Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.
Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested
Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander
The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the
Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip
An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…
Chapman, R.D.; Epstein, G.L.; Hobbs, R.W.; Neupert, W.M.; Thomas, R.J.
Using NASA facilities in space (OSO-7) and on the ground (Goddard Multi-Channel Spectrophotometer at Sacramento Peak, New Mexico) an active region has been mapped and by combining these ultraviolet, X-ray and visible data, a physical picture of this structured region has been constructed from the photosphere to the corona, corresponding to temperature regimes over the range 4500 K to 4 000 000 K. The morphology of the active region was then studied by comparing grey-shaded images in which fine details stand out more clearly than in the contour plots. One result of the study is that gross similarities persist from the low photosphere up to high in the transition region while some changes occur in the corona. (Auth.)
In The Last Great American Picture Show wordt de veranderende herwaardering in kaart gebracht voor de Amerikaanse film in de jaren zeventig. Deze periode, vroeger aangeduid als het decennium van de 'lost generation', wordt meer en meer erkend als het eerste 'Nieuwe Hollywood'. In deze periode werd
Austin, Bruce A.
Examines the phenomenon of the cult film and the characteristics of the audiences of the "Rocky Horror Picture Show." Suggests that the preparation, waiting, and finally the active participation in the viewing of the film itself appear to be part of a group ritual which characterizes the cult film as an event. (JMF)
Full Text Available This work presents in (and especially on one detail what it means to practice gender analysis as formal image analysis in the context of television shows. The chosen example for that is the closing scene of “Buffy the Vampire Slayer” (USA 1997-2003. This television show engages in a highly self-reflexive manner with common pop cultural representations of gender, which becomes particularly prevalent and radically condensed in the series finale.
Full Text Available Lo spettacolo teatrale The Rocky Horror Show (1973 di Richard O’Brien e, successivamente, l’adattamento cinematografico The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975 di Jim Sharman possono essere considerate due pietre miliari del musical. Per temi e struttura, essi rappresentano la massima espressione della rivoluzione sessuale che va a cavalli tra gli anni '60 e '70 ed emblema del movimento di libertà sessuale. Il successo del musical risiede nella presa in giro degli stereotipi del gotico sia letterario che cinematografico, creando una enorme, irriverente parodia. Se il riferimento più evidente è il Frankenstein di Mary Shelley e la versione cinematografica di James Whale, meno analizzato è il rapporto con Benighted (1927 by John B. Priestley e la pellicola The Old Dark House (1932 sempre di Whale e adattata dal romanzo di Priestley. Proprio questa risulta, infatti, vera fonte di ispirazione per il lavoro di O’Brien, piuttosto che il Frankestein. Il contributo analizzerà questo rapporto, focalizzando la sua attenzione sugli elementi della “liturgia del Rocky Horror Show”, sui riferimenti in parodia e proponendo una visione dell’opera di O’Brien come una meta-aprodia.
Full Text Available During The Nitrate Picture Show, nitrate prints were projected for an audience of archivists, scholars and cinephiles. This review will provide an account of the festival screenings, and will discuss the value of a festival of film conservation in the contemporary digital media landscape.
Lo spettacolo teatrale The Rocky Horror Show (1973) di Richard O’Brien e, successivamente, l’adattamento cinematografico The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975) di Jim Sharman possono essere considerate due pietre miliari del musical. Per temi e struttura, essi rappresentano la massima espressione della rivoluzione sessuale che va a cavalli tra gli anni '60 e '70 ed emblema del movimento di libertà sessuale. Il successo del musical risiede nella presa in giro degli stereotipi del gotico sia lett...
Sengupta, Sonali; Parihar, Rashmi; Ganesh, Subramaniam
The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.
Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.
The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system
Butterfield, Z.; Hogikyan, A.; Kulawik, S. S.; Keppel-Aleks, G.
Gross primary production (GPP) is the single largest carbon flux in the Earth system, but its sensitivity to changes in climate is subject to significant uncertainty. Satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) offer insight into spatial and temporal patterns in GPP at a global scale and, combined with other satellite-derived datasets, provide unprecedented opportunity to explore interactions between atmospheric CO2, GPP, and climate variability. To explore potential drivers of GPP in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), we compare monthly-averaged SIF data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) with observed anomalies in temperature (T; CRU-TS), liquid water equivalent (LWE) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; CERES SYN1deg). Using observations from 2007 through 2015 for several NH regions, we calculate month-specific sensitivities of SIF to variability in T, LWE, and PAR. These sensitivities provide insight into the seasonal progression of how productivity is affected by climate variability and can be used to effectively model the observed SIF signal. In general, we find that high temperatures are beneficial to productivity in the spring, but detrimental in the summer. The influences of PAR and LWE are more heterogeneous between regions; for example, higher LWE in North American temperate forest leads to decreased springtime productivity, while exhibiting a contrasting effect in water-limited regions. Lastly, we assess the influence of variations in terrestrial productivity on atmospheric carbon using a new lower tropospheric CO2 product derived from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Together, these data shed light on the drivers of interannual variability in the annual cycle of NH atmospheric CO2, and may provide improved constraints on projections of long-term carbon cycle responses to climate change.
Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.
Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Mar. 14, 1998 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The image shows that the sea surface height along the central equatorial Pacific has returned to a near normal state. Oceanographers indicate this is a classic pattern, typical of a mature El Nino condition. Remnants of the El Nino warm water pool, shown in red and white, are situated to the north and south of the equator. These sea surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of how the 1997-98 El Nino's warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using satellite imagery, buoy and ship data, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has continued to issue an advisory indicating the so-called El Nino weather
The author has identified the following significant results. Three examples of cloud-interpretation from ERTS-1 pictures are presented. When the wind speed is large enough, the cumuli are found arranged in lines that are in average two kilometers apart from each other. These lines are grouped in lines made of small cumuli and in lines made up of well developed ones. These last lines are fused on the APT picture and appear as single lines. Fog-mapping for a given region is possible if the topography of the region is known. The stratified clouds lying over mountains or in valleys begin to dissolve above the middle of the valleys and not against the slopes. As water shows a weak albedo in the near infrared, wet surfaces will appear darker than their neighborhoods. This feature seems to be confirmed by the dark spot in the north of Bozen (Southern Tyrol) that can be seen on the ERTS-1 picture taken on 31 August 1972.
Rudd, M. Katharine; Mays, Robert W.; Schwartz, Stuart; Willard, Huntington F.
Human artificial chromosomes have been used to model requirements for human chromosome segregation and to explore the nature of sequences competent for centromere function. Normal human centromeres require specialized chromatin that consists of alpha satellite DNA complexed with epigenetically modified histones and centromere-specific proteins. While several types of alpha satellite DNA have been used to assemble de novo centromeres in artificial chromosome assays, the extent to which they fu...
sufficiently smooth contours, this information can be obtained from very few low-order coefficients. The inverse transform of the two lowest-order...obtained from very few low- order coefficients. The inverse transform of the two lowest-order coefficients is an ellipse approximating the original...coefficients obtained from the contour of Fig. 9. .. . ........ .. .. ... ..... 67 11. Inverse transform of truncated FD series .. .. . .. .... 67 12
Rudd, M Katharine; Mays, Robert W; Schwartz, Stuart; Willard, Huntington F
Human artificial chromosomes have been used to model requirements for human chromosome segregation and to explore the nature of sequences competent for centromere function. Normal human centromeres require specialized chromatin that consists of alpha satellite DNA complexed with epigenetically modified histones and centromere-specific proteins. While several types of alpha satellite DNA have been used to assemble de novo centromeres in artificial chromosome assays, the extent to which they fully recapitulate normal centromere function has not been explored. Here, we have used two kinds of alpha satellite DNA, DXZ1 (from the X chromosome) and D17Z1 (from chromosome 17), to generate human artificial chromosomes. Although artificial chromosomes are mitotically stable over many months in culture, when we examined their segregation in individual cell divisions using an anaphase assay, artificial chromosomes exhibited more segregation errors than natural human chromosomes (P artificial chromosomes missegregate over a fivefold range, the data suggest that variable centromeric DNA content and/or epigenetic assembly can influence the mitotic behavior of artificial chromosomes.
Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Jagadeesan, L.; Anjusha, A.; Mohan, A.P.; Ullas, N.; Sudheesh, K.; Karnan, C.
in the Indian sector of the GoM and the PB in January 2011 showed significant overestimations in the satellite data. This error was much higher in the PB (60–80 %) as compared to the GoM (18–28 %). The multivariate analyses evidenced that the exceptionally high...
Pless, Mette; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik
’Picture perfect’ – when perfection becomes the new normal This paper draws on perspectives from three different studies. One study, which focuses on youth life and lack of well-being (Sørensen et al 2011), one study on youth life on the margins of society (Katznelson et al 2015) and one study...
With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for…
Johnson, C J; Paivio, A; Clark, J M
A substantial research literature documents the effects of diverse item attributes, task conditions, and participant characteristics on the case of picture naming. The authors review what the research has revealed about 3 generally accepted stages of naming a pictured object: object identification, name activation, and response generation. They also show that dual coding theory gives a coherent and plausible account of these findings without positing amodal conceptual representations, and they identify issues and methods that may further advance the understanding of picture naming and related cognitive tasks.
Hockley, William E
The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.
A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…
Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Picture Languages: Formal Models for Picture Recognition treats pictorial pattern recognition from the formal standpoint of automata theory. This book emphasizes the capabilities and relative efficiencies of two types of automata-array automata and cellular array automata, with respect to various array recognition tasks. The array automata are simple processors that perform sequences of operations on arrays, while the cellular array automata are arrays of processors that operate on pictures in a highly parallel fashion, one processor per picture element. This compilation also reviews a collection of results on two-dimensional sequential and parallel array acceptors. Some of the analogous one-dimensional results and array grammars and their relation to acceptors are likewise covered in this text. This publication is suitable for researchers, professionals, and specialists interested in pattern recognition and automata theory.
Pictures give other impulses than words and numbers. With images, you can easily spot new opportunities. The Highcrop-tool allows for optimization of the organic arable farm based on picture-cards. The picture-cards are designed to make it easier and more inspiring to go close to the details of production. By using the picture-cards you can spot the areas, where there is a possibility to optimize the production system for better results in the future. Highcrop picture cards can be used to:...
Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels
Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the
S.R. Giessner (Steffen); M.K. Ryan (Michelle); T.W. Schubert (Thomas); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)
textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in
Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second order whe...
Kennedy, J M
Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference.
Lecture concerning the picture sharpness in biomedical radiography is presented. Notion of picture sharpness and visual acuity as an analyser of picture sharpness is specified. Attention is paid to the POX-curve as a statistical method for assessment of visual acuity. Conceptions of the sensitivity of using X-ray image visualization system together with specificity and accuracy are considered. Among indices of sharp parameters of visualization system the resolution, resolving power, picture unsharpness are discussed. It is shown that gradation and sharp characteristics of the image closely correlate that need an attention in practice to factors determining them [ru
Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
that the dynamics of the interaction picture Wigner function is solved by running a swarm of trajectories in the classical interaction picture introduced previously in the literature. Solving the Wigner method dynamics of collision processes in the interaction picture ensures that the calculated transition......The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show...... probabilities are unambiguous even when the asymptotic potentials are anharmonic. An application of the interaction picture Wigner method to a Morse oscillator interacting with a laser field is presented. The calculated transition probabilities are in good agreement with results obtained by a numerical...
Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs
Miller, Elmo E.
Pictures definitely seem to help training, but a study for the military finds these pictures need not be in moving form, such as films or videotape. Just how the pictorial techniques should be employed and with how much success depends on individual trainee and program differences. (KP)
Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth
Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…
Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of pictures were controlled while emotional valence was manipulated as 3 categories, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Two experiments were conducted with an eye-tracker in order to determine to what the participants turn their gaze. Participants were 25 psychology students with normal vision. Every participant saw all pictures in color and same pictures in black/white version. This makes 200 analyzed units for color pictures and 200 for black and white pictures. Every picture was divided into figure and ground. Considering that perception can be influenced by color, edges, luminosity and contrast and since all those factors are collapsed on the pictures in IAPS, we compared color pictures with same black and white pictures. In first eye-tracking IAPS research we analyzed 12 emotional pictures and showed that participants have higher number of fixations for ground on neutral and unpleasant pictures and for figure on pleasant pictures. Second experiment was conducted with 4 sets of emotional complementary pictures (pleasant/unpleasant) which differ only on the content in the figure area and it was shown that participants were more focused on the figure area than on the ground area. Future ERP (event related potential) research with IAPS pictures should take into consideration these findings and to either choose pictures with blank ground or adjust pictures in the way that ground is blank. For the following experiments suggestion is to put emotional content in the figure
Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette
In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi
The Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan, created under the auspices of UNESCO on 30 May 2002. December 2017, Jordan Picture: Noemi Caraban
from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...
Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine
The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…
Andrew A. Tronin
Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.
Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students’ comprehension in Mathematics: pictures with concurrent narration versus pictures with on-screen text, during teaching triangles, a lesson in Mathematics. Forty primary school children (boys and girls selected to participate in this study. Students splitted into two experimental groups with the technique of simple random sampling. The first group consisted of students who viewed and listened (pictures with narration group, while the second group consisted of students who viewed (pictures with on-screen text a presentation of triangles. A recall test was used to evaluate students’ comprehension. The results showed that students’ comprehension was better when triangles' presentation (pictures was accompanied with spoken words, than with printed words. The pictures with narration group performed better than the pictures with on-screen text group, in recall test (M = 4.97, SD = 1.32 p<0.01. Results are consistent with the modality principle in which learners are more likely to build connections between corresponding words and pictures when words are presented in a spoken form (narration simultaneously with pictures.
Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.
The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…
For baryons, mesons and deep inelastic phenomena the ideas and the problems of the conventional quark picture are pointed out. All observed baryons fit in three SU(3)-multiplets which cluster into larger SU(6)-multiplets. No mesons are known which have quantum numbers inconsistent with belonging to a SU(3) nonet or octet. The deep inelastic phenomena are described in terms of six structure functions of the proton. (BJ) [de
The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)
Álvaro de Oliveira D'Antona
Full Text Available Analisamos o procedimento de coleta e processamento de informações sobre uso e cobertura da terra, obtidas por desenhos feitos com moradores de lotes rurais, em um segmento da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Pará. Consideramos as peculiaridades dos dados de campo buscando integrá-los aos dados obtidos por satélite. Concluímos que o instrumento deve ser usado sistematicamente no aprimoramento de abordagens interdisciplinares para o estudo de mudanças ambientais.We analyzed the procedure of collecting and processing information in regard to land use and land coverage obtained from sketch maps created together with rural property owners in a settlement area along the Transamazonica, the Transamazon Highway, in Pará, Brazil. We assessed the special features of field data and integrated them with data from satellites. We concluded that these sketch maps can be used systematically to improve interdisciplinary approaches in the study of environmental changes.
Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.
The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs
The polycentric picture The presentation introduces a dynamic view on children's drawings inspired by J.J.Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception. Empirical research in children's drawings will be the basis for the documentation of the fact that children's drawings contain several...... viewpoints and can be characterized as polycentric. I will talk about children's perception of environmental space and about the relations and the orientation they are establishing, which are used in the organisation of the pictorial space. The presentation serves the purpose to point out ontological...
Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.
Tartar, Jaime L; de Almeida, Kristen; McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Nash, Allan J
Emotionally negative stimuli serve as a mechanism of biological preparedness to enhance attention. We hypothesized that emotionally negative stimuli would also serve as motivational priming to increase attention resources for subsequent stimuli. To that end, we tested 11 participants in a dual sensory modality task, wherein emotionally negative pictures were contrasted with emotionally neutral pictures and each picture was followed 600 ms later by a tone in an auditory oddball paradigm. Each trial began with a picture displayed for 200 ms; half of the trials began with an emotionally negative picture and half of the trials began with an emotionally neutral picture; 600 ms following picture presentation, the participants heard either an oddball tone or a standard tone. At the end of each trial (picture followed by tone), the participants categorized, with a button press, the picture and tone combination. As expected, and consistent with previous studies, we found an enhanced visual late positive potential (latency range=300-700 ms) to the negative picture stimuli. We further found that compared to neutral pictures, negative pictures resulted in early attention and orienting effects to subsequent tones (measured through an enhanced N1 and N2) and sustained attention effects only to the subsequent oddball tones (measured through late processing negativity, latency range=400-700 ms). Number pad responses to both the picture and tone category showed the shortest response latencies and greatest percentage of correct picture-tone categorization on the negative picture followed by oddball tone trials. Consistent with previous work on natural selective attention, our results support the idea that emotional stimuli can alter attention resource allocation. This finding has broad implications for human attention and performance as it specifically shows the conditions in which an emotionally negative stimulus can result in extended stimulus evaluation. Copyright © 2011
Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Carrera, F.; Pickle, J.
Digital Earth Watch (DEW) involves individuals, schools, organizations and communities in a systematic monitoring project of their local environment, especially vegetation health. The program offers people the means to join the Picture Post network and to study and analyze their own findings using DEW software. A Picture Post is an easy-to-use and inexpensive platform for repeatedly taking digital photographs as a standardized set of images of the entire 360 ° landscape, which then can be shared over the Internet on the Picture Post website. This simple concept has the potential to create a wealth of information and data on changing environmental conditions, which is important for a society grappling with the effects of environmental change. Picture Post participants study change over time in their local area, compare digital images with NASA satellite imagery and contribute towards improving their own communities. A key message in DEW is that although plants are dynamic and respond continuously to their environment, they do so either on a time-scale that most people don't notice or with a subtlety our senses can't detect. DEW has created simple tools for monitoring vegetation as a means towards understanding the connection between global climate change and local effects. Picture Posts may be added by anyone interested in monitoring a particular location. The value of a Picture Post is in the commitment of participants to take repeated photographs - monthly, weekly, or even daily - to build up a long-term record over many years. DEW is being developed by a collaborative effort led by the University of New Hampshire with the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners, the University of Southern Maine, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. This poster will show examples of picture posts and data that can be collected and will describe our soon-to-be-released “ virtual ” picture post cell phone app. The Picture Post network is new and we invite individuals
Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.
