiver system errors. A CNMC (code noise and multipath correction method is introduced to weaken the multipath error. Therefore the data quality is controlled efficiently for the receivers in the short tracking arc. The GEO/IGSO/MEO real data is emploied to carry out tests and validation. Using 10 min short tracking arc, the kinematic precise orbit determination accuracy is about 3.27 m for the GEOs, and 8.19 m for the IGSOs, and 5.9 m for the MEOs. Rapid orbit determination is achieved, which satisfying the orbit requirements from the BDS RDSS services. The kinematic precise orbit determination method also supports the RDSS service walking up to the global world.

  5. Determining origin in a migratory marine vertebrate: a novel method to integrate stable isotopes and satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Wunder, Michael B.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bolten, Alan B.; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool to track animal movements in both terrestrial and marine environments. These intrinsic markers are assimilated through the diet and may exhibit spatial gradients as a result of biogeochemical processes at the base of the food web. In the marine environment, maps to predict the spatial distribution of stable isotopes are limited, and thus determining geographic origin has been reliant upon integrating satellite telemetry and stable isotope data. Migratory sea turtles regularly move between foraging and reproductive areas. Whereas most nesting populations can be easily accessed and regularly monitored, little is known about the demographic trends in foraging populations. The purpose of the present study was to examine migration patterns of loggerhead nesting aggregations in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), where sea turtles have been historically understudied. Two methods of geographic assignment using stable isotope values in known-origin samples from satellite telemetry were compared: 1) a nominal approach through discriminant analysis and 2) a novel continuous-surface approach using bivariate carbon and nitrogen isoscapes (isotopic landscapes) developed for this study. Tissue samples for stable isotope analysis were obtained from 60 satellite-tracked individuals at five nesting beaches within the GoM. Both methodological approaches for assignment resulted in high accuracy of foraging area determination, though each has advantages and disadvantages. The nominal approach is more appropriate when defined boundaries are necessary, but up to 42% of the individuals could not be considered in this approach. All individuals can be included in the continuous-surface approach, and individual results can be aggregated to identify geographic hotspots of foraging area use, though the accuracy rate was lower than nominal assignment. The methodological validation provides a foundation for future sea turtle studies in the region to inexpensively

  6. Design of A Pentagon Microstrip Antenna for Radar Altimeter Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RamaDevi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the navigational applications, radar and satellite requires a device that is a radar altimeter. Theworking frequency of this system is 4.2 to 4.3GHz and also requires less weight, low profile, and high gainantennas. The above mentioned application is possible with microstrip antenna as also known as planarantenna. In this paper, the microstrip antennas are designed at 4.3GHz (C-band in rectangular andcircular shape patch antennas in single element and arrays with parasitic elements placed in H-planecoupling. The performance of all these shapes is analyzed in terms of radiation pattern, half power points,and gain and impedance bandwidth in MATLAB. This work extended here with designed in different shapeslike Rhombic, Pentagon, Octagon and Edges-12 etc. Further these parameters are simulated in ANSOFTHFSSTMV9.0 simulator.

  7. Remote sensing of Gulf Stream using GEOS-3 radar altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

    1978-01-01

    Radar altimeter measurements from the GEOS-3 satellite to the ocean surface indicated the presence of expected geostrophic height differences across the the Gulf Stream. Dynamic sea surface heights were found by both editing and filtering the raw sea surface heights and then referencing these processed data to a 5 minute x 5 minute geoid. Any trend between the processed data and the geoid was removed by subtracting out a linear fit to the residuals in the open ocean. The mean current velocity of 107 + or - 29 cm/sec calculated from the dynamic heights for all orbits corresponded with velocities obtained from hydrographic methods. Also, dynamic topographic maps were produced for August, September, and October 1975. Results pointed out limitations in the accuracy of the geoid, height anomaly deteriorations due to filtering, and lack of dense time and space distribution of measurements.

  8. Study on Atmospheric Refraction Delay Correction for Satellite Laser Altimeter System%星载激光测高系统的大气折射延迟改正模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 肖建明; 马跃; 周辉; 郭想

    2013-01-01

    星载激光测高仪通过测量从卫星平台发射的激光脉冲在卫星与地面激光脚点之间的渡越时间计算两者之间的距离.由于光束经过大气层时发生的折射,导致卫星激光测高系统典型的与大气延迟相关的测距误差在数米量级.讨论了大气折射延迟修正的理论与方法,分析比较了各种大气折射率模型,以全球首个对地观测星载激光测高仪系统GLAS系统为例,给出了各种折射率模型的计算偏差,发现在常见温度和湿度范围内Owens375模型是一种精度较高的简化折射率模型;计算了GLAS系统高度角偏离天顶方向不超过10°的情况下,使用简单映射函数与CfA2.2映射函数模型的值,发现其差异不超过0.5 mm.%Satellite laser altimetry system(SLR) measures the distance between the satellite and the surface of the earth by figuring out the transit time of laser pulse. The characteristics ranging error is few meters for a SLR because of the atmospheric refraction delay. The theory and method of atmospheric refraction delay correction are discussed. The various models of atmospheric refraction are analyzed and compared. The atmospheric refraction delay based on different models by using GLAS's parameters is calculated. It shows that the model of Owens 375 is with great precise and simplified in most temperature and humidity conditions. The refraction delay corrections in the condition that altitude angle within 10?are calculated by using a simplified mapping function and CfA2. 2, and diffrences between them is only 0. 5 mm.

  9. Biosonar, dive, and foraging activity of satellite tracked harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Teilmann, Jonas; Akamatsu, Tomonari

    2013-01-01

    rates and higher dive activity at night. A female traveling in open waters showed no diel rhythm, but its sonar activity was three times higher compared to the males’. Considerable individual differences in dive and echolocation activity could have been influenced by biological and physical factors......This study presents bioacoustic recordings in combination with movements and diving behavior of three free-ranging harbor porpoises (a female and two males) in Danish waters. Each porpoise was equipped with an acoustic data logger (A-tag), a time-depth-recorder, a VHF radio transmitter......, and a satellite transmitter. The units were programmed to release after 24 or 72 h. Possible foraging occurred mostly near the surface or at the bottom of a dive. The porpoises showed individual diversity in biosonar activity (50,000 clicks per hour) and in dive frequency (6–179 dives per hour). We...

  10. Analysis and interpretation of Cassini Titan radar altimeter echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Gim, Yonggyu; Callahan, Philip; Hensley, Scott; Lorenz, Ralph; Cassini Radar Team

    2009-03-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has acquired 25 radar altimeter elevation profiles along Titan's surface as of April 2008, and we have analyzed 18 of these for which there are currently reconstructed ephemeris data. Altimeter measurements were collected at spatial footprint sizes from 6-60 km along ground tracks of length 400-3600 km. The elevation profiles yield topographic information at this resolution with a statistical height accuracy of 35-50 m and kilometer-scale errors several times greater. The data exhibit significant variations in terrain, from flat regions with little topographic expression to very rugged Titanscapes. The bandwidth of the transmitted waveform admits vertical resolution of the terrain height to 35 m at each observed location on the surface. Variations in antenna pointing and changes in surface statistics cause the range-compressed radar echoes to exhibit strong systematic and time-variable biases of hundreds of meters in delay. It is necessary to correct the received echoes for these changes, and we have derived correction algorithms such that the derived echo profiles are accurate at the 100 m level for off-nadir pointing errors of 0.3° and 0.6°, for leading edge and echo centroid estimators, respectively. The leading edge of the echo yields the elevation of the highest points on the surface, which we take to be the peaks of any terrain variation. The mean value of the echo delay is more representative of the mean elevation, so that the difference of these values gives an estimate of any local mountain heights. Finding locations where these values diverge indicates higher-relief terrain. Elevation features are readily seen in the height profiles. Several of the passes show mountains of several hundred m altitude, spread over 10's or even 100's of km in spatial extent, so that slopes are very small. Large expanses of sub-100 m topography are commonplace on Titan, so it is rather smooth in many locations. Other areas exhibit more relief

  11. Satellite tracking reveals long distance coastal travel and homing by translocated estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark A; Grigg, Gordon C; Irwin, Steve R; Shanahan, Danielle; Franklin, Craig E

    2007-09-26

    Crocodilians have a wide distribution, often in remote areas, are cryptic, secretive and are easily disturbed by human presence. Their capacity for large scale movements is poorly known. Here, we report the first study of post-release movement patterns in translocated adult crocodiles, and the first application of satellite telemetry to a crocodilian. Three large male Crocodylus porosus (3.1-4.5 m) were captured in northern Australia and translocated by helicopter for 56, 99 and 411 km of coastline, the last across Cape York Peninsula from the west coast to the east coast. All crocodiles spent time around their release site before returning rapidly and apparently purposefully to their capture locations. The animal that circumnavigated Cape York Peninsula to return to its capture site, travelled more than 400 km in 20 days, which is the longest homeward travel yet reported for a crocodilian. Such impressive homing ability is significant because translocation has sometimes been used to manage potentially dangerous C. porosus close to human settlement. It is clear that large male estuarine crocodiles can exhibit strong site fidelity, have remarkable navigational skills, and may move long distances following a coastline. These long journeys included impressive daily movements of 10-30 km, often consecutively.

  12. Satellite tracking reveals long distance coastal travel and homing by translocated estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Read

    Full Text Available Crocodilians have a wide distribution, often in remote areas, are cryptic, secretive and are easily disturbed by human presence. Their capacity for large scale movements is poorly known. Here, we report the first study of post-release movement patterns in translocated adult crocodiles, and the first application of satellite telemetry to a crocodilian. Three large male Crocodylus porosus (3.1-4.5 m were captured in northern Australia and translocated by helicopter for 56, 99 and 411 km of coastline, the last across Cape York Peninsula from the west coast to the east coast. All crocodiles spent time around their release site before returning rapidly and apparently purposefully to their capture locations. The animal that circumnavigated Cape York Peninsula to return to its capture site, travelled more than 400 km in 20 days, which is the longest homeward travel yet reported for a crocodilian. Such impressive homing ability is significant because translocation has sometimes been used to manage potentially dangerous C. porosus close to human settlement. It is clear that large male estuarine crocodiles can exhibit strong site fidelity, have remarkable navigational skills, and may move long distances following a coastline. These long journeys included impressive daily movements of 10-30 km, often consecutively.

  13. Evaluation of Empirical Tropospheric Models Using Satellite-Tracking Tropospheric Wet Delays with Water Vapor Radiometer at Tongji, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Li, Bofeng

    2016-02-02

    An empirical tropospheric delay model, together with a mapping function, is commonly used to correct the tropospheric errors in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) processing. As is well-known, the accuracy of tropospheric delay models relies mainly on the correction efficiency for tropospheric wet delays. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of three tropospheric delay models, together with five mapping functions in wet delays calculation. The evaluations are conducted by comparing their slant wet delays with those measured by water vapor radiometer based on its satellite-tracking function (collected data with large liquid water path is removed). For all 15 combinations of three tropospheric models and five mapping functions, their accuracies as a function of elevation are statistically analyzed by using nine-day data in two scenarios, with and without meteorological data. The results show that (1) no matter with or without meteorological data, there is no practical difference between mapping functions, i.e., Chao, Ifadis, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1), Niell Mapping Function (NMF), and MTT Mapping Function (MTT); (2) without meteorological data, the UNB3 is much better than Saastamoinen and Hopfield models, while the Saastamoinen model performed slightly better than the Hopfield model; (3) with meteorological data, the accuracies of all three tropospheric delay models are improved to be comparable, especially for lower elevations. In addition, the kinematic precise point positioning where no parameter is set up for tropospheric delay modification is conducted to further evaluate the performance of tropospheric delay models in positioning accuracy. It is shown that the UNB3 model is best and can achieve about 10 cm accuracy for the N and E coordinate component while 20 cm accuracy for the U coordinate component no matter the meteorological data is available or not. This accuracy can be obtained by the Saastamoinen model only when meteorological data is

  14. Evaluation of Empirical Tropospheric Models Using Satellite-Tracking Tropospheric Wet Delays with Water Vapor Radiometer at Tongji, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An empirical tropospheric delay model, together with a mapping function, is commonly used to correct the tropospheric errors in global navigation satellite system (GNSS processing. As is well-known, the accuracy of tropospheric delay models relies mainly on the correction efficiency for tropospheric wet delays. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of three tropospheric delay models, together with five mapping functions in wet delays calculation. The evaluations are conducted by comparing their slant wet delays with those measured by water vapor radiometer based on its satellite-tracking function (collected data with large liquid water path is removed. For all 15 combinations of three tropospheric models and five mapping functions, their accuracies as a function of elevation are statistically analyzed by using nine-day data in two scenarios, with and without meteorological data. The results show that (1 no matter with or without meteorological data, there is no practical difference between mapping functions, i.e., Chao, Ifadis, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1, Niell Mapping Function (NMF, and MTT Mapping Function (MTT; (2 without meteorological data, the UNB3 is much better than Saastamoinen and Hopfield models, while the Saastamoinen model performed slightly better than the Hopfield model; (3 with meteorological data, the accuracies of all three tropospheric delay models are improved to be comparable, especially for lower elevations. In addition, the kinematic precise point positioning where no parameter is set up for tropospheric delay modification is conducted to further evaluate the performance of tropospheric delay models in positioning accuracy. It is shown that the UNB3 model is best and can achieve about 10 cm accuracy for the N and E coordinate component while 20 cm accuracy for the U coordinate component no matter the meteorological data is available or not. This accuracy can be obtained by the Saastamoinen model only when

  15. Stable isotope tracking of endangered sea turtles: validation with satellite telemetry and δ15N analysis of amino acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Seminoff

    Full Text Available Effective conservation strategies for highly migratory species must incorporate information about long-distance movements and locations of high-use foraging areas. However, the inherent challenges of directly monitoring these factors call for creative research approaches and innovative application of existing tools. Highly migratory marine species, such as marine turtles, regularly travel hundreds or thousands of kilometers between breeding and feeding areas, but identification of migratory routes and habitat use patterns remains elusive. Here we use satellite telemetry in combination with compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids to confirm that insights from bulk tissue stable isotope analysis can reveal divergent migratory strategies and within-population segregation of foraging groups of critically endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea across the Pacific Ocean. Among the 78 turtles studied, we found a distinct dichotomy in δ(15N values of bulk skin, with distinct "low δ(15N" and "high δ(15N" groups. δ(15N analysis of amino acids confirmed that this disparity resulted from isotopic differences at the base of the food chain and not from differences in trophic position between the two groups. Satellite tracking of 13 individuals indicated that their bulk skin δ(15N value was linked to the particular foraging region of each turtle. These findings confirm that prevailing marine isoscapes of foraging areas can be reflected in the isotopic compositions of marine turtle body tissues sampled at nesting beaches. We use a Bayesian mixture model to show that between 82 and 100% of the 78 skin-sampled turtles could be assigned with confidence to either the eastern Pacific or western Pacific, with 33 to 66% of all turtles foraging in the eastern Pacific. Our forensic approach validates the use of stable isotopes to depict leatherback turtle movements over broad spatial ranges and is timely for establishing wise conservation

  16. Seasonal circulation patterns of the Yellow and East China Seas derived from satellite-tracked drifter trajectories and hydrographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Heung-Jae; Cho, Cheol-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We investigated seasonal circulation patterns of the Yellow and East China Seas (YECS), by reviewing previous works on the circulation and its dominant currents, and taking into account newly-compiled trajectories of satellite-tracked drifters collected between the 1980s and 2000s. The circulation patterns suggested before the 1990s can be categorized into two groups, depending on the identified origin of the Tsushima Warm Current in the Korea-Tsushima Straits: (i) branching from the Kuroshio southwest of Kyushu, or (ii) northeastward continuation of the Taiwan Strait throughflow. The branching of the Kuroshio southwest of Kyushu and northeast of Taiwan was clearly evidenced by current measurements and concurrent hydrographic surveys. However, there is still no clear evidence for the northeastward pathway of Taiwan Strait throughflow across the mid-shelf area of the East China Sea. Target-oriented surveys in the 1990s and 2000s employing advanced instruments, such as drifter tracking and acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements, now provide decisive proof of the clockwise rounding of the Cheju Warm Current around Jeju-do throughout the year, of the northeastward extension of Changjiang discharge in summer, and of the presence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current only in winter. Thus, both coastal currents in shallow water and secondary branch currents of the Kuroshio (such as the Yellow Sea Warm Current) are found to significantly change from winter to summer. To better present the basic pattern of YECS circulation and its seasonality, we have constructed seasonal circulations patterns, based on review results, on the newly-compiled drifter trajectories, and on hydrographic observations. Further investigations should be carried out in future, with support of comprehensive current measurements on shelf areas and through elaborate numerical modeling.

  17. Implementing telemetry on new species in remote areas: Recommendations from a large-scale satellite tracking study of African waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, J.; Iverson, S.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Dodman, T.; Gaidet, N.

    2011-01-01

    We provide recommendations for implementing telemetry studies on waterfowl on the basis of our experience in a tracking study conducted in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to document movements by duck species identified as priority candidates for the potential spread of avian influenza. Our study design included both captive and field test components on four wild duck species (Garganey, Comb Duck, White-faced Duck and Fulvous Duck). We used our location data to evaluate marking success and determine when signal loss occurred. The captive study of eight ducks marked with non-working transmitters in a zoo in Montpellier, France, prior to fieldwork showed no evidence of adverse effects, and the harness design appeared to work well. The field study in Malawi, Nigeria and Mali started in 2007 on 2 February, 6 February and 14 February, and ended on 22 November 2007 (288 d), 20 January 2010 (1 079 d), and 3 November 2008 (628 d), respectively. The field study indicated that 38 of 47 (81%) of the platform transmitter terminals (PTTs) kept transmitting after initial deployment, and the transmitters provided 15 576 locations. Signal loss during the field study was attributed to three main causes: PTT loss, PTT failure and mortality (natural, human-caused and PTT-related). The PTT signal quality varied by geographic region, and interference caused signal loss in the Mediterranean Sea region. We recommend careful attention at the beginning of the study to determine the optimum timing of transmitter deployment and the number of transmitters to be deployed per species. These sample sizes should be calculated by taking into account region-specific causes of signal loss to ensure research objectives are met. These recommendations should be useful for researchers undertaking a satellite tracking program, especially when working in remote areas of Africa where logistics are difficult or with poorly-known species. ?? NISC (Pty) Ltd.

  18. Inter-nesting habitat-use patterns of loggerhead sea turtles: Enhancing satellite tracking with benthic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lidz, Barbara H.

    2010-01-01

    The loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta faces declining nest numbers and bycatches from commercial longline fishing in the southeastern USA. Understanding spatial and temporal habitat-use patterns of these turtles, especially reproductive females in the neritic zone, is critical for guiding management decisions. To assess marine turtle habitat use within the Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), we used satellite telemetry to identify core-use areas for 7 loggerhead females inter-nesting and tracked in 2008 and 2009. This effort represents the first tracking of DRTO loggerheads, a distinct subpopulation that is 1 of 7 recently proposed for upgrading from threatened to endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. We also used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map benthic habitats in turtle core-use areas (i.e. 50% kernel density zones). Loggerhead females were seasonal residents of DRTO for 19 to 51 d, and individual inter-nesting habitats were located within 1.9 km (2008) and 2.3 km (2009) of the nesting beach and tagging site. The core area common to all tagged turtles was 4.2 km2 in size and spanned a depth range of 7.6 to 11.5 m. Mapping results revealed the diversity and distributions of benthic cover available in the core-use area, as well as a heavily used corridor to/from the nesting beach. This combined tagging-mapping approach shows potential for planning and improving the effectiveness of marine protected areas and for developing spatially explicit conservation plans.

  19. Dam sediment tracking using spectrometry and Landsat 8 satellite image, Taleghan Basin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Sirous; Shamsai, Abolfazl; Saghafian, Bahram

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentation in reservoirs, in addition to reducing water storage capacity, causes serious environmental impacts including intensification of river erosion. Detection of sediment origins plays a determining role in control and prevention of sedimentation. Nowadays, with the help of studies on sedimentation and erosion, sediment origins can be detected with high accuracy. This research integrated geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) techniques to detect the primary source of sediment to Taleghan Dam in northern Iran. After collecting samples of sediment from the basin outlet, they were divided into two parts. One part was sent to the Mineralogy Laboratory in order to determine the percentage of each mineral in the samples using X-ray. A few were sent to the Spectroscopy Laboratory to determine their spectral signature using the spectrometer. The laboratory test results determined the wavelength of the minerals. In the next step, those spots on the satellite image whose spectral reflectance fell within the spectral signature of the minerals were detected and enhanced by mixture-tuned matched filtering (MTMF) method. These spots were overlapped with the map of geological formations. Accordingly, the origin of the minerals was detected. The greatest proportion of trace minerals was found in sample 4 including 6% of Illite trace mineral, while sample 2 contains only 2% of trace minerals. Accordingly, the origin of the minerals was detected. The obtained results revealed that mudstone, red siltstone, and conglomerate formations, Karaj formation in section Poldokhtar, acidic tuffs, alcanic lavas of Karaj Formation, mudstone and gypsum of upper red formation, and Cambrian dolomites were recognized as the most possible origins of the dam sediments. These formations are vulnerable to erosion and should be conserved so as to substantially prevent the volume of sedimentation in the reservoir.

  20. Far-field correlation of bidirectional tracking beams due to wave-front deformation in inter-satellites optical communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Zhongtian; Ma, Jing; Wu, Feng; Tan, Liying

    2015-03-23

    In some applications of optical communication systems, such as inter-satellites optical communication, the correlation of the bidirectional tracking beams changes in far-field as a result of wave-front deformation. Far-field correlation model with wave-front deformation on tracking stability is established. Far-field correlation function and factor have been obtained. Combining with parameters of typical laser communication systems, the model is corrected. It shows that deformation pointing-tracking errors θ(A) and θ(B), far-field correlation factor δ depend on RMS of deformation error rms, which decline with a increasing rms including Tilt and Coma. The principle of adjusting far-field correlation factor with wave-front deformation to compensate deformation pointing-tracking errors has been given, through which the deformation pointing-tracking error is reduced to 18.12″ (Azimuth) and 17.65″ (Elevation). Work above possesses significant reference value on optimization design in inter-satellites optical communication.

  1. Design of Geodetic SVLBI Satellite Orbit and Its Tracking Network%SVLBI用于大地测量的卫星轨道及其跟踪网设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏二虎; 刘经南; KULKARNI M.N.; FREY Sándor

    2008-01-01

    SVLBI (space very long baseline interferometry) has some important potential applications in geodesy and geodynam- ics, for which one of the most difficult tasks is to precisely determine the orbit of an SVLBI satellite. This work studies several technologies that will possibly be able to determine the orbit of a space VLBI satellite. Then, according to the types and charac- teristics of the satellite and the requirements for geodetic study and the geometry of the GNSS (GPS, GALILEO) satellite to track the space VLBI satellite, the six Keplerian elements of the SVLBI satellite (TEST-SVLBI) are determined. A program is designed to analyze the coverage area of space of different altitudes by the stations of the network, with which the tracking network of TEST-SVLBI is designed. The efficiency of tracking TEST-SVLBI by the network is studied, and the results are presented.

  2. Precision orbit determination for TOPEX/Poseidon using TDRSS Doppler tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Doll, C. E.; Marshall, J. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; McCarthy, J. J.; Eddy, W. F.

    1995-08-01

    Precision orbit determination on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter satellite is now being routinely achieved with sub-5cm radial and sub-15 cm total positioning accuracy using state-of-the-art modeling with precision tracking provided by a combination of: (a) global Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), or (b) the Global Positioning System (GPS) Constellation which provides pseudo-range and carrier phase observations. The geostationary Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites are providing the operational tracking and communication support for this mission. The TDRSS Doppler data are of high precision (0.3 mm/s nominal noise levels). Unlike other satellite missions supported operationally by TDRSS, T/P has high quality independent tracking which enables absolute orbit accuracy assessments. In addition, the T/P satellite provides extensive geometry for positioning a satellite at geostationary altitude, and thus the TDRSS-T/P data provides an excellent means for determining the TDRS orbits. Arc lengths of 7 and 10 days with varying degrees of T/P spacecraft attitude complexity are studied. Sub-meter T/P total positioning error is achieved when using the TDRSS range-rate data, with radial orbit errors of 10.6 cm and 15.5 cm RMS for the two arcs studied. Current limitations in the TDRSS precision orbit determination capability include mismodeling of numerous TDRSS satellite-specific dynamic and electronic effects, and in the inadequate treatment of the propagation delay and bending arising from the wet troposphere and ionosphere.

  3. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D; Minot, Edward O

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  4. Elephant (Loxodonta africana home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    Full Text Available During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR and Kruger National Park (KNP we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  5. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Home Ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: A Five-Year Satellite Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D.; Minot, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges. PMID:19065264

  6. Sea-level trend in the South China Sea observed from 20 years of along-track satellite altimetric data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    The sea-level trend in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated based on 20 years of along-track data from TOPEX and Jason-1/2 satellite altimetry. The average sea-level rise over all the regions in the study area is observed to have a rate of 5.1 ± 0.8 mm year-1 for the period from 1993 to 2012....... The steric sea level contributes 45% to the observed sea-level trend. These results are consistent with previous studies. In addition, the results demonstrate that the maximum sea-level rise rate of 8.4 mm year-1 is occurring off the east coast of Vietnam and eastern part of SCS. During 2010-2011, the La...... Niña event was highly correlated with the dramatic sea-level rise in the SCS; La Niña events were also associated with the maximum rate of sea rise off the east coast of Vietnam, which occurred during 1993 and 2012. We also evaluated the trends in the geophysical (e.g. dynamical atmospheric correction...

  7. 3D high resolution tracking of ice flow using mutli-temporal stereo satellite imagery, Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, S.; Lin, J.; Ayoub, F.; Herman, F.; Avouac, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the latest capabilities added to the Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) software, which aim at analyzing time-series of stereoscopic imagery to document 3D variations of the ground surface. We review the processing chain and present the new and improved modules for satellite pushbroom imagery, in particular the N-image bundle block adjustment to jointly optimize the viewing geometry of multiple acquisitions, the improved multi-scale image matching based on Semi-Global Matching (SGM) to extract high resolution topography, and the triangulation of multi-temporal disparity maps to derive 3D ground motion. In particular, processes are optimized to run on a cluster computing environment. This new suite of algorithms is applied to the study of Worldview stereo imagery above the Franz Josef, Fox, and Tasman Glaciers, New Zealand, acquired on 01/30/2013, 02/09/2013, and 02/28/2013. We derive high resolution (1m post-spacing) maps of ice flow in three dimensions, where ice velocities of up to 4 m/day are recorded. Images were collected in early summer during a dry and sunny period, which followed two weeks of unsettled weather with several heavy rainfall events across the Southern Alps. The 3D tracking of ice flow highlights the surface response of the glaciers to changes in effective pressure at the ice-bedrock interface due to heavy rainfall, at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  8. When and where does mortality occur in migratory birds? Direct evidence from long-term satellite tracking of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine; Koks, Ben J; Trierweiler, Christiane; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Bairlein, Franz; Alerstam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Information about when and where animals die is important to understand population regulation. In migratory animals, mortality might occur not only during the stationary periods (e.g. breeding and wintering) but also during the migration seasons. However, the relative importance of population limiting factors during different periods of the year remains poorly understood, and previous studies mainly relied on indirect evidence. Here, we provide direct evidence about when and where migrants die by identifying cases of confirmed and probable deaths in three species of long-distance migratory raptors tracked by satellite telemetry. We show that mortality rate was about six times higher during migration seasons than during stationary periods. However, total mortality was surprisingly similar between periods, which can be explained by the fact that risky migration periods are shorter than safer stationary periods. Nevertheless, more than half of the annual mortality occurred during migration. We also found spatiotemporal patterns in mortality: spring mortality occurred mainly in Africa in association with the crossing of the Sahara desert, while most mortality during autumn took place in Europe. Our results strongly suggest that events during the migration seasons have an important impact on the population dynamics of long-distance migrants. We speculate that mortality during spring migration may account for short-term annual variation in survival and population sizes, while mortality during autumn migration may be more important for long-term population regulation (through density-dependent effects).

  9. Documenting trans-Himalayan migration through satellite telemetry: A report on capture, deployment, and tracking of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Takekawa, John Y.; Douglas, David C.; Rahmani, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Landfried, Steven L.; Sharma, Shruti

    2000-01-01

    Animal movement and migration studies have made significant progress with the use of telemetry. Conventional radio telemetry has been used in numerous studies in different regions. However, the use of this technology is restricted to species with limited range of movement. Applying this tool for long distance migrants is usually unsatisfactory. Other challenges such as hilly terrain or dense vegetation, where getting signals and following animals often become major constraints. These problems and the need to track long distance migrants, particularly birds, led to the development of other technologies with greater spatial coverage, accuracy and ease of tracking. Satellite telemetry technology has overcome many of these problems and has become a very useful tool. There is a greater recognition of the use and benefits of this technology among biologists, managers, and various conservation organizations.Satellite tracking technology has been used extensively in the Western Hemisphere. However until recently, in the Indian sub-continent the use of this technology was limited to one study in 1994 when three Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) were fitted with Platform Terminal Transmitter (PTTs) in Keoladco national Park, Bharatpur and tracked to their Siberian breeding grounds (Higuchi et al., 1994). It took almost six more years for the next international collaborative project to emerge within India. This project, started in winter 1998-99, was the first long-term project using satellite tracking in India (Higuchi et al., 1999). Other than these two studies, no effort has been made previously to demonstrate the use of this technology and its application in the Indian subcontinent.

  10. Chasing the Black Smoke: Building Software for CALIPSO Satellite Data to Aid in Tracking and Identifying Sources of Aerosols and their Impact on the Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite is a NASA Earth observation that analyzes aerosol particles suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers use visualized CALIPSO data to track the global distribution, dispersion, and source of aerosols. There currently exists a tool for displaying CALIPSO data, but this tool does not support needed features for tracking aerosols such as selecting regions of data and sharing those selected regions, making tracking specific airborne objects difficult for researchers. Adding these necessary features to the current CALIPSO visualization tool is difficult, as the tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL), a proprietary and obscure language and writing additional features for the tool would require a specialized development team. This topic will focus on release of a new tool for visualization CALIPSO's atmospheric data, or the Visualization of CALIPSO (VOCAL) open source Python program. The talk will explain why VOCAL will serve as the successor to the current visualization tool for CALIPSO data, what new features VOCAL brings to the table for researchers, and how this new tool can further support the tracking and identification of aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Ocean topography mapping, improvement of the marine geoid, and global permanent ocean circulation studies from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James G.; Lerch, F. J.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Klosko, S. M.; Williamson, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements will be the first global observations of the sea surface with accuracy sufficient to make quantitative determinations of the ocean's general circulation and its variations. These measurements are an important step to understanding global change in the ocean and its impact on the climate. Our investigation will focus on the examination of features in the sea surface elevation at the largest spatial and temporal scales. TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements will be used in conjunction with observations from past satellite-altimeter missions, such as NASA's GEOS-3 and Seasat, the U.S. Navy's Geosat and SALT, and the European Remote Sensing satellite in order to address the following issues: (1) Improve models of the marine geoid, especially at wavelengths needed to understand the basin-scale ocean dynamic topograpy. (2) Measure directly from the altimeter data the expression of the mean global ocean circulation in the sea surface at the largest scales through a simultaneous solution for gravity, orbital, and oceanographic parameters. (3) Examine the sea surface measurements for changes in global ocean mass or volume, interannual variations in the basin-scale ocean circulation, and annual changes in the heating and cooling of the upper ocean.

  12. Upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) from Satellite-tracked drifting buoys (drifters) as part of the Global Drifter Program for Hawaii region 1980/02/01 - 2009/03/31 (NODC Accession 0063296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-tracked drifting buoys ("drifters") collect measurements of upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) around the world as part of the Global...

  13. Validation of satellite-derived tropical cyclone heat potential with in situ observations in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagamani, P.V.; Ali, M.M.; Goni, G.J.; Dinezio, P.N.; Pezzullo, J.C.; UdayaBhaskar, T.V.S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Nisha, K.

    , there is a need for satellite-based estimations. One potential solution is to use sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs) from altimeter observations. However, any estimation derived from satellite measurements requires extensive regional validation...

  14. A Beam Tracking Algorithm Based on Satellite Beacon Signals for Phased Array in Mobile Satellite Communications%一种基于信标的移动卫通相控阵波束跟踪算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a beam tracking algorithm based on satellite beacon signals is proposed and realized. The method is suitable for all kinds of phased array type mobile satellite communication antennas. It overcomes the difficulty of detecting the extremely weak satellite beacon signals and then the tracking performance is greatly improved. The highlight of the algorithm is the beam tracking process can be run without the help of gyroscopes and thus improves the survivability in the extreme environments. The algorithm was implemented and verified in a Ku band phased array mobile satellite antenna.%提出并实现了一种利用卫星信标信号来实施基于相控阵天线的波束跟踪算法。该方法适用于采用相控阵天线技术的各种卫星“动中通”天线,克服了卫星信标信号强度弱,检测困难的弱点,提高了跟踪信噪比,同时采用了软件无线电方式解调可以提供最大的灵活性。跟踪算法的最大优点是没有任何陀螺仪的辅助,极大地提高了天线在各种极端运动环境下的适应能力。算法最终在自行研制的Ku波段相控阵移动卫星天线系统上获得验证。

  15. The validation of HY-2 altimeter measurements of a significant wave height based on buoy data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jichao; ZHANG Jie; YANG Jungang

    2013-01-01

    HY-2 has been launched by China on August 16, 2011 which assembles multi-microwave remote sensing payloads in a body and has the ability of monitoring ocean dynamic environments. The HY-2 satellite data need to be calibrated and validated before being put into use. Based on the in-situ buoys from the Nation-al Data Buoy Center (NDBC), Ku-band significant wave heights (SWH, hs) of HY-2 altimeter are validated. Eleven months of HY-2 altimeter Level 2 products data are chose from October 1, 2011 to August 29, 2012. Using NDBC 60 buoys yield 902 collocations for HY-2 by adopting collocation criteria of 30 min for tempo-ral window and 50 km for a spatial window. An overall RMS difference of the SWH between HY-2 and buoy data is 0.297 m. A correlation coefficient between these is 0.964. An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is performed with the buoy data as an independent variable and the altimeter data as a dependent vari-able. The regression equation of hs is hs(HY-2)=0.891×hs(NDBC)+0.022. In addition, 2016 collocations are matched with temporal window of 30 min at the crossing points of HY-2 and Jason-2 orbits. RMS difference of Ku-band SWH between the two data sets is 0.452 m.

  16. A new approach to lightweight radar altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, N.; Stremler, F. G.; Suomi, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    Test results and key principles are given for a radar altimeter designed for meteorological balloons. The instrument, which weighs 160 g and consumes 0.7 W, will fill a gap in meteorological sensing using balloons - an area where pressure altitude was formerly the prevailing reference. The instrument is basically a delay-lock radar utilizing a superregenerative RF stage. Long-term absolute accuracy of plus or minus 10 m and short-term stability of better than 2 m rms were measured at altitudes of 20 km.

  17. Recovery Of Short Wavelength Geophysical Signals With Future Delay-Doppler Altimeters (Cryosat Ii And Sentinel Type)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2010-01-01

    A number of geophysical phenomena in the open ocean are still unresolved by conventional 1 Hz altimetry, but could be observed through the potential improvements offered by SAR, or Delay-Doppler (DD), altimetry. The DD altimeter offers the following benefits with respect to conventional satellite...... wavelength geophysical signal related to mainly bathymetric features. The combination of upward continuation from the sea bottom and smoothing the altimeter observations resulted in the best recovery of geophysical signal for simulated 5-Hz DD observations. Simulations carried out in this investigation...... indicate, that if the Cryosat-II mission meets the mission goals, the possibility of recovering a huge number of geophysical signal not currently mapped and the possibility to recover global gravity to an accuracy of up to twice that known today from conventional satellite altimetry....

  18. Study of high-altitude radar altimeter model accuracy and SITAN performance using HAAFT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieves, T.C.; Callahan, M.W.

    1979-07-01

    Radar altimetry data, inertial navigation data, and scoring data were collected under the HAAFT program by Martin Marietta Corporation for the United States Air Force over several areas in the western United States at altitudes ranging from 3 to 20 km. The study reported here uses the HAAFT data in conjunction with Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) topographic data to evaluate the accuracy of a high-altitude pulsed-radar altimeter model and the resulting performance of the terrain-aided guidance concept SITAN. Previous SITAN flight tests at low altitudes (less than 1500 m AGL) have demonstrated 6-20 m CEP. The high-altitude flight test data analyzed herein show a SITAN CEP of 120 m. The radar altimeter model was required to achieve this performance includes the effects of the internal track loop, AGC loop, antenna beamwidth, and the terrain radar cross section and provided a factor of 6 improvement over simple nadir ground clearance for rough terrain. It is postulated that high-altitude CEP could be reduced to 50 m or less if an altimeter were designed specifically for high-altitude terrain sensing.

  19. Intercomparison of numerical simulations, satellite altimetry and glider observations in the Algerian Basin during fall 2014 and 2015: focus on a SARAL/AltiKa track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicino, Giuseppe; Cotroneo, Yuri; Ruiz, Simon; Sanchez Roman, Antonio; Pascual, Ananda; Fusco, Giannetta; Tintoré, Joaquin; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    The Algerian Basin is a key-place for the study of the general circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea and its role in reaction to climate change. The presence of both fresh Atlantic waters and more saline resident Mediterranean ones characterizes the basin with an intense inflow/outflow regime and complex circulation patterns. Very energetic mesoscale structures, that evolve from meander of the Algerian Current to isolated cyclonic and anti-cyclonic eddies, dominate the area with marked repercussions on the biological activity. Despite their remarkable importance, this region and its variability are still poorly known and basin-wide high resolution knowledge of its mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features is still incomplete. The monitoring of such complex processes requires a synergic approach that involves integrated observing systems. In recent years, several studies proved the advantages of the combined use of autonomous underwater vehicles, such as gliders, with a new generation of satellite altimeters. In this context, we present the first results of a new integrated oceanographic observing system built up in the Algerian Basin during fall 2014 and 2015, aiming at advancing our knowledge on its main features. The study was realized through the analysis of glider high resolutions three-dimensional observations, collected along the Algerian BAsin Circulation Unmanned Survey (ABACUS) monitoring line, in synergy with co-located SARAL/AltiKa altimetric products and CMEMS numerical simulations. The achieved results confirm that glider derived dynamic height and SARAL/AltiKa absolute dynamic topography present similar patterns, with RMS of the differences ranging between 1.11 and 2.90 cm. Generally, the maximum discrepancies are located nearby the Balearic Islands and the Algerian Coast, but it is important to remark that the correlation coefficients seem to mostly depend on the synopticity between in situ and satellite measurements. Still, this study confirm that

  20. In-Flight Thermal Performance of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Eric; Baker, Charles; McCarthy, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument is NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's first application of Loop Heat Pipe technology that provides selectable/stable temperature levels for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission environment. GLAS was successfully launched as the sole science instrument aboard the Ice, Clouds, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from Vandenberg AFB at 4:45pm PST on January 12, 2003. After SC commissioning, the LHPs started easily and have provided selectable and stable temperatures for the lasers and other electronics. This paper discusses the thermal development background and testing, along with details of early flight thermal performance data.

  1. A Next Generation Radar Altimeter: The Proposed SWOT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    Conventional nadir-looking radar altimeter is based on pulse-limited footprint approach. Near a coast the pulse limited footprint is contaminated by land within the much larger radar footprint, causing data quality to decay within 10 km from a coast. In the open ocean, the instrument noise limits the detection of dynamic ocean signals to wavelengths longer than 70 km. Using the technique of radar interferometry, the proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission would reduce instrument noise to resolve ocean signals to 15 km in wavelength over most of the open ocean without land contamination in the coastal zone. Sea surface height would be measured in two dimensions over a swath 120 km wide across the satellite's flight path. SWOT is under development as a joint mission of NASA and the French Space Agency, CNES, with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency and the UK Space Agency. The launch is baselined for 2020. An overview of the projected mission performance for oceanographic applications will be presented. SWOT would also measure the elevation of land surface water with hydrological applications.

  2. Research on the standards of indicators associated with maintain time in bidirectional beam tracking in inter-satellites optical communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan; Wu, Feng; Tan, Liying; Guo, Pengzhen; Ma, Jing

    2015-10-19

    We report on a novel technology for high-speed inter-satellites optical communication by bidirectional beam tracking. By establishing the relation between the compensation effect and the parameters of response time and overshoot situation, the stability can be well compensated simply by the control system. Thus the relation between compensation effect and maintain time can be predicted from ground tests, and the certain evaluation standard could be established to meet the requirements of system. The other critical factors, such as signal-to-noise ratio and pointing angle error, have also been considered to improve the stability. The general approach can provide us a powerful path to overcome the performance limitation of bidirectional beam tracking, which can be expected to be widely applied in Free Space optics communications in future.

  3. Subcarrier phase recovery performance in bent-pipe mode of Shuttle data transmission. [on Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Ku-band return link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, T. M.; Braun, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    The subcarrier phase recovery is analyzed for the bent-pipe mode of Space Shuttle detached-payload data transmission on the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ku-band return link. The high-power component of the subcarrier modulation is unrestored payload data, either at baseband or modulating another subcarrier. At the receiver a Costas loop recovers the subcarrier phase. To analyze its performance in the baseband case, we obtain the loop S-curve, the power spectral density of the equivalent noise process, and the loop phase error variance.

  4. Experiences on Altimeter Calibration at Ibiza Island and Cape of Begur (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Martinez Harcia, M.; Ortiz Castello, M. A.; Talaya, J.; Baron, A.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Martín Davila, J.; Garate, J.; Bonnefond, P.; Garcia, C.

    2006-07-01

    Three preliminary camp aigns for TOPEX /POSEIDON (T/P) wer e made in March 1999 and July 2000 and for JASON-1 in August 2002, in the NW Mediterran ean Sea at th e Begur Cape area. Dir ect abso lute altimeter calibration , and mapping of the sea surface, w ere made in these camp aigns from dir ect overflights using GPS buoys with a toroidal design performed at the I CC based in the orig inal design of the Univ ersity of Colorado at Boulder and a estimation of the TOPEX A lt- B bias w as made. A Spanish JASON-1 geoid gradien t campaign with Fench support has been made in June 2003 at the Ibiza island in the NW Mediterr anean Sea. Th e main objectiv e has b een to map w ith a new d esign ed, builded and calibrated GPS catamar an, the lo cal geoid gradien t in three ar eas around Ibiza island under the ascending (187) and descending (248) Jason-1ground tracks. The catamaran equ ipped with two GPS antennas to perform continuous sea lev el measur ements was towed by the Patro l Dev a from th e Span ish N avy. Five GPS reference stations were dep loyed on Ibiza island: one in Portinatx, two in San Anton io and two in Ibiza. The marin e geo id has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from Ibiza and San An tonio h arbours to off- shore altimetric data. In th e framework of the campaign, the levelling of the Ibiza and San Anton io tide gauges to the r espective GPS mark ers w as p erformed. We present synth esis of the resu lts obtained from Topex/Poseidon and th e first r esults on Jason-1 altimeter calibration using the direct measurements from GPS buoys and the derived marin e geoid. Th e Ibiza results agree relativ ely w ell with resu lts ob tained at Corsica, Harvest and Bass Strait calibration permanen t sites. Moreov er, the geod etic activities (e.g., GPS, levelling) has p ermitted to build a very accurate (few mm) local n etwork link ed to th e European one, w ith a reference frame compatible with th e satellite altimetry missions (ITRF2000). The GPS

  5. Oceanography from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  6. Flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Loth, Leo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Prosser, Diann J.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Rao, Mandava Venkata Subba; Mundkur, Taej; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Tseveenmayadag, Natsagdorj; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May,June,July 2009 in China(Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl.

  7. Recovery Of Short Wavelength Geophysical Signals With Future Delay-Doppler Altimeters (Cryosat Ii And Sentinel Type)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2010-01-01

    A number of geophysical phenomena in the open ocean are still unresolved by conventional 1 Hz altimetry, but could be observed through the potential improvements offered by SAR, or Delay-Doppler (DD), altimetry. The DD altimeter offers the following benefits with respect to conventional satellite...... indicate, that if the Cryosat-II mission meets the mission goals, the possibility of recovering a huge number of geophysical signal not currently mapped and the possibility to recover global gravity to an accuracy of up to twice that known today from conventional satellite altimetry....

  8. Regional CalVal of Altimeter Range at Non-Dedicated Sites in Preparation f Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancet, M.; Watson, C.; Haines, B.; Bonnefond, P.; Lyard, F.; Femenias, P.; Guinle, T.

    2015-12-01

    In situ calibration ensures regular and long-term control of the altimeter sea surface height (SSH) time series through comparisons with independent records. Usually, in situ calibration and validation of altimeter SSH is undertaken at specific CALVAL sites through the direct comparison of the altimeter data with in situ data [1]. However, NOVELTIS has developed a regional CALVAL technique, which aims at increasing the number and the repeatability of the altimeter bias assessments by determining the altimeter bias both on overflying passes and on satellite passes located far away from the calibration site. In principle this extends the single site approach to a wider regional scale, thus reinforcing the link between the local and the global CALVAL analyses. It also provides a means to maintain a calibration time series through periods of data-outage at a specific dedicated calibration site. The regional method was initially developed at the Corsican calibration sites of Senetosa and Ajaccio. The method was used to compute the biases of Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat (before and after the orbit change in 2010) at both sites, and proved its stability and generality through this cross-calibration exercise [2]. These last years, the regional method was successfully implemented at the Californian site of Harvest and at the Australian site of Bass Strait, in close collaboration with JPL and the University of Tasmania, respectively. These recent studies gave the first Envisat absolute bias estimates at non-dedicated sites using the same method, and showed high consistency with the analyses of the global CALVAL teams and the work of the in situ CALVAL teams. These results highlight the numerous advantages of this technique for monitoring missions on any orbits such as the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions.

  9. Optical terminal definition for the Future Service Growth (FSG) module of the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (ATDRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ronald C.; Kalil, Ford

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from preliminary analyses and definition studies for an optical terminal's incorporation into the FSG module of the ATDRS system, which must support crosslinks between selected relay satellites of a modified ATDRS constellation and thereby allow the placement of a relay satellite at an orbital location which eliminates the zone of exclusion. These studies have attempted to identify alternative constellations by means of one or more crosslinks, and to formulate the service-routing requirement for the FSG terminal. Attention is given to an FSG optical terminal that furnishes the functionality and performance required for a crosslink terminal.

  10. Optical terminal definition for the Future Service Growth (FSG) module of the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (ATDRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ronald C.; Kalil, Ford

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from preliminary analyses and definition studies for an optical terminal's incorporation into the FSG module of the ATDRS system, which must support crosslinks between selected relay satellites of a modified ATDRS constellation and thereby allow the placement of a relay satellite at an orbital location which eliminates the zone of exclusion. These studies have attempted to identify alternative constellations by means of one or more crosslinks, and to formulate the service-routing requirement for the FSG terminal. Attention is given to an FSG optical terminal that furnishes the functionality and performance required for a crosslink terminal.

  11. Integrated analysis of PALSAR/Radarsat-1 InSAR and ENVISAT altimeter data for mapping of absolute water level changes in Louisiana wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-W.; Lu, Zhiming; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Doyle, T.W.; Baek, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been used to detect relative water level changes in wetlands. We developed an innovative method to integrate InSAR and satellite radar altimetry for measuring absolute or geocentric water level changes and applied the methodology to remote areas of swamp forest in coastal Louisiana. Coherence analysis of InSAR pairs suggested that the HH polarization is preferred for this type of observation, and polarimetric analysis can help to identify double-bounce backscattering areas in the wetland. ENVISAT radar altimeter-measured 18-Hz (along-track sampling of 417 m) water level data processed with regional stackfile method have been used to provide vertical references for water bodies separated by levees. The high-resolution (~ 40 m) relative water changes measured from ALOS PALSAR L-band and Radarsat-1 C-band InSAR are then integrated with ENVISAT radar altimetry to obtain absolute water level. The resulting water level time series were validated with in situ gauge observations within the swamp forest. We anticipate that this new technique will allow retrospective reconstruction and concurrent monitoring of water conditions and flow dynamics in wetlands, especially those lacking gauge networks. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of ZY-3 Digital Surface Model Using Icesat/glas Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Tang, X.; Yuan, X.; Zhou, P.; Hu, F.

    2017-05-01

    The Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3) satellite, as the first civilian high resolution surveying and mapping satellite in China, has a very important role in national 1 : 50,000 stereo mapping project. High accuracy digital surface Model (DSMs) can be generated from the three line-array images of ZY-3, and ZY-3 DSMs of China can be produced without using any ground control points (GCPs) by selecting SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) and ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite, Geo-science Laser Altimeter System) as the datum reference in the Satellite Surveying and Mapping Application Center, which is the key institute that manages and distributes ZY-3 products. To conduct the vertical accuracy evaluation of ZY-3 DSMs of China, three representative regions were chosen and the results were compared to ICESat/GLAS data. The experimental results demonstrated that the root mean square error (RMSE) elevation accuracy of the ZY-3 DSMs was better than 5.0 m, and it even reached to less than 2.5 m in the second region of eastern China. While this work presents preliminary results, it is an important reference for expanding the application of ZY-3 satellite imagery to widespread regions. And the satellite laser altimetry data can be used as referenced data for wide-area DSM evaluation.

  13. Satellite optical and radar data used to track wetland forest impact and short-term recovery from Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.; Middleton, B.; Lu, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT-1 (radar) satellite image data collected before and after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area on the Louisiana-Mississippi border, USA, were applied to the study of forested wetland impact and recovery. We documented the overall similarity in the radar and optical satellite mapping of impact and recovery patterns and highlighted some unique differences that could be used to provide consistent and relevant ecological monitoring. Satellite optical data transformed to a canopy foliage index (CFI) indicated a dramatic decrease in canopy cover immediately after the storm, which then recovered rapidly in the Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) forest. Although CFI levels in early October indicated rapid foliage recovery, the abnormally high radar responses associated with the cypress forest suggested a persistent poststorm difference in canopy structure. Impact and recovery mapping results showed that even though cypress forests experienced very high wind speeds, damage was largely limited to foliage loss. Bottomland hardwoods, experiencing progressively lower wind speeds further inland, suffered impacts ranging from increased occurrences of downed trees in the south to partial foliage loss in the north. In addition, bottomland hardwood impact and recovery patterns suggested that impact severity was associated with a difference in stand structure possibly related to environmental conditions that were not revealed in the prehurricane 25-m optical and radar image analyses. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  14. 77 FR 6949 - Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Rates for Non-U.S. Government Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... customers via commercial fiber optic cables and/or commercial communications satellites. In the event one of... general by application of principles of priority to user service requirements. Services shall be provided... service actually occurred. (2) The time scheduled by the user project shall include the slew time, set...

  15. Attitude Control and Orbital Dynamics Challenges of Removing the First 3-Axis Stabilized Tracking and Data Relay Satellite from the Geosynchronous ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Charles A.; Hofman, Henry; Williams, Thomas E.; Olney, Dave; Zaleski, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Launched on April 4, 1983 onboard STS 6 (Space Shuttle Challenger), the First Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS 1) was retired above the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) on June 27, 2010 after having provided real-time communications with a variety of low-orbiting spacecraft over a 26-year period. To meet NASA requirements limiting orbital debris 1, a team of experts was assembled to conduct an End-Of-Mission (EOM) procedure to raise the satellite 350 km above the GEO orbit. Following the orbit raising via conventional station change maneuvers, the team was confronted with having to deplete the remaining propellant and passivate all energy storage or generation sources. To accomplish these tasks within the time window, communications (telemetry and control links), electrical power, propulsion, and thermal constraints, a spacecraft originally designed as a three-axis stabilized satellite was turned into a spinner. This paper (a companion paper to Innovative Approach Enabled the Retirement of TDRS 1, paper # 1699, IEEE 2011 Aerospace Conference, March 5-12, 2011 sup 2) focuses on the challenges of maintaining an acceptable spinning dynamics, while repetitively firing thrusters. Also addressed are the effects of thruster firings on the orbit characteristics and how they were mitigated by a careful scheduling of the fuel depletion operations. Periodic thruster firings for spin rate adjustment, nutation damping, and precession of the momentum vector were also required in order to maintain effective communications with the satellite. All operations were thoroughly rehearsed and supported by simulations thus lending a high level of confidence in meeting the NASA EOM goals.

  16. Effect of High-Frequency Sea Waves on Wave Period Retrieval from Radar Altimeter and Buoy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wave periods estimated from satellite altimetry data behave differently from those calculated from buoy data, especially in low-wind conditions. In this paper, the geometric mean wave period T a is calculated from buoy data, rather than the commonly used zero-crossing wave period T z . The geometric mean wave period uses the fourth moment of the wave frequency spectrum and is related to the mean-square slope of the sea surface measured using altimeters. The values of T a obtained from buoys and altimeters agree well (root mean square difference: 0.2 s only when the contribution of high-frequency sea waves is estimated by a wavenumber spectral model to complement the buoy data, because a buoy cannot obtain data from waves having wavelengths that are shorter than the characteristic dimension of the buoy.

  17. Coastal applications from nadir altimetry: Example of the X-TRACK regional products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, F.; Fuller, N.; Lyard, F.; Cancet, M.; Niño, F.; Delebecque, C.; Fleury, S.; Toublanc, F.; Melet, A.; Saraceno, M.; Léger, F.

    2017-02-01

    In the coastal ocean zones, satellite altimetry data processing and interpretation poses specific difficulties, due to the interaction of the radar signal with land topography, inaccuracies in some of the geophysical corrections and to the fast changes in the sea level. In order to optimize the completeness and the accuracy of the sea surface height information derived from satellite altimetry in coastal ocean areas, a dedicated post-processing software, called X-TRACK, has been developed by the Center of Topography of the Ocean and Hydrosphere in Toulouse. It is tailored for extending the use of altimetry data to coastal ocean applications and provides freely available along-track Sea Level Anomaly time series that cover today all the coastal oceans. Here, we present the improvements made in version 2016 of X-TRACK and show the gain in near-coastal data accuracy using in situ tide gauge observations. The correlations between altimeter and tide gauge sea level anomalies are higher (by 15% in average) compared with the previous version of X-TRACK. Three examples of applications are shown. The recent evolutions done in the X-TRACK processing result in an improved observation of the seasonal variations of the boundary circulation in the Bay of Biscay. Along Western Africa, sea-level variations derived from X-TRACK data are observed closer to land (5 km) compared to AVISO (10 km), and the sea-level statistics are more robust due to the larger and more stable data availability. Along-track empirical tidal constants derived from X-TRACK Sea Level Anomaly time series are also used to validate tidal models. By improving the altimetric data accuracy in coastal areas, we extend the field of marine applications.

  18. Evaluation of Empirical Tropospheric Models Using Satellite-Tracking Tropospheric Wet Delays with Water Vapor Radiometer at Tongji, China

    OpenAIRE

    Miaomiao Wang; Bofeng Li

    2016-01-01

    An empirical tropospheric delay model, together with a mapping function, is commonly used to correct the tropospheric errors in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) processing. As is well-known, the accuracy of tropospheric delay models relies mainly on the correction efficiency for tropospheric wet delays. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of three tropospheric delay models, together with five mapping functions in wet delays calculation. The evaluations are conducted by comparing ...

  19. A decade of ERS satellite orbits and altimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharroo, R.

    2002-01-01

    The First European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, was launched in July 1991, fol- lowed by ERS-2 in April 1995. Both satellites carry a radar altimeter to serve oper- ational applications and scientific research in the fields of geodesy, oceanography, glaciology and meteorology. Together, the sate

  20. FPGA Sequencer for Radar Altimeter Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Andrew C.; Pollard, Brian D.; Chen, Curtis W.

    2011-01-01

    A sequencer for a radar altimeter provides accurate attitude information for a reliable soft landing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). This is a field-programmable- gate-array (FPGA)-only implementation. A table loaded externally into the FPGA controls timing, processing, and decision structures. Radar is memory-less and does not use previous acquisitions to assist in the current acquisition. All cycles complete in exactly 50 milliseconds, regardless of range or whether a target was found. A RAM (random access memory) within the FPGA holds instructions for up to 15 sets. For each set, timing is run, echoes are processed, and a comparison is made. If a target is seen, more detailed processing is run on that set. If no target is seen, the next set is tried. When all sets have been run, the FPGA terminates and waits for the next 50-millisecond event. This setup simplifies testing and improves reliability. A single vertex chip does the work of an entire assembly. Output products require minor processing to become range and velocity. This technology is the heart of the Terminal Descent Sensor, which is an integral part of the Entry Decent and Landing system for MSL. In addition, it is a strong candidate for manned landings on Mars or the Moon.

  1. 卫星和飞船的跟踪测控模型%Satellites and Spacecraft Tracking Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红萍; 马明远; 张波

    2012-01-01

    为了对卫星和飞船的发射与运行过程进行全程跟踪测控,建立了完全覆盖模型和动态跟踪模型,得到建立测控站的个数,并用相关的实际数据来检验模型的合理性与应用性.%In order to launch stations and spacecraft tracking and operation of process measurement and control , a complete coverage of models and dynamic tracking model is established. The number of monitoring stations be set up. And the correlation of actual data to test models of rationality and applicability.

  2. Relative performance of future altimeter systems and tide gauges in constraining a model of North Sea high-frequency barotropic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourre, Baptiste; de Mey, Pierre; Ménard, Yves; Lyard, Florent; Le Provost, Christian

    2006-12-01

    We evaluate in this paper the ability of several altimeter systems, considered separately as well as together with tide gauges, to control the time evolution of a barotropic model of the North Sea shelf. This evaluation is performed in the framework of the particular model errors due to uncertainties in bathymetry. An Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation approach is adopted, and observing-systems simulation experiments (OSSEs) are carried out using ensemble spread statistics. The skill criterion for the comparison of observing networks is, therefore, not based on the misfit between two simulations, as done in classic twin experiments, but on the reduction of ensemble variance occurring as a consequence of the assimilation. Future altimeter systems, such as the Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter (WSOA) and satellite constellations, are considered in this work. A single WSOA exhibits, for instance, similar performance as two-nadir satellites in terms of sea-level correction, and is better than three satellites in terms of model velocity control. Generally speaking, the temporal resolution of observations is shown to be of major importance for controlling the model error in these experiments. This result is clearly related to the focus adopted in this study on the specific high-frequency response of the ocean to meteorological forcing. Altimeter systems lack adequate temporal sampling for properly correcting the major part of model error in this context, whereas tide gauges, which provide a much finer time resolution, lead to better global statistical performance. When looking into further detail, tide gauges and altimetry are demonstrated to exhibit an interesting complementary character over the whole shelf, as tide gauge networks make it possible to properly control model error in a ˜100-km coastal band, while high-resolution altimeter systems are more efficient farther from the coast.