This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst
The first part of the book describes the development of a polarised spectrum of attitudes towards science and technology over the last two decades. Positivistic attitudes that emerged from the materialistic branch of the period of Enlightenment are shown in contrast to the attitudes that stem from the philosophical line of Rousseau-romanticism-vitalism. The second part of the book presents the results of an empirical study, providing evidence for the existence of the different attitudes towards technology and the environment. The study is based on a representative opinion poll among civil servants, engineering professions, social workers, and artists. Engineers and social workers are shown to represent the two antipodes in terms of the 'dual-culture' theory. In addition, sex-specific and age-specific differences are explained, and the different pictures of technology drawn by personalities characterised by an attitude of active control in contrast to those characterised by an attitude of intuitive faith. (orig.) [de
Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira
Starting with this issue, we will publish special pictures illustrating the ongoing construction and commissioning efforts. If you wish to have a professionnal photographer immortalize your detector before it disappears in the heart of ATLAS or for a special event, don't hesitate to contact Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira (16-3687) from the CERN photo service. Members of the pixel team preparing to insert the outermost layer (the outer of the three barrel pixel layers) into the Global Support Frame for the Pixel Detector in SR1. Ongoing work on the first Big Wheel on the C side. Exploded view of the side-C Big Wheel and the barrel cryostat. The TRT Barrel services (HV, LV, cooling liquid, active gas, flushing gas) are now completely connected and tested. Hats off to Kirill Egorov, Mike Reilly, Ben Legeyt and Godwin Mayers who managed to fit everything within the small clearance margin!
Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham
A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.
Ally, Brandon A.; Waring, Jill D.; Beth, Ellen H.; McKeever, Joshua D.; Milberg, William P.; Budson, Andrew E.
High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to e...
Automatic picture processing requires high performance computers and high transmission capacities in the processor units. The author examines the possibilities of operating processors in parallel in order to accelerate the processing of pictures. He therefore discusses a number of available processors and systems for picture processing and illustrates their capacities for special types of picture processing. He stresses the fact that the amount of storage required for picture processing is exceptionally high. The author concludes that it is as yet difficult to decide whether very large groups of simple processors or highly complex multiprocessor systems will provide the best solution. Both methods will be aided by the development of VLSI. New solutions have already been offered (systolic arrays and 3-d processing structures) but they also are subject to losses caused by inherently parallel algorithms. Greater efforts must be made to produce suitable software for multiprocessor systems. Some possibilities for future picture processing systems are discussed. 33 references.
This paper considers whether pictures ever implicitly represent internal spectators of the scenes they depict, and what theoretical construal to offer of their doing so. Richard Wollheim's discussion (Painting as an Art, ch.3) is taken as the most sophisticated attempt to answer these questions. I argue that Wollheim does not provide convincing argument for his claim that some pictures implicitly represent an internal spectator with whom the viewer of the picture is to imaginatively identify....
Device for transmitting television pictures in the form of transform coefficients and motion vectors. The motion vectors of a sub-picture are converted (20) into a series of difference vectors and a reference vector. Said series is subsequently applied to a variable-length encoder (22) which encodes
Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.
The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.
Desai, Christina M.
Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…
Ronald E. McRoberts
The scientific method has been characterized as having two distinct components, Discovery and Justification. Discovery emphasizes ideas and creativity, focuses on conceiving hypotheses and constructing models, and is generally regarded as lacking a formal logic. Justification begins with the hypotheses and models and ends with a...
Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov
A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and words that represent proximal objects. These results were obtained with various psychological distance dimensions (spatial, temporal, and social), different tasks (classification and categorization), and different measures (speed of processing and selective attention). The authors argue that differences in the processing of pictures and words emanate from the physical similarity of pictures, but not words, to the referents. Consequently, perceptual analysis is commonly applied to pictures but not to words. Pictures thus impart a sense of closeness to the referent objects and are preferably used to represent such objects, whereas words do not convey proximity and are preferably used to represent distal objects in space, time, and social perspective.
Bonin, P; Fayol, M
In three experiments, the nature of the representations involved in written picture naming and the time course of their activation were investigated. French participants had to produce picture names while hearing distractors. In Experiment 1, distractors semantically related to the picture names yielded a semantic interference effect when a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of--150 msec, but not when a SOA of 0 msec, was used, in both spoken and written picture naming. Experiment 2 showed that the semantic interference effect was not located at the conceptual level. In Experiment 3, participants wrote down picture names while hearing semantically related, phonologically related, both semantically and phonologically related, or unrelated distractors, presented at both SOAs. A semantic interference effect was obtained with phonologically unrelated distractors but was eliminated with phonologically related distractors. Facilitatory effects of phonologically related distractors were found at both SOAs. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are discussed.
Patricia R. Ladd
Full Text Available This study analyzes circulation statistics of television tie-in picture books from the Wake County Public Library System in North Carolina to determine their popularity among patrons. Caldecott winning picture books were used as a point of comparison. This study also examined OPAC holdings from North Carolina public libraries to determine television tie-in picture book popularity among collection builders. The findings of the study show that television tie-in picture books are found to some degree in the vast majority of North Carolina public libraries, and are more popular than award winners in the Wake County system.
Mehmani, Bahar; Aiello, Andrea
We present a graphical example of the interaction picture-time evolution. Our aim is to help students understand in a didactic manner the simplicity that this picture provides. Visualizing the interaction picture unveils its advantages, which are hidden behind the involved mathematics. Specifically, we show that the time evolution of a driven harmonic oscillator in the interaction picture corresponds to a local transformation of a phase space-reference frame into the one that is co-rotating with the Wigner function. (paper)
Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…
Bondy, A; Frost, L
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.
Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ
The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list
The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru
Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov
A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and…
Cotton, Penni; Daly, Nicola
The potential for picture books in national collections to act as mirrors reflecting the reader's cultural identity, is widely accepted. This paper shows that the books in a New Zealand Picture Book Collection can also become windows into unfamiliar worlds for non-New Zealand readers, giving them the opportunity to learn more about a context in…
Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A
Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.
Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)
The idea is discussed according to which, in the Heisenberg picture, differently from the Schroedinger picture, the operators correspond exactly to the dynamic properties and the role of the density matrix is merely to describe our passive knowledge thereof. It is shown that the idea in question cannot be consistently kept as it is, and hints are given as to how it could be refined. (from author). 2 refs
Dhawan, M; Pellegrino, J W
Interference effects for pictures and words were investigated using a probe-recall task. Word stimuli showed acoustic interference effects for items at the end of the list and semantic interference effects for items at the beginning of the list, similar to results of Kintsch and Buschke (1969). Picture stimuli showed large semantic interference effects at all list positions with smaller acoustic interference effects. The results were related to latency data on picture-word processing and interpreted in terms of the differential order, probability, and/or speed of access to acoustic and semantic levels of processing. A levels of processing explanation of picture-word retention differences was related to dual coding theory. Both theoretical positions converge on an explanation of picture-word retention differences as a function of the relative capacity for semantic or associative processing.
Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon
Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....
Hulme, Charles; And Others
Three experiments demonstrate that children four to ten years old, when presented with a series recall task with pictures of common objects having short or long names, showed consistently better recall of pictures with short names. (HOD)
Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, rather than satiated, state were associated with enlarged positive potentials over posterior sensor sites in a time window of 170-310 ms poststimulus. Minimum-norm analysis suggests the enhanced processing of food cues primarily in occipito-temporo-parietal regions. In contrast, processing of standard emotional and neutral pictures was not modulated by food deprivation. Considered from the perspective of motivated attention, the selective change of food cue processing may reflect a state-dependent change in stimulus salience.
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'
A picture knowledge base management system is described that is used to represent, organize and retrieve pictures from a frame knowledge base. Experiments with human test subjects were conducted to obtain further descriptions of pictures from news magazines. These descriptions were used to represent the semantic content of pictures in frame representations. A conceptual clustering algorithm is described which organizes pictures not only on the observable features, but also on implicit properties derived from the frame representations. The algorithm uses inheritance reasoning to take into account background knowledge in the clustering. The algorithm creates clusters of pictures using a group similarity function that is based on the gestalt theory of picture perception. For each cluster created, a frame is generated which describes the semantic content of pictures in the cluster. Clustering and retrieval experiments were conducted with and without background knowledge. The paper shows how the use of background knowledge and semantic similarity heuristics improves the speed, precision, and recall of queries processed. The paper concludes with a discussion of how natural language processing of can be used to assist in the development of knowledge bases and the processing of user queries.
The speaker discussed the situation of gas supply and demand in the eastern part of North America. The first PowerPoint slide provided the outline of the presentation. The author showed maps detailing the regional gas demand, first in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes, then New England. The next few slides depicted the North American power generation capacity, and the market fundamentals of supply. The Canadian East Coast Forecast Production was shown, and the impact of liquid natural gas (LNG) and Sable deliveries through 2010 explained. The key themes for the next ten years were explored and the situation of Sable gas to Quebec as of 23 May 2001 was described. The implications for the Quebec market are many: Quebec is now receiving Sable gas and its connection with the Portland market is proving very useful. It all leads to growing confidence on the part of industrial gas users. The author concluded the presentation with a few thoughts: (1) moderate demand growth in Central Canada, (2) stronger growth in New England, (3) power generation is a key driver of demand, (4) LNG, East Coast and Arctic gas will be key supply sources, and (5) Sable gas to Quebec. figs
Loftus, Geoffrey R.; And Others
Five experiments studied operations of conceptual masking--the reduction of conceptual memory performance for an initial stimulus when it is followed by a masking picture process. The subjects were 337 undergraduates at the University of Washington (Seattle). Conceptual masking is distinguished from perceptual masking. (TJH)
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…
Dr. Piet Bakker
Het doel van het project Every Picture Tells a Story is om samen met het werkveld methoden, technieken en kennis te ontwikkelen voor het produceren van effectieve infographics. Dit is nodig omdat de vraag naar infographics in de markt snel toeneemt. Bedrijfsleven en overheden kiezen er steeds vaker
On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil
Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela
Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...
Pelton, Joseph N
The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r
Ally, Brandon A; Gold, Carl A; Budson, Andrew E
The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact, and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance.
Ally, Brandon A.; Gold, Carl A.; Budson, Andrew E.
The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact, and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance. PMID:18992266
Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David
Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.
Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia
Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....
Lo, Shih-Yu; Yeh, Su-Ling
The meaning of a picture can be extracted rapidly, but the form-to-meaning relationship is less obvious for printed words. In contrast to English words that follow grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence rule, the iconic nature of Chinese words might predispose them to activate their semantic representations more directly from their orthographies. By using the paradigm of repetition blindness (RB) that taps into the early level of word processing, we examined whether Chinese words activate their semantic representations as directly as pictures do. RB refers to the failure to detect the second occurrence of an item when it is presented twice in temporal proximity. Previous studies showed RB for semantically related pictures, suggesting that pictures activate their semantic representations directly from their shapes and thus two semantically related pictures are represented as repeated. However, this does not apply to English words since no RB was found for English synonyms. In this study, we replicated the semantic RB effect for pictures, and further showed the absence of semantic RB for Chinese synonyms. Based on our findings, it is suggested that Chinese words are processed like English words, which do not activate their semantic representations as directly as pictures do.
Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.
We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.
Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F
The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.
The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...
The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freemann and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particularly simple from. (orig.)
The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)
Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.
Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl
Callahan, J. D.
The Multimission Interactive Picture Planner, MIP, is a scientifically accurate and fast, 3D animation program for deep space. MIP is also versatile, reasonably comprehensive, portable, and will run on microcomputers. New techniques were developed to rapidly perform the calculations and transformations necessary to animate scientifically accurate 3D space. At the same time, portability is maintained, as the transformations and clipping have been written in FORTRAN 77 code. MIP was primarily designed to handle Voyager, Galileo, and the Space Telescope. It can, however, be adapted to handle other missions. The space simulation consists of a rotating body (usually a planet), any natural satellites, a spacecraft, the sun, stars, descriptive labelling, and field of view boxes. The central body and natural satellites are tri-axial wireframe representations with terminators, limbs, and landmarks. Hidden lines are removed for the central body and natural satellites, but not for the scene as a whole so that bodies may be seen behind one another. The program has considerable flexibility in its step time, observer position, viewed object, field of view, etc. Most parameters may be changed from the keyboard while the simulation is running. When MIP is executed it will ask the user for a control file, which should be prepared before execution. The control file identifies which mission MIP should simulate, the star catalog files, the ephemerides files to be used, the central body, planets, asteroids, and comets, and solar system landmarks and constants such as planets, asteroids, and comets. The control file also describes the fields of view. Control files are included to simulate the Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter and the Giotto spacecraft's flyby of Halley's comet. Data is included for Voyager 1 and 2 (all 6 planetary encounters) and Giotto. MIP was written for an IBM PC or compatibles. It requires 512K of RAM, a CGA or compatible graphics adapter, and DOS 2.0 or higher. Users
Wiens, Stefan; Sand, Anders; Norberg, Joakim; Andersson, Per
Viewing of emotional pictures elicits two event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional versus neutral pictures: an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP). Because it is unresolved whether these indexes of emotional processing are reduced to task-irrelevant pictures at fixation, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) were shown at fixation together with 6 letters that surrounded the pictures. In separate tasks, participants were instructed to attend either the pictures or the letters. When the pictures were task relevant, results showed an EPN and LPP. In contrast, when the pictures were task irrelevant, the EPN was eliminated and the LPP reduced. Performance was high in both tasks (hit rates>87%), but somewhat better when the pictures were relevant. However, analyses showed no relationship between this performance difference and the differences in EPN and LPP between tasks. These results suggest that emotional processing of strong, negative pictures is sensitive to manipulations of attention even if the pictures are shown at fixation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...
Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M
The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
A small study conducted at a Swedish hospital on the effect of giving picture books and picture sheets to prepare children for their procedures before and during day surgery is explored in this article.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008...
Finn, Bridgid; Roediger, Henry L; Rosenzweig, Emily
Finn and Roediger (Psychological science 22:781-786, 2011) found that when a negative emotional picture was presented immediately after a successful retrieval, later test performance was enhanced as compared to when a neutral picture or a blank screen had been shown. This finding implicates the period immediately following retrieval as playing an important role in determining later retention via reconsolidation. In two new experiments, we investigated whether successful retrieval was required to show the enhancing effect of negative emotion on later recall. In both experiments, the participants studied Swahili-English vocabulary pairs, took an intervening cued-recall test, and were given a final cued-recall test on all items. In Experiment 1, we tested a distinctiveness explanation of the effect. The results showed that neither presentation of a negative picture just prior to successful retrieval nor presentation of a positive picture after successful retrieval produced the enhancing effect that was seen when negative pictures were presented after successful retrieval. In Experiment 2, we tested whether the enhancing effect would occur when a negative picture followed an unsuccessful retrieval attempt with feedback, and a larger enhancement effect occurred after errors of commission than after errors of omission. These results indicate that effort in retrieving is critical to the enhancing effect shown with negative pictures; whether the target is produced by the participant or given by an external source following a commission error does not matter. We interpret these results as support for semantic enrichment as a key element in producing the enhancing effect of negative pictures that are presented after a retrieval attempt.
... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing...: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed to improve the effectiveness of a mailpiece by...
Farris, Pamela J.
Advocates inclusion of multicultural picture books in social studies instruction to offer different outlooks and visions in a short format. Describes selection of picture books with multicultural themes and those that represent various cultures, gender equity, and religious themes. Suggests that picture books may help students develop better…
Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen
Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)
van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry
Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an
Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley
This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…
Houts, Peter S; Doak, Cecilia C; Doak, Leonard G; Loscalzo, Matthew J
To assess the effects of pictures on health communications. Peer reviewed studies in health education, psychology, education, and marketing journals were reviewed. There was no limit placed on the time periods searched. Pictures closely linked to written or spoken text can, when compared to text alone, markedly increase attention to and recall of health education information. Pictures can also improve comprehension when they show relationships among ideas or when they show spatial relationships. Pictures can change adherence to health instructions, but emotional response to pictures affects whether they increase or decrease target behaviors. All patients can benefit, but patients with low literacy skills are especially likely to benefit. Patients with very low literacy skills can be helped by spoken directions plus pictures to take home as reminders or by pictures plus very simply worded captions. Educators should: (1) ask "how can I use pictures to support key points?", (2) minimize distracting details in pictures, (3) use simple language in conjunction with pictures, (4) closely link pictures to text and/or captions, (5) include people from the intended audience in designing pictures, (6) have health professionals plan the pictures, not artists, and (7) evaluate pictures' effects by comparing response to materials with and without pictures.
Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a ... diversity offormats, languages, genre, and a universal reach that cannot be met by .... programs can be delivered to whom it is intended. In the case of.
Full Text Available This article proposes to study the fashion pictures within a representative sample of French women magazines. Based on the method of “sémiologie des indices”, used to analyze a corpus of woman’s body and fashion staged, this paper addresses the issue of new functions granted to the stereotyping process. Starting to the assumption of a contract between audience and media, this analysis shows that the gender stereotype may be prescribed, up to a caricature of the womanhood, to the female readers identified as co-producers of the media discourse. Demonstrating both the co-existence of a plurality of gender representations in its pictures and their variability, this work proposes the concept of strategic masquerade to apprehend the possible new functions for the process of gender stereotyping in media.
Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick
The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of…
Gower, J. F. R.
The ERTS-1 color composite picture of the Vancouver-Victoria region illustrates the value of ERTS data for coastal oceanography. The water of the Fraser River plume which is so clearly visible in the center of the scene has been of interest to oceanographers on the west coast of Canada for a long time as an easily visible tracer of surface water circulation in the strait of Georgia. Maps of the plume at different states of the tide and with different river flow and weather were compiled from oblique aerial photographs in 1950 and used in the siting of sewage and other outfalls in the Vancouver area. More recently high level aerial photomosaics have been used to map the plume area, but the plume can spread over distances of 30 to 40 miles and many photographs, with the uneven illumination inherent in wide angle coverage, are needed for the mosaic. The ERTS satellite gives the first complete view of the plume area. Electronic enhancement of the images shows that the satellite's narrow angle coverage allows very weak surface turbidity features to be made visible to give information on surface currents over a wide area.
Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo
Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element for an...
Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.
Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shar...