  3. High resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Wang, Yan M.

    1992-01-01

    Spherical harmonic expansions to degree 360 have been developed that combine satellite potential coefficient information, terrestrial gravity data, satellite altimeter information as a direct tracking data type and topographic information. These models define improved representations of the Earth's gravitational potential beyond that available from just satellite or terrestrial data. The development of the degree 360 models, however, does not imply a uniform accuracy in the determination of the gravity field as numerous geographic areas are devoid of terrestrial data or the resolution of such data is limited to, for example, 100 km. This paper will consider theoretical and numerical questions related to the combination of the various data types. Various models of the combination process are discussed with a discussion of various correction terms for the different models. Various sources of gravity data will be described. The new OSU91 360 model will be discussed with comparisons made to previous 360 models and to other potential coefficient models that are complete to degree 50. Future directions in high degree potential coefficient models will be discussed.

  4. Long-term satellite tracking reveals variable seasonal migration strategies of basking sharks in the north-east Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P. D.; Baxter, J. M.; Gell, F. R.; Godley, B. J.; Graham, R. T.; Hall, G.; Hall, J.; Hawkes, L. A.; Henderson, S. M.; Johnson, L.; Speedie, C.; Witt, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal migration is ubiquitous in nature with individuals within a population often exhibiting varying movement strategies. The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the world’s second largest fish species, however, a comprehensive understanding of their long-term wider-ranging movements in the north-east Atlantic is currently lacking. Seventy satellite tags were deployed on basking sharks over four years (2012–2015) off the west coast of Scotland and the Isle of Man. Data from 28 satellite tags with attachment durations of over 165 days reveal post-summer ranging behaviours. Tagged sharks moved a median minimum straight-line distance of 3,633 km; achieving median displacement of 1,057 km from tagging locations. Tagged individuals exhibited one of three migration behaviours: remaining in waters of UK, Ireland and the Faroe Islands; migrating south to the Bay of Biscay or moving further south to waters off the Iberian Peninsula, and North Africa. Sharks used both continental shelf areas and oceanic habitats, primarily in the upper 50–200 m of the water column, spanning nine geo-political zones and the High Seas, demonstrating the need for multi-national cooperation in the management of this species across its range. PMID:28216646

  5. An Enhanced Satellite-Based Algorithm for Detecting and Tracking Dust Outbreaks by Means of SEVIRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marchese

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dust outbreaks are meteorological phenomena of great interest for scientists and authorities (because of their impact on the climate, environment, and human activities, which may be detected, monitored, and characterized from space using different methods and procedures. Among the recent dust detection algorithms, the RSTDUST multi-temporal technique has provided good results in different geographic areas (e.g., Mediterranean basin; Arabian Peninsula, exhibiting a better performance than traditional split window methods, in spite of some limitations. In this study, we present an optimized configuration of this technique, which better exploits data provided by Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG satellites to address those issues (e.g., sensitivity reduction over arid and semi-arid regions; dependence on some meteorological clouds. Three massive dust events affecting Europe and the Mediterranean basin in May 2008/2010 are analysed in this work, using information provided by some independent and well-established aerosol products to assess the achieved results. The study shows that the proposed algorithm, christened eRSTDUST (i.e., enhanced RSTDUST, which provides qualitative information about dust outbreaks, is capable of increasing the trade-off between reliability and sensitivity. The results encourage further experimentations of this method in other periods of the year, also exploiting data provided by different satellite sensors, for better evaluating the advantages arising from the use of this dust detection technique in operational scenarios.

  6. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  7. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  8. Waveform analysis of airborne synthetic aperture radar altimeter over Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zygmuntowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice thickness is one of the most sensitive variables in the Arctic climate system. In order to quantify changes in sea ice thickness, CryoSat was launched in 2010 carrying a Ku-band Radar Altimeter (SIRAL designed to measure sea ice freeboard with a few centimeters accuracy. The instrument uses the synthetic aperture radar technique providing signals with a resolution of about 300 m along track. In this study, airborne Ku-band radar altimeter data over different sea ice types has been analyzed. A set of parameters has been defined to characterize the difference in strength and width of the returned power waveforms. With a Bayesian based method it is possible to classify about 80% of the waveforms by three parameters: maximum of the returned power echo, the trailing edge width and pulse peakiness. Furthermore, the radar power echo maximum can be used to minimize the rate of false detection of leads compared to the widely used Pulse Peakiness parameter. The possibility to distinguish between different ice types and open water allows to improve the freeboard retrieval and the conversion into sea ice thickness where surface type dependent values for the sea ice density and snow load can be used.

  9. Spatial-temporal analysis of sea level changes in China seas and neighboring oceans by merged altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Zhifeng; Lei, Hui; Sun, Jiamin; Zhu, Xingrui; Liu, Congjin

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of sea level changes is critical important for social, economic and scientific development in coastal areas. Satellite altimeter makes it possible to observe long term and large scale dynamic changes in the ocean, contiguous shelf seas and coastal zone. In this paper, 1993-2015 altimeter data of Topex/Poseidon and its follow-on missions is used to get a time serious of continuous and homogeneous sea level anomaly gridding product. The sea level rising rate is 0.39 cm/yr in China Seas and the neighboring oceans, 0.37 cm/yr in the Bo and Yellow Sea, 0.29 cm/yr in the East China Sea and 0.40 cm/yr in the South China Sea. The mean sea level and its rising rate are spatial-temporal non-homogeneous. The mean sea level shows opposite characteristics in coastal seas versus open oceans. The Bo and Yellow Sea has the most significant seasonal variability. The results are consistent with in situ data observation by the Nation Ocean Agency of China. The coefficient of variability model is introduced to describe the spatial-temporal variability. Results show that the variability in coastal seas is stronger than that in open oceans, especially the seas off the entrance area of the river, indicating that the validation of altimeter data is less reasonable in these seas.

  10. Mean sea surface and geoid gradient comparisons with TOPEX altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Yi, Yuchan; Wang, Yan Ming

    1994-01-01

    of the large differences occur in regions lacking altimeter data prior to the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission and/or areas of significant bathymetric signature. Geoid gradients are needed for the reduction of individual track data to a reference track. The accuracy of the determination of such gradients was determined through the comparison of predicted along-track gradients to the observed gradients. Among four mean sea surfaces tested the best agreement was found with the OSU mean sea surface placed on the TOPEX geophysical data record.

  11. Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of temperature and altimeter data with bias correction and application to seasonal prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Keppenne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for a poorly known geoid, satellite altimeter data is usually analyzed in terms of anomalies from the time mean record. When such anomalies are assimilated into an ocean model, the bias between the climatologies of the model and data is problematic. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF is modified to account for the presence of a forecast-model bias and applied to the assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P altimeter data. The online bias correction (OBC algorithm uses the same ensemble of model state vectors to estimate biased-error and unbiased-error covariance matrices. Covariance localization is used but the bias covariances have different localization scales from the unbiased-error covariances, thereby accounting for the fact that the bias in a global ocean model could have much larger spatial scales than the random error.The method is applied to a 27-layer version of the Poseidon global ocean general circulation model with about 30-million state variables. Experiments in which T/P altimeter anomalies are assimilated show that the OBC reduces the RMS observation minus forecast difference for sea-surface height (SSH over a similar EnKF run in which OBC is not used. Independent in situ temperature observations show that the temperature field is also improved. When the T/P data and in situ temperature data are assimilated in the same run and the configuration of the ensemble at the end of the run is used to initialize the ocean component of the GMAO coupled forecast model, seasonal SSH hindcasts made with the coupled model are generally better than those initialized with optimal interpolation of temperature observations without altimeter data. The analysis of the corresponding sea-surface temperature hindcasts is not as conclusive.

  12. Nonlinear features of equatorial baroclinic Rossby waves detected in Topex altimeter observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Glazman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently proposed technique for statistical analysis of non-gridded satellite altimeter data, regime of long equatorially-trapped baroclinic Rossby waves is studied. One-dimensional spatial and spatiotemporal autocorrelation functions of sea surface height (SSH variations yield a broad spectrum of baroclinic Rossby waves and permit determination of their propagation speed. The 1-d wavenumber spectrum of zonal variations is given by a power-law k-2 on scales from about 103 km to 104 km. We demonstrate that the observed wave regime exhibits features of soliton turbulence developing in the long baroclinic Rossby waves. However, being limited to second statistical moments, the present analysis does not allow us to rule out a possibility of weak wave turbulence.

  13. Subsurface circulation and mesoscale variability in the Algerian subbasin from altimeter-derived eddy trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudier, Romain; Mourre, Baptiste; Juza, Mélanie; Tintoré, Joaquín.

    2016-08-01

    Algerian eddies are the strongest and largest propagating mesoscale structures in the Western Mediterranean Sea. They have a large influence on the mean circulation, water masses and biological processes. Over 20 years of satellite altimeter data have been analyzed to characterize the propagation of these eddies using automatic detection methods and cross-correlation analysis. We found that, on average, Algerian eddy trajectories form two subbasin scale anticlockwise gyres that coincide with the two Algerian gyres which were described in the literature as the barotropic circulation in the area. This result suggests that altimetry sea surface observations can provide information on subsurface currents and their variability through the study of the propagation of deep mesoscale eddies in semienclosed seas. The analysis of eddy sea level anomalies along the mean pathways reveals three preferred areas of formation. Eddies are usually formed at a specific time of the year in these areas, with a strong interannual variability over the last 20 years.

  14. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades strong efforts have been made to apply new spaceborn technologies to the study and possible forecast of strong earthquakes. In this study we use ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in an image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. "The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis" (LESSA) software package, developed by Zlatopolsy (1992, 1997). We assume that the lineaments allow to detect, at least partially, the presence ruptures in the Earths crust, and therefore enable one to follow the changes in the system of faults and fractures associated with strong earthquakes. We analysed 6 earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America and XXX with the Richter scale magnitude >4.5. They were located in the regions with small season...

  15. Observing the oceanic mesoscale processes with satellite altimetry: the state of the art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite altimetry has enabled the study of global oceanic mesoscale variability with increasing accuracy and resolution for the past three decades. The combination of the series of precision missions beginning with TOPEX/Poseidon and the series of missions beginning with ERS-1 has created a data record of sea surface height measurement from at least two simultaneously operating altimeters. This 19-year record has fundamentally expanded our knowledge about the dynamics of ocean circulation, in particular at the mesoscale. The progress made to date from the data record will be briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the remaining open questions. Spectral analysis of the existing altimeter data suggests that the spatial resolution is about 150 km in wavelength in space-time gridded data, and about 70-100 km in along-track data. The unresolved short scales, however, have important roles in the energy balance of ocean dynamics as well as the transport and dissipation of many properties of the ocean such as heat and dissolved chemicals. The prospect of the technique of radar interferometry for making high-resolution wide-swath measurement of sea surface height will be discussed with an update on the development of the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Mission, which is being jointly developed by NASA and CNES with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency. SWOT is being designed for applications in both oceanography and land surface hydrology and setting a standard for the next-generation altimetry missions.

  16. Exploiting Satellite Remote-Sensing Data in Fine Particulate Matter Characterization for Serving the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience and NPOESS Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the U.S. National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led a project in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects were conducted to develop methods to better characterize exposure; link health and environmental datasets; and analyze spatial/temporal relationships. This paper describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(sub 2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the CDC's pilot study of HELIX-Atlanta. It describes a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM(sub 2.5) concentrations using spatial surfacing techniques and leveraging NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM(sub 2.5) from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM(sub 2.5) estimates derived from NASA's MODIS data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM(sub 2.5) estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM(sub 2.5), may provide a more complete daily representation of PM(sub 2.5), than either data set alone would allow, and can reduce the errors in the PM(sub 2.5) estimated surfaces. Future work in this area should focus on combining MODIS column measurements with profile information provided by satellites like the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The Visible Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol

  17. Bathymetric Inversion of South China Sea from Satellite Altimetry Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of ocean bathymetric inversion from satellite altimeter data by using FFT technique.In this study,the free-air gravity anomalies over the South China Sea are determined by the satellite altimeter data of GEOSAT,ERS-1,ERS-2 and T/P.And the 2.5′×2.5′ bathymetry model in South China Sea is calculated from the gravity anomalies with the inversion model given.After the analysis of the inversion and the comparison between the results,some conclusions can be drawn.

  18. Current Measurements in Rivers by Spaceborne Along-Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser, R.; Gruenler, S.; Stammer, D.

    2007-12-01

    The along-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (along-track InSAR) technique permits a high-resolution imaging of ocean surface current fields all over the world from satellites. Results of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in early 2000 and theoretical findings indicate that spaceborne along-track InSARs are also suitable for current retrievals in rivers if the water surface is at least 200-300 m wide and sufficiently rough for microwave backscattering at slanting incidence. Accordingly, the technique is quite attractive for global river runoff monitoring, where it can complement water level and surface slope measurements by advanced radar altimeters and other efforts. The German satellite TerraSAR-X, which was launched in June 2007, will permit along-track interferometry in an experimental mode of operation. This will be the first opportunity for repeated current measurements from space at selected test sites during a period of several years. In this presentation we give an overview of basic principles and theoretical limits of current measurements by along-track InSAR, example results from SRTM, and predicted along-track InSAR capabilities of TerraSAR-X. An SRTM-derived surface current field in the lower Elbe river (Germany) agrees well with numerical hydrodynamic model results; characteristic lateral current variations around a pronounced main flow channel in the 1500 m wide river are resolved. Despite clearly suboptimal instrument parameters, TerraSAR-X simulations indicate an even better data quality. Depending on width, surface roughness, and relative flow direction of a river, current estimates with an accuracy better than 0.1 m/s will be possible with an effective spatial resolution of a few hundred meters to kilometers.

  19. Lidar Altimeter Measurements of Canopy Structure: Methods and Validation for Closed Canopy, Broadleaf Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D. J.; Lefsky, M. A.; Parker, G. G.; Blair, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    Lidar altimeter observations of vegetated landscapes provide a time-resolved measure of laser pulse backscatter energy from canopy surfaces and the underlying ground. Airborne lidar altimeter data was acquired using the Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery (SLICER) for a successional sequence of four, closed-canopy, deciduous forest stands in eastern Maryland. The four stands were selected so as to include a range of canopy structures of importance to forest ecosystem function, including variation in the height and roughness of the outer-most canopy surface and the vertical organization of canopy stories and gaps. The character of the SLICER backscatter signal is described and a method is developed that accounts for occlusion of the laser energy by canopy surfaces, transforming the backscatter signal to a canopy height profile (CHP) that quantitatively represents the relative vertical distribution of canopy surface area. The transformation applies an increased weighting to the backscatter amplitude as a function of closure through the canopy and assumes a horizontally random distribution of the canopy components. SLICER CHPs, averaged over areas of overlap where lidar ground tracks intersect, are shown to be highly reproducible. CHP transects across the four stands reveal spatial variations in vegetation, at the scale of the individual 10 m diameter laser footprints, within and between stands. Averaged SLICER CHPs are compared to analogous height profile results derived from ground-based sightings to plant intercepts measured on plots within the four stands. Tbe plots were located on the segments of the lidar ground tracks from which averaged SLICER CHPs were derived, and the ground observations were acquired within two weeks of the SLICER data acquisition to minimize temporal change. The differences in canopy structure between the four stands is similarly described by the SLICER and ground-based CHP results, however a Chi-square test of similarity

  20. A do-it-yourself altimeter for trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, R.

    1982-01-01

    Commercially available tree altimeters are expensive and heavy, and my personal experience with these instruments is thus minimal. During my last expedition I only used it now and then in the base camp to correct my ’feeling for estimation’. I have little doubt that colleagues will recognize these f

  1. The Importance of Altimeter and Scatterometer Data for Ocean Prediction,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    of water vapour , wind speed and wave height. Nature, 294, 529-532. Cheney, R. E. and J. G. Marsh, 1981: SEASAT altimeter observations of dynamic...E. and J. D. Thompson, 1980: A numerical study of Loop Current intrusions and eddy shedding. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 1611-1651. ’Hurlburt, H. E. and J

  2. Tracking four-decade inundation changes with multi-temporal satellite images in China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiping

    2017-04-01

    Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China. The lake has undergone remarkable spatio-temporal changes in both short- and long-term scales since 1970s, resulting in significant hydrological, ecological and economic consequences. Remote sensing techniques have advantages for large-scale studies, by offering images at different spatial and spectral resolutions. However, due to technical difficulties, no single satellite sensor can meet the needs for high spatio-temporal resolution required for such monitoring. In this study, using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images collected between 1973 and 2012, we documented and investigated the short- and long-term characteristics of lake inundation based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). First, we presented a novel downscaling method based on the NDWI statistical regression algorithm to generate small-scale resolution inundation map (30m) from coarse MODIS data (500m). The downscaling is a linear calibration of the NDWI index from MODIS imagery to Landsat imagery, which is based on the assumption that the relationships between fine resolution and coarse resolution are invariable. Second, Tupu analysis method was further performed to explore the spatial-temporal distribution and changing processes of lake inundation based on downscaling inundation maps. Then, a defined water variation rate (WVR) and inundation frequency (IF) indicator was used to reveal seasonal water surface submersion/exposure processes of lake expansion and shrinkage in different zones. Finally, mathematical statistics methods were utilized to explore the possible driving mechanisms of the revealed change patterns with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results show that, there is a high correlation (mean absolute error of 3.95% and an R2 of 0.97) between the MODIS- and Landsat-derived water surface areas in Poyang Lake. Over the past 40 years, a declining trend to a

  3. Satellite tracking of red-listed nominate lesser black-backed gulls (Larus f. fuscus: Habitat specialisation in foraging movements raises novel conservation needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Juvaste

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many other gull species, nominate lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus, nLBBG have shown generally decreasing population trends throughout their breeding area in northern and eastern Fennoscandia over the past decades and are now red-listed. Interspecific competition, predation, increased disturbance, organochlorine poisoning and food shortages were suggested as main reasons for the overall decrease. Here we contribute to a better understanding of population declines by comparing foraging movements of satellite tracked adult gulls in three geographical areas of Finland (West, South, and East that differ in their population trends. Our analysis examines potential differences and preferences in the feeding site behaviour of adult gulls. Our comparison of the three geographical areas showed that nLBBGs preferred feeding at fur farms in West Finland, waste dumps in South Finland, and lakes and fields in East Finland. We found individual gulls of this purportedly generalist species to be highly specialised in their foraging behaviour, particularly those that might be associated with their survival probabilities. We hypothesise that differences in foraging behaviour and food availability during the breeding season are partially responsible for differences in demographic trends between populations. Specifically, we identify potential local conservation problems such as shooting in birds visiting fur farms. Our data suggest that the effective conservation and management of endangered nLBBGs could be aided by simple actions in the breeding areas in addition to better protection throughout the annual movement cycle.

  4. Foraging movements of Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii) in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean: A preliminary satellite-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Navarro, Joan; del Castillo, Marcos; Cama, Albert; Ferrer, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A knowledge of the foraging strategies of marine predators is essential to understand the intrinsic factors controlling their distribution, abundance and their ecological function within the marine ecosystem. Here, we investigated for the first time the foraging movements and activity patterns of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii by using satellite-tracking data from eight breeding adults in the main colony of the species worldwide (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean). Tagged gulls foraged in the marine area close to the breeding colony (62% of foraging locations) and in the terrestrial area of the Ebro Delta (mainly rice fields; 38% of foraging locations). The foraging activity patterns changed significantly throughout the day; lower from dusk through the first half of the night (19-1 h; 32% of active locations) and higher during the rest of the day (1-19 h; 75.5 ± 4.3% of active locations). These results confirm the foraging plasticity of this seabird and, based on previous information about the dietary habits of this species, we hypothesize how its time-dependent activity patterns and habitat use could be associated with variations in the availability of marine food resources (e.g. diel vertical migrations of pelagic fish) and the exploitation of terrestrial resources (e.g. American crayfish Procambarus clarkii).

  5. Satellite detection of IR precursors using bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer data: a case study of Yushu earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiong; Xuhui Shen; Xingfa Gu; Qingyan Meng; Yaxin Bi; Liming Zhao; Yanhua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The paper has developed and proposed a synthesis analysis method based on the robust satellite data analysis technique (RST) to detect seismic anomalies within the bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer (AATSR) gridded brightness temperature (BT)data based on spatial/temporal continuity analysis.The proposed methods have been applied to analyze the Yushu (Qinghai,China) earthquake occurred on 14th April 2010,and a full AATSR data-set of 8 years data from March 2003 to May 2010 with longitude from 91°E to 101°E and latitude from 28°N to 38°N has been analyzed.Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena,the analyzed results indicate that the infrared radiation anomalies detected by the AATSR BT data with nadir view appear and enhance gradually along with the development and occurring of the earthquake,especially along the Ganzi-Yushu fault,Nu River fault and Jiali-Chayu fault;more infrared anomalies along the earthquake fault zone (Lancangjiang fault and Ning Karma Monastery-Deqin fault) are detected using the proposed synthesis analysis method,which can also characterize the activity of seismic faults more precisely.

  6. A computer model for evaluation of launch vehicle and target tracking error assignments for direct ascent, deep space ASAT (Anti-satellite) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R. C.

    1983-12-01

    An unclassified computer model was developed for first order evaluation of deep space Anti-satellite (ASAT) targeting error assignments. Two independent error sources are modeled. With deep space tracking accuracies on the order of kilometers, there is uncertainty in the exact target position. Errors introduced by the launch vehicle guidance system result in uncertainty in the exact position of the ASAT itself. Once the target is acquired by the ASAT sensor subsystem, the maneuver subsystem must then have the capability to make the necessary trajectory corrections to precent a miss. The model assumes a direct ascent vehicle for which the user selects a trajectory by choosing the burnout and intercept position vectors, and a time of flight between them. Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate errors in burnout position and velocity, and intercept position from trivariate normal distributions scaled to user input standard deviations. This is repeated for 500 iterations, from which a mean miss distance and delta V required for trajectory correction can be determined, and used for further analysis.

  7. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System: Characteristics and Performance of the Altimeter Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Li; Yi, Dong-Hui; Abshire, James B.

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat spacecraft measures the surface height (altimetry) via the time of flight of its 1064 nm laser pulse. The GLAS laser transmitter produces 6 ns wide pulses with 70 mJ energy at 1064 nm at a 40 Hz rate. The altimeter receiver consists of a telescope, aft optics, a silicon avalanche photodiode, and electronic amplifiers. The transmitted and echo pulse waveforms are digitized at 1 GHz rate. The laser pulse time of flight is determined on the ground from the two digitized pulse waveforms and their positions in the full waveform record (about 5.4 ms ong) by computing the pulse centroids or by curve fitting. The GLAS receiver algorithms in on board software selects the two waveform segments containing the transmitted and the echo pulses and sends them to ground. The probability of echo pulse detection and the accuracy of time of flight measurement depend on the received signal level, the background light within the receiver field of view, the inherent detector and amplifier noise, the quantization of the digitizer, and some times by cloud obscurations. A receiver model has been developed to calculate the probability of detection and accuracy of the altimeter measurements with these noise sources. From prelaunch testing, the minimum detectable echo pulse energy for 90% detection probability was about 0.1 fj/pulse onto the detector. Such a receiver sensitivity allows GLAS to measure the surface height through clouds with optical density less than 2. The echo pulse energy required to achieve 10 cm ranging accuracy was found to be about 3 times higher than the minimum detectable signal level. The smallest single shot range measurement error, which was determined by ranging to a fixed target with strong echo pulses and no background light, was 2 to 3cm. The maximum linear response echo pulse energy was 10 fJ/pulse for the strongest echo signals, assuming a Lambertian scattering snow surface, clear sky atmosphere

  8. Mapping the nonstationary internal tide with satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaron, Edward D.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide has been inferred from the 23 year long combined records of the TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeters by combining harmonic analysis with an analysis of along-track wavenumber spectra of sea-surface height (SSH). Conventional harmonic analysis is first applied to estimate and remove the stationary components of the tide at each point along the reference ground tracks. The wavenumber spectrum of the residual SSH is then computed, and the variance in a neighborhood around the wavenumber of the mode-1 baroclinic M2 tide is interpreted as the sum of noise, broadband nontidal processes, and the nonstationary tide. At many sites a bump in the spectrum associated with the internal tide is noted, and an empirical model for the noise and nontidal processes is used to estimate the nonstationary semidiurnal tidal variance. The results indicate a spatially inhomogeneous pattern of tidal variability. Nonstationary tides are larger than stationary tides throughout much of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans.

  9. Neonate turtle tracking data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project are to use novel satellite tracking methods to provide improved estimation of threats at foraging areas and along migration routes for...

  10. Satellite radar altimetry over ice. Volume 1: Processing and corrections of Seasat data over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Major, Judith A.; Martin, Thomas V.; Bindschadler, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The data-processing methods and ice data products derived from Seasat radar altimeter measurements over the Greenland ice sheet and surrounding sea ice are documented. The corrections derived and applied to the Seasat radar altimeter data over ice are described in detail, including the editing and retracking algorithm to correct for height errors caused by lags in the automatic range tracking circuit. The methods for radial adjustment of the orbits and estimation of the slope-induced errors are given.

  11. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  12. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  13. A next generation altimeter for mapping the sea surface height variability: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Morrow, Rosemary

    2016-07-01

    The global observations of the sea surface height (SSH) have revolutionized oceanography since the beginning of precision radar altimetry in the early 1990s. For the first time we have continuous records of SSH with spatial and temporal sampling for detecting the global mean sea level rise, the waxing and waning of El Niño, and the ocean circulation from gyres to ocean eddies. The limit of spatial resolution of the present constellation of radar altimeters in mapping SSH variability is approaching 100 km (in wavelength) with 3 or more simultaneous altimetric satellites in orbit. At scales shorter than 100 km, the circulation contains substantial amount of kinetic energy in currents, eddies and fronts that are responsible for the stirring and mixing of the ocean, especially from the vertical exchange of the upper ocean with the deep. A mission currently in development will use the technique of radar interferometry for making high-resolution measurement of the height of water over the ocean as well as on land. It is called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which is a joint mission of US NASA and French CNES, with contributions from Canada and UK. SWOT promises the detection of SSH at scales approaching 15 km, depending on the sea state. SWOT will make SSH measurement over a swath of 120 km with a nadir gap of 20 km in a 21-day repeat orbit. A conventional radar altimeter will provide measurement along the nadir. This is an exploratory mission with applications in oceanography and hydrology. The increased spatial resolution offers an opportunity to study ocean surface processes to address important questions about the ocean circulation. However, the limited temporal sampling poses challenges to map the evolution of the ocean variability that changes rapidly at the small scales. The measurement technique and the development of the mission will be presented with emphasis on its science program with outlook on the opportunities and challenges.

  14. Merging altimeter data with Argo profiles to improve observation of tropical Pacific thermocline circulation and ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Lee, T.; Wang, F.; McPhaden, M. J.; Kessler, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Meridional thermocline currents play an important role in the recharge and discharge of tropical Pacific warm water during the development and transition of ENSO cycles. Previous analyses have shown large variations of the equatorward meridional thermocline convergence/divergence on ENSO and decadal time scales in the interior ocean. The total convergence/divergence is however unknown due to the lack of long term observation in the western boundary currents. Numerical modelling studies suggested a tendency of compensation between the interior and western boundary currents, but the exact compensation is model dependent. While Argo floats provide reasonable data coverage in the interior ocean, few floats are in the western boundary currents. Recent multi-mission satellite altimeter data and advanced processing techniques have resulted in higher resolution sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) products with better accuracy closer to the coasts. This study utilizes the statistical relationship between Argo dynamic height profiles and altimeter SSHA to calculate geostrophic thermocline currents in both the interior ocean and the western boundary of the tropical Pacific. The derived thermocline currents in the western boundary are validated by a 3.5-year moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurement in the Mindanao Current and by a series of glider surveys (Davis et al. 2012) in the Solomon Sea. The meridional transport timeseries of the interior and western boundary currents in the thermocline show different lead-lag relationships to the Nino 3.4 index. Results will be discussed in the context of recent 2014-2015 El Nino development and the potential contribution to the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS).

  15. Detailed gravimetric geoid confirmation of short wavelength features of sea surface topography detected by the Skylab S-193 altimeter in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.; Mcclinton, A. T.; Chang, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea area in support of the calibration and evaluation of the GEOS-C altimeter. This geoid, computed on a 15 ft. x 15 ft. grid was based upon a combination of surface gravity data with the GSFC GEM-6 satellite derived gravity data. A comparison of this gravimetric geoid with 10 passes of SKYLAB altimeter data is presented. The agreement of the two data types is quite good with the differences generally less than 2 meters. Sea surface manifestations of numerous short wavelength (approximately 100 km) oceanographic features are now indicated in the gravimetric geoid and are also confirmed by the altimetry data.

  16. Strategies for estimating the marine geoid from altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentiero, P.; Kahn, W. D.; Garza-Robles, R.

    1974-01-01

    In processing altimeter data from a spacecraft borne altimeter to estimate the fine structure of the marine geoid, a problem is encountered. In order to describe the geoid fine structure, a large number of parameters must be employed and it is not possible to simultaneously estimate all of them. Unless the parameterization exhibits good orthogonality in the data, serious aliasing results. From simulation studies it has been found that amongst several competing parameterizations, the mean free air gravity anomaly model (i.e., Stokes' formula) exhibited promising geoid recovery characteristics. Using covariance analysis techniques, this report provides quantitative measures of the orthogonality properties associated with the above mentioned parameterization. It has been determined that a 5 deg x 5 deg area mean free air gravity anomaly can be estimated with an uncertainty of 1 mgal (40 cm undulation) provided that all free air gravity anomalies within a spherical radius of 10 arc degrees are simultaneously estimated.

  17. Receiver characteristics of laser altimeters with avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.; Boutsikaris, Leo; Abshire, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The receiver characteristics of a laser altimeter system containing an avalanche photodiode photodetector are analyzed using the Gaussian approximation, the saddle-point approximation, and a nearly exact analysis. The last two methods are shown to yield very similar results except when the background noise is extremely low and the probability of false alarm is high. However, the Gaussian approximation method is shown to cause significant errors even under relatively high levels of background noise and received signal energy.

  18. A fiducial reference site for satellite altimetry in Crete, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrokordatos, Constantin

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system. This work sets the ground...

  19. IMPROVE THE ZY-3 HEIGHT ACCURACY USING ICESAT/GLAS LASER ALTIMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ZY-3 is the first civilian high resolution stereo mapping satellite, which has been launched on 9th, Jan, 2012. The aim of ZY-3 satellite is to obtain high resolution stereo images and support the 1:50000 scale national surveying and mapping. Although ZY-3 has very high accuracy for direct geo-locations without GCPs (Ground Control Points, use of some GCPs is still indispensible for high precise stereo mapping. The GLAS (Geo-science Laser Altimetry System loaded on the ICESat (Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite, which is the first laser altimetry satellite for earth observation. GLAS has played an important role in the monitoring of polar ice sheets, the measuring of land topography and vegetation canopy heights after launched in 2003. Although GLAS has ended in 2009, the derived elevation dataset still can be used after selection by some criteria. In this paper, the ICESat/GLAS laser altimeter data is used as height reference data to improve the ZY-3 height accuracy. A selection method is proposed to obtain high precision GLAS elevation data. Two strategies to improve the ZY-3 height accuracy are introduced. One is the conventional bundle adjustment based on RFM and bias-compensated model, in which the GLAS footprint data is viewed as height control. The second is to correct the DSM (Digital Surface Model straightly by simple block adjustment, and the DSM is derived from the ZY-3 stereo imaging after freedom adjustment and dense image matching. The experimental result demonstrates that the height accuracy of ZY-3 without other GCPs can be improved to 3.0 meter after adding GLAS elevation data. What’s more, the comparison of the accuracy and efficiency between the two strategies is implemented for application.

  20. Improve the ZY-3 Height Accuracy Using Icesat/glas Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoyuan; Tang, Xinming; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chongyang; Li, Tao

    2016-06-01

    ZY-3 is the first civilian high resolution stereo mapping satellite, which has been launched on 9th, Jan, 2012. The aim of ZY-3 satellite is to obtain high resolution stereo images and support the 1:50000 scale national surveying and mapping. Although ZY-3 has very high accuracy for direct geo-locations without GCPs (Ground Control Points), use of some GCPs is still indispensible for high precise stereo mapping. The GLAS (Geo-science Laser Altimetry System) loaded on the ICESat (Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite), which is the first laser altimetry satellite for earth observation. GLAS has played an important role in the monitoring of polar ice sheets, the measuring of land topography and vegetation canopy heights after launched in 2003. Although GLAS has ended in 2009, the derived elevation dataset still can be used after selection by some criteria. In this paper, the ICESat/GLAS laser altimeter data is used as height reference data to improve the ZY-3 height accuracy. A selection method is proposed to obtain high precision GLAS elevation data. Two strategies to improve the ZY-3 height accuracy are introduced. One is the conventional bundle adjustment based on RFM and bias-compensated model, in which the GLAS footprint data is viewed as height control. The second is to correct the DSM (Digital Surface Model) straightly by simple block adjustment, and the DSM is derived from the ZY-3 stereo imaging after freedom adjustment and dense image matching. The experimental result demonstrates that the height accuracy of ZY-3 without other GCPs can be improved to 3.0 meter after adding GLAS elevation data. What's more, the comparison of the accuracy and efficiency between the two strategies is implemented for application.

  1. Ka频段遥感卫星数据接收系统跟踪性能测试新方法%A New Tracking Performance Test Method for Ka-band Remote Sensing Satellite Data Receiving System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱维祥; 穆伟; 王万玉; 冯旭祥; 王永华

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems in the tracking performance test of Ka-band Low Earth Orbit( LEO) re-mote sensing satellite data receiving system,a new method is proposed. Simulation data is generated by u-sing Ka-band LEO satellite,and dynamic target tracking is simulated with the method of tracking Ka-band beacon on the calibration tower by rotating the third axis of antenna. A verification test on tracking per-formance of receiving system is carried out in the developed prototype system. The proposed method pro-vides a reference for acceptance test for Ka-band LEO satellite data receiving system.%针对Ka频段低轨遥感卫星数据接收系统跟踪性能测试中的问题,提出了一种新的测试方法。利用设计的Ka频段低轨卫星动态目标模拟数据,采用转动第三轴跟踪标校塔Ka频段信标的方式模拟动态目标的跟踪,在研制的原型系统中开展了接收系统跟踪性能的测试验证。该测试方法可为Ka频段低轨卫星数据接收系统跟踪性能的测试验收提供参考。

  2. The OSIRIS-REx laser altimeter (OLA): Development progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M.; Barnouin, O.; Johnson, C.; Bierhaus, E.; Seabrook, J.; Dickinson, C.; Haltigin, T.; Gaudreau, D.; Brunet, C.; Cunningham, G.; Lauretta, D.; Boynton, W.; Beshore, E.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The NASA New Frontiers Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission will be the first to sample the B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu [1]. This asteroid is thought to be primitive and carbonaceous, and is probably closely related to CI and/or CM meteorites [2]. The OSIRIS-REx mission hopes to better understand both the physical and geochemical origin and evolution of carbonaceous asteroids through its investigation of Bennu. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will launch in September 2016, and arrive at Bennu two years later. The Canadian Space Agency is contributing a scanning lidar system known as the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA), to the OSIRIS-REx Mission. The OLA instrument is part of suite of onboard instruments [3] including cameras (OCAMS) [4], a visible and near- infrared spectrometer (OVIRS) [5], a thermal emission spectrometer (OTES), and an X-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) [6]. OLA Objectives: The OLA instrument has a suite of scientific and mission operations purposes. At a global scale, it will update the shape and mass of Bennu to provide insights on the geological origin and evolution of Bennu, by, for example, further refining constraints on its bulk density. With a carefully undertaken geodesy campaign, OLA-based precision ranges, constraints from radio science (2-way tracking) data and stereo OCAMS images, it will yield broad-scale, quantitative constraints on any internal heterogeneity of Bennu and hence provide further clues to Bennu's origin and subsequent collisional evolution. OLA-derived global asteroid maps of slopes, elevation relative to the asteroid geoid, and vertical roughness will provide quantitative insights on how local-regional surfaces on Bennu evolved subsequent to the formation of the asteroid. In addition, OLA data and derived products support the assessment of the safety and sampleability of potential sample sites. At the sample-site scale, the OLA instrument

  3. Altimeter Estimation of Sea Surface Wind Stress for Light to Moderate Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemark, Douglas; Edson, James B.; Chapron, Bertrand

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft altimeter and in situ measurements are used to examine relationships between altimeter backscatter and the magnitude of near-surface wind and friction velocities. Comparison of altimeter radar cross section with wind speed is made through the modified Chelton-Wentz algorithm. Improved agreement is found after correcting 10-m winds for both surface current and atmospheric stability. An altimeter friction velocity algorithm is derived based on the wind speed model and an open-ocean drag coefficient. Close agreement between altimeter- and in situ-derived friction velocities is found. For this dataset, quality of the altimeter inversion to surface friction velocity is comparable to that for adjusted winds and clearly better than the inversion to true 10-m wind speed.

  4. 轴角传感器对 GEO 卫星跟踪的影响分析%Analysis of Shaft Angle Sensor to the Influence for the GEO Satellite Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鑫; 刘京

    2016-01-01

    在卫星导航系统的地面控制系统中使用桁架天线对 GEO 卫星进行跟踪。抛物面天线是地面运控系统的重要组成部分,主要任务是实现对卫星的自动跟踪,保证天线电轴始终准确的对准卫星。为了保证天线的指向精度普遍采用程序跟踪方式对 GEO 卫星进行跟踪。天线通过对比轴角传感器反馈的指向角度和系统解算出的程引角度形成闭环控制,使天线波束精确的指向卫星,保证地面设备与卫星之间的数据传递。本文针对轴角传感器由于其内部弹性结构和工作环境的原因易产生硬件形变,从而引起天线对卫星的跟踪异常,进而对卫星导航系统提供定位导航服务产生影响的问题。根据卫星运动的规律判断卫星异常和其运动位置的关系,分析出卫星载荷异常甚至失锁的故障原理,提出了调整天线偏置角度的应急处置方法。文中分别阐述了天线程序跟踪的原理和工作流程、轴角传感器的工作结构、产生形变后的影响分析和故障处理措施及效果。结论表明故障原理分析正确,应急处置措施可以保证天线所跟踪的卫星不失锁,导航信息传输的星地链路不中断。%Tracking of GEO satellites use truss antenna in the ground control system in satellite navigation sys-tem.Paraboloid antenna is an important part of ground operation control system,the main task is to realize the automatic tracking of the satellite,guarantee the electric axis antenna always accurate alignment of satellite.In order to ensure the anten-na pointing accuracy generally adopts the program tracking mode tracking of GEO satellites.Antenna by comparing the shaft angle sensor feedback pointing angle and system solutions are worked out process lead angle to form a closed loop control,let antenna beam accurate pointing the satellite,Guarantee between the ground equipment and satellite data transmission.The shaft angle

  5. Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Phillips, Roger J; Peale, Stanton J; Head, James W; Hauck, Steven A; McNutt, Ralph L; Oberst, Jürgen; Neumann, Gregory A; Lemoine, Frank G; Sun, Xiaoli; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Harmon, John K

    2008-07-04

    A 3200-kilometers-long profile of Mercury by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft spans approximately 20% of the near-equatorial region of the planet. Topography along the profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer dynamic range and 930-meter root-mean-square roughness. At long wavelengths, topography slopes eastward by 0.02 degrees , implying a variation of equatorial shape that is at least partially compensated. Sampled craters on Mercury are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part the result of Mercury's higher gravity. Crater floors vary in roughness and slope, implying complex modification over a range of length scales.

  6. Lessons Learned from the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Bradshaw, Heather; Robinson, Frank; Neuberger, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This presentation walks through the lessons learned from design, hardware, analysis and testing perspective. ATLAS lessons learned include general thermal design, analysis, hardware, and testing issues as well as lessons specific to laser systems, two-phase thermal control, and optical assemblies with precision alignment requirements.

  7. NODC Standard Product: US Navy Geosat altimeter Crossover Differences (XDRs) for the Geodetic Mission (8 disc set) (NODC Accession 0054498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of the NODC eight CD-ROMs product set of the Geosat altimeter Crossover Differences data Records (XDRs) for altimeter data obtained...

  8. 14 CFR 91.411 - Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections. 91.411 Section 91.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 91.411 Altimeter system and...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1325 - Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Installation § 29.1325 Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case... between air pressure in the static pressure system and true ambient atmospheric static pressure is not..., when on the alternate static pressure system, differs from the reading of altimeter when on the primary...

  10. Case studies of ERS-1 altimeter data applicating in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学联; 季晓阳; 黄润恒; 凌铁军

    2001-01-01

    The impact of ERS-1 altimeter significant wave height on analysis of wave field and wave predictions is tested through analysis of selected cases. Application of the altimeter data may modifg initial field and thus 24-hour prediction of significant wave height. However the variations in initial wave field almost make no effect on 48-hour predictions.

  11. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  12. An inversion method for retrieving soil moisture information from satellite altimetry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebbing, Bernd; Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Braakmann-Folgmann, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture represents an important component of the terrestrial water cycle that controls., evapotranspiration and vegetation growth. Consequently, knowledge on soil moisture variability is essential to understand the interactions between land and atmosphere. Yet, terrestrial measurements are sparse and their information content is limited due to the large spatial variability of soil moisture. Therefore, over the last two decades, several active and passive radar and satellite missions such as ERS/SCAT, AMSR, SMOS or SMAP have been providing backscatter information that can be used to estimate surface conditions including soil moisture which is proportional to the dielectric constant of the upper (few cm) soil layers . Another source of soil moisture information are satellite radar altimeters, originally designed to measure sea surface height over the oceans. Measurements of Jason-1/2 (Ku- and C-Band) or Envisat (Ku- and S-Band) nadir radar backscatter provide high-resolution along-track information (~ 300m along-track resolution) on backscatter every ~10 days (Jason-1/2) or ~35 days (Envisat). Recent studies found good correlation between backscatter and soil moisture in upper layers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, indicating the potential of satellite altimetry both to reconstruct and to monitor soil moisture variability. However, measuring soil moisture using altimetry has some drawbacks that include: (1) the noisy behavior of the altimetry-derived backscatter (due to e.g., existence of surface water in the radar foot-print), (2) the strong assumptions for converting altimetry backscatters to the soil moisture storage changes, and (3) the need for interpolating between the tracks. In this study, we suggest a new inversion framework that allows to retrieve soil moisture information from along-track Jason-2 and Envisat satellite altimetry data, and we test this scheme over the Australian arid and semi-arid regions. Our method consists of: (i

  13. The OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) Investigation and Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M. G.; Barnouin, O. S.; Dickinson, C.; Seabrook, J.; Johnson, C. L.; Cunningham, G.; Haltigin, T.; Gaudreau, D.; Brunet, C.; Aslam, I.; Taylor, A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Boynton, W.; Nolan, M.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has contributed to the Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA). The OSIRIS-REx mission will sample asteroid 101955 Bennu, the first B-type asteroid to be visited by a spacecraft. Bennu is thought to be primitive, carbonaceous, and spectrally most closely related to CI and/or CM meteorites. As a scanning laser altimeter, the OLA instrument will measure the range between the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and the surface of Bennu to produce digital terrain maps of unprecedented spatial scales for a planetary mission. The digital terrain maps produced will measure ˜7 cm per pixel globally, and ˜3 cm per pixel at specific sample sites. In addition, OLA data will be used to constrain and refine the spacecraft trajectories. Global maps and highly accurate spacecraft trajectory estimates are critical to infer the internal structure of the asteroid. The global and regional maps also are key to gain new insights into the surface processes acting across Bennu, which inform the selection of the OSIRIS-REx sample site. These, in turn, are essential for understanding the provenance of the regolith sample collected by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. The OLA data also are important for quantifying any hazards near the selected OSIRIS-REx sample site and for evaluating the range of tilts at the sampling site for comparison against the capabilities of the sample acquisition device.

  14. The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter BELA: Instrument Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferlin, K.; Thomas, N.; Spohn, T.; Oberst, J.; Michaelis, H.; Gunderson, K.; Whitby, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA) is among the instruments that have been selected for flight aboard the MPO of ESA's BepiColombo mission to Mercury. A consortium led by Physikalisches Institut Universitaet Bern, Switzerland) and Institut für Planetenforschung (DLR, Berlin, Germany) will develop the first European laser altimeter for planetary exploration. The instrument follows the classical principle of direct detection of the returned laser light using a 200 mm telescope. The receiver telescope is made of electroformed nickel in order to save mass. The transmitter is based on a longitudinally pumped ND:YAG laser with 50 mJ pulses and about 5 ns pulse duration, operating at 10 Hz. The range finding and pulse detection uses digital filtering of return pulse shapes. Operation is possible on the dayside as well as on the night side of Mercury, but limited to about 1200 km altitude. We will present the instrument concept as well as the set-up of new test, verification and calibration facilities that are required for this type of instrument.

  15. The year-round migration pattern of thick-billed murres breeding in W and NW Greenland tracked with satellite transmitters and geolocators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Frederiksen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the year-round distribution pattern is needed to understand ecology and population development in colonies of thick-billed murres under pressure from hunting and oil pollution in the non-breeding period. We tracked thick-billed murres from three colonies in eastern Baffin Bay......-round tracks, but with much less accuracy. After leaving the colony in late July –mid August, the murres perform a swimming migration, during which the adults moult their flight feathers and the male parent accompanies the chick. The obtained ARGOS tracks (n=27) from the Ritenbenk colony showed sexually...... Sound before heading south on an S-shaped track through the eastern offshore part of Baffin Bay and south-west into the Labrador Current in the western part of the Davis Strait and the Labrador Sea before wintering in the areas around Newfoundland. The tendency to deviate from the shortest route...

  16. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Loop Heat Pipes: An Eventual First Year On-Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, E.; Baker, C.; McCarthy, T.

    2004-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the sole scientific instrument on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) that was launched on January 12, 2003 from Vandenberg AFB. A thermal control architecture based on propylene Loop Heat Pipe technology was developed to provide selectable/stable temperature control for the lasers and other electronics over the widely varying mission environment. Following a nominal LHP and instrument start-up, the mission was interrupted with the failure of the first laser after only 36 days of operation. During the 5-month failure investigation, the two GLAS LHPs and the electronics operated nominally, using heaters as a substitute for the laser heat load. Just prior to resuming the mission, following a seasonal spacecraft yaw maneuver, one of the LHPs deprimed and created a thermal runaway condition that resulted in an emergency shutdown of the GLAS instrument. This paper presents details of the LHP anomaly, the resulting investigation and recovery, along with on-orbit flight data during these critical events.

  17. Satellite Altimetry for Rivers : Review and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmant, S.

    2013-05-01

    Pioneer works using satellite altimetry over rivers started two decades ago. Next decade, we should have SWOT, the first mission to monitor all the water bodies on Earth larger than (250 m x 250 m). Over these three decades, radar altimetry for hydrology will have evolved significantly. In the past decade, ESA's ENVISAT has turned to be the most useful altimetry mission for hydrology. The major improvement brought by ENVISAT has been to propose various estimates of the radar "range" (the distance between the sensor and reflecting surface) in the raw data distributed. Owing to this choice in ranges, typical rms error for series computed with the ice-1 algorithm for the ENVISAT or Jason-2 data is in the range of 20-40 cm, which is a factor 2 to 4 better than it was previously with the standard -ocean- tracking algorithm, with the T/P mission for instance. Before ENVISAT, it has long been considered that altimetry could work only over wide rivers or large lakes. When the contrast in backscatter between the river surface and the surrounding ground was favorable, valuable time series have been recovered over reaches as narrow as a few tens of meters. All the past missions, including ENVISAT, were working in the Ku band in Low Resolution mode (LR), in opposite to the delay Doppler (DD), SAR, mode, which should be the most common technology in the near-future missions. SAR mode is currently tested with Cryosat-2, launched in2010. With AltiKa, to be launched in February this year, a new band will be tested, the Ka band. In 2014, ESA should launch Sentinel-3A, the first of a series of four SAR satellites. Thus, in the middle of the decade, we should have the most favorable situation ever encountered, with 2 to 3 SAR altimeters (Sentinel-3A from 2014, Sentinel-3B from 2016, Jason-CS from 2017), and in LR mode (Jason 2 & 3 and AltiKa). Next decade, SWOT will embark a Ka band wide swath (120 km) interferometric altimeter. It will cover the Earth continents twice every 22 days

  18. Ballistic missile tracking performance in boost phase based on dual infrared early warning satellites%红外预警双星弹道导弹主动段跟踪性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宇; 吴晓燕; 黄树彩; 吴建峰; 李成景; 唐意东

    2015-01-01

    为研究反导作战中红外预警卫星系统对弹道导弹主动段弹道的跟踪性能,提出以后验克拉美-罗下界(Posterior Cramer-Rao Lower Bound, PCRLB)为衡量指标,结合8态重力转弯主动段运动模型和双星纯方位无源定位获取的量测量,系统分析了运动建模精度、量测精度、采样周期、测源不确定性下检测概率和虚警数目等因素对跟踪时效性和准确性的影响.仿真算例给出了上述因素对位置和速度跟踪性能的影响程度和规律,可为预警卫星反导作战、战技指标关联建模以及星载探测器优化设计等提供有意义的参考.%To study the ballistic missile tracking performance in boost phase based on infrared early warning satellites system, Posterior Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (PCRLB) was proposed as a measurement index. After modeling ballistic target motion by 8-state gravity turn model and locating target position by dual satellites' bearing-only passive localization, PCRLB was used to evaluate the effects of factors, including target motion model accuracy, measurement accuracy, sampling period, detection probability and false alarm number conditioned by measurement origin uncertainty, on tracking timeliness and accuracy. One simulation example showed the extent and rules of said factors on position and tracking performance of velocity. It can contribute to the anti-ballistic missile operation by early warning satellite, the relationship modeling between tactical and technical indices and the optimal design of satellite-based infrared detector.

  19. Estimates of forest height in the Amazon basin using radar altimeter data of SARIN mode onboard Cryosat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Forest height is an important parameter for global carbon cycle studies. New technologies are required since the end of the operation ofGeoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (IceSat) in 2009. CryoSat-2 is a European Space Agencyenvironmental research satellite which was launched in April 2010.The SIRAL (SAR Interferometer Radar Altimeter) on board CryoSat-2 provides three operational modes for different observational requirements. Before the launch of Icesat2 around July 2016, CryoSat data represents a unique source of information on regional-to-global scale forest canopy height.We propose to use radar altimetry waveforms from the synthetic aperture/interferometric (SARin) mode to estimate canopy height in the Amazon basin. To understand the relation between canopy structure and the SIRAL waveform in Ku band, a 3D model was developed and implemented based on a Lidar model by introducingthe scattering items from crown, trunk and ground surface at Ku band. The vertical distribution of tree crown volume within a SIRAL footprint was calculated from its 3-D stand model by summing the volumes of all tree crown cells at the same height from the ground. The preliminary comparisons between simulated and measured SIRAL waveforms show that the model captures the major characteristics of the SIRAL signature. Cryosat waveform data of SARin mode and from June, 2011 to June, 2012 (cycle 04) is used to retrieve canopy height at Amazon basin under Cryosat groundtrack. The canopy height is derived by extracting the key points of vegetation and ground returns after noise estimation. Because of lack of field tree height measurement in 2012 at Amazon, we validated the results using the field measurements at four areas (the km 67 camp, the km 77 camp, Ruropolis, the Taoajos river) of Tapajos National Forest, Brazil in November 1999, and compared the results with the canopy height estimation from previous studies using Laser

  20. Geoid height-age relation from Seasat altimeter profiles across the Mendocino Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Schubert, G.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-eight Seasat altimeter profiles crossing the Mendocino Fracture Zone are used together with seafloor ages determined from magnetic lineations to estimate the change in oceanic geoid height with age, between ages of 15 and 135 m.y. An unbiased estimate of the overall geoid offset along each profile is determined from a least-squares fit of the along-track derivative of the geoid to the geoid slope predicted from a simple two-layer gravitational edge effect model. Uncertainties based upon the statistical properties of each profile are also determined. A geoid slope-age relation is constructed by normalizing the geoid offsets and uncertainties by the age offsets. The results are in agreement with geoid slope-age relations determined from symmetrically spreading ridges (Sandwell and Schubert, 1980). However, the fracture zone estimates have smaller uncertainties and show less scatter. A comparison of these results with the geoid slope-age prediction of the boundary layer cooling model shows that the thermal structure begins to deviate from this model at an early age (20-40 m.y.). A plate cooling model with a thickness of 125 km is most compatible with the geoid slope-age estimates, although significant deviations occur; these may indicate that the lithospheric thermal structure is not entirely age dependent.

  1. Satellite Attitude from a Raven Class Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cache MATLAB was used as an interface to the jSim libraries, including orbit propagation, Earth Track determination, and satellite orientation methods...collection opportunities of the satellite. The combined software tool calculates the satellite orientation required to image the asset location... satellite orientation estimations, with only the photometric signatures with strong features being correctly estimated. The strong features that

  2. Formation Flying/Satellite Swarm Concept Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA needs a method of not only propelling and rotating small satellites, but also to track their position and orientation. We propose a concept that will, for the first time, demonstrate both tracking and propulsion simultaneously in the same system.

  3. DUACS DT2014: the new multi-mission altimeter data set reprocessed over 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Taburet, Guillaume; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Pelloquin, Camille; Ablain, Michael; Picot, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The new DUACS DT2014 reprocessed products have been available since April 2014. Numerous innovative changes have been introduced at each step of an extensively revised data processing protocol. The use of a new 20-year altimeter reference period in place of the previous 7-year reference significantly changes the sea level anomaly (SLA) patterns and thus has a strong user impact. The use of up-to-date altimeter standards and geophysical corrections, reduced smoothing of the along-track data, and refined mapping parameters, including spatial and temporal correlation-scale refinement and measurement errors, all contribute to an improved high-quality DT2014 SLA data set. Although all of the DUACS products have been upgraded, this paper focuses on the enhancements to the gridded SLA products over the global ocean. As part of this exercise, 21 years of data have been homogenized, allowing us to retrieve accurate large-scale climate signals such as global and regional MSL trends, interannual signals, and better refined mesoscale features.An extensive assessment exercise has been carried out on this data set, which allows us to establish a consolidated error budget. The errors at mesoscale are about 1.4 cm2 in low-variability areas, increase to an average of 8.9 cm2 in coastal regions, and reach nearly 32.5 cm2 in high mesoscale activity areas. The DT2014 products, compared to the previous DT2010 version, retain signals for wavelengths lower than ˜ 250 km, inducing SLA variance and mean EKE increases of, respectively, +5.1 and +15 %. Comparisons with independent measurements highlight the improved mesoscale representation within this new data set. The error reduction at the mesoscale reaches nearly 10 % of the error observed with DT2010. DT2014 also presents an improved coastal signal with a nearly 2 to 4 % mean error reduction. High-latitude areas are also more accurately represented in DT2014, with an improved consistency between spatial coverage and sea ice edge

  4. Test Port for Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley; Rinis, Haris; Cavanaugh, John

    2011-01-01

    A test port designed as part of a fiber optic coupled laser altimeter receiver optical system allows for the back-illumination of the optical system for alignment verification, as well as illumination of the detector(s) for testing the receiver electronics and signal-processing algorithms. Measuring the optical alignment of a laser altimeter instrument is difficult after the instrument is fully assembled. The addition of a test port in the receiver aft-optics allows for the back-illumination of the receiver system such that its focal setting and boresight alignment can be easily verified. For a multiple-detector receiver system, the addition of the aft-optics test port offers the added advantage of being able to simultaneously test all the detectors with different signals that simulate the expected operational conditions. On a laser altimeter instrument (see figure), the aft-optics couple the light from the receiver telescope to the receiver detector(s). Incorporating a beam splitter in the aft-optics design allows for the addition of a test port to back-illuminate the receiver telescope and/or detectors. The aft-optics layout resembles a T with the detector on one leg, the receiver telescope input port on the second leg, and the test port on the third leg. The use of a custom beam splitter with 99-percent reflection, 1-percent transmission, and a mirrored roof can send the test port light to the receiver telescope leg as well as the detector leg, without unduly sacrificing the signal from the receiver telescope to the detector. The ability to test the receiver system alignment, as well as multiple detectors with different signals without the need to disassemble the instrument or connect and reconnect components, is a great advantage to the aft-optics test port. Another benefit is that the receiver telescope aperture is fully back-illuminated by the test port so the receiver telescope focal setting vs. pressure and or temperature can be accurately measured (as

  5. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... forwarding and receiving communications signals via a system of satellites or reselling satellite... specialized telecommunications services, such as satellite tracking, communications telemetry, and radar... of Subjects in 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Frequency allocations, Satellites. Federal Communications...