Full Text Available Coal is the main source of energy. In China and Vietnam, coal resources are very rich, but the exploration level is relatively low. This is mainly caused by the complicated geological structure, the low efficiency, the related damage, and other bad situations. To this end, we need to make use of some advanced technologies to guarantee the resource exploration is implemented smoothly and orderly. Numerous studies show that remote sensing technology is an effective way in coal exploration and measurement. In this paper, we try to measure the distribution and reserves of open-air coal area through satellite imagery. The satellite picture of open-air coal mining region in Quang Ninh Province of Vietnam was collected as the experimental data. Firstly, the ENVI software is used to eliminate satellite imagery spectral interference. Then, the image classification model is established by the improved ELM algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved ELM algorithm is verified by using MATLAB simulations. The results show that the accuracies of the testing set reach 96.5%. And it reaches 83% of the image discernment precision compared with the same image from Google.
learning ratamotivasi before using the model Cooperative Picture and Picture mode is 57.0% with less category, and after using the model Cooperative type Picture and Picture in the first cycle was 72.4% in the category quite well and then in the second cycle can be obtained average value of students' motivation is at 85.7% categorized either. Means of pre-action to cycle 1 rose to 15.4% and in the second cycle, up 13.3%. It shows that the motivation of students of class XI IPS 3 SMAN 1 Kelam Permai Sintang District after using the model type Picture and Picture Cooperative has increased, as well as student motivation categorized either. Kata kunci: learning motivation, Pembelajaran Sejarah, Model Cooperative Tipe Picture and Picture
The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)
noise signal level exceeds 10 times the normal background. EXPERIMENTS FOR SATELLITE ASTRONOMY 615 ANTENNA MONOPOLE -., PREAMPLFE = BANDPASS-FILTER...OUTPUT TO AND DETECTOR TELEMETRYCHANNELS (18) CALIBRATION NOISE MATRIX CLOCK NOISE SOURCE ’ON’ SOURCE COMMAND F ROM PROGRAMERP ANTENNA MONOPOLE FIGURE 13...Animal Tempera- ture Sensing for Studying the Effect of Prolonged Orbital Flight on the Circadian Rhythms of Pocket Mice . Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting
Flournoy, Don M
Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.
Full Text Available Este artigo procura apresentar os resultados da re-análise dos dados recolhidos em dois projectos de investigaçãoacçãosobre a utilização de álbuns em língua inglesa nas aulas de Inglês da Educação Pré-Escolar em Portugal.Dois álbums forum usados, demonstrando diferentes interacções entre texto e imagem, ‘paralela’ e ‘interdependente’. Transcrições de gravações de horas do conto com estes livros foram categorizadas de acordo com asfalas em Inglês a que o texto ou imagem deram origem. Os resultados indicam que a linguagem que as criançasaprendem de facto, com os livros ‘inter-dependentes’ (onde a história escrita é diferente da história ilustrada émais rica e as próprias crianças tomam um papel mais activo na criação de um significado. As implicações destesresultados são discutidas.The following article presents the findings of a re-analysis of data from two action research projects investigatingthe use of English picture books in Pre-school English classes in Portugal. Two picture books were used, eachrepresenting parallel and interdependent storytelling models. Audio tapescripts of the picture book read aloudswere categorised according to the utterances prompted by the verbal and visual texts. Results show that foreignlanguage acquisition is extended when both the verbal and visual texts of a picture book are used for languageinput and that children are more actively involved in meaning making. Implications are discussed.
A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.
A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.
Sutton, S K; Davidson, R J; Donzella, B; Irwin, W; Dottl, D A
Separate, extended series of positive, negative, and neutral pictures were presented to 24 (12 men, 12 women) undergraduates. Each series was presented on a different day, with full counterbalancing of presentation orders. Affective state was measured using (a) orbicularis oculi activity in response to acoustic startle probes during picture presentation, (b) corrugator supercilii activity between and during picture presentation, and (c) changes in self-reports of positive and negative affect. Participants exhibited larger eyeblink reflex magnitudes when viewing negative than when viewing positive pictures. Corrugator activity was also greater during the negative than during the positive picture set, during both picture presentation and the period between pictures. Self-reports of negative affect increased in response to the negative picture set, and self-reports of positive affect were greatest following the positive picture set. These findings suggest that extended picture presentation is an effective method of manipulating affective state and further highlight the utility of startle probe and facial electromyographic measures in providing on-line readouts of affective state.
Bookbinder, S. H.; Brainerd, C. J.
In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are due to valence and which are due to arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively-valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling reve...
A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9764085
Christianson, S A; Fällman, L
The purpose of this study was to investigate subjects' reactivity to emotional pictures and their recollection of these pictures, and to examine these two factors as they relate to age. Adolescents and young adults were shown emotionally arousing scenic pictures for long (4-s) and very brief (50-ms) durations. Recognition of the pictures and recall and recognition of words presented along with the pictures were assessed both immediately after the presentation and six weeks later. The results showed that very negative pictures are retained better than neutral or even positive pictures, and that very negative pictures reduce memory for associated information. It was also found that adolescents show a somewhat lower reactivity to very negative pictures and a higher degree of retention of these pictures than adults. The results are discussed in relation to (a) habituation effects, (b) strategies that subjects might develop to block emotional involvement, and (c) the notion that watching violence might serve as a powerful prime to socially undesirable behaviour.
Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira
View of a single MDT Big Wheel (on side A in UX15 cavern) taken during its last movement immediately after being assembled and just before being connected to the neighbouring TGC1 wheel. Assembly work on the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Wheel C in building 190. Connecting the services for the Cathode Strip Chambers. The installation of the optical fibers for the readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Weel C by the Irvine group. Best from our archives: View of the End Cap Calorimeter and TGC big wheel from the Cryostat side A of ATLAS cavern taken on 22 May 2007. The picture above was taken from the platform in the middle, between the Cryostat and the End-Cap. Muriel hopes you all had a great vacation. She herself had a wonderful time sailing in Galicia (North Western Spain). She can be seen here wearing the traditional dress offered to her by "Los Amigos de las Dornas" (Friends of the Dornas -traditional sailing boats used for fishing) - when she became ...
Kaczmarek, I; Bilska, J; Osmola, K; Nowaczyk, M T
Mycotic infection of paranasal sinus could be the etiological factor of chronic sinusitis. The increase in number of fungal sinusitis cases have been reported recently among nonimmunocompromised patient after endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth. Nonspecific clinical signs and incorrect radiologic pictures interpretation as well as loss of therapeutic standards seems to be the cause of false negative diagnosis and difficulties in treatment of fungal sinusitis. Clinical and radiological picture of maxillary sinus aspergillosis was described in this paper. In the period of 2006-2009 in the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery 19 patient with fungal maxillary sinusitis was treated. The endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth of the related side was performed previously in 80% examined cases. In 2 cases there were immunocompromised patients with immunosuppressive treatment. In 16 cases patients were referred to our Department due to metallic foreign body of the maxillary sinus. Routine diagnostic radiological imaging was performed in each case: paranasal sinus view--Water's view and panoramic radiograph (orthopantomograph). In 4 cases imaging was extended with computer tomography (CT) visualization. The surgical treatment was performed in each case. The final diagnosis was puted on histopathological examination and fungal culture. In 16 cases of analysed group histopathological examination and fungal culture revealed aspergilosis. In 2 cases fungal culture was negative, but histopathology slices confirm presence of hyphae of Aspergillus. In 1 case the root canal sealer was found in the maxillary sinus. In none case invasive form of aspergillosis was confirmed. In all cases Water's view of paranasal sinuses and ortopantomograph showed partially or totally clouded sinus with well-defined, single or multifocal radiopaque object similar to metallic foreign body. Characteristic finding in CT imaging was well-defined radiodence concretions that have been attributed to
Gamble, Katherine R; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan, 1995, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169-182) suggests that exposure to nature improves attention. Berman, Jonides, and Kaplan (2008, Psychological Science, 19, 1207-1212) showed that simply viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in young adults. The present study is the first to investigate this Nature Effect in older adults. The authors investigated whether executive attention could be improved in healthy older adults following brief exposure to nature pictures. Thirty healthy older adults (64-79 years old) and 26 young university students (18-25 years old) participated. They completed the Attention Network Test before and after 6 min of viewing either nature or urban pictures, with random assignment into a picture type. Attention immediately before (most fatigued) and after (most restored) picture viewing was measured, and change in attention was compared between age groups and picture types. Results showed that viewing nature, but not urban, pictures significantly improved executive attention in both older and young adults as measured by the Attention Network Test, with similar effects seen in the two age groups. Alerting and orienting attention scores were not affected by picture viewing. This was the first study to show that viewing nature pictures improves attention in older adults, and to show that it is executive attention, specifically, that is improved. Among a growing number of interventions, nature exposure offers a quick, inexpensive, and enjoyable means to provide a temporary boost in executive attention.
Smith, K. R.; Boness, F. H.
The impact of advanced satellite meteorology on long range weather forecasts, agriculture, commerce, and resource utilization are examined. All data are geared to obtaining a picture of various user needs and possible benefits.
Bumpus, Minnette A.
Motion pictures and television shows can provide mediums to facilitate the learning of management and organizational behavior theories and concepts. Although the motion pictures and television shows cited in the literature cover a broad range of cinematic categories, racial inclusion is limited. The objectives of this article are to document the…
Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula
Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture book. We describe three studies that explored the number and nature of exposures required to elicit positive visual preferences for stimuli and the extent to which induced preferences generalize to other similar items. Results show that positive preferences for stimuli are easily and reliably induced in children and, importantly, that this effect of exposure is not restricted to the exposed stimulus per se but also applies to new representations of the exposed item.
The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke
observation, most economists have failed to see that ‘there's more to the picture than meets the eye', as Neil Young once sang. We use statistical, historical and fieldwork data from two Danish, marginal rural communities both rich on intangible capital. This to show how intangible capital in the form...
Full Text Available Librarians, like many other occupations, tend to rely on text and underutilize graphics. Research on visual communication shows that pictures have a number of advantages over words. We can interact more effectively with colleagues and patrons by incorporating ideas from this research.
Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...
Prudhoe, Catherine M.
Explores how teachers can use picture book illustrations to teach children the art of collage. Focuses on three children's picture books and offers art activities showcasing three collage techniques: (1) cut and torn paper collage; (2) photomontage; and (3) texture collages and collage constructions. Relates each activity to the National Standards…
Forchhammer, Søren; Forchhammer, Morten
A method for coding scanned documents containing halftone pictures, e.g. newspapers and magazines, for transmission purposes is proposed. The halftone screen is estimated and the grey value of each dot is found, thus giving a compact description. At the receiver the picture is rescreened. A novel...
Reid, D. J.
Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…
Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…
This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…
Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.
A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…
Narahara, May M.
Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…
Stenbert, G; Radeborg, K; Hedman, L R
Words and pictures were studied and recognition tests given in which each studied object was to be recognized in both word and picture format. The main dependent variable was the latency of the recognition decision. The purpose was to investigate the effects of study modality (word or picture), of congruence between study and test modalities, and of priming resulting from repeated testing. Experiments 1 and 2 used the same basic design, but the latter also varied retention interval. Experiment 3 added a manipulation of instructions to name studied objects, and Experiment 4 deviated from the others by presenting both picture and word referring to the same object together for study. The results showed that congruence between study and test modalities consistently facilitated recognition. Furthermore, items studied as pictures were more rapidly recognized than were items studied as words. With repeated testing, the second instance was affected by its predecessor, but the facilitating effect of picture-to-word priming exceeded that of word-to-picture priming. The finds suggest a two- stage recognition process, in which the first is based on perceptual familiarity and the second uses semantic links for a retrieval search. Common-code theories that grant privileged access to the semantic code for pictures or, alternatively, dual-code theories that assume mnemonic superiority for the image code are supported by the findings. Explanations of the picture superiority effect as resulting from dual encoding of pictures are not supported by the data.
Lin, Huiyan; Xiang, Jing; Li, Saili; Liang, Jiafeng; Jin, Hua
Anticipation of emotional pictures has been found to be relevant to the encoding of the pictures as well as their later recognition performance. However, it is as yet unknown whether anticipation modulates neural activity in the later recognition of emotional pictures. To address this issue, participants in the present study were asked to view emotional (negative or neutral) pictures. The picture was preceded by a cue which indicated the emotional content of the picture in half of the trials (the anticipated condition) and without any cues in the other half (the unanticipated condition). Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which old and novel pictures were presented without any preceding cues. Electroencephalography data was recorded during the recognition phase. Event-related potential results showed that for negative pictures, P2 and P3 amplitudes were larger in the anticipated as compared to the unanticipated condition; whereas this anticipation effect was not shown for neutral pictures. The present findings suggest that anticipation of negative pictures may enhance neural activity in their later recognition.
Jonckheere, E.A.; Kwoh, Y.S.
Ever since magnetic resonance (MR) invaded the medical imaging field, it has played an increasingly important role and is even currently being considered for stereotactic guidance of probes in the brain. While MR pictures indeed convey more clinical information than CT, the geometry of MR pictures is, unfortunately, not as accurate as the geometry of CT pictures. In other words, if a square grid phantom is scanned, then the CT picture will show a square grid, while the MR picture will rather reveal a distorted grid. This distortion is primarily due to small variations in the static magnetic field. This small distortion does not impede radiological diagnosis; however, it is a source of concern if one contemplates utilizing the MR pictures for accurate stereotactic positioning of a probe at a very precise point in the brain. Another area of application where the distortion of the MR picture should be compensated for is the superposition of CT and MR pictures so that both informations could be used for diagnosis or stereotactic purposes. This paper essentially addresses the nonlinear distortion of MR pictures and how it could be compensated for through software manipulation of the MR picture
Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; García, Eulalio; Carrasco, Marisa
Three experiments investigated the effects of two variables -selective attention during encoding and delay between study and test- on implicit (picture fragment completion and object naming) and explicit (free recall and recognition) memory tests. Experiments 1 and 2 consistently indicated that (a) at all delays (immediate to 1 month), picture-fragment identification threshold was lower for the attended than the unattended pictures; (b) the attended pictures were recalled and recognized better than the unattended; and (c) attention and delay interacted in both memory tests. For implicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for both attended and unattended pictures, but priming was more pronounced and lasted longer for the attended pictures; it was still present after a 1-month delay. For explicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for attended pictures, but for unattended pictures performance was consistent throughout delay. By using a perceptual object naming task, Experiment 3 showed reliable implicit and explicit memory for attended but not for unattended pictures. This study indicates that picture repetition priming requires attention at the time of study and that neither delay nor attention dissociate performance in explicit and implicit memory tests; both types of memory require attention, but explicit memory does so to a larger degree.
Husted, Margaret; Banks, Adrian P; Seiss, Ellen
The goal conflict model of eating (Stroebe, Mensink, Aarts, Schut, & Kruglanski, 2008) proposes differences in eating behaviour result from peoples' experience of holding conflicting goals of eating enjoyment and weight maintenance. However, little is understood about the relationship between eating behaviour and the cognitive processes involved in conflict. This study aims to investigate associations between eating behaviour traits and cognitive conflict processes, specifically the application of cognitive control when processing distracting food pictures. A flanker task using food and non-food pictures was used to examine individual differences in conflict adaptation. Participants responded to target pictures whilst ignoring distracting flanking pictures. Individual differences in eating behaviour traits, attention towards target pictures, and ability to apply cognitive control through adaptation to conflicting picture trials were analysed. Increased levels of external and emotional eating were related to slower responses to food pictures indicating food target avoidance. All participants showed greater distraction by food compared to non-food pictures. Of particular significance, increased levels of emotional eating were associated with greater conflict adaptation for conflicting food pictures only. Emotional eaters demonstrate greater application of cognitive control for conflicting food pictures as part of a food avoidance strategy. This could represent an attempt to inhibit their eating enjoyment goal in order for their weight maintenance goal to dominate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R
Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.
Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten; Henning, Victor; Sattler, Henrik; Eggers, Felix; Houston, Mark B.
Movies and other media goods are traditionally distributed across distinct sequential channels (e.g., theaters, home video, video on demand). The optimality of the currently employed timing and order of channel openings has become a matter of contentious debate among both industry experts and
Crutcher, Robert J; Beer, Jenay M
Previous research has found that pictures (e.g., a picture of an elephant) are remembered better than words (e.g., the word "elephant"), an empirical finding called the picture superiority effect (Paivio & Csapo. Cognitive Psychology 5(2):176-206, 1973). However, very little research has investigated such memory differences for other types of sensory stimuli (e.g. sounds or odors) and their verbal labels. Four experiments compared recall of environmental sounds (e.g., ringing) and spoken verbal labels of those sounds (e.g., "ringing"). In contrast to earlier studies that have shown no difference in recall of sounds and spoken verbal labels (Philipchalk & Rowe. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91(2):341-343, 1971; Paivio, Philipchalk, & Rowe. Memory & Cognition 3(6):586-590, 1975), the experiments reported here yielded clear evidence for an auditory analog of the picture superiority effect. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that sounds were recalled better than the verbal labels of those sounds. Experiment 2 also showed that verbal labels are recalled as well as sounds when participants imagine the sound that the word labels. Experiments 3 and 4 extended these findings to incidental-processing task paradigms and showed that the advantage of sounds over words is enhanced when participants are induced to label the sounds.
Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa
According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...
G.A. Yousif; R.Sh. Mohamed
Printing systems operate in general as a system of color its color scale is limited as compared with the system color satellite images. Satellite image is building from very small cell named pixel, which represents the picture element and the unity of color when the image is displayed on the screen, this unit becomes lesser in size and called screen point. This unit posseses different size and shape from the method of printing to another, depending on the output resolution, tools and material...
Full Text Available Wordless picture book is an unique book that could help the young learner to get their literacy. The content of the wordless picture book must be communicated through the visual of the illustration. This research discusses a case study of how a kid of six years old produce his narrative through wordless picture book. The kid allowed to see and say on the page and then write the words that he has mentioned. Practicing to read repeatedly which increase fluency will improve his reading comprehension and written expression. This research was conducted to make better understand about the sense - making process that happen when a child works with the wordless picture book. Most sentences or texts were made based on the references and experience from daily life either explicitly or implicitly. In reading wordless book, readers faced the variety of visual signs. These sign systems help reader form a type of framework that show their interpretation of the text and helps them build construction of the story. The researcher wanted to make the reader understand better about the strategies that the child use to make sense of wordless text. The reason of this study is to help how a six year old nonreader would give interpretation to visual cues in wordless picture books. Transacting with the visual text in the books helped the child to make sense of the stories. The data were analyzed based on the principles of qualitative content analysis that involve a systematic review of the data, coding, category construction and analysis. The result of this research is the wordless picture books give opportunity to the children to create the story on their own and to bring in their own understanding of the world to the text.
Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Billieux, Joël
Cue reactivity is essential to the maintenance of addictive disorders. A useful way to study cue reactivity is by means of normative pictures, but few validated tobacco-related pictures are available. This study describes a database of smoking-related pictures: The Geneva Smoking Pictures (GSP). Sixty smoking-related pictures were presented to 91 participants who assessed them according to the classic emotional pictures validation provided by the International Affective Picture System (NIMH C...
Hartzman, P D
An important goal in interactive computer graphics is to provide users with both quick system responses for basic graphics functions and enough computing power for complex calculations. One solution is to have a distributed graphics system in which a minicomputer and a powerful large computer share the work. The most versatile type of distributed system is an intelligent satellite system in which the minicomputer is programmable by the application user and can do most of the work while the large remote machine is used for difficult computations. At New York University, the hardware was configured from available equipment. The level of system intelligence resulted almost completely from software development. Unlike previous work with intelligent satellites, the resulting system had system control centered in the satellite. It also had the ability to reconfigure software during realtime operation. The design of the system was done at a very high level using set theoretic language. The specification clearly illustrated processor boundaries and interfaces. The high-level specification also produced a compact, machine-independent virtual graphics data structure for picture representation. The software was written in a systems implementation language; thus, only one set of programs was needed for both machines. A user can program both machines in a single language. Tests of the system with an application program indicate that is has very high potential. A major result of this work is the demonstration that a gigantic investment in new hardware is not necessary for computing facilities interested in graphics.
Hirasawa, Teiji; Mukasa, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Jun-ichi
Fuji EFPACS (Effective Fuji PACS) is a picture archiving and communications system which efficiently executes centralized management of quantities of image data produced in a hospital. Main features of this system are high-speed retrieval and display function resulting from high-grade imaging technology. This system also strongly supports picture management for multi-modalities, picture storage, and education. EFPACS-500 and EFPACS-1000 series are available according to a system scale. An optimal system configuration can be obtained in a building-up style. This paper describes the features and performance of the EFPACS. (author)
Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.; La Porta, L.
For a consistent realization of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), a proper tie between the individual global reference systems used in the analysis of space-geodetic observations is a prerequisite. For instance, the link between the terrestrial, the celestial and the dynamic reference system of artificial Earth orbiters may be realized by Very Long O Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of one or several satellites. In the preparation phase for a dedicated satellite mission, one option to realize this is using a geostationary (GEO) satellite emitting a radio signal in X-Band and/or S-Band and, thus, imitating a quasar. In this way, the GEO satellite can be observed by VLBI together with nearby quasars and the GEO orbit can, thus, be determined in a celestial reference frame. If the GEO satellite is, e.g., also equipped with a GNSS-type transmitter, a further tie between GNSS and VLBI may be realized. In this paper, a concept for the generation of a radio signal is shown. Furthermore, simulation studies for estimating the GEO position are presented with a GEO satellite included in the VLBI schedule. VLBI group delay observations are then simulated for the quasars as well as for the GEO satellite. The analysis of the simulated observations shows that constant orbit changes are adequately absorbed by estimated orbit parameters. Furthermore, the post-fit residuals are comparable to those from real VLBI sessions.
Vogt, S.; Magnussen, S.
Recognition memory and hemispheric specialization were assessed for abstract colour/black and white pictures of sport situations in painters and visually naive subjects using a forced choice yes/no tachistoscopic procedure. Reaction times showed a significant three-way interaction of picture type, expertise, and visual field, indicating that…
Park, Denise Cortis; And Others
Tested recognition memory for items and spatial location by varying picture and word stimuli across four slide quadrants. Results showed a pictorial superiority effect for item recognition and a greater ability to remember the spatial location of pictures versus words for both old and young adults (N=95). (WAS)
Allen, Ann M.; And Others
Caldecott Medal Award picture books were examined to determine whether the pictures and text presented children with stereotypical or gender-dependent sex-role behaviors. The books examined showed that sex-role stereotyping has decreased over time but still remains prevalent in each of the 11 categories used to evaluate the books. (TJQ)
Marckel, Julie M.; Neef, Nancy A.; Ferreri, Summer J.
Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of…
This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.
Ahmed, N.; Natarajan, T. R.
This semi-tutorial paper describes the process of using orthogonal transforms for the purposes of encoding TV picture data. Results pertaining to a 6:1 data compression experiment using the Walsh-Hadamard transform are included.
Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.
Wolbers, J.J.; Boersma, F.K.
The common operational picture is used to overcome coordination and information management problems during emergency response. Increasingly, this approach is incorporated in more advanced information systems. This is rooted in an 'information warehouse' perspective, which implies information can be
Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.
In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.
The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.
Waddill, P J; McDaniel, M A
We examined the kinds of information in a prose passage that is better remembered when depictive illustrations are embedded in the passage than when the passage contains no illustrations. Experiment 1 showed that (1) pictures depicting details effectively increased recall of those details and (2) pictures depicting relationships effectively increased recall of that relational information (relative to a no-picture control condition). In Experiment 2, comprehension skill was found to modulate the general effects obtained in Experiment 1. Detail pictures enhanced the recall of targeted details for all skill levels. Relational pictures enhanced recall of pictured relational information for highly skilled and moderately skilled comprehenders, but not for less skilled comprehenders. Because there were no recall differences across the different skill levels in the no-picture control condition, it is suggested that pictures may serve to enable processing in which readers would not necessarily engage under ordinary circumstances. Pictures, however, did not appear to compensate for limitations reflected in lower scores on a standardized test of reading comprehension.
The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…
Ellis, Stephen R.
Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.
Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew
The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to
Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann
A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented to the right hemisphere responses are generally more accurate than the left hemisphere for semantic relatedness judgments for picture pairs. Furthermore, consistent with earlier DVF studies employing words, we conclude that the RH is better at accessing or maintaining access to information that has a weak or more remote semantic relationship. We also found evidence of faster access for pictures presented to the LH in the strongly-related condition. Overall, these results are consistent with earlier DVF word studies that argue that the cerebral hemispheres each play an important and separable role during semantic retrieval. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.
Ida Ayu Mega Cahyani
Full Text Available Writing is considered as an important skill in learning process which is needed to be mastered by the students. However, in teaching learning process at schools or universities, the assessment of writing skill is not becoming the focus of learning process and the assessment is administered inappropriately. In this present study, the researcher undertook the study which dealt with assessing descriptive paragraph writing ability of the students through picture description by employing an ex post facto as the research design. The present study was intended to answer the research problem dealing with the extent of the students’ achievement of descriptive paragraph writing ability which is assessed through picture description. The samples under the study were 40 students determined by means of random sampling technique with lottery system. The data were collected through administering picture description as the research instrument. The obtained data were analyzed by using norm-reference measure of five standard values. The results of the data analysis showed that there were 67.50% samples of the study were successful in writing descriptive paragraph, while there were 32.50% samples were unsuccessful in writing descriptive paragraph which was assessed by administering picture description test
Mitchell, Karen J; Mather, Mara; Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Greene, Erich J
We investigated the hypothesis that arousal recruits attention to item information, thereby disrupting working memory processes that help bind items to context. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared brain activity when participants remembered negative or neutral picture-location conjunctions (source memory) versus pictures only. Behaviorally, negative trials showed disruption of short-term source, but not picture, memory; long-term picture recognition memory was better for negative than for neutral pictures. Activity in areas involved in working memory and feature integration (precentral gyrus and its intersect with superior temporal gyrus) was attenuated on negative compared with neutral source trials relative to picture-only trials. Visual processing areas (middle occipital and lingual gyri) showed greater activity for negative than for neutral trials, especially on picture-only trials.
Heraldo D. Silva
Full Text Available Responding to pro-social cues plays an important adaptive role in humans. Our aims were (i to create a catalog of bonding and matched-control pictures to compare the emotional reports of valence and arousal with the International Affective Picture System (IAPS pictures; (ii to verify sex influence on the valence and arousal of bonding and matched-control pictures; (iii to investigate if empathy and loneliness traits exert a specific influence on emotional reports for the bonding pictures. To provide a finer tool for social interaction studies, the present work defined two new sets of pictures consisting of “interacting dyads” (Bonding: N = 70 and matched controls “non-interacting dyads” (Controls: N = 70. The dyads could be either a child and an adult, or two children. Participants (N = 283, 182 women were divided in 10 groups for the experimental sessions. The task was to rate the hedonic valence and emotional arousal of bonding and controls; and of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures from the IAPS. Effects of social-related traits, empathy and loneliness, on affective ratings were tested. Participants rated bonding pictures as more pleasant and arousing than control ones. Ratings did not differentiate bonding from IAPS pleasant pictures. Control pictures showed lower ratings than pleasant but higher ratings than neutral IAPS pictures. Women rated bonding and control pictures as more positive than men. There was no sex difference for arousal ratings. High empathic participants rated bonding and control pictures higher than low empathic participants. Also, they rated pleasant IAPS pictures more positive and arousing; and unpleasant pictures more negative and arousing than the less empathic ones. Loneliness trait, on the other hand, affected very specifically the ratings of bonding pictures; lonelier participants rated them less pleasant and less arousing than less lonely. Loneliness trait did not modulate ratings of other
The North American conventional gas resource base was reviewed and an explanation of how Canada's East coast fits into the overall picture was given. At 1996 year end, the total conventional ultimate natural gas resource base for North America was estimated to be 2,695 trillion cubic feet. The most important supply areas are Canada and the United States. Mexico and Alaska are expected to play only a minor role in the overall North American supply. Approximately half of the conventional gas estimated to exist in North America remains to be discovered. Only 78 per cent from the half that has been discovered has been produced, and only 22 per cent of it is remaining as reserves. Of the undiscovered natural gas resource, 38 per cent is in the frontier regions of Alaska and Canada. The growing importance of the East coast of North America as markets for natural gas was reviewed. The distribution of ultimate conventional marketable gas resources for Canada was described. The potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and selected frontier areas were assessed. The report showed an undiscovered conventional marketable gas estimate of 122 trillion cubic feet for the WCSB and 107 trillion cubic feet for the Frontier areas. The two most significant areas of discovery in eastern Canada were considered to be the Hibernia oil field on the Grand Banks and the Venture gas field of the Scotian Shelf. 2 tabs., 7 figs
Jescheniak, Jörg D; Matushanskaya, Asya; Mädebach, Andreas; Müller, Matthias M
Picture-naming studies have demonstrated interference from semantic-categorically related distractor words, but not from corresponding distractor pictures, and the lack of generality of the interference effect has been argued to challenge theories viewing lexical selection in speech production as a competitive process. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference from context pictures does become visible, if sufficient attention is allocated to them. We combined picture naming with a spatial-cuing procedure. When participants' attention was shifted to the distractor, semantically related distractor pictures interfered with the response, as compared with unrelated distractor pictures. This finding supports models conceiving lexical retrieval as competitive (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) but is difficult to reconcile with the response exclusion hypothesis (Finkbeiner & Caramazza, 2006b) proposed as an alternative.
Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy
Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)
The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...
Merline, W. J.
Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other
Lomas Garza, Carmen
Bilingual (English and Spanish) text and illustrations describe the author-artist's experiences growing up in a traditional Hispanic community in south Texas, near the border with Mexico. The brightly colored paintings of her family and community show, in great detail, the everyday activities that remain vivid in her memory: picking oranges for…
Abstract. Unlike the previous theoretical results based on standard quantum mechanics that established the nearly elliptical shapes for the centre-of-mass motion in Rydberg atoms using numerical simulations, we show analytically that the Bohmian trajectories in Rydberg atoms are nearly elliptical.
Curtin, Denis J
Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati
A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).
In this work we report on a new QCD sum rule analysis to predict masses of the excited baryon states (e.g. Σ(1620) and Λ(1405)) by using multiquark interpolating fields ((q anti q)(qqq)). For the Σ(1620) we consider the anti KN, πΣ, and πΛ(I=1) multiquark interpolating fields. The calculated mass from those multiquark states is about 1.592 GeV. For the Λ(1405) we first show the result using the π + Σ - +π 0 Σ 0 +π - Σ + (I=0) multiquark interpolating field, and compare the calculated mass to that of our previous result using the π 0 Σ 0 multiquark state. We then show that the mass 1.405 GeV is well reproduced when using the anti KN(I=0) multiquark state. The uncertainties in our sum rules are also discussed. (orig.)
Ally, Brandon A; Waring, Jill D; Beth, Ellen H; McKeever, Joshua D; Milberg, William P; Budson, Andrew E
High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults.
Suzanne R. Jongman
Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.
McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara
Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes.
Listratov, A. V.
The self radiation of the surface being viewed is used for image synthesis in IR thermovision equipment. The installation of such equipment aboard weather satellites makes it possible to obtain cloud cover pictures of the earth's surface in a complete orbit, regardless of the illumination conditions, and also provides quantitative information on the underlying surface temperature and cloud top height. Such equipment is used successfully aboard the Soviet satellites of the Meteor system, and experimentally on the American satellites of the Nimbus series. With regard to surface resolution, the present-day IR weather satellite equipment is inferior to the television equipment. This is due primarily to the comparatively low detectivity of the IR detectors used. While IR equipment has several fundamental advantages in comparison with the conventional television equipment, the problem arises of determining the possibility for future development of weather satellite IR thermovision equipment. Criteria are examined for evaluating the quality of IR.
Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T
Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.
Koster, Ernst H W; Verschuere, Bruno; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan
Cognitive studies about anxiety suggest that the interplay between automatic and strategic biases in attention to threat is related to the persistence of fear. In the present study, the time-course of attention to pictures with varying threat levels was investigated in high trait anxious (HTA, n=21) and low trait anxious (LTA, n=22) students. In a visual probe detection task, high and mild threat pictures were presented at three durations: 100, 500, and 1250 ms. Results indicated that all individuals attended to the high threat pictures for the 100 ms condition. Differential responding between HTA and LTA individuals was found for the 500 ms condition: only HTA individuals showed an attentional bias for mild threatening stimuli. For the 1250 ms condition, the HTA individuals attended away from high and mild threat pictures. The observed pattern of differential attention to threatening pictures may explain the persistence of fear in HTA individuals.
Rissenberg, M; Glanzer, M
A key factor in the decline of memory with age may be a breakdown of communication in the information network involved in memory and cognitive processing. A special case of this communication is assumed to underlie the picture superiority effect in recall. From this hypothesis it follows that the picture superiority effect should lessen with age. In Experiment 1, three groups of adults (young, old normal, and old memory-impaired) were tested in free recall of pictures and word lists. As predicted, the picture superiority effect declined with age. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and showed, moreover, that the picture superiority effect can be reestablished in normal old adults by instructing them to verbalize overtly during item presentation.
Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J
In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Eck, Jennifer Rowse
Practitioners in ECE consider picture books an effective instructional tool in early childhood programming in the developed regions of the world. However, many young children from marginalized populations in the developing world have little to no access to them and thus, the effect that picture books could have upon their emergent literacy…
Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Ray, Suchismita
Background Alcohol cues can bias attention and elicit emotional reactions, especially in drinkers. Yet, little is known about how alcohol cues affect explicit and implicit memory processes, and how memory for alcohol cues is affected by acute alcohol intoxication. Methods Young adult participants (N=161) were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control beverage conditions. Following beverage consumption, they were shown neutral, emotional and alcohol-related pictures cues. Participants then completed free recall and repetition priming tasks to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively, for picture cues. Average blood alcohol concentration for the alcohol group was 74 ± 13 mg/dl when memory testing began. Two mixed linear model analyses were conducted to examine the effects of beverage condition, picture cue type, and their interaction on explicit and implicit memory. Results Picture cue type and beverage condition each significantly affected explicit recall of picture cues, whereas only picture cue type significantly influenced repetition priming. Individuals in the alcohol condition recalled significantly fewer pictures than those in other conditions, regardless of cue type. Both free recall and repetition priming were greater for emotional and alcohol-related cues compared to neutral picture cues. No interaction effects were detected. Conclusions Young adult drinkers showed enhanced explicit and implicit memory processing of alcohol cues compared to emotionally neutral cues. This enhanced processing for alcohol cues was on par with that seen for positive emotional cues. Acute alcohol intoxication did not alter this preferential memory processing for alcohol cues over neutral cues. PMID:26811126
Nguyen-Louie, Tam T; Buckman, Jennifer F; Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E
Alcohol cues can bias attention and elicit emotional reactions, especially in drinkers. Yet, little is known about how alcohol cues affect explicit and implicit memory processes, and how memory for alcohol cues is affected by acute alcohol intoxication. Young adult participants (N=161) were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control beverage conditions. Following beverage consumption, they were shown neutral, emotional and alcohol-related pictures cues. Participants then completed free recall and repetition priming tasks to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively, for picture cues. Average blood alcohol concentration for the alcohol group was 74±13mg/dl when memory testing began. Two mixed linear model analyses were conducted to examine the effects of beverage condition, picture cue type, and their interaction on explicit and implicit memory. Picture cue type and beverage condition each significantly affected explicit recall of picture cues, whereas only picture cue type significantly influenced repetition priming. Individuals in the alcohol condition recalled significantly fewer pictures than those in other conditions, regardless of cue type. Both free recall and repetition priming were greater for emotional and alcohol-related cues compared to neutral picture cues. No interaction effects were detected. Young adult drinkers showed enhanced explicit and implicit memory processing of alcohol cues compared to emotionally neutral cues. This enhanced processing for alcohol cues was on par with that seen for positive emotional cues. Acute alcohol intoxication did not alter this preferential memory processing for alcohol cues over neutral cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conson, Massimiliano; Salzano, Sara; Grossi, Dario
A striking special ability in arranging picture stories was reported in an Asperger child (C.M.) showing an exceptional performance on Wechsler picture arrangement subtest. Neuropsychological examination did not disclose visuoperceptual and spatial defects, or working memory, attention and executive disorders, but revealed an attentional bias towards local details of complex structures. A specific assessment of C.M.'s understanding of picture stories demonstrated that, with respect to normal controls, he showed an enhanced ability to detect causal links among elements of a story. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that savantism can be related to strong systemizing in autism.
Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.
Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio
The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.
Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.
A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.
In an interview with the newly appointed head of the Population, Women, and Natural Resources Program of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Dr. Pietronella van den Oever reflects on the concern about natural resources and working with women, rural development, and agricultural extension projects. She considers her job to have three main objectives: 1) to try to increase the in-house knowledge among the staff about population matters and also in the country where they work; 2) to conceptualize the linkages between the sustainable use of natural resources and demographic variables because of the struggle to integrate population concerns into programs (the example of Zaire is given, which had the same level of fertility and maternal mortality as Mali with very few resources; this shows the lack of knowledge and the effect of resources on population); 3) to test the practical application of joint policies, strategies, and projects relating to conservation of natural resources and population. This can be done if population and natural resources projects are integrated. As a start a population reference library will be set up and a population data tape will be produced for staff who travel to various countries. Other initiatives will be the formation of a committee on population/resources links, and the field testing of the unit's Population, Resources, and Development Guidebook, particularly in relation to Pakistan's national conservation strategy. Eventually a work book is hoped to be developed from this for those wanting to plan their natural resources. In addition, the program is helping to plan the Africa Women's Assembly in Harare, Zimbabwe, to be held in February 1990. The objective is to involve local people in conserving nature. Since women are heavily involved in agriculture, they should be educated to use resources in a sustainable way.
This book traces the history of development over nuclear energy with pictures, which contains preface, development history of the world, development history of Korea, nuclear power plant in Kori, nuclear power plant in Wolseong, nuclear power plant in Yeonggwang, nuclear power plant in Uljin, nuclear fuel, using of radiation and radioactive isotope, development of nuclear energy in the world and a Chronological table of nuclear energy. This book is written to record the development history of Korea through pictures of the nuclear power plants in Korea.
Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.
Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.
Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of praccising does not develop as a matter-of-course since many factors have an effect on dental practice. Effecting factors are: content concerning developments, technological advancements, legislation, government policies, organizational aspects, and typical characteristics of dental practitioners. The changing picture of practising dentistry is connected with uncertainty, proves to be hard to control, and some adjustments occur around practising.
Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko
This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.
Hambsch, K; Herrmann, F; Fischer, H; Langpeter, D; Mäller, P; Sorger, D
On the basis of a retrospective study about 276 clinically and paraclinically ascertained cases of hyperthyroidism in 34% of the patients above all mild anaemias could be proved which under thyreostatic therapy with thiamazol which after repeated incidence of an euthyroid metabolic situation vastly normalized themselves also without an anaemia-specific additional medication. Leukocytopenias (5.8%) and thrombocytopenias (3.3%) had only a low frequency in untreated hyperthyroidism. Nevertheless an unequivocal parallelity of the haematologic changes was to be observed in erythro-, granulo- and thrombopoiesis. There was a clear correlation between the activity of hyperthyroidism, measured at the T3- or T4 level, and anaemia and haemocytopenia, respectively. Lacking substance deficiency conditions and signs of haemolysis let us first of all think of a causal thyrotoxic bone-marrow damage on account of the dependence of the haematologic changes on the activity of hyperthyroidism and their immediate influencibility by aimed thyrostatic therapy. A relatively low dosed thiamazol therapy has influence on haematopoiesis and peripheral blood picture only at a very small percentage, in which cases the changes mostly are fully reversible. Thereby the initial haematologic situation before the therapy does not provide any predictability for perhaps appearing haematotoxic or allergic side-effects under thyreostatic treatment. The thiamazol therapy does not show any recognizable side-effects in the dosage administered on the investigated leukocytic functions agglomeration, adhesion and phyagocytosis. Only for the adhesion of leukocytes was proved a significant functional disturbance of leukocytes, which was, however, reversible with normalization of metabolism and with high probability was also directly thyreotoxically induced.
Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte
User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...
Marchal, A; Nicolas, S
Bizarre stimuli usually facilitate recall compared to common stimuli. This investigation explored the so-called bizarreness effect in free recall by using 80 simple line drawings of common objects (common vs bizarre). 64 subjects participated with 16 subjects in each group. Half of the subjects received learning instructions and the other half rated the bizarreness of each drawing. Moreover, drawings were presented either alone or with the name of the object under mixed-list encoding conditions. After the free recall task, subjects had to make metamemory judgments about how many items of each format they had seen and recalled. The key result was that a superiority of bizarre pictures over common ones was found in all conditions although performance was better when the pictures were presented alone than with their corresponding label. Subsequent metamemory judgments, however, showed that subjects underestimated the number of bizarre items actually recalled.
Linneman, C.; Hults, C.
This summer I spent my time in the largest state of all the states, with the people who take care of the most important parks, owned by all of us. My job was to take a lot of pictures of real things, small and large, and to make them into one piece on a computer, into pictures that can be moved and turned and can be easily shared across the world at any time. My job had three different classes: very small, pretty big, and very big. For the small things: Using a table that turns, I took many still pictures of old animals turned into rocks as well as things thrown away by people who are now dead. The pieces of rock and old things are important and exciting, but they can break quite easily, so only a few people are allowed to touch them. With the pictures you can move, many more people can learn about, "touch", and see them, but they use a computer instead of their hands. For a pretty big block of ice moving down a long area of land, I took many pictures of the end of it, while at the same time knowing just where I was on the face of the world. Using a computer, I again put all the pictures together into one picture that could be turned and moved. One person with a computer could look at any part of the piece of ice without having to actually visit it. Finally, for the very big things, I was part of a team that would fly slowly over the areas we were interested in, taking pictures about every half of a second. After taking tens of hundreds of pictures, the computer join all the pictures together into a single picture that showed each and every little up and down of the land that we had flown over, getting very few wrong. This way of making pictures you can move doesn't take as much money as other means, and it can be used on things of very different areas, from something as small as a finger to something as large as a huge field of ice moving slowly over time. The people who care for the parks that we all own don't have as much money as some, and in the biggest state
Moore, Mitzi Ruth
Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)
Corbee, R J
Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)
Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.
Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we
Malin, M. C.
Research on this task consisted of the development and initial application of photometric and photoclinometric models using interactive computer image processing and graphics. New programs were developed to compute viewing and illumination angles for every picture element in a Voyager image using C-matrices and final Voyager ephemerides. These values were then used to transform each pixel to an illumination-oriented coordinate system. An iterative integration routine permits slope displacements to be computed from brightness variations, and correlated in the cross-sun direction, resulting in two dimensional topographic data. Figure 1 shows a 'wire-mesh' view of an impact crater on Ganymede, shown with a 10-fold vertical exaggeration. The crater, about 20 km in diameter, has a central mound and raised interior floor suggestive of viscous relaxation and rebound of the crater's topography. In addition to photoclinometry, the computer models that have been developed permit an examination on non-topographically-derived variations in surface brightness.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...
The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)
Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M.
Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071
Cook, Bruce L.
Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)
Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.
We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data
Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela
rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...
This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.
Bartels, C.L.L.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid
Occlusion detection is an essential ingredient in high quality picture rate up-conversion and view interpolation applications. Many integrated approaches to occlusion detection and classification have been proposed, particularly in the stereo literature. However, due to their high complexity and
The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…
A picture for the thermodynamics of the glassy state is introduced. It assumes that one extra parameter, the effective temperature, is needed to describe the glassy state. This explains the classical paradoxes concerning the Ehrenfest relations and the Prigogine-Defay ratio. As a second feature, the
The experiment investigated the feasibility of bridging the gap between the recognition of pictures and the recognition of words in four mentally handicapped adolescents by adapting a modified version of symbol accentuation (in which a printed word looks like the object it represents). (SB)
Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…
van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian
In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…
This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners' spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers' responses to learners' comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children's talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners…
This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.
Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of
Pappas, Marjorie L.
Describes a unit that provides opportunities for students to examine the relationship between poetry and pictures as they select published poems, write their own poetry, and take photographs to accompany the poems in an anthology. Describes lesson one on intellectual property and copyright, and lesson two on appreciation. Includes a unit guide and…
Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci
Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…
Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.
The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures
Kim, S.K.; Namgung, W.; Soh, K.S.; Yee, J.H.
We have studied symmetry-breaking phenomena in scalar electrodynamics by evaluating the effective potential at one-loop order in the Schroedinger picture. Contributions to the effective potential by the Higgs particle and the transverse and longitudinal components of a photon are compared with other previous works, and they are found to be consistent
... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Defense (Public Affairs) for clearance for public release. They will be accompained by five copies of the... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). [41 FR 29101, July 15, 1976, as amended at 44 FR 6390, Feb...
Marloes J. Huijbers
Full Text Available Emotional content typically facilitates subsequent memory, known as the emotional enhancement effect. We investigated whether emotional content facilitates spatial and item memory in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD. Twenty-three AD patients, twenty-three healthy elderly, and twenty-three young adults performed a picture relocation task and a delayed recognition task with positive, negative, and neutral stimuli. AD patients showed a benefit in immediate spatial memory for positive pictures, while healthy young and older participants did not benefit from emotional content. No emotional enhancement effects on delayed item recognition were seen. We conclude that AD patients may have a memory bias for positive information in spatial memory. Discrepancies between our findings and earlier studies are discussed.
Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang
A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for
Blechert, Jens; Feige, Bernd; Joos, Andreas; Zeeck, Almut; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Objective To compare the electrocortical processing of food pictures in participants with anorexia nervosa (n = 21), bulimia nervosa (n = 22), and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 32) by measuring the early posterior negativity, an event-related potential that reflects stimulus salience and selective attention. Methods We exposed these three groups to a rapid stream of high- and low-calorie food pictures, as well as standard emotional and neutral pictures. Results Event-related potentials in the time range of 220 milliseconds to 310 milliseconds on posterior electrodes differed between groups: patients with eating disorders showed facilitated processing of both high- and low-calorie food pictures relative to neutral pictures, whereas HC participants did so only for the high-calorie pictures. Subjective palatability of the pictures was rated highest by patients with anorexia nervosa, followed by the HC and bulimia nervosa groups. Conclusions Patients with eating disorders show a generalized attentional bias for food images, regardless of caloric value. This might explain the persistent preoccupation with food in these individuals.
Muhammad Aprianto Budie Nugroho
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether to what extent pictures can improve students’ speaking competence. It was carried out at SMAN in Cigugur for three months. The subject of the research was the students of SMAN in Cigugur in the academic year 2012/2013. The research method was classroom research and it was conducted in two cycles. The data was collected through interview, observation, diaries, document and test. The qualitative data were analyzed by using constant comparative method. While the quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistic to calculate the mean scores of pre-test, test, and post-test. The research findings show pictures can improve the students’ speaking competence by indicating their speaking fluency, appropriate vocabularies, grammatical sentences, and good pronunciation. The advantages of pictures were also shown by the classroom situation, i.e.: during the speaking class the students can answer teacher’s questions; the students had courage to express their idea freely; the speaking activities was not limited in the written way; and their attention in speaking class.
Full Text Available Does the way in which a scene is viewed influence the interpretation of the role of the characters that appear in it, and does narrative context influence sensitivity to camera angle? In the linear conditions of the present study, each of 3 stories consisted of a sequence of 5 pictures. Pictures 2 and 3 introduced the 2 characters with either a high-angle, an eye-level, or a low-angle shot. In the random conditions, the 5 pictures were rearranged into a random order. Immediately after viewing each story, the 2 characters were rated on the 3 factors of Osgood's semantic differential (Evaluation, Potency, & Activation. Thereafter, an acceptable end to each of the 3 stories was to be chosen on a multiple-choice questionnaire. The results show a significant effect of the camera angle on the factor "Potency" under the linear condition: A low-angle shot elicited more potency. In addition, for one of the 3 stories in which the 2 characters were engaged in a common activity (chess playing, there was a significant difference on the choice of the probable ends as a function of camera position: The character, presented with a low-angle shot, was perceived as the winning player.
Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Hieda, Sotaro; Kawamura, Mitsuru
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive visual agnosia with posterior cerebral atrophy. We examine the role of the picture naming test and make a number of suggestions with regard to diagnosing PCA as atypical dementia. We investigated 3 cases of early-stage PCA with 7 control cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). The patients and controls underwent a naming test with real objects and colored photographs of familiar objects. We then compared rates of correct answers. Patients with early-stage PCA showed significant inability to recognize photographs compared to real objects (F = 196.284, p = 0.0000) as measured by analysis of variants. This difficulty was also significant to AD controls (F = 58.717, p = 0.0000). Picture agnosia is a characteristic symptom of early-stage PCA, and the picture naming test is useful for the diagnosis of PCA as atypical dementia at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kahn, R. A.
Factors affecting our ability to calculate climate forcing and estimate model predictive skill include direct radiative effects of aerosols and their indirect effects on clouds. Several decades of Earth-observing satellite observations have produced a global aerosol column-amount (AOD) record, but an aerosol microphysical property record required for climate and many air quality applications is lacking. Surface-based photometers offer qualitative aerosol-type classification, and several space-based instruments map aerosol air-mass types under favorable conditions. However, aerosol hygroscopicity, mass extinction efficiency (MEE), and quantitative light absorption, must be obtained from in situ measurements. Completing the aerosol piece of the climate picture requires three elements: (1) continuing global AOD and qualitative type mapping from space-based, multi-angle imagers and aerosol vertical distribution from near-source stereo imaging and downwind lidar, (2) systematic, quantitative in situ observations of particle properties unobtainable from space, and (3) continuing transport modeling to connect observations to sources, and extrapolate limited sampling in space and time. At present, the biggest challenges to producing the needed aerosol data record are: filling gaps in particle property observations, maintaining global observing capabilities, and putting the pieces together. Obtaining the PDFs of key particle properties, adequately sampled, is now the leading observational deficiency. One simplifying factor is that, for a given aerosol source and season, aerosol amounts often vary, but particle properties tend to be repeatable. SAM-CAAM (Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Air Masses), a modest aircraft payload deployed frequently could fill this gap, adding value to the entire satellite data record, improving aerosol property assumptions in retrieval algorithms, and providing MEEs to translate between remote-sensing optical constraints
functioning of the observatory. The Optical Monitor also simultaneously viewed the same regions. One RGS spectrometer obtained its first spectra on 25 January; the other will be commissioned at the start of February. This initial series of short and long duration exposures have delighted the Project management team and the scientists even more. First analyses confirm that the spacecraft is extremely stable, the XMM telescopes are focusing perfectly, and the EPIC cameras, Optical Monitor and RGS spectrometers are working exactly as expected. The Science Operations Centre infrastructure, processing and archiving the science data telemetry from the spacecraft, is also performing well. Initial inspection of the first commissioning images immediately showed some unique X-ray views of several celestial objects, to be presented on 9 February. The occasion will give Principal Investigators and Project management the opportunity to comment on the pictures and the excellent start of the XMM mission. The Calibration and Performance Verification phase for XMM's science instruments is to begin on 3 March, with routine science operations starting in June. Press is invited to attend to the press conference that will be held at the Villafranca/ Madrid- Vilspa facility (ESA's Satellite Tracking Station) Apartado 50727, E-2 080 MADRID, Spain. The press event will be broadcast to the other ESA establishments: ESA Headquarters, Paris; ESA/ ESTEC (Space Expo), Noordwijk, the Netherlands; ESA/ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany and ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached reply from and fax it back to the establishment of their choice.
Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and
Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula
In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.
Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy
What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.
, that It and media are only used seldom by 21 % of teachers in Visual Arts and 7 % of teachers in this subject never use It and Media in these lessons. Art teachers – among others - also express the need for continuing education. (Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning 2011). Since lessons in digital picture...... production have been a demand in Visual Arts in Danish schools for more than two decades, these conditions call for development of new didactic knowledge. Besides new genres and ways of using digital pictures and media continuously develop. (Sørensen 2002). This ought to be an incessant challenge...... subject Visual Arts – and crosswise of subjects in school. The overall research question has been: How can IT-didactic designs support lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increase the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences? By using the expression ‘complex...
“Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.
Dong, Yunying; De Beuckelaer, Alain; Yu, Liang; Zhou, Renlai
Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high test-anxious (HTA) and 22 low test-anxious (LTA) subjects. To determine whether attentional bias to test-related pictures is due to test-anxiety and not to state-anxiety, we also included a third group of 22 subjects with high state-anxiety but low test-anxiety (HSA). The subjects completed a free viewing task (FVT) in which high threat-neutral (HT-N) and low threat-neutral (LT-N) picture pairs were presented for 3 s. The results demonstrated that: (1) HTA subjects showed initial orienting to LT pictures, early attentional engagement with HT pictures later on and avoidance of HT pictures at the very end; (2) LTA subjects showed initial orienting to HT pictures and maintenance of attention on them later on; while (3) HSA subjects showed an initial orientation towards LT pictures and maintenance of attention on LT and HT pictures later on. These results suggest that, (high) test-anxiety is also prone to attentional bias towards test-related threat stimuli. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Menulis merupakan keterampilan berbahasa yang kompleks, produktif dan ekspresif, karena penulis harus terampil menggunakan grofologi, struktur bahasa dan memiliki pengetahuan bahasa yang memadai, untuk itu perlu dilatih secara teratur dan cermat sejak kelas awal SD. Karangan sebagai salah satu hasil karya menulis, merupakan hasil pekerjaan dari mengarang. Menulis karangan dalam penelitian ini adalah menulis karangan narasi. Salah satu masalah dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia adalah kesulitan siswa dalam menulis karangan yang baik dan benar, yang juga terjadi pada siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Pembelajaran menulis karangan dengan menggunakan model kooperatif tipe picture and picture diharapkan mampu meningkatkan pemahaman siswa dalam hal menulis karangan. Untuk itu, dilakukan penelitian terhadap siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas I Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep yang berjumlah 33 siswa. Penelitian dengan judul “Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Picture and Picture untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Siswa Menulis Karangan” ini menggunakan penelitian tindakan kelas sebanyak dua putaran. Setiap putaran terdiri dari tahap rancangan, kegiatan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Data yang diperoleh berupa nilai hasil LKS dan kuis individu berupa menulis karangan, lembar observasi aktivitas guru dan siswa serta penilaian penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif picture and picture, juga hasil respon siswa. Dari hasil analis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe picture and picture dapat meningkatkan kemampuan menulis karangan siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Peningkatan ini terjadi pada nilai rata-rata LKS, yaitu dari 55 menjadi 71,6. Adapun hasil karangan individu siswa dari rata-rata 56,7 dengan ketuntasan 55% menjadi 74,5 dengan ketuntasan mencapai 88% atau terjadi peningkatan sebesar 33% dari siklus I.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the process by which collage material was chosen, by looking at the structure in material pictures in terms of their transitive chain and connection strength, and investigate the relationship between planning process and artwork characteristics. For the purpose, successive choices of material pictures were analyzed, and graph theory applied. Forty mentally retarded and normal subjects participated in an experiment of collage work production. The transitive chain of collage material pictures for normal subjects was long (deep) and showed story development, and connections among material pictures were strong. On the other hand, the chain for retarded subjects was short (shallow), without story development, and the connections weak. These results showed a correspondence between planning process and artwork characteristics. It was suggested that the method used in this study was effective in analyzing the structure of collage as well as Hakoniwa work.