  6. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat Mission: Initial Science Measurement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Sun, X.; Riris, H.; Sirota, M.; McGarry, J.; Palm, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System is the space lidar on the NASA ICESat mision. Its design combines an altimeter with 5 cm precision with a laser pointing angle determination system and a dual wavelength cloud and aerosol lidar. GLAS measures the range to the Earth's surface with 1064 nm laser pulses. Each laser pulse produces a precision pointing measurement from the stellar reference system (SRS) and an echo pulse waveform, which permits range determination and waveform spreading analysis. The single shot ranging accuracy is < 10 cm for ice surfaces with slopes < 2 degrees. GLAS also measures atmospheric backscatter profiles at both 1064 and 532 nm. The 1064 nm measurements use an analog Si APD detector and measure the height and profile the backscatter signal from thicker clouds. The measurements at 532 nm use photon counting detectors, and will measure the vertical height distributions of optically thin clouds and aerosol layers Before launch, the measurement performance of GLAS was evaluated using a lidar test instrument called the Bench Check Equipment (BCE). The BCE was developed in parallel with GLAS and served as an inverse altimeter, inverse lidar and a stellar source simulator. It was used to simulate the range of expected optical inputs to the GLAS receiver by illuminating its telescope with simulated background light as well as laser echoes with known powers, energy levels, widths and delay times. The BCE also allowed monitoring of the transmitted laser energy, the angle measurements of the SRS, the co-alignment of the transmitted laser beam to the receiver line of sight, and performance of the flight science algorithms. Performance was evaluated during the GLAS development, before and after environmental tests, and after delivery to the spacecraft. The ICESat observatory was launched into a 94 degree inclination, 590 km altitude circular polar orbit on January 12, 2003. Beginning in early February, GLAS was powered on tested in stages. Its 1064 nm

  7. Satellite radar altimetry water elevations performance over a 200 m wide river: Evaluation over the Garonne River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Frappart, F.; Leleu, A.-S.; Marieu, V.; Blumstein, D.; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Boy, F.; Sottolichio, A.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2017-01-01

    flatter. To overcome this issue, an experimental instrument operating mode, called the DIODE/DEM tracking mode, has been developed by CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and has been tested during few Jason-2 cycles and during the first SARAL/AltiKA cycle. This tracking mode "forces" the instrument to observe a target of interest, i.e. water bodies. The example of the Garonne River shows, for one SARAL ground track, the benefit of the DIODE/DEM tracking mode for a steep-sided river reach, which is not detected using the nominal instrument operating mode. Yet, this mode relies on ancillary datasets (a priori global DEM and global land/water mask), which are critical to obtain river valley observation. The ultimately computed elevations along the satellite tracks, loaded on board, should have an absolute vertical accuracy around 10 m (or better). This case also shows, when the instrument is correctly observing the river valley, that the altimeter can detect water bodies narrower than 100 m (like an artificial canal). In agreement with recent studies, this work shows that altimeter missions can provide useful water elevation measurements over a 200 m wide river with RMSE as low as 50 cm and 20 cm, for ENVISAT and Jason-2 respectively. The seasonal cycle can be observed with the temporal sampling of these missions (35 days and 10 days, respectively), but short term events, like flood events, are most of the time not observed. It also illustrates that altimeter capability to observe a river is highly dependent of the surrounding topography, the observation configuration, previous measurements and the instrument design. Therefore, it is not possible to generalize at global scale the minimum river width that could be seen by altimeters. This study analyzes, for the first time, the potential of the experimental DIODE/DEM tracking mode to observe steep-sided narrow river valleys, which are frequently missed with nominal tracking mode. For such case, using the DIODE/DEM mode

  8. Development of the Laser Altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; Kase, T.; Shiina, T.; Mita, M.; Namiki, N.; Senshu, H.; Yamada, R.; Noda, H.; Kunimori, H.; Hirata, N.; Terui, F.; Mimasu, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Hayabusa2 was launched on 3 December 2014 on an H-IIA launch vehicle from the Tanegashima Space Center, and is, at the time of writing, cruising toward asteroid 162137 Ryugu ( 1999JU3). After reaching the asteroid, it will stay for about 1.5 years to observe the asteroid and collect surface material samples. The light detection and ranging (LIDAR) laser altimeter on Hayabusa2 has a wide dynamic range, from 25 km to 30 m, because the LIDAR is used as a navigation sensor for rendezvous, approach, and touchdown procedures. Since it was designed for use in planetary explorers, its weight is a low 3.5 kg. The LIDAR can serve not only as a navigation sensor, but also as observation equipment for estimating the asteroid's topography, gravity and surface reflectivity (albedo). Since Hayabusa2 had a development schedule of just three years from the start of the project to launch, minimizing development time was a particular concern. A key to shortening the development period of Hayabusa2's LIDAR system was heritage technology from Hayabusa's LIDAR and the SELENE lunar explorer's LALT laser altimeter. Given that the main role of Hayabusa2's LIDAR is to serve as a navigation sensor, we discuss its development from an engineering viewpoint. However, detailed information about instrument development and test results is also important for scientific analysis of LIDAR data and for future laser altimetry in lunar and planetary exploration. Here we describe lessons learned from the Hayabusa LIDAR, as well as Hayabusa2's hardware, new technologies and system designs based on it, and flight model evaluation results. The monolithic laser used in the laser module is a characteristic technology of this LIDAR. It was developed to solve issues with low-temperature storage that were problematic when developing the LIDAR system for the first Hayabusa mission. The new module not only solves such problems but also improves reliability and miniaturization by reducing the number of parts.

  9. Carrier tracking of high dynamic BD satellite signal based on UPF%基于UPF的高动态北斗卫星信号的载波跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海辉; 孙希延; 纪元法

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the tracking accuracy of extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter and other high dy-namic signal carrier tracking algorithms,the unscented particle filter is used for tracking the high dynamic Beidou satellite signal carrier.The UPF algorithm combines particle filter with unscented Kalman filter,the carrier state variables are esti-mated by particle filter,and to solve the problem of particle degradation,the UKF filter is used to redistribute the weight of particles.Matlab simulation results show that the carrier frequency offsets of EKF,UKF and UPF tracking algorithms are respectively -15-15,-10-10,-4-4 Hz,the superiority of UPF algorithm is proved.%针对扩展卡尔曼滤波(EKF)和无迹卡尔曼滤波(UKF)等高动态信号载波跟踪算法存在跟踪精度不高的问题,采用无迹粒子滤波(UPF)算法对高动态北斗卫星信号载波进行跟踪。UPF 算法结合粒子滤波(PF)和无迹卡尔曼滤波,采用PF对载波状态变量进行估计,同时使用 UKF滤波器对粒子进行权值的重新分配,解决了粒子退化问题。通过 Matlab 仿真对比,基于 EKF、UKF、UPF的跟踪算法的载波频率误差分别为-15~15、-10~10、-4~4 Hz,验证了 UPF算法的优越性。

  10. An Antenna Tracking Method Using Phased Array and Servo for Vehicle Satellite Communication on the Move%相控阵结合伺服辅助的车载动中通天线跟踪方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文丰

    2016-01-01

    天线跟踪功能是车载动中通系统( SOTM)提供无线通信能力的前提,相控阵天线能提供较好的跟踪性能,但是存在波束扫描范围有限的问题。为实现相控阵天线全方位跟踪能力,提出了一种相控阵+伺服辅助的方法。给出了算法数据处理流程,并完成了原理样机设计。根据原理样机工作原理给出了跟踪角误差计算公式,测试结果与计算结果相符。测试结果表明:在(57.88~115.76)。/s角速度下,通信链路信噪比损失小于0.5 dB。%The antenna tracking function is the foundation for the vehicle satellite communication on the move( SOTM) to offer wireless communications,and the phased array antenna can provide better tracking performance,but the beam scanning range is limited. In order to realize the phased array antenna tracking in the entire orientation,a method using phased array antenna and servo is presented. The data processing flow of algorithm is provided, and the prototype has been developed. According to the prototype working principle,the formula to calculate the tracking angle error is given. The test result matches with the calcu-lating result,and the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) loss is smaller than 0. 5 dB at the angle speed between (57. 88~115. 76)./s.

  11. The year-round migration pattern of thick-billed murres breeding in W and NW Greenland tracked with satellite transmitters and geolocators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Frederiksen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the year-round distribution pattern is needed to understand ecology and population development in colonies of thick-billed murres under pressure from hunting and oil pollution in the non-breeding period. We tracked thick-billed murres from three colonies in eastern Baffin Bay...

  12. IceBridge Paroscientific L0 Pressure Altimeter Raw Air Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Paroscientific L0 Pressure Altimeter Raw Air Pressure (IAPRS0) data set contains air pressure readings taken over Antarctica using the...

  13. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh.

  14. Capture Scheme of the Antenna in Ka-band for Launch Vehicle Based on Tracking and Data Relay Satellite%运载火箭Ka频段天基测控的天线捕获方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫长辉; 曾贵明; 张恒

    2011-01-01

    In order to transmit the space-based signal, the capture and track between the tracking and data relay satellite(TDRS) antenna and the user's aerocraft antenna should be completed firstly. In this paper, the uncertain area of the antenna scan is analyzed, adopting antenna-scan capture scheme for capturing the antenna on TORS by the phased-array antenna on launch vehicle. The values of the antenna array and EIRP are conformed and the capture time is given by computer simulation.%为实现天基信息的传输,首先要完成中继卫星天线与用户飞行器天线之间的捕获与跟踪.针对箭载相控阵天线对中继卫星的捕获,采用Ka频段相控阵天线扫描捕获策略,分析了天线扫描的不确定区域,确定了天线阵元数及EIRP值,给出了捕获时间的仿真结果,为工程应用提供参考.

  15. On Eddy Viscosity, Energy Cascades, and the Horizontal Resolution of Gridded Satellite Altimeter Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    midlatitudes. The v = 0, FL = 0.4 experiment consists of densely packed vorti- ces (e.g., McWilliams 1984), in rough similarity to a typical snapshot of...acknowledge helpful discussions with Dudley Chelton, Joe LaCasce, Roger Samelson, Ted Shepherd, and Alan Wallcraft. BKA received support from Office...O., and M. E. Mclntyre, 2005: Wave capture and wave- vortex duality. J. Fluid Mech., 534, 67-95. Capet, X., J. C. McWilliams , M. J. Molemaker, and

  16. Evaluating the Impact of the Number of Satellite Altimeters Used in an Assimilative Ocean Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    indicates the scaled MB, MB95 MB 1 N N j51 (O j O)2 2 4 3 5 1/2 , (12) or the biweight version, MBbw9 5 MBbw hhO j iibw , (13) and the x axis denotes...RMSEbwunbiased hhO j iibw . (15) To investigate the impact of outliers, results from both the Gaussian statistics [Eqs. (12) and (14)] and the non- parametric

  17. Initial approach in biomass burning aerosol transport tracking with CALIPSO and MODIS satellites, sunphotometer, and a backscatter lidar system in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, E.; Lopes, F. J. S.

    2009-09-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing concern about the direct and indirect influence of the aerosols in the Earth's radiative budget. Aerosols from biomass burning activities have been identified as a significant radiative forcing agent. A significant concentration quantity of aerosol particles observed in the atmosphere can be associated with intense anthropogenic biomass burning activity. The CALIPSO satellite and ground-based Lidar systems are indispensable to provide the vertical structure and optical properties of aerosol and clouds on global and local scale, respectively. The Brazilian mid-western region is one of the biggest producers of biomass burning in the whole continent. Aerosols from biomass burning can be transported to distances of hundreds or thousands of kilometers. It has been developed a computational routine to map the CALIPSO overpasses over the whole country in order to retrieve the total coverage taking special attention in the Brazilian AERONET sites. In this context, the measured data from AERONET, CALIPSO and MODIS Satellite and the MSP-Lidar system from Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) can be used to map the aerosols biomass burning plumes transported from the mid-western to the southeastern region. In total 5 sites were chosen spanning from 0 to 23 South latitude and 46 to 60 West in longitude in coverage during 2007 and we were able to identify such transports during the months of August and September.

  18. The development of the CHANG'`E-1 lunar explorer laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, R.; Wang, J. Y.; Hu, Y. H.; Jia, J. J.

    According to Chinese fable CHANG prime E is the name of a peri who lives in the moon with a white rabbit The CHANG prime E-1 lunar explorer will be launched in April 2007 The Lunar Explorer Laser Altimeter LELA is one of the 6 payloads in Chang prime E-1 which is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences The data of LELA will be used with the Optical Imager for acquiring the three dimension image of the moon surface The LELA transmits laser pulses determines their round trip times to the surface of the moon using a time interval counter and measures ranges between CHANG prime E-1 lunar explorer and the lunar surface in the nadir direction with 5m accuracy every 1 second for 1 year s mission period The acquired range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the CHANG prime E-1 lunar explorer obtained from the ground-based tracking and on board star sensor respectively The mean distances between Chang prime E-1 and the surface of moon is 200Km The LELA utilizes a laser diode LD pumped Q-switched Nd YAG laser that has a wavelength of 1064nm a pulse width of 10ns The output beam divergence is improved to 0 6mrad by Galileo refractor-type collimator which resulted in a moon surface spot size foot print of 120m The return pulses are captured by Cassegrain-type reflector and detected by Si-APD detector The prototype began from 2003 Until now the engineering model had been finished

  19. The TAOS/STEP Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, David; Hosken, Robert

    1995-01-01

    The Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability / Space Test Experiments Platform (TAOS/STEP) satellite was launched on a Taurus booster from Vandenberg Air Force Base into a nearly circular, 105 degree inclined orbit on March 13, 1994. The purpose of this satellite is twofold: 1) to test a new concept in multiple procurements of fast-track modular satellites and 2) to test a suite of Air Force Phillips Laboratory payloads in space. The TAOS payloads include the Microcosm Autonomous N...

  20. Third Field Test of Satellite-Tracked Surface Drifting Buoys for Simulating the Movement of Spilled Oil on the Sea Surface. Cruise Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.

    1995-12-18

    This report describes experiments with drifting buoys as potential simulators of drifting oil spills. Two drifter types were deployed to test how well they could follow oil slicks. One was a sphere of diameter 30 cm, the other was a flattened spheroid of 37 cm horizontal diameter and 20 cm vertical diameter. Both were equipped with ARGOS transmitters, and were ballasted to float at their equators. A third type, the CODE drifter, was deployed to track the motion of water in the top meter of the water column. The CODE drifters consisted of a central vertical cylinder one meter long, four inch diameter, with four vertical sails radiating at right angles to the central shaft. The spheres and the spheroids followed the surface oil movement very well. The movement of the thick portion of the drifting oil should therefore be very well represented by the mean ARGOS trajectories. The CODE drifters proved very useful as markers for the dispersed and dissolved hydrocarbon cloud, and should become a standard part of the sampling procedures. The drifters would be much more useful in real-time spill situations if they could use GPS-VHF for real-time mapping. The track evaluations were done by the U.S. Minerals Management Service. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 table

  1. Mesoscale ocean variability signal recovered from altimeter data in the SW Atlantic Ocean: a comparison of orbit error correction in three Geosat data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goni

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbit error is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in studies of ocean dynamics using satellite altimeters. The sensitivity of GEOSAT mesoscale ocean variability estimates to altimeter orbit precision in the SW Atlantic is analyzed using three GEOSAT data sets derived from different orbit estimation methods: (a the original GDR data set, which has the lowest orbit precision, (b the GEM-T2 set, constructed from a much more precise orbital model, and (c the Sirkes-Wunsch data set, derived from additional spectral analysis of the GEM-T2 data set. Differences among the data sets are investigated for two tracks in dynamically dissimilar regimes of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, by comparing: (a distinctive features of the average power density spectra of the sea height residuals and (b space-time diagrams of sea height residuals. The variability estimates produced by the three data sets are extremely similar in both regimes after removal of the time-dependent component of the orbit error using a quadratic fit. Our results indicate that altimeter orbit precision with appropriate processing plays only a minor role in studies of mesoscale ocean variability.Erro orbital tem sido a principal fonte de incerteza no processamento de dados altimétricos. Recentes conjuntos de dados, baseados em modelos de predição orbital mais avançados c em novas metodologias de correção de erro, já foram capazes de reduzir o erro orbital de ate uma ordem de magnitude em comparação com os GDRs originais. Ncslc trabalho nós avaliamos os resultados dessas melhores eslimativas na descrição da variabilidade "meso- escalar" na parte sudoeste do oceano Atlântico Sul. Comparamos resultados obtidos cm tres conjuntos de dados: os GDRs originais c os conjuntos de dados GEM-T2 c Sirkes-Wunsch. Para garantir a "sensibilidade" das estimativas dc variabilidade mcso-cscalar quanto às mudanças na precisão orbital, utilizamos as mesmas "correções ambientais" c o

  2. Analysis of Satellite and Airborne Imagery for Detection of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Floating Macrophytes and Tracking of Aquatic Weed Control Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed an 80 percent overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  3. Receiver Design, Performance Analysis, and Evaluation for Space-Borne Laser Altimeters and Space-to-Space Laser Ranging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1996-01-01

    This progress report consists of two separate reports. The first one describes our work on the use of variable gain amplifiers to increase the receiver dynamic range of space borne laser altimeters such as NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter Systems (GLAS). The requirement of the receiver dynamic range was first calculated. A breadboard variable gain amplifier circuit was made and the performance was fully characterized. The circuit will also be tested in flight on board the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA-02) next year. The second report describes our research on the master clock oscillator frequency calibration for space borne laser altimeter systems using global positioning system (GPS) receivers.

  4. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  5. Study of landwater variation over Chao Phraya river basin using GRACE, satellite altimetry and in situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Taniguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    A project to assess the effects of human activities on the subsurface environment in Asian developing cities has been in progress (Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan, 2009). Bangkok, Thailand is one of the study cities in this project. Using GRACE satellite gravity data, we previously recovered landwater mass variation over the Chao Phraya river basin, where Bangkok is located on downstream. However, mainly because of insufficient spatial resolution of the GRACE data then released, it was difficult to distinguish mass variation over the Chao Phraya basin with the ones of the neighboring Mekong, Irrawaddy and Salween river basins. Recently, some new versions of GRACE data sets have been available, and thus we estimated again the mass variations over these basins using version 2 of CNS/GRGS data set. The result shows that mass variations of the each basin could be distinguished due to improvement of the spatial resolution of the data. One of the interesting things is that a negative interannual mass trend is observed only over the Chao Phraya river basin, while the other basins show positive trend values. One of our concerns was which of the landwater components were decreasing. Because GRACE can only detect total terrestrial water storage, we further used satellite altimeter data to separate surface- and groundwater components. EnviSat data were mainly used as satellite altimetry data in this study, because the mission period is overlapping with GRACE mission and the ground track separation is relatively small. River water levels were recovered from satellite altimetry data, and converted to river water storage. Estimated river water storage was subtracted from the GRACE data. Thus, interannual surface- and groundwater trends were discussed separately. Another concern is whether the landwater decrease is caused by meteorological factors or factors of human activities. Thus, we also compared above results with global hydrological simulation model and

  6. Using Satellite-Based Earth Science Data in a Public Health Decision-Support System to Track and Forecast Pollen Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Budge, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is widespread recognition within the public health community that ongoing changes in climate are expected to increasingly pose threats to human health. Environmentally induced health risks to populations with respiratory illnesses are a growing concern globally. Of particular concern are dust and smoke events carrying PM2.5 and PM10 particle sizes, ozone, and pollen. There is considerable interest in documenting the precise linkages between changing patterns in the climate and how these shifts impact the prevalence of respiratory illnesses. The establishment of these linkages can drive the development of early warning and forecasting systems to alert health care professionals of impending air-quality events. As a component of a larger NASA-funded project on Integration of Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems, the Earth Data Analysis Center (EDAC) at the University of New Mexico, is developing web-based visualization and analysis services for forecasting pollen concentration data. This decision-support system, New Mexico's Environmental Public Health Tracking System (NMEPHTS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), aims to improve health awareness and services by linking health effects data with levels and frequency of environmental exposure. The forecast of atmospheric events with high pollen concentrations has employed a modified version of the DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model, a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling. In this application, PREAM (Pollen Regional Atmospheric Model) models pollen emission using a MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Model outputs are verified and validated with ground-based records of pollen release timing and quantities. Outputs of the PREAM model are post-processed and archived in EDAC's Geographic Storage, Transformation, and

  7. At-sea distribution of satellite-tracked grey-faced petrels, Pterodroma macroptera gouldi, captured on the Ruamaahua (Aldermen) Islands, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Catriona; Adams, Josh; Lyver, Phil

    2008-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to determine the at-sea distribution of 32 adult (non-breeders and failed breeders) Grey-faced Petrels, Pterodroma macroptera gouldi, during July-October in 2006 and 2007. Adults captured at breeding colonies on the Ruamaahua (Aldermen) Islands ranged across the southwestern Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea between 20-49°S and 142°E and 1300 W Petrels were located almost exclusively over offshore waters> 1000 m depth. The extent oftheir distributions was similar across years, but petrels ranged farther south and west in 2006. Individuals displayed a high degree ofspatial overlap (48-620/0 among individuals) and area use revealed three general "hotspots" within their overall range: waters near the Ruamaahua Islands; the central Tasman Sea; and the area surrounding the Chatham Rise. In July-August 2006, most petrels congregated over the Tasman Sea, but for the same period in 2007 were predominantly associated with Chatham Rise. The home ranges of petrels tended to overlap disproportionately more than expected with the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone and less than expected with High Seas, relative to the area available in each zone, in July-August 2006. Accordingly, multiple nations are responsible for determining potential impacts resulting from fisheries bycatch and potential resource competition with Grey-faced Petrels.

  8. Development of Software for a Lidar-Altimeter Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jacob S.; Trujillo, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    A report describes the development of software for a digital processor that operates in conjunction with a finite-impulse-response (FIR) chip in a spaceborne lidar altimeter. Processing is started by a laser-fire interrupt signal that is repeated at intervals of 25 ms. For the purpose of discriminating between returns from the ground and returns from such things as trees, buildings, and clouds, the software is required to scan digitized lidar-return data in reverse of the acquisition sequence in order to distinguish the last return pulse from within a commanded ground-return range window. The digitized waveform information within this range window is filtered through 6 matched filters, in the hardware electronics, in order to maximize the probability of finding echoes from sloped or rough terrain and minimize the probability of selecting cloud returns. From the data falling past the end of the range window, there is obtained a noise baseline that is used to calculate a threshold value for each filter. The data from each filter is analyzed by a complex weighting scheme and the filter with the greatest weight is selected. A region around the peak of the ground return pulse associated with the selected filter is placed in telemetry, as well as information on its location, height, and other characteristics. The software requires many uplinked parameters as input. Included in the report is a discussion of major software-development problems posed by the design of the FIR chip and the need for the software to complete its process within 20 ms to fit within the overall 25-ms cycle.

  9. Tracking Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Cloud Prone Areas Using Moderate Resolution Satellite Data: A Case Study in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Basnet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.

  10. GEOS-3 ocean current investigation using radar altimeter profiling. [Gulf Stream surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

    1978-01-01

    Both quasi-stationary and dynamic departures from the marine geoid were successfully detected using altitude measurements from the GEOS-3 radar altimeter. The quasi-stationary departures are observed either as elevation changes in single pass profiles across the Gulf Stream or at the crowding of contour lines at the western and northern areas of topographic maps generated using altimeter data spanning one month or longer. Dynamic features such as current meandering and spawned eddies can be monitored by comparing monthly mean maps. Comparison of altimeter inferred eddies with IR detected thermal rings indicates agreement of the two techniques. Estimates of current velocity are made using derived slope estimates in conjunction with the geostrophic equation.

  11. Baseline Design and Performance Analysis of Laser Altimeter for Korean Lunar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Chul; Neumann, Gregory A.; Choi, Myeong-Hwan; Yu, Sung-Yeol; Bang, Seong-Cheol; Ka, Neung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Uk; Choi, Man-Soo; Park, Eunseo

    2016-09-01

    Korea’s lunar exploration project includes the launching of an orbiter, a lander (including a rover), and an experimental orbiter (referred to as a lunar pathfinder). Laser altimeters have played an important scientific role in lunar, planetary, and asteroid exploration missions since their first use in 1971 onboard the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon. In this study, a laser altimeter was proposed as a scientific instrument for the Korean lunar orbiter, which will be launched by 2020, to study the global topography of the surface of the Moon and its gravitational field and to support other payloads such as a terrain mapping camera or spectral imager. This study presents the baseline design and performance model for the proposed laser altimeter. Additionally, the study discusses the expected performance based on numerical simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the design of system parameters satisfies performance requirements with respect to detection probability and range error even under unfavorable conditions.

  12. On the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelgemann, D.

    1976-01-01

    A model for the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data is derived which consists of small correction terms to the inverse Stokes' formula. The influence of unknown sea surface topography in the case of meandering currents such as the Gulf Stream is discussed. A formula was derived in order to estimate the accuracy of the gravity anomalies from the known accuracy of the altimeter data. It is shown that for the case of known harmonic coefficients of lower order the range of integration in Stokes inverse formula can be reduced very much.

  13. A new, high-resolution digital elevation model of Greenland fully validated with airborne laser altimeter data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamber, J.L.; Ekholm, Simon; Krabill, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A new digital elevation model of the Greenland ice sheet and surrounding rock outcrops has been produced at 1-km postings from a comprehensive suite of satellite remote sensing and cartographic data sets. Height data over the ice sheet were mainly from ERS-1 and Geosat radar altimetry. These data...... coverage existed. The data were interpolated onto a regular grid with a spacing of similar to1 km. The accuracy of the resultant digital elevation model over the ice sheet was assessed using independent and spatially extensive measurements from an airborne laser altimeter that had an accuracy of between 10...... and 12 cm. In a comparison with the laser altimetry the digital elevation model was found to have a slope-dependent accuracy ranging from -1.04 +/-1.98 m to -0.06 +/- 14.33 m over the ice sheet for a slope range of 0.0-1.0 degrees. The mean accuracy over the whole ice sheet was -0.33 +/-6.97 m. Over...

  14. Satellites provide new insights into polar geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; McAdoo, David

    A revolution in polar geophysics is under way thanks to altimeter data, which the ERS satellites have been collecting since 1991. Geophysical surveys in the polar regions have long been hampered by inaccessibility, particularly in areas that are covered yearround by sea ice or land ice. As a result the major remaining uncertainties in global tectonic models of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tend to lie in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. In fact, major tectonic plate boundaries have been hypothesized, but not confirmed, for both regions. In the Arctic, a divergent plate boundary associated with the Mesozoic opening of the Canada Basin has been proposed [e.g., Lawver et al., 1990] while in the Antarctic a divergent boundary, active during the late Cretaceous in the Amundsen Sea, has been hypothesized [Cande et al., 1995; Stock and Molnar, 1987]. Due to the acute sparseness of seafloor surveys in these areas, however, no one has been able to prove that these plate boundaries actually existed, nor has anyone been able to locate extinct remnants of the boundaries. High-resolution marine gravity fields (Figures 1 and 2) derived from satellite altimeter data are now redressing this problem of sparse surveys.

  15. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  16. Advanced topographic laser altimeter system (ATLAS) receiver telescope assembly (RTA) and transmitter alignment and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Bolcar, Matthew; Chambers, John; Crane, Allen; Eegholm, Bente; Evans, Tyler; Hetherington, Samuel; Mentzell, Eric; Thompson, Patrick L.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Vaughnn, David

    2016-09-01

    The sole instrument on NASA's ICESat-2 spacecraft shown in Figure 1 will be the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS)1. The ATLAS is a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instrument; it measures the time of flight of the six transmitted laser beams to the Earth and back to determine altitude for geospatial mapping of global ice. The ATLAS laser beam is split into 6 main beams by a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that are reflected off of the earth and imaged by an 800 mm diameter Receiver Telescope Assembly (RTA). The RTA is composed of a 2-mirror telescope and Aft Optics Assembly (AOA) that collects and focuses the light from the 6 probe beams into 6 science fibers. Each fiber optic has a field of view on the earth that subtends 83 micro Radians. The light collected by each fiber is detected by a photomultiplier and timing related to a master clock to determine time of flight and therefore distance. The collection of the light from the 6 laser spots projected to the ground allows for dense cross track sampling to provide for slope measurements of ice fields. NASA LIDAR instruments typically utilize telescopes that are not diffraction limited since they function as a light collector rather than imaging function. The more challenging requirements of the ATLAS instrument require better performance of the telescope at the ¼ wave level to provide for improved sampling and signal to noise. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) contracted the build of the telescope to General Dynamics (GD). GD fabricated and tested the flight and flight spare telescope and then integrated the government supplied AOA for testing of the RTA before and after vibration qualification. The RTA was then delivered to GSFC for independent verification and testing over expected thermal vacuum conditions. The testing at GSFC included a measurement of the RTA wavefront error and encircled energy in several orientations to determine the expected zero gravity figure, encircled

  17. Improved gravity field and station-coordinate estimates from laser tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-wavelength features of the geopotential and the geocentric coordinates of satellite-tracking stations is significantly improved by the use of precision satellite tracking with lasers. Tracking data on nine satellites are combined with terrestrial gravimetry to obtain a spherical-harmonics representation of the geopotential complete through degree and order 24. Laser tracking data are used to determine the coordinates of tracking stations. This coordinate system is referred to an inertial reference frame by use of camera observations and observations of deep-space probes. Resulting geodetic parameters provide better satellite ephemerides and a reference for analyzing satellite-to-sea-surface altimetry.

  18. The use of satellites in gravity field determination and model adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Petrus Nicolaas Anna Maria

    1992-06-01

    Methods to improve gravity field models of the Earth with available data from satellite observations are proposed and discussed. In principle, all types of satellite observations mentioned give information of the satellite orbit perturbations and in conjunction the Earth's gravity field, because the satellite orbits are affected most by the Earth's gravity field. Therefore, two subjects are addressed: representation forms of the gravity field of the Earth and the theory of satellite orbit perturbations. An analytical orbit perturbation theory is presented and shown to be sufficiently accurate for describing satellite orbit perturbations if certain conditions are fulfilled. Gravity field adjustment experiments using the analytical orbit perturbation theory are discussed using real satellite observations. These observations consisted of Seasat laser range measurements and crossover differences, and of Geosat altimeter measurements and crossover differences. A look into the future, particularly relating to the ARISTOTELES (Applications and Research Involving Space Techniques for the Observation of the Earth's field from Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft) mission, is given.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 43 - Altimeter System Test and Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Altimeter System Test and Inspection E Appendix E to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. E Appendix E to...

  20. Waveform model of a laser altimeter for an elliptical Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ma; Mingwei, Wang; Guoyuan, Li; Xiushan, Lu; Fanlin, Yang

    2016-03-10

    The current waveform model of a laser altimeter is based on the Gaussian laser beam of the fundamental mode, whose cross section is a circular spot, whereas some of the cross sections of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System lasers are closer to elliptical spots. Based on the expression of the elliptical Gaussian beam and the waveform theory of laser altimeters, the primary parameters of an echo waveform were derived. In order to examine the deduced expressions, a laser altimetry waveform simulator and waveform processing software were programmed and improved under the circumstance of an elliptical Gaussian beam. The result shows that all the biases between the theoretical and simulated waveforms were less than 0.5%, and the derived model of an elliptical spot is universal and can also be used for the conventional circular spot. The shape of the waveforms is influenced by the ellipticity of the laser spot, the target slope, and the "azimuth angle" between the major axis and the slope direction. This article provides the waveform theoretical basis of a laser altimeter under an elliptical Gaussian beam.