Full Text Available The world of children is a world of play, and learning is done with or while playing that involves all the senses of the child. Paud teachers and parents need to look at the aspects of personality that exist in the development of children, including aspects of cognitive aspects, aspects of moral values, aspects of intelligence, motor aspects, social aspects of emotional. These five aspects may affect the thinking aspect of the child, and this is highly dependent on the ability of each individual. Therefore, children need to get good and proper stimulation to optimize aspects of its development. This study aims to determine the application of cooperative learning picture and picture type in improving early childhood cognitive development in KB Mawar FKIP Unpatti Ambon. This research is a Classroom Action Research. The subjects of this study were students aged 4-5 years KB Roses FKIP Unpatti Ambon which amounted to 10 people. Data collection techniques are observation and interview. This classroom action research procedure is carried out in two cycles, namely cycle I and cycle II. To know the result of student learning by using learning strategy with song on cognitive aspect conducted evaluation in the form of observation to cognitive aspect. Where indicators are performed by holding observations after completion of learning in each cycle at the end of the second meeting. The results showed that in the first cycle, there are still students who do not meet the criteria of the indicators conducted by the tutor, so it can be said as a weakness encountered in the implementation of the first cycle action, while in cycle II students are very active hear the teacher explanation. Very active in question is that students can follow the teacher's explanation well so that what is assigned can be done well. Thus it can be concluded that by using cooperative learning picture and picture type can develop early childhood cognitive in KB Mawar FKIP Unpatti Ambon
Walsh, B F; Lamberts, F
The effectiveness of two approaches for teaching beginning sight words to 30 TMR students was compared. In Dorry and Zeaman's picture-fading technique, words are taught through association with pictures that are faded out over a series of trials, while in the Edmark program errorless-discrimination technique, words are taught through shaped sequences of visual and auditory--visual matching-to-sample, with the target word first appearing alone and eventually appearing with orthographically similar words. Students were instructed on two lists of 10 words each, one list in the picture-fading and one in the discrimination method, in a double counter-balanced, repeated-measures design. Covariance analysis on three measures (word identification, word recognition, and picture--word matching) showed highly significant differences between the two methods. Students' performance was better after instruction with the errorless-discrimination method than after instruction with the picture-fading method. The findings on picture fading were interpreted as indicating a possible failure of the shifting of control from picture to printed word that earlier researchers have hypothesized as occurring.
Full Text Available The present study used paired-picture paradigm, where either congruent or incongruent emotional expressions were presented side by side to measure the neural correlates underlying the processing of emotional conflict effect. Event-related potentials were recorded while participants identified whether the valences of the paired-picture were consistent or not. The results showed that incongruent and congruent picture pairs both elicited larger N2 (210-310 ms amplitudes than neutral pairs. In contrast, the conflict picture pairs elicited a larger conflict slow potential (conflict SP, 700-1000 ms than did the positive and neutral picture pairs. There was no significant difference in conflict SP amplitudes between incongruent and congruent picture pairs (i.e., the mean amplitudes of negative and positive picture pairs. The results demonstrated that emotional information was identified and processed during the stage from about 210 ms to 310 ms. However, the emotional conflict effect did not appear until late stage (700-1000 ms. These results supported the distributed attention theory of emotions (DATE.
We request HST/ACS imaging to follow up 15 new faint candidate dwarfs around the nearest elliptical Centaurus A (3.8 Mpc). The dwarfs were found via a systematic ground-based (Magellan/Megacam) survey out to ~150 kpc, designed to directly confront the "missing satellites" problem in a wholly new environment. Current Cold Dark Matter models for structure formation fail to reproduce the shallow slope of the satellite luminosity function in spiral-dominated groups for which dwarfs fainter than M_V<-14 have been surveyed (the Local Group and the nearby, interacting M81 group). Clusters of galaxies show a better agreement with cosmological predictions, suggesting an environmental dependence of the (poorly-understood) physical processes acting on the evolution of low mass galaxies (e.g., reionization). However, the luminosity function completeness for these rich environments quickly drops due to the faintness of the satellites and to the difficult cluster membership determination. We target a yet unexplored "intermediate" environment, a nearby group dominated by an elliptical galaxy, ideal due to its proximity: accurate (10%) distance determinations for its members can be derived from resolved stellar populations. The proposed observations of the candidate dwarfs will confirm their nature, group membership, and constrain their luminosities, metallicities, and star formation histories. We will obtain the first complete census of dwarf satellites of an elliptical down to an unprecedented M_V<-9. Our results will crucially constrain cosmological predictions for the faint end of the satellite luminosity function to achieve a more complete picture of the galaxy formation process.
A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and...
Wolton, W.P.; Redman, J.D.
Substantial improvement in the intelligibility of defocussed pictures has been demonstrated using coherent optical processing. Correction for penumbra effects, such as arise in radiography, has been demonstrated at optical wavelengths. Compensation for a Gaussian spread function, such as might occur in radiography via a salt screen, has also been demonstrated. A simulation has shown that much greater enhancement could be expected if improved phase filters could be made
Bonini, M.; Iengo, R.; Nunez, C.
We compute the correlation functions for the system of superconformal ghosts β, γ(λ=3/2), including the corresponding spin fields, on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. Using fermionization, defined as a change of variables in the functional integration, we derive and generalize previous results obtained by bosonization. As an application we study the picture changing mechanism in the Ramond sector of the superstring. (author). 11 refs
Kunoo, Kazuo; Uda, Nobuhide; Ono, Kousei; Onohara, Kaoru; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hisahiro.
This paper presents a method for quantifying damage in composite laminates by stereo X-ray pictures. A three dimensional image of delamination, which is one of the characteristic types of damage in composite laminates can be reconstructed with this method. A digital image processing technique is used to analyze X-ray pictures. Experimental results of reconstructing delaminations in carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates show that this method is accurate enough for practical usage. (author)
Marckel, Julie M; Neef, Nancy A; Ferreri, Summer J
Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of improvised requests, and that these skills generalized to novel items, and across settings and listeners in the natural environment.
Pictures are able to engage, inspire and educate people in a way that the spoken or written word cannot, and with 21st Century technology we now have even more ways to present images. Researchers and campaigners working in climate change have used the power of images to great effect, bringing the issue of a warming planet into stark relief through iconic scenes such as the forlorn polar bear adrift on an iceberg. Whilst undeniably successful, this image has now become passé and invisible necessitating the scientific community to identify new ways to engage and educate the general public. This paper reports on a new high resolution visualisation app that has been developed by the European Space Agency to illustrate the change over time of a number of climate variables. Data, collected via satellite Earth observations, have been rendered into visually stunning animations that can be interrogated in a number of ways to allow the user to understand the spatial and temporal changes of that variable. But is it enough? Can it ever be that all that glisters really is gold?
Loral workers at Astrotech, Titusville, Fla., check out the solar panels of the GOES-L weather satellite, to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) aboard an Atlas II rocket in late March. The GOES-L is the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It is a three-axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures and perform atmospheric sounding at the same time. Once launched, the satellite, to be designated GOES-11, will undergo checkout and provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.
Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.
Thesis entitled ˝Analysis of book collections Great picture book for preschoolers˝ is based on theoretical approach and empirical study. In the theoretical part I focused on the development of youth literature and the definition of the latter, furthermore I described Great picture book and definition of picture book, I presented four versions of picture books in the Slovenian area, described types of picture books and wrote translation of Maria Nikolaeva´s picture book and her point of view...
Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra
Two picture-word experiments are reported in which a delay of 7 to 10 was introduced between distractor and picture. Distractor words were either derived words (Experiment 1) or compounds (Experiment 2), morphologically related to the picture name. In both experiments, the position of morphological overlap between distractor (e.g., rosebud vs tea-rose) and picture name (rose) was manipulated. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological distractors, and effects were independent of distractor type and position of overlap. The results are evaluated against "full listing" and "decomposition" approaches of morphological representation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
An, Licong; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Yadong
This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children's receptive language abilities were, the less time it took them to view the pictures. All participants spent the same amount of time looking at the pictures whether Chinese words were present or absent.
van den Heuvel, Marion I; Henrichs, Jens; Donkers, Franc C L; Van den Bergh, Bea R H
Maternal anxiety during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment, predisposing the offspring to a higher risk of behavioral and emotional problems later in life. The current study investigates the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and child affective picture processing using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Mothers reported anxiety during the second trimester using the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). At age 4 years, child affective picture processing (N = 86) was measured by recording ERPs during viewing of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System. The late positive potential (LPP)-an ERP component reflecting individual differences in affective processing-was used as child outcome. The expected positive association between maternal anxiety and LPP amplitude for unpleasant pictures was not found. Nevertheless, we found a positive association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and LPP amplitudes for neutral pictures in the middle and late time window at anterior locations (all p anxiety and gestational age at birth and after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence that children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures, but not to unpleasant pictures. Possibly, these children show enhanced vigilance for threat when viewing neutral pictures. Although useful in dangerous environments, this enhanced vigilance may predispose children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety to developing behavioral and/or emotional problems later in life. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEzYi6IS2HA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine
The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In order to show some of the possibilities of the methods mentioned above I will discuss some of the possible aspects of a quantitative study of the pictures of the north as they appear in illustrated travel literature of the nineteenth century. I will present statistics dealing with artistic subjects, differences between the patterns of illustrations in books published in different languages and how the pictorial revolution in the 19th century changed the travel literature. In the second part of the article I will examine one illustrated travel book in order to high-light how text and illustration complemented each other and created significance together.
Full Text Available We study Poisson and operator algebras with the ''quasi-linear property'' from the Heisenberg picture point of view. This means that there exists a set of one-parameter groups yielding an explicit expression of dynamical variables (operators as functions of ''time'' t. We show that many algebras with nonlinear commutation relations such as the Askey-Wilson, q-Dolan-Grady and others satisfy this property. This provides one more (explicit Heisenberg evolution interpretation of the corresponding integrable systems.
Pelton, Joseph N.
The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.
D. K. Lee; S. J. Kim; W. Y. Han; J. S. Park; S. W. Min
Low resolution spectroscopic observations of geo-stationary satellites over the Korean peninsula have been carried out at the KyungHee Optical Satellite Observing Facility (KOSOF) with a 40cm telescope. We have observed 9 telecommunication satellites and 1 weather satellite of 6 countries. The obtained spectral data showed that satellites could be classified and grouped with similar basic spectral feature. We divided the 10 satellites into 4 groups based on spectral slop and reflectance. It i...
We study the relation between two evolution pictures that are currently considered for totally constrained theories. Both descriptions are based on Rovelli’s evolving constants approach, where one identifies a (possibly local) degree of freedom of the system as an internal time. This method is well understood classically in several situations. The purpose of this paper is to further analyze this approach at the quantum level. Concretely, we will compare the (Schrödinger-like) picture where the physical states evolve in time with the (Heisenberg-like) picture in which one defines parametrized observables (or evolving constants of the motion). We will show that in the particular situations considered in this paper (the parametrized relativistic particle and a spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic spacetime coupled to a massless scalar field) both descriptions are equivalent. We will finally comment on possible issues and on the genericness of the equivalence between both pictures.
Warren, M W
The dual-coding model (Paivio, 1971, 1975) predicts a larger imaginal component in the recall of pictures relative to words and a larger imaginal component in the recall of concrete words relative to abstract words. These predictions were tested by examining the effect of a recall-concurrent imagery-suppression task (pursuit-rotor tracking) on the recall of pictures vs picture labels and on the recall of concrete words vs abstract words. The results showed that recall-concurrent pursuit-rotor tracking interfered with picture recall, but not word recall (Experiments 1 and 2); however, there was no evidence of an effect of recall-concurrent tracking on the recall of concrete words (Experiment 3). The results suggested a revision of the dual-coding model.
Küpper, A. H. W.; Mieske, S.
Galactic satellites and tidal streams are arguably the two most direct imprints of hierarchical structure formation in the haloes of galaxies. At this ESO workshop we sought to create the big picture of the galactic accretion process, and shed light on the interplay between satellites and streams in the Milky Way, Andromeda and beyond. The Scientific Organising Committee prepared a well-balanced programme with 60 talks and 30 poster contributions, resulting in a meeting which was greatly enjoyed by the more than 110 participants at the venue, and worldwide via Twitter (#SSS15).
The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.
Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R
Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Giel, Katrin E; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Teufel, Martin; Hautzinger, Martin; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan
Etiologic models of anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest that cognitive factors play a crucial role in the disorder's psychopathology. Attentional aspects of food processing in AN remain largely unknown. Both an early attentional bias (vigilance) and inattentiveness (avoidance) to food pictures have been reported in patients with eating disorders. The study's aim was to examine the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis concerning food information processing by unraveling the time course of attention deployment in individuals with AN. We used eye-tracking to examine continuous attention deployment in 19 individuals with AN during free visual exploration of food pictures versus nonfood pictures compared with 18 fasted and 20 nonfasted healthy control subjects. Compared with healthy control subjects, AN patients allocated overall less attention to food pictures but showed no early attentional bias toward food pictures. Attentional engagement for food pictures was most pronounced in fasted healthy control subjects. The extent of attention deployment in AN patients was associated with indicators of the disorder's severity. Gaze data suggest that individuals with AN show no early vigilance but later avoidance when confronted with food information. This suggests that initially, AN patients perceive incentive salience from food information because they process food pictures in the same way healthy control subjects do. The time course of attention deployment suggests that it is only after a first phase of stimulus encoding and labeling as food that individuals with AN avoid food pictures. This pattern of attention deployment is probably mediated by disorder-specific dysfunctional cognitions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clary, Christy D.
A picture is worth a thousand words! Extension professionals are often looking for the picture that best captures an event and tells its story. Look beneath the surface, though, and a picture is worth much more. Developing a 4-H press corps results in a collection of useful photos but has the added benefit of providing 4-H members with an…
This teaching tip manuscript demonstrates how picture book illustrations can be used as an inquiry tool that facilitates one's connecting of visual investigations in a picture to the process of generating self-questions. Techniques suggested to promote self-questioning are (1) introducing young readers to an interactive picture book read aloud…
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin
When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…
Wordless picture book is an unique book that could help the young learner to get their literacy. The content of the wordless picture book must be communicated through the visual of the illustration. This research discusses a case study of how a kid of six years old produce his narrative through wordless picture book. The kid was allowed to see and…
Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B
Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Scheibe, Paul O.
Design of networks intended for communication of digitally-encoded pictures involves considerations different from those used in the design of text or voice communication networks. This paper provides an overview of the elements useful in the design of picture communication networks by relation and contrast with other communication networks. Particular emphasis is given to picture communication systems useful in medical applications.
Huang, H.K.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Angus, W.M.; Capp, M.P.; Arenson, R.L.; Kangarloo, H.
This special focus session discusses the current status of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). The first presentation focuses on the technological advances in various PACS components. The second presentation concentrates on image archiving - what is required, what is available. The third talk is on the concept of a total digital radiology department in the past, the present, and the future. The fourth panelist discusses evaluating various imaging systems as PACS components for the intensive care unit. Finally, one hears about clinical experience with two operating PACS modules, one in pediatric radiology and the second in a coronary care unit
Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration
With over 3,000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS’s scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration will be described. Their role on various communication platforms will be described and their impact examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.
Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration
With over 3000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS's scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration and on various communication platforms will be described. Their impact will be examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.
The role of interaction-picture fields in the construction of coherent states and in the derivation of the Feynman path integral for interacting scalar quantum fields is examined. Special attention is paid to the dependence of the integrand on the intermediate times and it is shown that the Feynman rules are valid prior to taking the limit wherein the number of intermediate times goes to infinity; thus, this number does not act as a cutoff in divergent amplitudes. Specific normalization factors are determined
Piqueras Pardellans, J.; Carreno Pedemonte, J.C.; Lucaya Layret, J.
Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) constitute a data processing tool that offers new working methods of diagnostic radiology. The definitive aim of a PACS is to allow a radiology service to operate without film images or documents on paper, integrating images and clinical information. Different image acquisition, viewing and storage systems, linked by communications networks, are arranged around a central management and storage system. Their components are described and the advantages, drawbacks and limitations are discussed from the technological point of view and considering their impact on health care, while a critical review is provided of the 1993 status of this issue
Nikonova L. V.
Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.
Java EE 7: The Big Picture uniquely explores the entire Java EE 7 platform in an all-encompassing style while examining each tier of the platform in enough detail so that you can select the right technologies for specific project needs. In this authoritative guide, Java expert Danny Coward walks you through the code, applications, and frameworks that power the platform. Take full advantage of the robust capabilities of Java EE 7, increase your productivity, and meet enterprise demands with help from this Oracle Press resource.
Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe
A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring....... However, this is not expected to be the case if the packaging carries only a verbal indication of the potential ingredient (say, the word strawberry). We put these assumptions to experimental test. Our goal was to contribute firmer evidence to the legal decision-making in the present field while...
Gay Ducati, M.B.; Goncalves, V.P.
The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to a unitarized gluon distribution in the small x regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this paper that the AGL equation and, consequently, the GLR equation, can also be obtained from the dipole picture in the double logarithmic limit, using an evolution equation, recently proposed, which includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the leading logarithmic approximation. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for a unitarized evolution equation at small x in the DLA limit
Ando, M; Hakoda, Y
Performance superiority of the addition of features in the stimuli over the deletion on recognition (asymmetric confusability effect) has been shown in previous studies (Pezdek, Maki, Valencia-Laver, Whetstone, Stoeckert, & Dougherty, 1988; Ando & Hakoda, 1998). We investigated the same effect by using a familiar living thing (cat) as a stimulus. Ten subjects were given a recognition task using pictures of cats with feature changes (additions, deletions, or no change). Results showed that the picture with deletions were easier to recognize than those with additions, which was opposite to the previous studies. Then, we examined the possibility that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression. Another group of 18 subjects was asked to rate the impression scales consisting of a "typicality-reality factor", a "stability-balance factor", and a "grotesque-disgust factor". Results showed that there was a significant difference in impression ratings for each factor between the additions and the deletions, and that impression ratings predicted recognition performance well. It was concluded that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression.
Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m
Powell, Marie Clare
Segments of the 1980 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) conference were to be telecast nationally by satellite. The author briefly explains the satellite transmission process and advises Catholic educators on how to pick up the broadcast through their local cable television system. (SJL)
GIF, JPEG, and PNG are most likely the best formats to use for three reasons. First, they're standardized and open formats for anyone to use. In addition, JPEG is an ISO standard and PNG is an IETF RFC (Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comments-www.ietf.org) and W3C recommendation (World Wide Web Consortium-www.w3.org). Second, they're compressible. GIF files are generally compressed at 5:1, JPEG at 10:1 or 20:1 and PNG at about 7:1. Finally, they're all supported by web browsers. Well, pretty much. Microsoft's Internet Explorer doesn't support the alpha channel transparency for PNG-but, on the other hand, GIF and JPEG don't have the alpha channel at all. Use TIFF to archive your original pictures as it is a lossless format. Check out the summary table and sidebar for more information regarding these picture file formats.
Moè, Angelica; Sarlo, Michela
Valence and arousal are independent dimensions of consciously experienced affect. The former refers to pleasantness; the latter to the degree of excitement or stimulation. The present research explores some of the predictors of these dimensions through the hypothesis that valence relates to positive affect and lack of negative affect, while arousal is tied to negative affect, and that both are predicted by personal wellbeing, considered as a way of achieving happiness. The occurrence of depressive symptoms is also considered within the hypothesis: as a facet of negative affect, as lack of wellbeing, or as an independent dimension placed at the same level as wellbeing, and which relates to both positive and negative affect (considered as mediators). Sixty-one participants were asked to view on a computer screen a series of 20 neutral pictures, having medium valence and low arousal, and complete self-report questionnaires to assess affect, personal wellbeing, and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. After picture viewing, valence and arousal judgments were requested. In the analysis, three competing models with latent variables were tested, to assess at best the role depressive symptoms have. They confirmed that valence is predicted by high positive and low negative affect, arousal by negative affect and even directly by the occurrence of depressive symptoms, and that personal wellbeing and depressive symptoms are the starting point. They are negatively correlated and predict positive (both) and negative affect (just the occurrence of depressive symptoms). The discussion focuses on both theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are given.
Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.
Wang, Yang; Yang, Jiongjiong
Background/Study context Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. Methods In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00±1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive and neutral valences. Half of the pictures had a human context, and the other half did not. In addition, emotional dimensions of negative and positive pictures were divided into high-arousal and low-arousal. The experimental task was to provide old/new recognition and confidence rating judgments. Results Both groups of subjects showed the positivity bias for low-arousal pictures, but the positivity bias was restricted to low-arousal pictures without the human context in older adults. In addition, the positivity bias was mainly driven by the recollection process in younger adults, and it was mainly driven by both the recollection and familiarity processes in older adults. The recognition of the nonhuman positive pictures was correlated with cognitive control abilities, but the recognition of pictures with human contexts was correlated with general memory abilities in older adults. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of arousal and contextual information in modulating emotional memory in younger and older adults. It suggests that there are different mechanisms for memorizing pictures with and without human contexts in older adults. PMID:28230422
Iodice, Rosario; Meilán, Juan José G; Carro, Juan
During the aging process, there is a progressive deficit in the encoding of new information and its retrieval. Different strategies are used in order to maintain, optimize or diminish these deficits in people with and without dementia. One of the classic techniques is paired-associate learning (PAL), which is based on improving the encoding of memories, but it has yet to be used to its full potential in people with dementia. In this study, our aim is to corroborate the importance of PAL tasks as instrumental tools for creating contextual cues, during both the encoding and retrieval phases of memory. Additionally, we aim to identify the most effective form of presenting the related items. Pairs of stimuli were shown to healthy elderly people and to patients with moderate and mild Alzheimer's disease. The encoding conditions were as follows: word/word, picture/picture, picture/word, and word/picture. Associative cued recall of the second item in the pair shows that retrieval is higher for the word/picture condition in the two groups of patients with dementia when compared to the other conditions, while word/word is the least effective in all cases. These results confirm that PAL is an effective tool for creating contextual cues during both the encoding and retrieval phases in people with dementia when the items are presented using the word/picture condition. In this way, the encoding and retrieval deficit can be reduced in these people.
Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.
Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities
Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert
Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus. In the present study, we examine whether semantic interference in picture naming depends on SOA in case of a task choice (naming the picture vs reading the word of a picture-word stimulus) based on tones. This situation requires concurrent processing of the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus, but not a manual response to the tones. On each trial, participants either named a picture or read aloud a word depending on the pitch of a tone, which was presented simultaneously with picture-word onset or 350 ms or 1000 ms before picture-word onset. Semantic interference was present with tone pre-exposure, but absent when tone and picture-word stimulus were presented simultaneously. Against the background of the available studies, these results support an account according to which speakers tend to avoid concurrent response selection, but can engage in other types of concurrent processing, such as task choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G
The eye-tracking method was used to assess attentional orienting to and engagement on emotional visual scenes. In Experiment 1, unpleasant, neutral, or pleasant target pictures were presented simultaneously with neutral control pictures in peripheral vision under instruction to compare pleasantness of the pictures. The probability of first fixating an emotional picture, and the frequency of subsequent fixations, were greater than those for neutral pictures. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to avoid looking at the emotional pictures, but these were still more likely to be fixated first and gazed longer during the first-pass viewing than neutral pictures. Low-level visual features cannot explain the results. It is concluded that overt visual attention is captured by both unpleasant and pleasant emotional content. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Hutchinson, Jesson D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bahran, Rian Mustafa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKenzie, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Below are all of the pictures for the CNEC and CVT measurements performed at the DAF in July 2016. In total there are 165 pictures. The photos on pages 2-105 were taken during the first week of measurements and the photos on pages 106-165 were taken during the second week of measurements. Many photos are applicable to both sets, which is why it is best to keep the entire set together. For most configurations, a description of the configuration was written on a white board; photos of the measurement setup were taken, then a photo of the white board was taken. For example, the pictures on pages 6-19 (which precede a white board picture on page 20) are of the configuration with Rocky Flats Shells 1-2 surrounded by 4 AmLi sources, which is listed on the white board picture on page 20. In some cases, the white board picture precedes the configuration pictures.
Within the tasks devoted to operational oceanography, Coastal Ocean Observatory at Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC) has acquired an European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Broadcast System for Environmental Data (EUMETCast reception system) to replace a satellite direct broadcast system that receives data via High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT). EUMETCast system can receive data based on standard Digital Video Broadcastin...
Full Text Available During a nearby passage of the Active satellite above the Millstone Hill radar on 21 March 1990 at local sunset, the satellite and the radar performed simultaneous measurements of upper ionospheric parameters in nearly the same spatial volume. For this purpose the radar carried out a special azimuth-elevation scan to track the satellite. Direct comparisons of radar data and in situ satellite measurements have been carried out quite rarely. In this case, the coincidence of co-ordinated measurements and active ionospheric-magnetospheric processes during an extended storm recovery phase presents a unique occasion resulting in a very valuable data set. The measurements show generally good agreement both during quiet prestorm and storm conditions and the combination of radar and satellite observations gives a more comprehensive picture of the physical processes involved. We find a close relationship between the rapid westward ion drift peak at subauroral latitudes (SAID event and the occurrence of a stable auroral red (SAR arc observed after sunset by an all-sky imager and reported in an earlier study of this event. The SAID electric field is caused by the penetration of energetic ions with energies between about 1 keV and 100 keV into the outer plasmasphere to a latitude equatorward of the extent of the plasmasheet electrons. Charge separation results in the observed polarisation field and the SAID. Unusually high molecular ion densities measured by the satellite at altitudes of 700-870 km at subauroral and auroral latitudes point on strong upward-directed ion acceleration processes and an intense neutral gas upwelling. These structures are collocated with a narrow trough in electron density and an electron temperature peak as observed simultaneously by the radar and the satellite probes.
Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density; Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere.
In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought. This metaphysical Christian doctrine existed alongside the self-help and esoteric publishing domains and testified, above all, to the possibility of the 'mind-cure' of the body through the positive application of 'mental pictures'. Physiologically, their method began best in the womb, where the thoughts of the mother were of utmost importance: the eventual difference between birthing an Elephant Man or an Adonis. This positive maternal impression was commonplace in New Thought literature; it was Sparks's innovation to apply it to cinema. Investigating Sparks's film theory, practice and programming reveals her to be a harbinger of the abiding analogy between mind and motion picture that occupies film theorists to this day.
Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin
Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically
Grigorieva, Victoria; Badulin, Sergei; Chernyshova, Anna
The understanding physics of wind-driven waves is crucially important for fundamental science and practical applications. This is why experimental efforts are targeted at both getting reliable information on sea state and elaborating effective tools of the sea wave forecasting. The global Visual Wave Observations and satellite data from the GLOBWAVE project of the European Space Agency are analyzed in the context of these two viewpoints. Within the first "observational" aspect we re-analyze conventional climatologies of all basic wave parameters for the last decades . An alternative "dynamical" climatology is introduced as a tool of prediction of dynamical features of sea waves on global scales. The features of wave dynamics are studied in terms of one-parametric dependencies of wave heights on wave periods following the theoretical concept of self-similar wind-driven seas [3, 1, 4] and recently proposed approach to analysis of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data . Traditional "observational" climatologies based on VOS and satellite data collections demonstrate extremely consistent pictures for significant wave heights and dominant periods. On the other hand, collocated satellite and VOS data show significant differences in wave heights, wind speeds and, especially, in wave periods. Uncertainties of visual wave observations can explain these differences only partially. We see the key reason of this inconsistency in the methods of satellite data processing which are based on formal application of data interpolation methods rather than on up-to-date physics of wind-driven waves. The problem is considered within the alternative climatology approach where dynamical criteria of wave height-to-period linkage are used for retrieving wave periods and constructing physically consistent dynamical climatology. The key dynamical parameter - exponent R of one-parametric dependence Hs ~ TR shows dramatically less pronounced latitudinal dependence as compared to observed Hs
Benestad, Rasmus E.
The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.
An exhibition of spectacular photographs of the LHC and its experiments is about to open in the Globe. The LHC and its four experiments are not only huge in size but also uniquely beautiful, as the exhibition "Big Science: the LHC in Pictures" in the Globe of Science and Innovation will show. The exhibition features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. These giant pictures reflecting the immense scale of the LHC and the mysteries of the Universe it is designed to uncover fill the Globe with shape and colour. The exhibition, which will open on 4 March, is divided into six different themes: CERN, the LHC and the four experiments ATLAS, LHCb, CMS and ALICE. Facts about all these subjects will be available at information points and in an explanatory booklet accompanying the exhibition (which visitors will be able to buy if they wish to take it home with them). Globe of Science and Innovatio...
Deason, Rebecca G.; Hussey, Erin P.; Flannery, Sean; Ally, Brandon A.
The current study examined different aspects of conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Specifically, we were interested in whether priming of distinctive conceptual features versus general semantic information related to pictures and words would differ for the mild AD patients and healthy older adults. In this study, 14 healthy older adults and 15 patients with mild AD studied both pictures and words followed by an implicit test section, where they were asked about distinctive conceptual or general semantic information related to the items they had previously studied (or novel items) Healthy older adults and patients with mild AD showed both conceptual priming and the picture superiority effect, but the AD patients only showed these effects for the questions focused on the distinctive conceptual information. We found that patients with mild AD showed intact conceptual picture priming in a task that required generating a response (answer) from a cue (question) for cues that focused on distinctive conceptual information. This experiment has helped improve our understanding of both the picture superiority effect and conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild AD in that these findings support the notion that conceptual implicit memory might potentially help to drive familiarity-based recognition in the face of impaired recollection in patients with mild AD. PMID:26291521
Deason, Rebecca G; Hussey, Erin P; Flannery, Sean; Ally, Brandon A
The current study examined different aspects of conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, we were interested in whether priming of distinctive conceptual features versus general semantic information related to pictures and words would differ for the mild AD patients and healthy older adults. In this study, 14 healthy older adults and 15 patients with mild AD studied both pictures and words followed by an implicit test section, where they were asked about distinctive conceptual or general semantic information related to the items they had previously studied (or novel items). Healthy older adults and patients with mild AD showed both conceptual priming and the picture superiority effect, but the AD patients only showed these effects for the questions focused on the distinctive conceptual information. We found that patients with mild AD showed intact conceptual picture priming in a task that required generating a response (answer) from a cue (question) for cues that focused on distinctive conceptual information. This experiment has helped improve our understanding of both the picture superiority effect and conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild AD in that these findings support the notion that conceptual implicit memory might potentially help to drive familiarity-based recognition in the face of impaired recollection in patients with mild AD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wang, Bo; Ren, Yanju
Although prior studies have examined the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on recognition memory for words, it is unknown whether the enhancement effect observed on words generalizes to pictures. Furthermore, prior studies using words have showed that the effect of emotional arousal can be modulated by stimuli valence and delay in emotion induction, but it is unclear whether such modulation can extend to pictures and whether other factors such as encoding method (incidental vs. intentional encoding) can be modulatory. Five experiments were conducted to answer these questions. In Experiment 1, participants encoded a list of neutral and negative pictures and then watched a 3-min neutral or negative video. The delayed test showed that negative arousal impaired recollection regardless of picture valence but had no effect on familiarity. Experiment 2 replicated the above findings. Experiment 3 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants watched a 3-min neutral, negative, or positive video and conducted free recall before the recognition test. Unlike the prior two experiments, the impairment effect of negative arousal disappeared. Experiment 4, where the free recall task was eliminated, replicated the results from Experiment 3. Experiment 5 replicated Experiments 1 and 2 and further showed that the impairment effects of negative arousal could be modulated by delay in emotion induction but not by encoding method or stimuli valence. Taken together, the current study suggests that the enhancement effect observed on words may not generalize to pictures.
Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias
Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The aim of this book is to explain the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum mechanics by means of visualization. Computer-generated illustrations in color are used extensively throughout the text, helping to establish the relation between quantum mechanics—wave functions, interference, atomic structure, and so forth—and classical physics—point mechanics, statistical mechanics, and wave optics. Even more important, by studying the pictures in parallel with the text, readers develop an intuition for such notoriously abstract phenomena as • the tunnel effect • excitation and decay of metastable states • wave-packet motion within a well • systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles • free wave packets and scattering in 3 dimensions • angular-momentum decomposition • stationary bound states in various 3-dimensional potentials • hybrid states • Kepler motion of wave packets in the Coulomb field • spin and magnetic resonance Illustrations from experiments in a variety of f...
Biro, T.S.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasi-particle-based description of the quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamical consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamical consistency. A particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential, which can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics [ru
Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.
The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics
Nikitaev, N.S.; Kuznetsova, M.A.
Arteriography was performed in 35 patients with soft tissue desmoid fibromas. Angiographic semiotics of this disease was described. The frequency of detectability of symptoms in the arterial, parenchymatous and venous phases was analyzed. A tumor in the arterial phase was shown to be of normevascular or moderately hypervascular type without noticeable winding of the nutrient arteries, such features of malignancy as lacunae and ''tumor'' vessels being absent. In the parenchymatous phase desmoid tumors were shown to accumulate moderately a contrast substance, a tumor contour at a vast length was ill defined and poorly marked from surrounding tissues. The venous phase was less noticeable and the time of its appearance was usually within normal. In general by most of its parameters the angiographic picture of agressive fibromatosis corresponded to that of benign tumors and could be used for differential diagnosis of desmoid fibromas and some types of tissue sarcomas
White, H; Minor, S W
Ambiguous pictures (Roschach inkblots) were lateralized for 100 msec vs. 200 msec to the right and left hemispheres (RH and LH) of 32 normal right-handed males who determined which of two previously presented words (an accurate or inaccurate one) better described the inkblot. Over the first 32 trials, subjects receiving each stimulus exposure duration were less accurate when the hemisphere receiving the stimulus also controlled the hand used to register a keypress response (RH-left hand and LH-right hand trials) than when hemispheric resources were shared, i.e., when one hemisphere controlled stimulus processing and the other controlled response programming. These differences were eliminated when the 32 trials were repeated.
Gell, G.; Schneider, G.H.; Becker, M.; Wiltgen, M.
A growing number of medical imaging modalities produces images that are initially calculated and stored as digital information in a computer. For diagnosis, archiving and communication a hardcopy (usually on X-ray film) is produced from these data. It is estimated that in 1995 about 80% of all imaging procedures will generate digital images. This trend leads to the development of systems, where the X-ray film is not only replaced in his function as a radiation detector, but also in his other functions as the medium for image presentation, image communication and image archiving. In short, one wants a completely digital picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The rationale behind PACS efforts is to achieve better functionality and to save costs, mainly by reducing the consumption of expensive X-ray films and the need for storage space for film archives. 7 refs., 2 figs. (Author)
Mccarter, J. W.
A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.
Yan Mei Wang
Full Text Available In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.
Wang, Yan Mei; Chen, Jie; Han, Ben Yue
In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral) were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS) as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing) × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative) experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation) were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation) promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.