  1. Biased momentum satellite attitude tracking control based on sliding mode observer%基于滑模观测器的偏置动量卫星姿态跟踪控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝勇; 闫鑫; 苏中华

    2012-01-01

    针对在偏航姿态测量信息未知时偏置动量卫星姿态跟踪控制,提出了一种新的滑模观测器及其对应的自适应滑模控制器设计方法.基于滚动轴和俯仰轴信息,设计了一种经过平滑的滑模观测器,抑制高频抖震的同时提高状态估计的鲁棒性;设计的比例-积分滑模面,能实现积分滑模控制,抑制稳态误差,优化滑模的全程鲁棒性,并采用自适应方法,对不确定参数进行在线更新,补偿不确定参数的影响.数值仿真结果表明,相对于龙伯格观测器,该方法能提高偏航姿态信息估计精度,在保证系统鲁棒性的同时,滚动和偏航轴姿态跟踪精度分别提高约50%.%A method for design of the novel adaptive sliding mode observer and its corresponding controller is proposed for momentum biased satellite at titude tracking control with unknown measure yaw attitude. The smooth sliding mode observer is designed by using roll and pitch information so as to improve the state estimation robustness while suppressing high-frequency chattering. A proportional and integral sliding mode surface is proposed to implement an integral sliding mode control which could mitigate the steady-state error and optimize the global robustness of sliding mode. With purpose of compensating the passive effect of uncertain parameters, an adaptive update law is presented based on an adaptive method. Numerical simulation results show that, compared with Luenberger observer, the proposed method could improve the yaw attitude estimation accuracy and improve the pitch-yaw axis tracking precision by 50% as well as the guaranty of the robustness.

  2. How can we Optimize Global Satellite Observations of Glacier Velocity and Elevation Changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, M. J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Zheng, W.

    2015-12-01

    We have started a global compilation of glacier surface elevation change rates measured by altimeters and differencing of Digital Elevation Models and glacier velocities measured by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical feature tracking as well as from Interferometric SAR (InSAR). Our goal is to compile statistics on recent ice flow velocities and surface elevation change rates near the fronts of all available glaciers using literature and our own data sets of the Russian Arctic, Patagonia, Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica, the Himalayas, and other locations. We quantify the percentage of the glaciers on the planet that can be regarded as fast flowing glaciers, with surface velocities of more than 50 meters per year, while also recording glaciers that have elevation change rates of more than 2 meters per year. We examine whether glaciers have significant interannual variations in velocities, or have accelerated or stagnated where time series of ice motions are available. We use glacier boundaries and identifiers from the Randolph Glacier Inventory. Our survey highlights glaciers that are likely to react quickly to changes in their mass accumulation rates. The study also identifies geographical areas where our knowledge of glacier dynamics remains poor. Our survey helps guide how frequently observations must be made in order to provide quality satellite-derived velocity and ice elevation observations at a variety of glacier thermal regimes, speeds and widths. Our objectives are to determine to what extent the joint NASA and Indian Space Research Organization Synthetic Aperture Radar mission (NISAR) will be able to provide global precision coverage of ice speed changes and to determine how to optimize observations from the global constellation of satellite missions to record important changes to glacier elevations and velocities worldwide.

  3. New Regional Satellite Positioning Constellation Scheme Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Hai-bin; ZHANG Nai-tong; GU Xue-mai

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of present "Beidou" satellite positioning system are analyzed. In order to perfect our country regional satellite positioning system, the idea of "Beidou" geosychronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites combined with some middle earth orbit (MEO) satellites constellation is put forward. The details of general satellite constellation optimized method are described, using this method the multiple positioning constellation design results are gained. And those results belong to two type of schems, one is 2 GEO plus some MEO satellites and the other is 3 GEO plus some MEO satellites. Through simulation and comparison, among those multiple design results, final optimized regional positioning constellation is given. In order to check the chosen constellation cover performance, the position dilution of precision(PDOP) is calculated, and with satellite constellation simulation software Satlab many coverage performances of the chosen constellation substellar point track, elevation, azimuth and visible satellites number changing situation are also simulated.

  4. Potential for Using Satellite Lidar for Seasonal Snow Depth Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, M. F.; Stoll, J.; Harding, D. J.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Carabajal, C. C.; Markus, T.

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates the potential for estimating snow depth in complex mountainous terrain using high resolution satellite lidar. For over three decades, satellite remote sensing of snow depth and water equivalent has relied primarily on passive microwave sensors with an approximately 25 km footprint. While successfully employed in many global water balance analyses, their large footprints, necessary to capture the natural emission of the surface, are too coarse to define the spatial heterogeneity of mountain watershed-scale snow due to variable topography and vegetation. In this study, the capability of satellite lidar altimetry for estimating snow depth was evaluated primarily using surface elevations observed by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter Sensor (GLAS) flown on board the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite from 2003-2009, with a footprint size of ~70m. The evaluation includes the analysis of GLAS waveforms at near-repeat locations during snow-off and snow on conditions, using several snow depth estimation approaches, focusing on the Uinta Mountains of NE Utah. Also presented is the concept for the ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), currently set to launch in July 2016, and its potential capability for characterizing snow depth. The opportunity for partnering through NASA's Early Adopter Program using prototype aircraft observations also is presented.

  5. Interdisciplinary Earth Science Applications Using Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Dai, C.; Yi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite altimetry was conceived as a space geodetic concept for ocean surface topography mapping in the NASA-sponsored 1969 Williamstown, MA Conference, and was tested as part of the passive and active radar payload (S192), along with a radiometer and a scatterometer, on Skylab-1 in May 14, 1973. Since then, numerous radar and laser satellite altimetry missions orbiting/flying-by the Earth, Mars, Mercury, Titan and the Moon have been launched, evolving from the original scientific objective of marine gravity field mapping to a geodetic tool to address interdisciplinary Earth and planetary sciences. The accuracy of the radar altimeter has improved from 0.9 m RMS for the S-192 Skylab Ku-band compressed-pulse altimeter, to 2 cm RMS (2 second average) for the dual-frequency pulse-limited radar altimetry and associated sensors onboard TOPEX/POSEIDON. Satellite altimetry has evolved into a unique cross-disciplinary geodetic tool in addressing contemporary Earth science problems including sea-level rise, large-scale general ocean circulation, ice-sheet mass balance, terrestrial hydrology, and bathymetry. Here we provide a concise review and describe specific results on the additional recent innovative and unconventional applications of interdisciplinary science research using satellite radar altimetry, including geodynamics, land subsidence, snow depth, wetland and cold region hydrology.

  6. TDRSS/user satellite timing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgregor, D.; Douglas, F.; Kaul, R.

    1976-01-01

    A timing analysis for data readout through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) was presented. Various time tagging approaches were considered and the resulting accuracies delineated. The TDRSS was also defined and described in detail.

  7. A multi-subwaveform parametric retracker of the radar satellite altimetric waveform and recovery of gravity anomalies over coastal oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HWANG; CheinWay

    2010-01-01

    The quality of satellite radar altimetric data is very important in studies of geodesy,geophysics,and oceanography.Over coastal oceans,altimeter waveforms are contaminated by the terrain and physical environments so that the accuracy of altimeter data is lower than that over open oceans.Here we develop a new multi-subwaveform parametric retracker(MSPR) to improve the quality of altimeter data for the recovery of gravity anomaly in coastal oceans.The least squares collocation method is used to recover the residual gravity anomaly over the coastal water from altimetric data.The waveform data records from Geosat/GM around Taiwan Island are practically retracked with MSPR.When compared with the Taiwan geoid height,the results retracked by MSPR are more accurate than those retracked by the well-known β-5-parmeter method and from the geophysical data records(GDRs).The gravity anomalies over Taiwan coastal waters are calculated from the retracked altimeter data with the least squares collocation.When we compared gravity anomalies computed using altimeter GDRs with the ship-borne gravity data over Taiwan coastal ocean,we found that the results from retracked data are more accurate than those from GDRs.

  8. Global Geopotential Modelling from Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    spacecrafts circling the Moon. A simple plot of this information showed strong and roughly circular anomalies over the flatlands, or maria , sug...42 . -t 804. .8 ~ 0 .Ci. . .4 U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,t .8M 080 84 4 4 44 c lt 1....13 o30 -136- - 196 & ISLA , 4O cc cll, II :-. , 0.C19ho =Io 4" go I- - *, 0 L

  9. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  10. The COASTALT Project: Towards an Operational Use of Satellite Altimetry in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignudelli, S.; Cipollini, P.; Gommenginger, C.; Snaith, H. M.; Coelho, E.; Fernandes, J.; Gomez-Henri, J.; Martin-Puig, C.; Woodworth, P. L.; Dinardo, S.; Benveniste, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The coastal zone is the unique part of the Earth where land, sea, air and people meet. By its nature it is a complex system where all the processes that influence its functioning, whether physical, biological, chemical, social, climatological or geological, are interconnected. It requires an integrated approach benefiting from a synergy of modeling tools and multiple datasets created from space, air, land and ocean-based earth observing systems. An important property monitored from space using radar altimetry is the sea level, an index of variability of the ocean circulation. Since 1991, satellite altimetry has had exceptional success over the open ocean. However, the processing strategy used in the open ocean has not been of much success in getting sea level in the coastal zone. The advantage of current radar altimetry for coastal studies is that it can fill gaps in the vast areas around tide gauges which are running continu¬ously, but in only a few places. The coastal domain represents a challenging target for processing of satellite data in general; for satellite altimetry, the data retrieval is required to address some problems including: (1) re-tracking (important for the last 10 km next to the coast), (2) a more accurate wet troposphere path delay correction, (3) better modeling of tidal and atmospheric effects. A global record of length 17 years of raw data from a series of altimetry missions is presently available and represents a unique resource for retrospective analysis in the coastal zone. A great impetus has been given to the field by the recent launch of two major projects devoted to the development of coastal altimetry products for specific missions: PISTACH, by CNES focused on Jason-2 and COASTALT, by ESA for Envisat. In parallel, NASA is sustaining coastal altimetry research through specific R&D projects in response to the last OSTST call. This new “coastal altimetry” community, inherently interdisciplinary, has already had two well

  11. Surface topography of the Greenland Ice Sheet from satellite radar altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Zwally, H. Jay; Major, Judith A.; Brenner, Anita C.

    1989-01-01

    Surface elevation maps of the southern half of the Greenland subcontinent are produced from radar altimeter data acquired by the Seasat satellite. A summary of the processing procedure and examples of return waveform data are given. The elevation data are used to generate a regular grid which is then computer contoured to provide an elevation contour map. Ancillary maps show the statistical quality of the elevation data and various characteristics of the surface. The elevation map is used to define ice flow directions and delineate the major drainage basins. Regular maps of the Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin and the ice divide in the vicinity of Crete Station are presented. Altimeter derived elevations are compared with elevations measured both by satellite geoceivers and optical surveying.

  12. Data Association Algorithms for Tracking Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    accounts for seasonal variations using the low-degree Legendre polynomial interpolation aj = 0.34 + 0.10 cos(ω(t− t0))P1(sin(φj)) + 0.29P2(sin(φj)) (44...International Astronomical Union Devision I Working Group on Precession and the Ecliptic,” Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy , Vol. 94, No...Concise CIO based precession-nutation formulations,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 478, No. 1, January 2008, pp. 277–284. [27] Fukushima, T., “A New

  13. Ocean circulation modeling by use of radar altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbers, Dirk; Alpers, W.; Hasselmann, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Kase, R.; Krauss, W.; Siedler, G.; Willebrand, J.; Zahel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The project will investigate the use of radar altimetry (RA) data in the determination of the ocean circulation models. RA data will be used to verify prognostic experiments of the steady state and seasonal cycle of large-scale circulation models and the statistical steady state of eddy-resolving models. The data will serve as initial and update conditions in data assimilation experiments and as constraints in inverse calculations. The aim of the project is a better understanding of ocean physics, the determination and mapping of ocean currents, and a contribution to the establishment of ocean circulation models for climate studies. The goal of the project is to use satellite radar altimetry data for improving our knowledge of ocean circulation both in a descriptive sense and through the physics that govern the circulation state. The basic tool is a series of ocean circulation models. Depending on the model, different techniques will be applied to incorporate the RA data.

  14. Altimeter and Argo float data assimilation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayek, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    We analyse the thermo-haline characteristics in the Black Sea during the period 2002-2009 derived from numerical model simulations assimilating different observation data with the aim to improve the model skills. The Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) framework is used. In the experiment OI-1 we assimilate satellite altimetry and AVHRR data. In the experiment OI-2 we add also in-situ measurements from ARGO floats. Data assimilation uses the SESAM code and an optimal interpolation approach based on the static covariance matrix derived from the preliminary free model run, which converters the observations into basin temperature and salinity fields. Main attention in the analysis of simulations is been paid to the dominating characteristics of physical fields at seasonal and inter-annual time scales. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of steric heights from simulations and their consistence with the ones from satellite altimetry is used to analyse the general characteristics in the thermo-haline signals. Results indicate that the free model run reproduces reasonably well the seasonal variability of Rim Current and the cold intermediate water mass formation. The assimilation of remote sensing observations only (OI-1) improves significantly the dynamics of steric heights, in particular as seen in the analysis of higher degree EOF-modes. However, in this experiment the simulation of profiles needs an improvement. This improvement is ensured by the assimilation of ARGO profiles in OI-2. However, because in the Black Sea ARGO measurements are sparse the benefit of their assimilation has to be considered carefully and is done by an objective analysis on model skills in the entire basin.

  15. NODC Standard Product: US Navy Geosat altimeter geophysical data records (GDRs) for the Geodetic Mission (NODC Accession 0053782)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a complete copy of an NODC four CD-ROM product set containing all of NOAA's geophysical data records (GDRs) for the Geosat altimeter data...

  16. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  17. Algorithm for Detection of Ground and Canopy Cover in Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar Altimeter Data in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Ute Christina; McDonald, Brian W.; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Wallin, Bruce F.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten; Brenner, Anita; Field, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-2) mission is a decadal survey mission (2016 launch). The mission objectives are to measure land ice elevation, sea ice freeboard, and changes in these variables, as well as to collect measurements over vegetation to facilitate canopy height determination. Two innovative components will characterize the ICESat-2 lidar: 1) collection of elevation data by a multibeam system and 2) application of micropulse lidar (photon-counting) technology. A photon-counting altimeter yields clouds of discrete points, resulting from returns of individual photons, and hence new data analysis techniques are required for elevation determination and association of the returned points to reflectors of interest. The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm that allows detection of ground under dense canopy and identification of ground and canopy levels in simulated ICESat-2 data, based on airborne observations with a Sigma Space micropulse lidar. The mathematical algorithm uses spatial statistical and discrete mathematical concepts, including radial basis functions, density measures, geometrical anisotropy, eigenvectors, and geostatistical classification parameters and hyperparameters. Validation shows that ground and canopy elevation, and hence canopy height, can be expected to be observable with high accuracy by ICESat-2 for all expected beam energies considered for instrument design (93.01%-99.57% correctly selected points for a beam with expected return of 0.93 mean signals per shot (msp), and 72.85%-98.68% for 0.48 msp). The algorithm derived here is generally applicable for elevation determination from photoncounting lidar altimeter data collected over forested areas, land ice, sea ice, and land surfaces, as well as for cloud detection.

  18. Impact of Altimeter Data Processing on Sea Level Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lázaro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the impact of satellite altimetry data processing on sea levelstudies at regional scale, with emphasis on the influence of various geophysical correctionsand satellite orbit on the structure of the derived interannual signal and sea level trend. Thework focuses on the analysis of TOPEX data for a period of over twelve years, for threeregions in the North Atlantic: Tropical (0o≤φ≤25o, Sub-Tropical (25o≤φ≤50o and Sub-Arctic (50o≤φ≤65o. For this analysis corrected sea level anomalies with respect to a meansea surface model have been derived from the GDR-Ms provided by AVISO by applyingvarious state-of-the-art models for the geophysical corrections. Results show that sea leveltrend determined from TOPEX altimetry is dependent on the adopted models for the majorgeophysical corrections. The main effects come from the sea state bias (SSB, and from theapplication or not of the inverse barometer (IB correction. After an appropriate modellingof the TOPEX A/B bias, the two analysed SSB models induce small variations in sea leveltrend, from 0.0 to 0.2 mm/yr, with a small latitude dependence. The difference in sea leveltrend determined by a non IB-corrected series and an IB-corrected one has a strong regionaldependence with large differences in the shape of the interannual signals and in the derivedlinear trends. The use of two different drift models for the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer(TMR has a small but non negligible effect on the North Atlantic sea level trend of about0.1 mm/yr. The interannual signals of sea level time series derived with the NASA and theCNES orbits respectively, show a small departure in the middle of the series, which has noimpact on the derived sea level trend. These results strike the need for a continuousimprovement in the modelling of the various effects that influence the altimetermeasurement.

  19. ASSIMILATION OF ALTIMETER WIND DATA IN MESOSCALE NUMERICAL MODEL (MM5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Making use of altimeter wind data and standard sounding data in a mesoscale numerical model of PSU/NCAR (MM5), we test four-dimensional data assimilation scheme based on nudging. The purpose of this paper is to determine what meteorological fields and what assimilation method have positive effect on typhoon sea surface wind by simulating two typhoon cases in MM5. We perform seven experiments for 9608 Typhoon (Case 1): one control experiment, three analysis nudging experiments, two observation nudging experiments and one analysis and observation nudging experiment; we perform one control experiment and one analysis nudging experiment for 9711 Typhoon (Case 2). The results show assimilating wind-thermal fields can effectively improve simulation accuracy of the model; the experiment combining standard sounding data and surface observations can improve greatly the simulation accuracy of the model; the altimeter data contain lots of sea surface information and also have positive impact on typhoon sea surface wind.

  20. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  1. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  2. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  3. Retrievals of Thick Cloud Optical Depth from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) by Calibration of Solar Background Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Chiu, J. Christine; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Palm, Stephen P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nguyen, Louis; Spinhirne, James D.; Minnis, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Laser beams emitted from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), as well as other space-borne laser instruments, can only penetrate clouds to a limit of a few optical depths. As a result, only optical depths of thinner clouds (thick clouds using solar background light and treating GLAS as a solar radiometer. To do so we first calibrate the reflected solar radiation received by the photon-counting detectors of GLAS' 532 nm channel, which is the primary channel for atmospheric products. The solar background radiation is regarded as a noise to be subtracted in the retrieval process of the lidar products. However, once calibrated, it becomes a signal that can be used in studying the properties of optically thick clouds. In this paper, three calibration methods are presented: (I) calibration with coincident airborne and GLAS observations; (2) calibration with coincident Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and GLAS observations of deep convective clouds; (3) calibration from the first principles using optical depth of thin water clouds over ocean retrieved by GLAS active remote sensing. Results from the three methods agree well with each other. Cloud optical depth (COD) is retrieved from the calibrated solar background signal using a one-channel retrieval. Comparison with COD retrieved from GOES during GLAS overpasses shows that the average difference between the two retrievals is 24%. As an example, the COD values retrieved from GLAS solar background are illustrated for a marine stratocumulus cloud field that is too thick to be penetrated by the GLAS laser. Based on this study, optical depths for thick clouds will be provided as a supplementary product to the existing operational GLAS cloud products in future GLAS data releases.

  4. Inter-satellite links for satellite autonomous integrity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Irma; García-Serrano, Cristina; Catalán Catalán, Carlos; García, Alvaro Mozo; Tavella, Patrizia; Galleani, Lorenzo; Amarillo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    A new integrity monitoring mechanisms to be implemented on-board on a GNSS taking advantage of inter-satellite links has been introduced. This is based on accurate range and Doppler measurements not affected neither by atmospheric delays nor ground local degradation (multipath and interference). By a linear combination of the Inter-Satellite Links Observables, appropriate observables for both satellite orbits and clock monitoring are obtained and by the proposed algorithms it is possible to reduce the time-to-alarm and the probability of undetected satellite anomalies.Several test cases have been run to assess the performances of the new orbit and clock monitoring algorithms in front of a complete scenario (satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-ground links) and in a satellite-only scenario. The results of this experimentation campaign demonstrate that the Orbit Monitoring Algorithm is able to detect orbital feared events when the position error at the worst user location is still under acceptable limits. For instance, an unplanned manoeuvre in the along-track direction is detected (with a probability of false alarm equals to 5 × 10-9) when the position error at the worst user location is 18 cm. The experimentation also reveals that the clock monitoring algorithm is able to detect phase jumps, frequency jumps and instability degradation on the clocks but the latency of detection as well as the detection performances strongly depends on the noise added by the clock measurement system.

  5. A fiducial reference site for satellite altimetry in Crete, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrokordatos, Constantin;

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system. This work sets the ground......, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any...

  6. Tracking change over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  7. Comparison of airborne radar altimeter and ground-based Ku-band radar measurements on the ice cap Austfonna, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brandt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We compare coincident data from the European Space Agency's Airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS with ground-based Very High Bandwidth (VHB stepped-frequency radar measurements in the Ku-band. The ASIRAS instrument obtained data from ~700 m above the surface, using a 13.5 GHz center frequency and a 1 GHz bandwidth. The ground-based VHB radar measurements were acquired using the same center frequency, but with a variable bandwidth of either 1 or 8 GHz. Four sites were visited with the VHB radar; two sites within the transition region from superimposed ice to firn, and two sites in the long-term firn area (wet-snow zone. The greater bandwidth VHB measurements show that the first peak in the airborne data is a composite of the return from the surface (i.e. air-snow interface and returns of similar or stronger amplitude from reflectors in the upper ~30 cm of the subsurface. The peak position in the airborne data is thus not necessarily a good proxy for the surface since the maximum and width of the first return depend on the degree of interference between surface and subsurface reflectors. The major response from the winter snowpack was found to be caused by units of thin crust/ice layers (0.5–2 mm surrounded by large crystals (>3 mm. In the airborne data, it is possible to track such layers for tens of kilometers. The winter snowpack lacked thicker ice layers. The last year's summer surface, characterized by a low density large crystal layer overlaying a harder denser layer, gives a strong radar response, frequently the strongest. The clear relationship observed between the VHB and ASIRAS waveforms, justifies the use of ground-based radar measurements in the validation of air- or spaceborne radars.

  8. Moderating Argos location errors in animal tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David C.; Weinziert, Rolf; Davidson, Sarah C.; Kays, Roland; Wikelski, Martin; Bohrer, Gil

    2012-01-01

    1. The Argos System is used worldwide to satellite-track free-ranging animals, but location errors can range from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Low-quality locations (Argos classes A, 0, B and Z) dominate animal tracking data. Standard-quality animal tracking locations (Argos classes 3, 2 and 1) have larger errors than those reported in Argos manuals.

  9. Nearshore Bathymetric Change Resolved by Depth Inversions, Sonic Altimeters, and In-Situ Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, K. L.; Palmsten, M. L.; Hesser, T.; Dickhudt, P.; Ladner, H.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.; Penko, A.

    2016-12-01

    Video-based remote sensing of shoaling and breaking surface gravity waves combined with a depth-inversion algorithm, cBathy, may be able to provide bathymetry information with high spatial and temporal resolution in the nearshore (Holman et al., 2013, JGR, Vol 118). Although the accuracy of cBathy has been assessed in low-wave conditions when coincident in-situ surveys are available, it has not been tested for many conditions with significant wave height > 1.5 m. During high wave conditions, the use of linear wave theory in the depth-inversion algorithm may result in estimates of water depth that are too deep. Here, measurements from an in-situ array of sonic altimeters and from frequent watercraft surveys are used to assess the ability of cBathy to estimate the spatio-temporal evolution of the seafloor during a range of wave conditions at a micro-tidal sandy beach in Duck, NC. Observations were collected continuously from 14 October to 01 November 2015 with 8 altimeters in 1.5 to 4 m water depth on 2 cross-shore transects separated by 75 m in the alongshore during waves that ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 m. Nearshore bathymetry was alongshore variable, with a crescentic bar that attached to the shoreline along one transect and was 150 m offshore along the other transect. Sand levels changed by as much as 1 m in some locations. Additional measurements were collected with 3 altimeters on a single cross-shore transect for 6 months, with wave heights from 0.3 to 5.0 m and sand level fluctuations of up to 1 m in a single day. Initial comparisons with surveys show cBathy RMSE and bias are of similar magnitude to prior studies. Although cBathy resolves the large-scale spatial morphology of the sandbar, when Hs > 1.3 m cBathy estimates of the sandbar location are 10 to 50 m onshore of the surveyed location. cBathy uncertainty estimates were a poor representation of actual errors when compared with the surveys. Six-month-long time series of altimeter data will be used to assess c

  10. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  11. The Earth’s Gravity Field to Degree and Order 180 Using Seasat Altimeter Data, Terrestrial Gravity Data and Other Data,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    tracking purposes (with Seasat) S-4 is the superior solution; 3) the PGS1331 field (Marsh, private communication 1981) is a set of potential coefficients...Canberra, 1979. Lelgemann, D., Spherical Approximation and the Combination of Gravimetric and Satellite Data, Bullettino Di Geodesia E Scienze Affini

  12. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE RESEARCH IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  13. Contribution of Satellite Altimetry Data in Geological Structure Research in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Tran, Tuan; Ho, Thi Huong Mai

    2016-06-01

    The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  14. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  15. Pulse-to-pulse correlation in CryoSat SAR mode radar altimeter echoes from the sea surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Serial correlation among successive radar echoes returned from the ocean surface is an important design constraint in satellite altimetry. Walsh [1974, 1982] established the conventional wisdom. Taking the radar footprint to be a uniformly radiating disk, he derived a theoretically expected echo decorrelation time of about 0.5 milliseconds. Following Walsh, ocean altimeters usually employ a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) around 2 kHz, in order to obtain statistically independent echoes at (so it is thought) the maximum possible rate. CryoSat, designed for ranging to ice surfaces, employs a PRF of 18.2 kHz in its SAR mode. CryoSat SAR echo sequences over ocean surfaces can be used to empirically determine the ocean echo decorrelation, and thus to test Walsh's model. Such a test is presented in this paper. The analysis begins by forming the ensemble average of complex cross products of pairs of echoes separated by a time lag L * PRI, where the pulse repetition interval (PRI) is 55 microseconds and the echo lag L runs from 0 to 32. The L = 0 case yields the conventional pulse-limited waveform, which is used to determine the sea state in each ensemble average. The averages of lagged echo cross products reveal the complex coherency, with sampling in both slow time (lag, L), and fast time (range, sampled in waveform gates). Data from many areas and sea states are analyzed, and the results are explained using a simple theory approximating the complex coherency expected from a Gaussian radar pulse. This theory generalizes the classical Brown [1977] waveform model to lagged echo cross products, and generalizes Walsh's work to the case of footprints with non-uniform illumination and diffuse edges. Phase is due to vertical motion of the antenna. Amplitude variations in fast time are due to horizontal motion of the antenna, and are independent of wave height; their functional form confirms Brown's assumption that scattering is independent of azimuth. In slow time, the

  16. Integrated Analysis of Interferometric SAR, Satellite Altimetry and Hydraulic Modeling to Quantify Louisiana Wetland Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyongki; Kim, Jin-woo; Lu, Zhong; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Alsdorf, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Wetland loss in Louisiana has been accelerating due primarily to anthropogenic and nature processes, and is being advocated as a problem with national importance. Accurate measurement or modeling of wetland-wide water level changes, its varying extent, its storage and discharge changes resulting in part from sediment loads, erosion and subsidence are fundamental to assessment of hurricane-induced flood hazards and wetland ecology. Here, we use innovative method to integrate interferometric SAR (InSAR) and satellite radar altimetry for measuring absolute or geocentric water level changes and applied the methodology to remote areas of swamp forest in coastal Louisiana. Coherence analysis of InSAR pairs suggested that the HH polarization is preferred for this type of observation, and polarimetric analysis can help to identi:fy double-bonnce backscattering areas in the wetland. Envisat radar altimeter-measured 18- Hz (along-track sampling of 417 m) water level data processed with regional stackfile method have been used to provide vertical references for water bodies separated by levees. The high-resolution (approx.40 m) relative water changes measured from ALOS PALSAR L-band and Radarsat-l C-band InSAR are then integrated with Envisat radar altimetry to obtain absolute water level. The resulting water level time series were validated with in situ gauge observations within the swamp forest. Furthermore, we compare our water elevation changes with 2D flood modeling from LISFLOOD hydrodynamic model. Our study demonstrates that this new technique allows retrospective reconstruction and concurrent monitoring of water conditions and flow dynamics in wetlands, especially those lacking gauge networks.

  17. Study on wave energy resource assessing method based on altimeter data—A case study in Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing; DAI Yongshou

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy resource is a very important ocean renewable energy. A reliable assessment of wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. Compared with wave model, altimeter can provide more accuratein situ observations for ocean wave which can be as a novel method for wave energy assessment. The advantage of altimeter data is to provide accurate significant wave height observations for wave. In order to develop characteristic and advantage of altimeter data and apply altimeter data to wave energy assessment, in this study, we established an assessing method for wave energy in local sea area which is dedicated to altimeter data. This method includes three parts including data selection and processing, establishment of evaluation indexes system and criterion of regional division. Then a case study of Northwest Pacific was performed to discuss specific application for this method. The results show that assessing method in this paper can assess reserves and temporal and spatial distribution effectively and provide scientific references for the siting of wave power plants and the design of wave energy convertors.

  18. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  19. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  20. Monitoring Sea Level in the Coastal Zone with Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Calafat, Francisco M.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Melet, Angelique; Prandi, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    We examine the issue of sustained measurements of sea level in the coastal zone, first by summarizing the long-term observations from tide gauges, then showing how those are now complemented by improved satellite altimetry products in the coastal ocean. We present some of the progresses in coastal altimetry, both from dedicated reprocessing of the radar waveforms and from the development of improved corrections for the atmospheric effects. This trend towards better altimetric data at the coast comes also from technological innovations such as Ka-band altimetry and SAR altimetry, and we discuss the advantages deriving from the AltiKa Ka-band altimeter and the SIRAL altimeter on CryoSat-2 that can be operated in SAR mode. A case study along the UK coast demonstrates the good agreement between coastal altimetry and tide gauge observations, with root mean square differences as low as 4 cm at many stations, allowing the characterization of the annual cycle of sea level along the UK coasts. Finally, we examine the evolution of the sea level trend from the open to the coastal ocean along the western coast of Africa, comparing standard and coastally improved products. Different products give different sea level trend profiles, so the recommendation is that additional efforts are needed to study sea level trends in the coastal zone from past and present satellite altimeters. Further improvements are expected from more refined processing and screening of data, but in particular from the constant improvements in the geophysical corrections.

  1. Monitoring Sea Level in the Coastal Zone with Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Calafat, Francisco M.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Melet, Angelique; Prandi, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine the issue of sustained measurements of sea level in the coastal zone, first by summarizing the long-term observations from tide gauges, then showing how those are now complemented by improved satellite altimetry products in the coastal ocean. We present some of the progresses in coastal altimetry, both from dedicated reprocessing of the radar waveforms and from the development of improved corrections for the atmospheric effects. This trend towards better altimetric data at the coast comes also from technological innovations such as Ka-band altimetry and SAR altimetry, and we discuss the advantages deriving from the AltiKa Ka-band altimeter and the SIRAL altimeter on CryoSat-2 that can be operated in SAR mode. A case study along the UK coast demonstrates the good agreement between coastal altimetry and tide gauge observations, with root mean square differences as low as 4 cm at many stations, allowing the characterization of the annual cycle of sea level along the UK coasts. Finally, we examine the evolution of the sea level trend from the open to the coastal ocean along the western coast of Africa, comparing standard and coastally improved products. Different products give different sea level trend profiles, so the recommendation is that additional efforts are needed to study sea level trends in the coastal zone from past and present satellite altimeters. Further improvements are expected from more refined processing and screening of data, but in particular from the constant improvements in the geophysical corrections.

  2. SIMULATION OF THE Ku-BAND RADAR ALTIMETER SEA ICE EFFECTIVE SCATTERING SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Andersen, Søren; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2006-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to simulate the sea ice radar altimeter effective scattering surface variability as a function of snow depth and density. Under dry snow conditions without layering these are the primary snow parameters affecting the scattering surface variability. The model...... is initialised with in situ data collected during the May 2004 GreenIce ice camp in the Lincoln Sea (73ºW; 85ºN). Our results show that the snow cover is important for the effective scattering surface depth in sea ice and thus for the range measurement, ice freeboard and ice thickness estimation....

  3. In-Flight Performance of the Mercury Laser Altimeter Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Steven X.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which was launched on August 3, 2004. MLA maps Mercury's shape and topographic landforms and other surface characteristics using a diode-pumped solid-state laser transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode receiver that measures the round-trip time of individual laser pulses. The laser transmitter has been operating nominally during planetary flyby measurements and in orbit about Mercury since March 2011. In this paper, we review the MLA laser transmitter telemetry data and evaluate the performance of solid-state lasers under extended operation in a space environment.

  4. The paratympanic organ: a barometer and altimeter in the middle ear of birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, Christopher S; Giannessi, Francesco

    2011-09-15

    A century has passed since the discovery of the paratympanic organ (PTO), a mechanoreceptive sense organ in the middle ear of birds and other tetrapods. This luminal organ contains a sensory epithelium with typical mechanosensory hair cells and may function as a barometer and altimeter. The organ is arguably the most neglected sense organ in living tetrapods. The PTO is believed to be homologous to a lateral line sense organ, the spiracular sense organ of nonteleostean fishes. Our review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the PTO and draws attention to the astounding lack of information about the unique and largely unexplored sensory modality of barometric perception.

  5. Mean sea surface and gravity investigations using TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    From a broad point of view, we will be concerned with studying global ocean circulation patterns on the basis of ocean surface determinations with geoid undulation information. In addition, we will study local variations of the gravity field implied by the altimeter data. These general goals are reflected in the title of our investigation. To meet our general goal, we have defined a number of specific objectives: (1) sea surface topography representation; (2) mean sea surface determination; (3) development of local geoid models; (4) mean sea surface comparisons; (5) sea surface topographic files; and (6) gravity anomaly determination.

  6. Pamela tracking system status report

    CERN Document Server

    Taccetti, F; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Boscherini, M; Castellini, G; D'Alessandro, R; Gabbanini, A; Grandi, M; Papini, P; Piccardi, S; Ricciarini, S; Spillantini, P; Straulino, S; Tesi, M; Vannuccini, E

    2002-01-01

    The Pamela apparatus will be launched at the end of 2002 on board of the Resurs DK Russian satellite. The tracking system, composed of six planes of silicon sensors inserted inside a permanent magnetic field was intensively tested during these last years. Results of tests have shown a good signal-to-noise ratio and an excellent spatial resolution, which should allow to measure the antiproton flux in an energy range from 80 MeV up to 190 GeV. The production of the final detector modules is about to start and mechanical and thermal tests on the tracking tower are being performed according to the specifications of the Russian launcher and satellite.

  7. Use of satellite natural vibrations to improve performance of free-space satellite laser communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, S

    1998-07-20

    In some of the future laser communication satellites, it is plausible to assume that tracking and communication receivers will use the same detector array. The reason for dual use of the detector is to design simpler and less expensive satellites. Satellites vibrate continually because of their subsystems and environmental sources. The vibrations cause nonuniform spreading of the received energy on the detector array. In view of this, the information from the tracking system is used to adapt individually the communication signal gain of each of the detectors in the array. This adaptation of the gains improves communication system performance. It is important to emphasize that the communication performance improvement is achieved only by gain adaptation. Any additional vibrations decrease the tracking and laser pointing system performances, which decrease the return communication performances (two-way communication). A comparison of practical communication systems is presented. The novelty of this research is the utilization of natural satellite vibrations to improve the communication system performance.

  8. On determining the large-scale ocean circulation from satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, C.-K.

    1983-01-01

    It is contended that a spherical harmonic expansion of the difference between the altimeter-derived mean sea surface and the geoid estimate should reveal the large-scale circulation of the ocean surface layer when the low-degree terms are examined. Methods based on this principle are proposed and partially demonstrated over the Pacific Ocean with the aid of the mean sea surface derived from the Seasat altimeter and the Goddard Earth Model 9 earth gravity model. The preliminary results reveal a well-defined clockwise gyre in the North Pacific and a much less well defined counterclockwise gyre in the South Pacific. When the dynamic topography thus obtained is compared with Wyrtki's (1975) dynamic topography derived from hydrographic data, the agreement is found to be within the limit of geoid uncertainties and satellite orbital errors.

  9. Precise orbit determination for Jason-1 satellite using on-board GPS data with cm-level accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG DongJu; WU Bin

    2009-01-01

    The joint US/French Jason-1 satellite altimeter mission, launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 7, 2001, continues the time series of centimeter-level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful T/P radar altimeter satellite. Orbit error especially the radial orbit error is a major component in the overall budget of all altimeter satellite missions, in order to continue the T/P standard of observations. Jason-1 has a radial orbit error budget requirement of 2.5 cm. in this work, two cycles (December 19, 2002 to January 7, 2003) of the Jason-1 on-board GPS data were processed using the zero-difference (ZD) dynamic precise orbit determination (POD) technique. The resulting Jason-1 orbit accuracy was assessed by comparison with the precise orbit ephemeris (POE)produced by JPL, orbit overlaps and SLR residuals. These evaluations indicate that the RMS radial accuracy is in the range of 1-2 cm.

  10. Near-nadir microwave specular returns from the sea surface - Altimeter algorithms for wind and wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches have been adopted to construct altimeter wind algorithms: one is based on the mean-square sea surface slope, and the other is based on the Seasat scatterometer wind. Both types of algorithms are critically reviewed with respect to the mechanism governing near-nadir sea returns and the comparison between altimeter and buoy winds. A new algorithm is proposed; it is deduced on the basis of microwave specular reflection and is finely tuned with buoy-measured winds. On the basis of this algorithm and the formula of the wind-stress coefficient, a simple wind-stress algorithm is also proposed.

  11. Altimeter data assimilation in the tropical Indian Ocean using water property conserving scheme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhasha M Mankad; Rashmi Sharma; Sujit Basu; P K Pal

    2012-02-01

    Altimeter data have been assimilated in an ocean general circulation model using the water property conserving scheme. Two runs of the model have been conducted for the year 2004. In one of the runs, altimeter data have been assimilated sequentially, while in another run, assimilation has been suppressed. Assimilation has been restricted to the tropical Indian Ocean. An assessment of the strength of the scheme has been carried out by comparing the sea surface temperature (SST), simulated in the two runs, with in situ derived as well as remotely sensed observations of the same quantity. It has been found that the assimilation exhibits a significant positive impact on the simulation of SST. The subsurface effect of the assimilation could be judged by comparing the model simulated depth of the 20°C isotherm (hereafter referred to as D20), as a proxy of the thermocline depth, with the same quantity estimated from ARGO observations. In this case also, the impact is noteworthy. Effect on the dynamics has been judged by comparison of simulated surface current with observed current at a moored buoy location, and finally the impact on model sea level forecast in a free run after assimilation has been quantified in a representative example.

  12. Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang'E-1 laser altimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING JinSong; HUANG Qian; YAN JianGuo; CAO JianFeng; TANG GeShi; SHU Rong

    2009-01-01

    More than 3 million range measurements from the Chang'E-1 Laser Altimeter have been used to pro-duce a global topographic model of the Moon with improved accuracy. Our topographic model, a 360th degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of the lunar radii, is designated as Chang'E-1 Lunar Topography Model s01 (CLTM-s01). This topographic field, referenced to a mean radius of 1738 km, has an absolute vertical accuracy of approximately 31 m and a spatial resolution of 0.25° (~7.5 km). This new lunar topographic model has greatly improved previous models in spatial coverage, accuracy and spatial resolution, and also shows the polar regions with the altimeter results for the first time. From CLTM-s01, the mean, equatorial, and polar radii of the Moon are 1737103, 1737646, and 1735843 m, re-spectively. In the lunar-fixed coordinate system, this model shows a COM/COF offset to be (-1.777, -0.730, 0.237) km along the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All the basic lunar shape parameters derived from CLTM-s01 are in agreement with the results of Clementine GLTM2, but CLTM-s01 offers higher accuracy and reliability due to its better global samplings.

  13. Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    More than 3 million range measurements from the Chang’E-1 Laser Altimeter have been used to produce a global topographic model of the Moon with improved accuracy. Our topographic model, a 360th degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of the lunar radii, is designated as Chang’E-1 Lunar Topography Model s01 (CLTM-s01). This topographic field, referenced to a mean radius of 1738 km, has an absolute vertical accuracy of approximately 31 m and a spatial resolution of 0.25o (~7.5 km). This new lunar topographic model has greatly improved previous models in spatial coverage, accuracy and spatial resolution, and also shows the polar regions with the altimeter results for the first time. From CLTM-s01, the mean, equatorial, and polar radii of the Moon are 1737103, 1737646, and 1735843 m, respectively. In the lunar-fixed coordinate system, this model shows a COM/COF offset to be (-1.777, -0.730, 0.237) km along the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All the basic lunar shape parameters derived from CLTM-s01 are in agreement with the results of Clementine GLTM2, but CLTM-s01 offers higher accuracy and reliability due to its better global samplings.

  14. A BP neural network model for sea state recognition using laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-bo; Jia, Xiao-dong; Li, Sheng; Wang, Zhen

    2009-07-01

    A BP neural network method for the recognition of sea state in laser altimeter is presented in this paper. Sea wave is the typical stochastic disturbance factor of laser altimeter effecting on low-altitude defense penetration of the intelligent antiship missiles, the recognition of sea state is studied in order to satisfy the practical needs of flying over the ocean. The BP neural network fed with the feature vector of laser range-measurement presents the analysis of features and outputs the estimation result of sea state. The two most distinguishing features are the mean and the variance of the sea echo, which are extracted from the distance characteristics of sea echo using general theory of statistics. The use of a feedforward network trained with the back-propagation algorithm is also investigated. The BP neural network is trained using sample data set to the neural network, and then the BP neural network trained is tested to recognize the sea state waiting for the classification. The network output shows the recognition accuracy of the model can up to 88%, and the results of tests show that the BP neural network model for the recognition of sea state is feasible and effective.

  15. Precise topography assessment of Lop Nur Lake Basin using GLAS altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longfei; Gong, Huaze; Shao, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Lop Nur is a dried-up salt lake lying in the eastern part of Tarim basin, which used to be the second largest lagon in China. The "ear" rings in Lop Nur attract many interests and are regarded as the lake shorelines during its recession. The topography of the lake basin is important in understanding the formation of the "ear" rings. In this paper, elevation data along three transects obtained from laser altimeter were taken as the basic material of the topography in Lop Nur. Elevation data of laser altimeter show great consistency between adjacent passes. Orthometric height (OH) derived from altimetry data and the geoid model are used to analyze the elevation characteristic along "ear" rings. The result shows the "ear" rings are basically identical in elevation, supporting the statement that "ear" rings are former lake shorelines. A discrepancy of approximately 1 meter in OH is observed on the same "ear" ring, lower in the north and higher in the south, which is found for the first time. Possible explanations could be deformation of ground surface due to earthquake or tectonic movement after the "ear" rings are formed, or tilt of water surface due to wind stress or lake current during the formation of the rings.

  16. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  17. Integration of radar altimeter, precision navigation, and digital terrain data for low-altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Avionic systems that depend on digitized terrain elevation data for guidance generation or navigational reference require accurate absolute and relative distance measurements to the terrain, especially as they approach lower altitudes. This is particularly exacting in low-altitude helicopter missions, where aggressive terrain hugging maneuvers create minimal horizontal and vertical clearances and demand precise terrain positioning. Sole reliance on airborne precision navigation and stored terrain elevation data for above-ground-level (AGL) positioning severely limits the operational altitude of such systems. A Kalman filter is presented which blends radar altimeter returns, precision navigation, and stored terrain elevation data for AGL positioning. The filter is evaluated using low-altitude helicopter flight test data acquired over moderately rugged terrain. The proposed Kalman filter is found to remove large disparities in predicted AGL altitude (i.e., from airborne navigation and terrain elevation data) in the presence of measurement anomalies and dropouts. Previous work suggested a minimum clearance altitude of 220 ft AGL for a near-terrain guidance system; integration of a radar altimeter allows for operation of that system below 50 ft, subject to obstacle-avoidance limitations.

  18. The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BeLA) power converter module (PCM): Concept and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, J.; Gasquet, E.; Castro, J.-M.; Herranz, M.; Lara, L.-M.; Muñoz, M.; Simon, A.; Behnke, T.; Thomas, N.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the principal considerations when designing DC-DC converters for space instruments, in particular for the power converter module as part of the first European space laser altimeter: "BepiColombo Laser Altimeter" on board the European Space Agency-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) mission BepiColombo. The main factors which determine the design of the DC-DC modules in space applications are printed circuit board occupation, mass, DC-DC converter efficiency, and environmental-survivability constraints. Topics included in the appropriated DC-DC converter design flow are hereby described. The topology and technology for the primary and secondary stages, input filters, transformer design, and peripheral components are discussed. Component selection and design trade-offs are described. Grounding, load and line regulation, and secondary protection circuitry (under-voltage, over-voltage, and over-current) are then introduced. Lastly, test results and characterization of the final flight design are also presented. Testing of the inrush current, the regulated output start-up, and the switching function of the power supply indicate that these performances are fully compliant with the requirements.

  19. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  20. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Healey Sean P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform “shots,” which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest biomass. Relationships observed at spatially coincident field plots may be used to model biomass at all GLAS shots, and well-established methods of model-based inference may then be used to estimate biomass and variance for specific spatial domains. However, the spatial pattern of GLAS acquisition is neither random across the surface of the earth nor is it identifiable with any particular systematic design. Undefined sample properties therefore hinder the use of GLAS in global forest sampling. Results We propose a method of identifying a subset of the GLAS data which can justifiably be treated as a simple random sample in model-based biomass estimation. The relatively uniform spatial distribution and locally arbitrary positioning of the resulting sample is similar to the design used by the US national forest inventory (NFI. We demonstrated model-based estimation using a sample of GLAS data in the US state of California, where our estimate of biomass (211 Mg/hectare was within the 1.4% standard error of the design-based estimate supplied by the US NFI. The standard error of the GLAS-based estimate was significantly higher than the NFI estimate, although the cost of the GLAS estimate (excluding costs for the satellite itself was almost nothing, compared to at least US$ 10.5 million for the NFI estimate. Conclusions Global application of model-based estimation using GLAS, while demanding significant consolidation of training data, would improve inter-comparability of international biomass estimates by imposing consistent methods and a globally coherent sample frame. The

  1. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  2. Robust Satellite Communications Under Hostile Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    Gaussian Noise BER Bit Error Rate BLER Block Error Rate BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying CODEC Coder and Decoder CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check dB...Satellite Communication SNR Signal to Noise Ratio STK Systems Took Kit TDRS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Toff Idle Time of a Transmitter Ton...Received Signal-to- Noise Ratio at the Jammer ...................................................... 15  3.2.2  SNR Threshold for Repeating the Signal

  3. An Algorithm for Detection of Ground and Canopy Cover in Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar Altimeter Data in Preparation of the ICESat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Ute C.; McDonald, Brian W.; Wallins, Bruce F.; Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Thomas A.; Brenner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-2) mission has been selected by NASA as a Decadal Survey mission, to be launched in 2016. Mission objectives are to measure land ice elevation, sea ice freeboard/ thickness and changes in these variables and to collect measurements over vegetation that will facilitate determination of canopy height, with an accuracy that will allow prediction of future environmental changes and estimation of sea-level rise. The importance of the ICESat-2 project in estimation of biomass and carbon levels has increased substantially, following the recent cancellation of all other planned NASA missions with vegetation-surveying lidars. Two innovative components will characterize the ICESat-2 lidar: (1) Collection of elevation data by a multi-beam system and (2) application of micropulse lidar (photon counting) technology. A micropulse photon-counting altimeter yields clouds of discrete points, which result from returns of individual photons, and hence new data analysis techniques are required for elevation determination and association of returned points to reflectors of interest including canopy and ground in forested areas. The objective of this paper is to derive and validate an algorithm that allows detection of ground under dense canopy and identification of ground and canopy levels in simulated ICESat-2-type data. Data are based on airborne observations with a Sigma Space micropulse lidar and vary with respect to signal strength, noise levels, photon sampling options and other properties. A mathematical algorithm is developed, using spatial statistical and discrete mathematical concepts, including radial basis functions, density measures, geometrical anisotropy, eigenvectors and geostatistical classification parameters and hyperparameters. Validation shows that the algorithm works very well and that ground and canopy elevation, and hence canopy height, can be expected to be observable with a high accuracy during the ICESat

  4. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  5. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  6. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  7. Tracking Porters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The an...... the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital....

  8. Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, S

    1999-05-20

    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the lines of sight of their optics must be aligned for the duration of the communication. The satellite pointing and tracking systems perform the alignment. The satellite pointing systems vibrate because of tracking noise and mechanical impacts (such as thruster operation, the antenna pointing mechanism, the solar array driver, navigation noise, tracking noise). These vibrations increase the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. An expression is derived for adaptive transmitter power that compensates for vibration effects in heterodyne laser satellite links. This compensation makes it possible to keep the link BER performance constant for changes in vibration amplitudes. The motivation for constant BER is derived from the requirement for future satellite communication networks with high quality of service. A practical situation of a two-low-Earth-orbit satellite communication link is given. From the results of the example it is seen that the required power for a given BER increases almost exponentially for linear increase in vibration amplitude.

  9. A New Formation Flying/Satellite Swarm Concept Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA plans to build a lab bench operational system capable of tracking the position and orientation of small satellites as well as producing forces and torques on...

  10. Signatures of Kelvin and Rossby wave propagation in the northern Indian Ocean from TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    The climatological monthly mean sea surface height (SSH) anomalies derived from T/P altimeter in the northern Indian Ocean, during 1993 to 1997, are used to prepare time-longitude plots. Along the equator they reveal strong semi-annual variability...

  11. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Sassan S. Saatchi; Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew J. Lister; Elizabeth A. Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform "shots," which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest...

  12. 20,000 Photons Under the Snow: Subsurface Scattering of Visible Laser Light and the Implications for Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Shappirio, M.; Neumann, T.; Cook, W. B.; Markus, T.

    2014-12-01

    Existing visible light laser altimeters such as ATM (Airborne Topographical Mapper) with NASA's Operation IceBridge and NASA's MABEL (Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar; a simulator for NASA's ICESat-2 mission) are providing scientists with a view of Earth's ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice with unprecedented detail. Measuring how these surfaces evolve in the face of a rapidly changing climate requires the utmost attention to detail in the design and calibration of these instruments, as well as understanding the changing optical properties of these surfaces. As single photon counting lidars, MABEL and NASA's ATLAS (Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System) on the upcoming ICESat-2 mission provide fundamentally different information compared with waveform lidars such as ATM, or GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) on NASA's previous ICESat-1 mission. By recording the travel times of individual photons, more detailed information about the surface, and potentially the subsurface, are available and must be considered in elevation retrievals from the observed photon cloud. Here, we investigate possible sources of uncertainty associated with monochromatic visible light scattering in subsurface snow, which may affect the precision and accuracy of elevation estimates. We also explore the capacity to estimate snow grain size in near surface snow using experimental visible light laser data obtained in laboratory experiments.

  13. Using satellite altimetry and tide gauges for storm surge warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, O. B.; Cheng, Y.; Deng, X.; Steward, M.; Gharineiat, Z.

    2015-03-01

    The combination of the coarse temporal sampling by satellite altimeters in the deep ocean with the high temporal sampling at sparsely located tide gauges along the coast has been used to improve the forecast of high water for the North Sea along the Danish Coast and for the northeast coast of Australia. For both locations we have tried to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the use of satellite altimetry to capture high frequency signals (surges) using data from the past 20 years. The two regions are chosen to represent extra-tropical and tropical storm surge conditions. We have selected several representative high water events on the two continents based on tide gauge recordings and investigated the capability of satellite altimetry to capture these events in the sea surface height data. Due to the lack of recent surges in the North Sea we focused on general high water level and found that in the presence of two or more satellites we could capture more than 90% of the high water sea level events. In the Great Barrier Reef section of the northeast Australian coast, we have investigated several large tropical cyclones; one of these being Cyclone Larry, which hit the Queensland coast in March 2006 and caused both loss of lives as well as huge devastation. Here we demonstrate the importance of integrating tide gauges with satellite altimetry for forecasting high water at the city of Townsville in northeast Australia.

  14. Status of the Third Miniature Sensor Technology Integration Satellite Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Barnhart, David; Hurtz, Rick; McClelland, Jim; Cellarius, Mark; Meyers, AI

    1994-01-01

    The MSTI-3 satellite is the third in a series established to test, in realistic scenarios, miniature spacecraft and sensor technologies for missile detection and tracking on low-cost, low-earth orbit technology demonstration satellites. Cooperative demonstrations are planned to combine MSTI-provided target track file information, with interceptor technology tests, to fully demonstrate technologies associated with theater missile defense (TMO) targeting. The program is sponsored by the Ballist...

  15. Space-qualified laser system for the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Reinald; Murphy, Eamonn; Gramkow, Bodo; Rech, Markus; Weidlich, Kai; Leikert, Thomas; Henkelmann, Reiner; Trefzger, Boris; Metz, Bodo; Michaelis, Harald; Lingenauber, Kay; DelTogno, Simone; Behnke, Thomas; Thomas, Nicolas; Piazza, Daniele; Seiferlin, Karsten

    2013-12-20

    The space-qualified design of a miniaturized laser for pulsed operation at a wavelength of 1064 nm and at repetition rates up to 10 Hz is presented. This laser consists of a pair of diode-laser pumped, actively q-switched Nd:YAG rod oscillators hermetically sealed and encapsulated in an environment of dry synthetic air. The system delivers at least 300 million laser pulses with 50 mJ energy and 5 ns pulse width (FWHM). It will be launched in 2017 aboard European Space Agency's Mercury Planetary Orbiter as part of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter, which, after a 6-years cruise, will start recording topographic data from orbital altitudes between 400 and 1500 km above Mercury's surface.

  16. Waveform Retracking and Emulation Experiment Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Zhenhe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the synthetic aperture radar(SAR convolution model, the convolution computation formula about the derivative of three parameters of time migration, rise time and amplitude are deduced. The SAR waveform retracking is completed using numerical integration and Fourier transform. Besides, the echo waveform under SAR model is generated using the simulation orbit, troposphere, ionosphere and tide model. The comparison shows that the shape of echo waveform under SAR model is the same as that of CryoSat-2 1 Hz SAR. The experiments show that the accuracy of SAR altimeter retracking is about 5 cm under the 20 Hz data(about 350 m resolution, which are improved compared with that of the traditional model.

  17. Large-scale Gulf Stream frontal study using GEOS 3 radar altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Leitao, C. D.; Parra, C. G.

    1978-01-01

    From data obtained by the GEOS 3 radar altimeter, sea surface heights are found by both editing and filtering the raw sea surface height measurements and then referencing these processed data to a 5 foot by 5 foot geoid. Any trend between the processed data and the geoid is removed by subtracting out a linear fit to the residuals in the open ocean. Data from individual passes are further processed by applying a minimum variance technique at the subsatellite crossing points to produce surface topography maps for the 6 months and an overall mean map which reveal important details about the Gulf Stream system. The differences between the monthly mean and the overall mean are calculated for each of the 6 months to show the temporal and spatial changes of the Gulf Stream front and spawned eddies. The standard deviation map is even more informative and shows preferred locations of Gulf Stream meanders.

  18. Seasat altimeter observations of dynamic topography in the Gulf Stream region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, R. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    A straightforward approach to altimeter data analysis in the Gulf Stream system is presented, using a detailed geoid model to remove the gravitational component. The resulting sea surface height profiles compare remarkably well with independent oceanographic observations. Specific features such as cold rings, warm rings, and no anomaly regions are analyzed and it is shown that known positions of cyclonic and anticyclonic rings correspond with depressions and elevations, respectively, with amplitudes as large as 95 cm. The apparent fluctuation of the Gulf Stream is indicated by the results, as in the finding that on time scales of a few days, surface transport indicated by the sea surface height difference across the stream varied by nearly 30%

  19. Future Satellite Gravimetry and Earth Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    Currently, a first generation of dedicated satellite missions for the precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity field is in orbit (CHAMP, GRACE, and soon GOCE). The gravity data from these satellite missions provide us with very new information on the dynamics of planet Earth. In particular, on the mass distribution in the Earth’s interior, the entire water cycle (ocean circulation, ice mass balance, continental water masses, and atmosphere), and on changes in the mass distribution. The results are fascinating, but still rough with respect to spatial and temporal resolution. Technical progress in satellite-to-satellite tracking and in gravity gradiometry will allow more detailed results in the future. In this special issue, Earth scientists develop visions of future applications based on follow-on high-precision satellite gravimetry missions.

  20. Monthly Maps of Sea Surface Height in the North Atlantic and Zonal Indices for the Gulf Stream Using TOPEX/Poseidon Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandipa; Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1997-01-01

    Monthly Maps of sea surface height are constructed for the North Atlantic Ocean using TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data. Mean sea surface height is reconstructed using a weighted combination of historical, hydrographic data and a synthetic mean obtained by fitting a Gaussian model of the Gulf Stream jet to altimeter data. The resultant mean shows increased resolution over the hydrographic mean, and incorporates recirculation information that is absent in the synthetic mean. Monthly maps, obtained by adding the mean field to altimeter sea surface height residuals, are used to derive a set of zonal indices that describe the annual cycle of meandering as well as position and strength of the Gulf Stream.

  1. Tracking telecommuting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2007-03-15

    Many employees are now choosing to work from home using laptops and telephones. Employers in the oil and gas industry are now reaping a number of benefits from their telecommuting employees, including increased productivity; higher levels of employee satisfaction, and less absenteeism. Providing a telecommunication option can prove to be advantageous for employers wishing to hire or retain employees. Telecommuting may also help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article provided details of Teletrips Inc., a company that aids in the production of corporate social responsibility reports. Teletrips provides reports that document employee savings in time, vehicle depreciation maintenance, and gasoline costs. Teletrips currently tracks 12 companies in Calgary, and plans to grow through the development of key technology partnerships. The company is also working with the federal government to provide their clients with emission trading credits, and has forged a memorandum of understanding with the British Columbia government for tracking emissions. Calgary now openly supports telecommuting and is encouraging businesses in the city to adopt telecommuting on a larger scale. It was concluded that the expanding needs for road infrastructure and the energy used by cars to move workers in and out of the city are a massive burden to the city's tax base. 1 fig.

  2. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2006 was to complete all of the CMS Tracker sub-detectors and to start the integration of the sub-detectors into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. In November 2006 all of the sub-detectors had been delivered to the Tracker Integration facility (TIF) at CERN and the tests and QA procedures to be carried out on each sub-detector before integration had been established. In December 2006, TIB/TID+ was integrated into TOB+, TIB/TID- was being prepared for integration, and TEC+ was undergoing tests at the final tracker operating temperature (-100 C) in the Lyon cold room. In February 2007, TIB/TID- has been integrated into TOB-, and the installation of the pixel support tube and the services for TI...

  3. Advanced technology for space communications, tracking, and robotic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Technological advancements in tracking, communications, and robotic vision sensors are reviewed. The development of communications systems for multiple access, broadband, high data rate, and efficient operation is discussed. Consideration is given to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite systems, GPS, and communications and tracking systems for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station. The use of television, laser, and microwave sensors for robotics and technology for autonomous rendezvous and docking operations are examined.

  4. Contrail Tracking and ARM Data Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Russell, James, III

    2005-01-01

    A contrail tracking system was developed to help in the assessment of the effect of commercial jet contrails on the Earth's radiative budget. The tracking system was built by combining meteorological data from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) numerical weather prediction model with commercial air traffic flight track data and satellite imagery. A statistical contrail-forecasting model was created a combination of surface-based contrail observations and numerical weather analyses and forecasts. This model allows predictions of widespread contrail occurrences for contrail research on either a real-time basis or for long-term time scales. Satellite-derived cirrus cloud properties in polluted and unpolluted regions were compared to determine the impact of air traffic on cirrus.

  5. Improving GOCE cross-track gravity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemes, Christian

    2017-07-01

    The GOCE gravity gradiometer measured highly accurate gravity gradients along the orbit during GOCE's mission lifetime from March 17, 2009, to November 11, 2013. These measurements contain unique information on the gravity field at a spatial resolution of 80 km half wavelength, which is not provided to the same accuracy level by any other satellite mission now and in the foreseeable future. Unfortunately, the gravity gradient in cross-track direction is heavily perturbed in the regions around the geomagnetic poles. We show in this paper that the perturbing effect can be modeled accurately as a quadratic function of the non-gravitational acceleration of the satellite in cross-track direction. Most importantly, we can remove the perturbation from the cross-track gravity gradient to a great extent, which significantly improves the accuracy of the latter and offers opportunities for better scientific exploitation of the GOCE gravity gradient data set.

  6. The use of airborne laser data to calibrate satellite radar altimetry data over ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Simon; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    -correlated noise can be effectively removed by the so-called relocation error correction method. The adjustment, however, produces a different spatial sampling of the data, which introduces a non-negligible slope related bias to the computation of digital elevation models. In this paper we incorporate high......Satellite radar altimetry is the most important data source for ice sheet elevation modeling but it is well established that the accuracy of such data from satellite borne radar altimeters degrade seriously with increasing surface slope and level of roughness. A significant fraction of the slope...... as a linear function of surface slope. This linear correspondence is in turn tested as a model for adjusting the satellite altimetry data for the observed slope correlated bias. The adjustment is shown to have a significant effect in terms of reducing the bias, thus improving the modeling accuracy of the data....

  7. Real-time kinematic positioning of LEO satellites using a single-frequency GPS receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Xiucong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their low cost and low power consumption, single-frequency GPS receivers are considered suitable for low-cost space applications such as small satellite missions. Recently, requirements have emerged for real-time accurate orbit determination at sub-meter level in order to carry out onboard geocoding of high-resolution imagery, open-loop operation of altimeters and radio occultation. This study proposes an improved real-time kinematic positioning method for LEO satellites using single-frequency receivers. The C/A code and L1 phase are combined to eliminate ionospheric effects. The epoch-differenced carrier phase measurements are utilized to acquire receiver position changes which are further used to smooth the absolute positions. A kinematic Kalman filter is developed to implement kinematic orbit determination. Actual flight data from China small satellite SJ-9A are used to test the navigation performance. Results show that the proposed method outperforms traditional kinematic positioning method in term...

  8. A review of satellite radar altimetry applied to coastal ocean studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignudelli, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Satellite radar altimetry is today considered a mature technique in open ocean. The data stream from the various satellite missions are routinely used for a number of applications. In the last decade, significant research has been carried out into overcoming the problems to extend the capabilities of radar altimeters to the coastal zone, with the aim to integrate the altimeter-derived measurements of sea level, wind speed and significant wave height into coastal ocean observing systems. More/better (and new) datasets are being produced. Moreover, the advent of new satellite missions, both nadir-viewing (e.g., Sentinel-3) and wide-swath (e.g. SWOT), should globally improve both quantity and quality of coastal altimetry data. In this talk, after a brief review of the challenges in coastal altimetry and description of the new products, we showcase some application examples how the new products can be exploited, and we discuss directions for a global coastal altimetry dataset as an asset for long term monitoring of sea level and sea state in the coastal ocean.

  9. HY-2A satellite altimetric data evaluation in the Arctic ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    HY-2A (‘HaiYang’ denotes Ocean) was launched in August 2011. It payloads Ku and C bands radar altimeters with repeat cycles of 14 days (for three years) and 168 days. In the present study, we preliminary evaluate the HY-2 satellite altimetric data against SARAL/AltiKa and CryoSat-2 data in the Ar......HY-2A (‘HaiYang’ denotes Ocean) was launched in August 2011. It payloads Ku and C bands radar altimeters with repeat cycles of 14 days (for three years) and 168 days. In the present study, we preliminary evaluate the HY-2 satellite altimetric data against SARAL/AltiKa and CryoSat-2 data...... in the Arctic Ocean. The results demonstrates that the HY-2 data shows higher standard variation and mean sea level than AltiKa and CryoSat-2 data during HY-2 cycle 49 (20130803 and 20130817) with more available sea level measurements than CryoSat-2 satellite altimetry. Moreover, consistent sea level variation...

  10. NASA's GPS tracking system for Aristoteles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.; Hajj, G.; Kursinski, E. R.; Kyriacou, C.; Meehan, T. K.; Melbourne, William G.; Neilan, R. E.; Young, L. E.; Yunck, Thomas P.

    1991-12-01

    NASA 's Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking system for Artistoteles receivers and a GPS flight receiver aboard Aristoteles is described. It will include a global network of GPS ground receivers and a GPS flight receiver aboard Aristoteles. The flight receiver will operate autonomously; it will provide real time navigation solutions for Aristoteles and tracking data needed by ESOC for operational control of the satellite. The GPS flight and ground receivers will currently and continuously track all visible GPS satellites. These observations will yield high accuracy differential positions and velocities of Aristoteles in a terrestrial frame defined by the locations of the globally distributed ground work. The precise orbits and tracking data will be made available to science investigators as part of the geophysical data record. The characteristics of the GPS receivers, both flight and ground based, that NASA will be using to support Aristoteles are described. The operational aspects of the overall tracking system, including the data functions and the resulting data products are summarized. The expected performance of the tracking system is compared to Aristoteles requirements and the need to control key error sources such as multipath is identified.

  11. Measurements of sea ice by satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine

    A changing sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is an early indicator of a climate in transition, the sea ice has in addition a large impact on the climate. The annual and interannual variations of the sea ice cover have been observed by satellites since the start of the satellite era in 1979......, and it has been in retreat every since. The mass balance of the sea ice is an important input to climate models, where the ice thickness is the most uncertain parameter. In this study, data from the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter satellite are used. CryoSat-2 has been measuring the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean...... freeboard is found to be 35 cm for both the airborne and satellite data implying, that the radar signal is here reflected from the snow surface, probably due to weather conditions. CryoSat-2 is very sensitive to returns from specular surfaces, even if they appear o_-nadir. This contaminates the “true...

  12. Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, M.; Funakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) is being developed as the third Japanese three-axis stabilized engineering test satellite to establish the 2-ton geostationary operational satellite bus system and to demonstrate the high performance satellite communication technology for future operational satellites. The satellite is expected to be stationed at 154 deg east latitude. It will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the prelaunch compatibility test, data interface verification testing, and launch rehersals. The DSN primary support period is from launch through the final AEF plus 1 hour. Contingency support is from final AEF plus 1 hour until launch plus 1 month. The coverage will consist of all the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antennas at Madrid and Canberra as backup. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a 7-day period, plus the contingency support, if required. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  13. TIDAL FEATURES IN THE CHINA SEAS AND THEIR ADJACENT SEA AREAS AS DERIVED FROM TOPEX/POSEIDON ALTIMETER DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建宇; HiroshiKAWAMURA; 洪华生; FumiakiKOBASHI; 谢强

    2001-01-01

    Some important tidal features of 8 major tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1, P1,Sa, N2 and K2 ) in the china Seas and their adjacent sea areas were obtained using six years' TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data. The results showed that the obtained co-tidal and co-range charts for these major tidal constituents agreed well with those of previous researches using observational data from coastal tidal gauge stations and numerical models.

  14. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN in July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker was ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC have been installed, together with the Tracker cable channels, in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services. All of the Tracker Safety, Power, DCS and the VME Readout Systems have been installed at P5 and are being tested and commissioned with CMS. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS before Christmas. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on Y...

  15. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN on 18 July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker will be ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC will be installed in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services, and will be completed in October. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS at the end of October, after the completion of the installation of the EB/HB services. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on YB0 and commissioned with CMS in December. The FPix and BPix continue to make ...

  16. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  17. New evidence about the subduction of the Copiapó ridge beneath South America, and its connection with the Chilean-Pampean flat slab, tracked by satellite GOCE and EGM2008 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Orlando; Gimenez, Mario; Folguera, Andres; Spagnotto, Silvana; Bustos, Emilce; Baez, Walter; Braitenberg, Carla

    2015-11-01

    Satellite-only gravity measurements and those integrated with terrestrial observations provide global gravity field models of unprecedented precision and spatial resolution, allowing the analysis of the lithospheric structure. We used the model EGM2008 (Earth Gravitational Model) to calculate the gravity anomaly and the vertical gravity gradient in the South Central Andes region, correcting these quantities by the topographic effect. Both quantities show a spatial relationship between the projected subduction of the Copiapó aseismic ridge (located at about 27°-30° S), its potential deformational effects in the overriding plate, and the Ojos del Salado-San Buenaventura volcanic lineament. This volcanic lineament constitutes a projection of the volcanic arc toward the retroarc zone, whose origin and development were not clearly understood. The analysis of the gravity anomalies, at the extrapolated zone of the Copiapó ridge beneath the continent, shows a change in the general NNE-trend of the Andean structures to an ENE-direction coincident with the area of the Ojos del Salado-San Buenaventura volcanic lineament. This anomalous pattern over the upper plate is interpreted to be linked with the subduction of the Copiapó ridge. We explore the relation between deformational effects and volcanism at the northern Chilean-Pampean flat slab and the collision of the Copiapó ridge, on the basis of the Moho geometry and elastic thicknesses calculated from the new satellite GOCE data. Neotectonic deformations interpreted in previous works associated with volcanic eruptions along the Ojos del Salado-San Buenaventura volcanic lineament is interpreted as caused by crustal doming, imprinted by the subduction of the Copiapó ridge, evidenced by crustal thickening at the sites of ridge inception along the trench. Finally, we propose that the Copiapó ridge could have controlled the northern edge of the Chilean-Pampean flat slab, due to higher buoyancy, similarly to the control

  18. The Mini-SPT (Space Particle Telescope) for dual use: Precision flux measurement of low energy proton electron and heavy ion with tracking capability and A compact, low-cost realtime local radiation hazard/alarm detector to be used on board a satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpat, Behcet; Ergin, Tulun; Kalemci, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    The Mini-SPT project is the first, and most important, step towards the ambitious goal of creating a low-cost, compact, radiation hardened and high performance space particle telescope that can be mounted, in the near future, as standard particle detector on any satellite. Mini-SPT will be capable of providing high quality physics data on local space environment. In particular high precision flux measurement and tracking of low energy protons and electrons on different orbits with same instrumentation is of paramount importance for studies as geomagnetically trapped fluxes and space weather dynamics, dark matter search, low energy proton anisotropy and its effects on ICs as well as the solar protons studies. In addition, it will provide real-time "differentiable warnings" about the local space radiation hazard to other electronics systems on board the hosting satellite, including different criticality levels and alarm signals to activate mitigation techniques whenever this is strictly necessary to protect them from temporary/permanent failures. A real-time warning system will help satellite subsystems to save significant amount of power and memory with respect to other conventional techniques where the "mitigation" solutions are required to be active during entire mission life. The Mini-SPT will combine the use of technologies developed in cutting-edge high energy physics experiments (including technology from CMS experiments at CERN) and the development of new charged particle detecting systems for their use for the first time in space. The Mini-SPT essential objective is, by using for the first time in space SIPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers) technology for TOF and energy measurements, the production of high quality data with a good time, position and energy resolutions. The mini-SPT will consists of three main sub-units: a- A tracking and dE/dX measuring sub-detector which will be based on silicon pixel detectors (SPD) coupled to the rad-hard chip ROC-DIG (Read

  19. Patient Treatment Tracking Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment Tracking Chart Patient Treatment Tracking Chart Patient Treatment Tracking Chart Sample Chart This chart is ... this website Submit Share this page Related Resource Patient Treatment Tutorial return to top CONNECT Veterans Crisis ...

  20. A weekly Arctic sea-ice thickness data record from merged CryoSat-2 and SMOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Robert; Hendricks, Stefan; Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; King, Jennifer; Haas, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Sea-ice thickness on a global scale is derived from different satellite sensors using independent retrieval methods. Due to the sensor and orbit characteristics, such satellite retrievals differ in spatial and temporal resolution as well as in the sensitivity to certain sea-ice types and thickness ranges. Satellite altimeters, such as CryoSat-2 (CS2), sense the height of the ice surface above the sea level, which can be converted into sea-ice thickness. Relative uncertainties associated with this method are large over thin ice regimes. Another retrieval method is based on the evaluation of surface brightness temperature (TB) in L-band microwave frequencies (1.4 GHz) with a thickness-dependent emission model, as measured by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. While the radiometer-based method looses sensitivity for thick sea ice (> 1 m), relative uncertainties over thin ice are significantly smaller than for the altimetry-based retrievals. In addition, the SMOS product provides global sea-ice coverage on a daily basis unlike the altimeter data. This study presents the first merged product of complementary weekly Arctic sea-ice thickness data records from the CS2 altimeter and SMOS radiometer. We use two merging approaches: a weighted mean (WM) and an optimal interpolation (OI) scheme. While the weighted mean leaves gaps between CS2 orbits, OI is used to produce weekly Arctic-wide sea-ice thickness fields. The benefit of the data merging is shown by a comparison with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) induction sounding measurements. When compared to airborne thickness data in the Barents Sea, the merged product has a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of about 0.7 m less than the CS2 product and therefore demonstrates the capability to enhance the CS2 product in thin ice regimes. However, in mixed first-year (FYI) and multiyear (MYI) ice regimes as in the Beaufort Sea, the CS2 retrieval shows the lowest bias.

  1. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  2. Dynamic Characteristics of Inter-Satellite Links in LEO Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 张乃通; 温萍萍

    2003-01-01

    To establish an efficient inter-satellite link (ISL) in an LEO network, the effect of geometric characteristics of ISL on the ISLs and the devices on the LEO satellite should be examined. Because of the continuous movement of the LEO satellite, the time-varying behaviours of the ISL's geometric charactersistics continuously change with the changes of the satellite's position on the orbit. These dynamic geometric characteristics of the ISLs are important for ISL's performance analyzing and the design of the devices on the LEO satellite. This paper describes dynamic geometric characteristics of ISL, analyzes the impact of these regulations on the tracking system of the satellite's antenna and the power adjusting system of the satellite's transmitter, with the Iridium system as an example.

  3. Circular Microstrip Patch Array Antenna for C-Band Altimeter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Keshtkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical and experimental results obtained from the design, construction, and test of an array of circular microstrip elements. The aim of this antenna construction was to obtain a gain of 12 dB, an acceptable pattern, and a reasonable value of SWR for altimeter system application. In this paper, the cavity model was applied to analyze the patch and a proper combination of ordinary formulas; HPHFSS software and Microwave Office software were used. The array includes four circular elements with equal sizes and equal spacing and was planed on a substrate. The method of analysis, design, and development of this antenna array is explained completely here. The antenna is simulated and is completely analyzed by commercial HPHFSS software. Microwave Office 2006 software has been used to initially simulate and find the optimum design and results. Comparison between practical results and the results obtained from the simulation shows that we reached our goals by a great degree of validity.

  4. Testing of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Prototype Loop Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Donya; Ku, Jentung; Kaya, Tarik

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the testing of the prototype loop heat pipe (LHP) for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The primary objective of the test program was to verify the loop's heat transport and temperature control capabilities under conditions pertinent to GLAS applications. Specifically, the LHP had to demonstrate a heat transport capability of 100 W, with the operating temperature maintained within +/-2K while the condenser sink was subjected to a temperature change between 273K and 283K. Test results showed that this loop heat pipe was more than capable of transporting the required heat load and that the operating temperature could be maintained within +/-2K. However, this particular integrated evaporator-compensation chamber design resulted in an exchange of energy between the two that affected the overall operation of the system. One effect was the high temperature the LHP was required to reach before nucleation would begin due to inability to control liquid distribution during ground testing. Another effect was that the loop had a low power start-up limitation of approximately 25 W. These Issues may be a concern for other applications, although it is not expected that they will cause problems for GLAS under micro-gravity conditions.

  5. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat Mission: Science Measurement Performance since Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; McGarry, J.; Sirota, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System is a space lidar and the primary instrument on NASA's ICESat mision. Since launch in January 2003 GLAS has produced about 544 million measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It has made global measurements of the Earth's icesheets, land topography and atmosphere with unprecedented vertical resolution and accuracy. GLAS was first activated for science measurements in February 2003. Since then its operation and performance has confirmed many pre-launch expectations and exceed a few of the most optimistic expectations in vertical resolution and sensitivity. However GLAS also suffered an unexpected failure with its first laser, and the GLAS measurements have yielded some surprises in other areas. This talk will give a post-launch assessment of the science measurement performance of the GLAS instrument, and compare the measurement environment and its science measurements to pre-launch expectations. It also will address some of what has been learned from the GLAS design, operations and measurements which may benefit future space lidar.

  6. Stream-coordinate structure of oceanic jets based on merged altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Che; ZHANG Linlin; YAN Xiaomei

    2011-01-01

    The jet structure of the Southern Ocean front south of Australia is studied in stream-coordinate with a new altimeter product--Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) from AVISO. The accuracy of the ADT data is validated with the mooring data from a two-year subantarctic-front experiment. It is demonstrated that the ADT is consistent with in-situ measurements and captures the meso-scale activity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Stream-coordinate analysis of ADT surface geostrophic flows finds that ACC jets exhibit large spatio-temporal variability and do not correspond to particular streamfunction values. In the circumpolar scope ACC jets display a transient fragmented pattern controlled by topographic features. The poleward shift of jet in streamfunction space, as revealed by a streamwise correlation method, indicates the presence of meridional fluxes of zonal momentum. Such cross-stream eddy fluxes concentrate the broad ACC baroclinic flow into narrow jets. Combined with a recent discovery of gravest empirical mode (GEM) in the thermohaline fields, the study clarifies the interrelationship among front, jet and streamfunction in the Southern Ocean.

  7. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  8. Estimates of global M2 internal tide energy fluxes using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanwei; LIANG Xinfeng; TIAN Jiwei; YANG Lifen

    2009-01-01

    TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data from October 1992 to June 2002 are used to calculate the global barotropic M2 tidal currents using long-term tidal harmonic analysis. The tides calculated agree well with ADCP data obtained from the South China Sea (SCS). The maximum tide velocities along the semi-major axis and semi-minor axis can be computed from the tidal ellipse. The global distribution of M2 internal tide vertical energy flux from the sea bottom is calculated based on a linear internal wave generation model. The global vertical energy flux of M2 internal tide is 0.96 TW, with 0.36 TW in the Pacific, 0.31 TW in the Atlantic and 0.29 TW in the Indian Ocean, obtained in this study. The total horizontal energy flux of M2 internal tide radiating into the open ocean from the lateral boundaries is 0.13 TW, with 0.06 TW in the Pacific, 0.04TW in the Atlantic, and 0.03 TW in the Indian Ocean. The result shows that the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide M2 provides enough energy to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean.

  9. A new lunar digital elevation model from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and SELENE Terrain Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Haruyama, J.; Smith, D. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present an improved lunar digital elevation model (DEM) covering latitudes within ±60°, at a horizontal resolution of 512 pixels per degree (∼60 m at the equator) and a typical vertical accuracy ∼3 to 4 m. This DEM is constructed from ∼ 4.5 ×109 geodetically-accurate topographic heights from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, to which we co-registered 43,200 stereo-derived DEMs (each 1° × 1°) from the SELENE Terrain Camera (TC) (∼1010 pixels total). After co-registration, approximately 90% of the TC DEMs show root-mean-square vertical residuals with the LOLA data of profiles (typically amounting to <10 m horizontally and <1 m vertically). By combining both co-registered datasets, we obtain a near-global DEM with high geodetic accuracy, and without the need for surface interpolation. We evaluate the resulting LOLA + TC merged DEM (designated as "SLDEM2015") with particular attention to quantifying seams and crossover errors.

  10. A modified method to estimate eddy diffusivity in the North Pacific using altimeter eddy statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiwei; LI Yaru; TIAN Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    The method proposed by Stammer (1998) is modified using eddy statistics from altimeter observation to obtain more realistic eddy diffusivity (K) for the North Pacific.Compared with original estimates,the modified K has remarkably reduced values in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) and North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) regions,but slightly enhanced values in the Subtropical Counter Current (STCC) region.In strong eastward flow areas like the KE and NECC,owing to a large difference between mean flow velocity and propagation velocity of mesoscale eddies,tracers inside the mesoscale eddies are transported outside rapidly by advection,and mixing length L is hence strongly suppressed.The low eddy probability (P) is also responsible for the reduced K in the NECC area.In the STCC region,however,L is mildly suppressed and P is very high,so K there is enhanced.The zonally-averaged K has two peaks with comparable magnitudes,in the latitude bands of the STCC and KE.In the core of KE,because of the reduced values of P and L,the zonally-averaged K is a minimum.Zonally-integrated eddy heat transport in the KE band,calculated based on the modified K,is much closer to the results of previous independent research,indicating the robustness of our modified K.The map of modified K provides useful information for modeling studies in the North Pacific.

  11. A New Lunar Digital Elevation Model from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and SELENE Terrain Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Haruyama, J.; Smith, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present an improved lunar digital elevation model (DEM) covering latitudes within +/-60 deg, at a horizontal resolution of 512 pixels per degree ( approx.60 m at the equator) and a typical vertical accuracy approx.3 to 4 m. This DEM is constructed from approx.4.5 ×10(exp 9) geodetically-accurate topographic heights from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, to which we co-registered 43,200 stereo-derived DEMs (each 1 deg×1 deg) from the SELENE Terrain Camera (TC) ( approx.10(exp 10) pixels total). After co-registration, approximately 90% of the TC DEMs show root-mean-square vertical residuals with the LOLA data of < 5 m compared to approx.50% prior to co-registration. We use the co-registered TC data to estimate and correct orbital and pointing geolocation errors from the LOLA altimetric profiles (typically amounting to < 10 m horizontally and < 1 m vertically). By combining both co-registered datasets, we obtain a near-global DEM with high geodetic accuracy, and without the need for surface interpolation. We evaluate the resulting LOLA + TC merged DEM (designated as "SLDEM2015") with particular attention to quantifying seams and crossover errors.

  12. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Afzal, R. S.; Aharonson, O.; Fishbaugh, K.; Ford, P. G.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Ivanov, A. B.; Johnson, C. L.; Muhleman, D. O.; Neumann, G. A.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Sun, X.; Zwally, H. J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Duxbury, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  13. Martian Polar Region Impact Craters: Geometric Properties From Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frawley, J. J.; Matias, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has so far observed approximately 100 impact landforms in the north polar latitudes (>60 degrees N) of Mars. Correlation of the topography with Viking Orbiter images indicate that many of these are near-center profiles, and for some of the most northern craters, multiple data passes have been acquired. The northern high latitudes of Mars may contain substantial ground ice and be topped with seasonal frost (largely CO2 with some water), forming each winter. We have analyzed various diagnostic crater topologic parameters for this high-latitude crater population with the objective of characterizing impact features in north polar terrains, and we explore whether there is evidence of interaction with ground ice, frost, dune movement, or other polar processes. We find that there are substantial topographic variations from the characteristics of midlatitude craters in the polar craters that are not readily apparent from prior images. The transition from small simple craters to large complex craters is not well defined, as was observed in the midlatitude MOLA data (transition at 7-8 km). Additionally, there appear to be additional topographic complexities such as anomalously large central structures in many polar latitude impact features. It is not yet clear if these are due to target-induced differences in the formation of the crater or post-formation modifications from polar processes.

  14. Study on Multipath Suppressing Algorithm of Phase-coded Modulation Radar Altimeter%伪码调相雷达高度表中多径信号抑制算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭通; 廉保旺; 赵恒斌

    2011-01-01

    Multipath error is one of the most important errors in phase - coded modulation radar altimeter. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of system, this paper presents a code tracking loop model based on strobe correlator, and it also provides the block diagram of this model. The correlation of multipath parameters and the pseudo - code tracking error is analyzed when considering single multi - path signals, and some simulations of the code tracking loop performance are given in the Matlab environment. Simulation results show that the strobe correlator can effectively reduce the tracking error caused by multipath, and the performance is better than narrow correlator. This method is propitious to implement in hardware, because it needs less correlators.%多径误差是伪码调相雷达高度表中重要的误差源之一,为了提高系统的测距精度,建立了采用strobe相关器的伪码跟踪环数学模型,给出了其实现的结构框图;在考虑单路多径信号的基础上分析了多径信号的参数对伪码跟踪环的跟踪误差的影响,并在Matlab环境下对伪码跟踪环的跟踪性能进行了仿真;仿真结果表明在相同的多径参数条件下,strobe相关器可以有效地减小多径引起的跟踪误差,性能优于窄相关器,运算量较多径估计延迟锁定环要小,易于在硬件上实时实现,具有实际应用价值.

  15. Extraction of Significant Wave Height and Its Accuracy Analysis Based on HY-2 Altimeter Calibration Flight Data%基于HY-2卫星高度计机载校飞数据的有效波高信息提取及初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀仲; 张有广; 孟俊敏

    2012-01-01

    利用HY-2卫星雷达高度计校飞数据,开展了有效波高信息提取及精度比对研究.首先对其进行波形筛选、1 s平均和去噪,然后基于Hayne海面回波模型进行波形拟合,提取出波高均方根并得到有效波高,并与浮标和同轨迹的Jason-1卫星高度计有效波高进行了比较.结果表明,本次校飞其高度计测波精度存在系统偏差,初步分析可能是其数据未经仪器校正等原因导致.%Based on the HY-2 calibration flight data, the significant wave height (SWH) is retrieved and its accuracy is compared with those from buoys and Jason-1 altimeter. For the extraction of the root mean square (RMS) of the wave heights and hence to obtain the SWH, first is to carry out waveform screening, averaging over 1 second and destriping, and then to make waveform fitting according to the Hayne echo model. The significant wave heights thus obtained are compared with those from the buoys and the Jason-1 altimeter which runs along the same track as that of the HY-2 calibration flight. The results indicate that a systematic bias is present for the accuracy of the SWH resulted from the HY-2 altimeter. This bias is mainly due to the absence of instrumental correction.

  16. Solar tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  17. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  18. AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Herrald, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small (1-2 m) telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras. We are able to track satellites down to magnitude 10 with a Strehl in excess of 20% in median seeing.

  19. Forecasting Hurricane by Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. Y.

    Earth is an endanger planet. Severe weather, especially hurricanes, results in great disaster all the world. World Meteorology Organization and United Nations Environment Program established intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to offer warnings about the present and future disasters of the Earth. It is the mission for scientists to design warning system to predict the severe weather system and to reduce the damage of the Earth. Hurricanes invade all the world every year and made millions damage to all the people. Scientists in weather service applied satellite images and synoptic data to forecast the information for the next hours for warning purposes. Regularly, hurricane hits on Taiwan island directly will pass through her domain and neighbor within 10 hours. In this study, we are going to demonstrate a tricky hurricane NARI invaded Taiwan on September 16, 2000. She wandered in the neighborhood of the island more than 72 hours and brought heavy rainfall over the island. Her track is so tricky that scientists can not forecast her path using the regular method. Fortunately, all scientists in the Central Weather Bureau paid their best effort to fight against the tricky hurricane. Applying the new developed technique to analysis the satellite images with synoptic data and radar echo, scientists forecasted the track, intensity and rainfall excellently. Thus the damage of the severe weather reduced significantly.

  20. High resolution 3-D temperature and salinity fields derived from in situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guinehut

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an observation-based approach that efficiently combines the main components of the global ocean observing system using statistical methods. Accurate but sparse in situ temperature and salinity profiles (mainly from Argo for the last 10 yr are merged with the lower accuracy but high-resolution synthetic data derived from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature observations to provide global 3-D temperature and salinity fields at high temporal and spatial resolution. The first step of the method consists in deriving synthetic temperature fields from altimeter and sea surface temperature observations, and salinity fields from altimeter observations, through multiple/simple linear regression methods. The second step of the method consists in combining the synthetic fields with in situ temperature and salinity profiles using an optimal interpolation method. Results show the revolutionary nature of the Argo observing system. Argo observations now allow a global description of the statistical relationships that exist between surface and subsurface fields needed for step 1 of the method, and can constrain the large-scale temperature and mainly salinity fields during step 2 of the method. Compared to the use of climatological estimates, results indicate that up to 50% of the variance of the temperature fields can be reconstructed from altimeter and sea surface temperature observations and a statistical method. For salinity, only about 20 to 30% of the signal can be reconstructed from altimeter observations, making the in situ observing system essential for salinity estimates. The in situ observations (step 2 of the method further reduce the differences between the gridded products and the observations by up to 20% for the temperature field in the mixed layer, and the main contribution is for salinity and the near surface layer with an improvement up to 30%. Compared to estimates derived using in situ observations only, the