Roméo Sébastien Blanc
Full Text Available Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells, which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7−/− adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity.
Pan, Wenjing; Peña, Jorge
This study examined how exposure to pictures of women with different body sizes (thin, obese), physical attractiveness levels (attractive, unattractive), along with exposure to weight-related messages (pro-anorexia, anti-anorexia) embedded in a fashion website affected female participants' planned behavior toward weight loss. Participants exposed to attractive model pictures showed higher intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms to lose weight compared with unattractive models. Additionally, participants exposed to thin and attractive model pictures indicated the highest attitudes and self-efficacy to lose weight, whereas those exposed to thin and unattractive model pictures indicated the lowest. Furthermore, weight-related messages moderated the effect of model appearance (body size and attractiveness) on controllability of weight-loss activities. However, website pictures' body size differences had no main effects on planned behavior toward weight loss. These effects are discussed in the light of social comparison mechanisms.
This family portrait shows the smaller satellites of Saturn as viewed by Voyager 2 during its swing through the Saturnian system. The following chart corresponds to this composite photograph (distance from the planet increases from left to right) and lists names, standard numerical designations and approximate dimensions (radii where indicated) in kilometers: 1980S26Outer F-ringshepherd120 X 100 1980S1Leadingco-orbital220 X 160 1980S25TrailingTethys trojanradii: 25 1980S28Outer Ashepherdradii: 20 1980S27Inner F-ringco-orbital145 X 70 1980S3TrailingTethys trojan140 X 100 1980S13LeadingTethys trojanradii: 30 1980S6LeadingDione trojanradii: 30 These images have been scaled to show the satellites in true relative sizes. This set of small objects ranges in size from small asteroidal scales to nearly the size of Saturn's moon Mimas. They are probably fragments of somewhat larger bodies broken up during the bombardment period that followed accretion of the Saturnian system. Scientists believe they may be mostly icy bodies with a mixture of meteorite rock. They are somewhat less reflective than the larger satellites, suggesting that thermal evolution of the larger moons 'cleaned up' their icy surfaces. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
Potter, J. G.
The paper discusses some of the current and potential markets for satellite data communications as projected by the Public Service Satellite Consortium (PSSC). Organizations in the public service sector are divided into three categories, depending on their expected benefits and organizational changes due to increased satellite telecommunications use: A - modest institutional adjustments are necessary and significant productivity gains are likely; B - institutional requirements picture is promising, but more information is needed to assess benefits and risk; and C - major institutional adjustments are needed, risks are high but possible benefits are high. These criteria are applied to the U.S. health care system, continuing education, equipment maintenance, libraries, environmental monitoring, and other potential markets. The potential revenues are seen to be significant, but what is needed is a cooperative effort by common carriers and major public service institutions to aggregate the market.
Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio
Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...
A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...
Full Text Available Early literacy has recently become a current topic, and there’s a widespread belief that literacy startsdeveloping almost as soon as the child is born, if the child is surrounded with adequate materials and persons who will motivate the development of literacy. The first structured reading materials that a child interacts with are picture-books. It is usually the first contact a child has with literature and a written word in general, and it happens during childhood, the child's most sensitive period, which is why it is important to pay special attention to the quality of picture-books. Croatian picture-books published till the early 80ies of the past century have been investigated to a some extent. However, the picture-books found on the Croatian market and in the libraries in the past 30 years have been the subject of research only sporadically. There's little data on the quality and features of this multifunctional material that is of such great importance for children. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the relevant data found in literature on the historical development of picture-book publishing, their features, functions they help develop, their age-appropriateness, and quality. The paper presents research results stemming from the analysis of the Croatian Children's Book Centre documentation on contemporary picture-book publishing and data on the language of picture-books that are the result of a picture-book corpus study made as part of the PhD research by the author. The data on contemporary authors and illustrators was obtained by analysing the documentation of the Croatian Library Association, Commission for library services for children and youth. The language of the picture-book corpus was analysed using a computer programme, i.e. the analysis was conducted of the lexical diversity of picture-books for three-year olds. The picture-books have not been investigated from the linguistic perspective before, which makes this
Churches, Owen; Callahan, Rebecca; Michalski, Dana; Brewer, Nicola; Turner, Emma; Keage, Hannah Amy Diane; Thomas, Nicole Annette; Nicholls, Mike Elmo Richard
It is now standard practice, at Universities around the world, for academics to place pictures of themselves on a personal profile page maintained as part of their University's web-site. Here we investigated what these pictures reveal about the way academics see themselves. Since there is an asymmetry in the degree to which emotional information is conveyed by the face, with the left side being more expressive than the right, we hypothesised that academics in the sciences would seek to pose as non-emotional rationalists and put their right cheek forward, while academics in the arts would express their emotionality and pose with the left cheek forward. We sourced 5829 pictures of academics from their University websites and found that, consistent with the hypotheses, there was a significant difference in the direction of face posing between science academics and English academics with English academics showing a more leftward orientation. Academics in the Fine Arts and Performing Arts however, did not show the expected left cheek forward bias. We also analysed profile pictures of psychology academics and found a greater bias toward presenting the left check compared to science academics which makes psychologists appear more like arts academics than scientists. These findings indicate that the personal website pictures of academics mirror the cultural perceptions of emotional expressiveness across disciplines.
For any conventional non-relativistic quantum theory of a finite number of degrees of freedom a picture is constructed called '' the scattering picture'', combining the ''nice'' properties of both the interaction and the Heisenberg pictures, and show that in the absence of bound states, the theory could be formulated in terms of a free Hamiltonian and an effective potential. The equations thus derived are generalized to the relativistic case and show that, given a Poincare invariant self-adjoint operator D densely defined on a Fock space, there exists an interacting field which is asymptotically free and has as the scattering matrix the non-trivial operator S=esup(iD), provided that D annihilates the vacuum and the one-particle states. Crossing relations could easily be imposed on D, but apart from a few comments, the problem of analyticity of S is left open
capable of the measurement we made," he added. "Knowing the accurate distance to this region is vitally important to properly understanding the general characteristics of the star-formation processes there," Sandstrom said. The new distance to the region, determined with the VLBA, is 1270 light-years, compared with the best previous measurement of 1565 light-years. The old measurement had an uncertainty of about 17 percent, while the new VLBA measurement has an uncertainty of 6 percent. Because the newly-measured distance to the region is 20 percent closer than the earlier measurement, the stars in the region are intrinisically fainter by a factor of 1.5. This has a major impact on scientists' understanding of their ages. "These stars are nearly twice as old as previously thought," said Bower. "Getting a more-accurate distance is going to pay off in many ways by improving our understanding of what is one of the most frequently-studied star-forming regions in the Universe," Peek said. "By using the same technique on other stars in the region, it would be possible to build up a three-dimensional picture of the area," he added. The VLBA, a system of 10 radio-telescope antennas stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, provides the best ability to see fine detail, called resolving power, of any astronomical tool in the world. The VLBA can routinely produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those produced by the Hubble Space Telescope. The VLBA's tremendous resolving power is what permits the astronomers to make the precise distance determinations. In addition to the new measurement to the Orion star-forming region, the VLBA has made precise distance measurements to star-forming regions in the constellations Taurus and Ophiuchus, to a number of pulsars within our Milky Way Galaxy, and to one of our Galaxy's spiral arms. In 1999, astronomers using the VLBA announced the most precise distance measurement to a galaxy that is not a satellite of the Milky Way. That
Andrea De Cesarei
Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.
Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G
The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.
Embree, Lindsay M; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A
Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge
Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Ponseti, Jorge; Bruhn, Daniel; Nolting, Julia; Gerwinn, Hannah; Pohl, Alexander; Stirn, Aglaja; Granert, Oliver; Laufs, Helmut; Deuschl, Günther; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Siebner, Hartwig; Briken, Peer; Mohnke, Sebastian; Amelung, Till
Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles) not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system) to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By ...
Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of...
The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to t...
Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.
Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.
Gagnon, Caroline; Bégin, Catherine; Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon
The present study used the presentation of food pictures and judgements about their duration to assess the emotions elicited by food in women suffering from an eating disorder (ED). Twenty-three women diagnosed with an ED, namely anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and 23 healthy controls (HC) completed a temporal bisection task and a duration discrimination task. Intervals were marked with emotionally pre-rated pictures of joyful and disgusting food, and pictures of neutral objects. The results showed that, in the bisection task, AN women overestimated the duration of food pictures in comparison to neutral ones. Also, compared to participants with BN, they perceived the duration of joyful food pictures as longer, and tended to overestimate the duration of the disgusting ones. These effects on perceived duration suggest that AN women experienced an intense reaction of fear when they were confronted to food pictures. More precisely, by having elevated the arousal level and activated the defensive system, food pictures seemed to have speeded up the rhythm of the AN participants' internal clock, which led to an overestimation of images' duration. In addition, the results revealed that, in both tasks, ED women presented a lower temporal sensitivity than HC, which was related to their ED symptomatology (i.e., BMI, restraint and concern) and, particularly, to their weaker cognitive abilities in terms of attention, processing speed and working memory. Considered all together, the findings of the present experiment highlight the role of fear and anxiety in the manifestations of AN and point out the importance of considering non-temporal factors in the interpretation of time perception performance.
Full Text Available The present study used the presentation of food pictures and judgements about their duration to assess the emotions elicited by food in women suffering from an eating disorder (ED. Twenty-three women diagnosed with an ED, namely anorexia (AN or bulimia nervosa (BN, and 23 healthy controls (HC completed a temporal bisection task and a duration discrimination task. Intervals were marked with emotionally pre-rated pictures of joyful and disgusting food, and pictures of neutral objects. The results showed that, in the bisection task, AN women overestimated the duration of food pictures in comparison to neutral ones. Also, compared to participants with BN, they perceived the duration of joyful food pictures as longer, and tended to overestimate the duration of the disgusting ones. These effects on perceived duration suggest that AN women experienced an intense reaction of fear when they were confronted to food pictures. More precisely, by having elevated the arousal level and activated the defensive system, food pictures seemed to have speeded up the rhythm of the AN participants’ internal clock, which led to an overestimation of images’ duration. In addition, the results revealed that, in both tasks, ED women presented a lower temporal sensitivity than HC, which was related to their ED symptomatology (i.e., BMI, restraint and concern and, particularly, to their weaker cognitive abilities in terms of attention, processing speed and working memory. Considered all together, the findings of the present experiment highlight the role of fear and anxiety in the manifestations of AN and point out the importance of considering non-temporal factors in the interpretation of time perception performance.
Gagnon, Caroline; Bégin, Catherine; Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon
The present study used the presentation of food pictures and judgements about their duration to assess the emotions elicited by food in women suffering from an eating disorder (ED). Twenty-three women diagnosed with an ED, namely anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and 23 healthy controls (HC) completed a temporal bisection task and a duration discrimination task. Intervals were marked with emotionally pre-rated pictures of joyful and disgusting food, and pictures of neutral objects. The results showed that, in the bisection task, AN women overestimated the duration of food pictures in comparison to neutral ones. Also, compared to participants with BN, they perceived the duration of joyful food pictures as longer, and tended to overestimate the duration of the disgusting ones. These effects on perceived duration suggest that AN women experienced an intense reaction of fear when they were confronted to food pictures. More precisely, by having elevated the arousal level and activated the defensive system, food pictures seemed to have speeded up the rhythm of the AN participants’ internal clock, which led to an overestimation of images’ duration. In addition, the results revealed that, in both tasks, ED women presented a lower temporal sensitivity than HC, which was related to their ED symptomatology (i.e., BMI, restraint and concern) and, particularly, to their weaker cognitive abilities in terms of attention, processing speed and working memory. Considered all together, the findings of the present experiment highlight the role of fear and anxiety in the manifestations of AN and point out the importance of considering non-temporal factors in the interpretation of time perception performance. PMID:29681806
Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio
The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10 –8 . This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Smith, M C; Magee, L E
A number of independent lines of research have suggested that semantic and articulatory information become available differentially from pictures and words. The first of the experiments reported here sought to clarify the time course by which information about pictures and words becomes available by considering the pattern of interference generated when incongruent pictures and words are presented simultaneously in a Stroop-like situation. Previous investigators report that picture naming is easily disrupted by the presence of a distracting word but that word naming is relatively immune to interference from an incongruent picture. Under the assumption that information available from a completed process may disrupt an ongoing process, these results suggest that words access articulatory information more rapidly than do pictures. Experiment 1 extended this paradigm by requiring subjects to verify the category of the target stimulus. In accordance with the hypothesis that picture access the semantic code more rapidly than words, there was a reversal in the interference pattern: Word categorization suffered considerable disruption, whereas picture categorization was minimally affected by the presence of an incongruent word. Experiment 2 sought to further test the hypothesis that access to semantic and articulatory codes is different for pictures and words by examining memory for those items following naming or categorization. Categorized words were better recognized than named words, whereas the reverse was true for pictures, a result which suggests that picture naming involves more extensive processing than picture categorization. Experiment 3 replicated this result under conditions in which viewing time was held constant. The last experiment extended the investigation of memory differences to a situation in which subjects were required to generate the superordinate category name. Here, memory for categorized pictures was as good as memory for named pictures. Category
Christy, Evelyn; Handojo, Priska Febrinia
One of the common problems leading to the sexual abuse is that the child is not aware about it. This project aims to raise children's awareness against sexual abuse through picture book. This picture book use realistic fiction as the genre of my picture book. The purpose is to make the children familiar with the story and can relate it to their life. This picture book uses the narrative theory as the framework of the story. The narrative story is consist of abstract, orientation, complication...
Gallo, David A; Foster, Katherine T; Wong, Jessica T; Bennett, David A
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controls incorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studied with pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotional compared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in early AD may impair recollection, but AD did not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry...
Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M
This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.
Kaminski, Wojciech; Pawlowski, Tomasz
The global dynamics of a homogeneous Universe in loop quantum cosmology is viewed as a scattering process of its geometrodynamical equivalent. This picture is applied to build a flexible (easy to generalize) and not restricted just to exactly solvable models method of verifying the preservation of the semiclassicality through the bounce. The devised method is next applied to two simple examples: (i) the isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, and (ii) the isotropic sector of the Bianchi I model. For both of them we show that the dispersions in the logarithm of the volume ln(v) and scalar field momentum ln(p φ ) in the distant future and past are related via strong triangle inequalities. This implies, in particular, a strict preservation of the semiclassicality (in considered degrees of freedom) in both the cases (i) and (ii). Derived inequalities are general: valid for all the physical states within the considered models.
Sonn, Christopher C; Quayle, Amy F; Kasat, Pilar
Community arts and cultural development is a process that builds on and responds to the aspirations and needs of communities through creative means. It is participatory and inclusive, and uses multiple modes of representation to produce local knowledge. 'Voices' used photography and photo elicitation as the medium for exploring and expressing sense of place among Aboriginal and non-Indigenous children, young people and adults in four rural towns. An analysis of data generated by the project shows the diverse images that people chose to capture and the different meanings they afforded to their pictures. These meanings reflected individual and collective constructions of place, based on positive experiences and emotions tied to the natural environment and features of the built environment. We discuss community arts and cultural development practice with reference to creative visual methodologies and suggest that it is an approach that can contribute to community psychology's empowerment agenda.
Shamma, Mohammed A.
This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new
Korosec, Peter; Mavsar, Nusa; Bajrovic, Nissera; Silar, Mira; Mrhar, Ales; Kosnik, Mitja
Exposure to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may exacerbate respiratory or skin diseases or induce anaphylactoid reactions in apparently healthy individuals. We wanted to evaluate specific responsiveness of basophils to ASA in correlation with the clinical picture. We performed a prospective single-blind study of 59 subjects involved in clinical evaluation and/or ASA provocation testing. Whole blood basophils were stained with anti-CD63/CD123/HLA-DR mAbs after stimulation with 0.25 or 1 mg/ml ASA. We found that 40 subjects were ASA tolerant and 19 were ASA intolerant. Both groups had comparable manifestations of asthma and/or rhinitis (13 in the tolerant and 9 in the intolerant group). Intolerant subjects showed significantly higher basophil responsiveness to ASA in comparison to tolerant subjects, which was concentration-dependent in both groups. The ratio between responses at 1 mg/ml of ASA and at baseline (activation index) was analyzed according to the clinical picture. We demonstrate that the activation index was higher only in the intolerant subjects with anaphylactoid reactions, but not in a subgroup of subjects with asthma/rhinitis. The ROC calculations show that the optimal threshold activation index was more than 2.18. The sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 83% in the subgroup with anaphylactoid reactions. In the asthma/rhinitis subgroup, the sensitivity was 78% and the specificity was 50%. Our study demonstrates that there is a significantly higher in vitro basophil response to ASA in intolerant as compared to tolerant subjects. ROC analyses suggest that this measurement might only have a diagnostic value in subjects without asthma and/or rhinitis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
We have taken, in October 1981, 20.000 pictures of proton-proton interactions at 5 GeV/c in order to get some clean elastic events which can be easily studied by high school students. The purpose is to illustrate, by actual measurements of these real events, some basic concepts of relativistic mechanisms. This experiment will be an extension of our previous one, performed with HBC 2m events taken at 2 GeV/c. In 1980, all french lycees were provided with large size reproduction of HBC 2m events. Before distribution they were carefully selected and severe kinematical cuts were made. The students measured track curvatures by template, and checked the necessity and the validity of relativistic mechanics by computing the energy balance using non-relativistic and relativistic formulae. No practical problems have been encountered during this experiment and the pedagogical results are encouraging. This new sample of events will be interesting because they are relativistic than the old ones although with the same curv...
Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.
Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)
Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad
An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.
Full Text Available This paper will assess the most recently available open access high-resolution optical satellite data (0.3 m–0.6 m and its detection of buried ancient features versus ground based remote sensing tools. It also discusses the importance of CORONA satellite data to evaluate landscape changes over the past 50 years surrounding sites. The study concentrates on Egypt’s Nile Delta, which is threatened by rising sea and water tables and urbanization. Many ancient coastal sites will be lost in the next few decades, thus this paper emphasizes the need to map them before they disappear. It shows that high resolution satellites can sometimes provide the same general picture on ancient sites in the Egyptian Nile Delta as ground based remote sensing, with relatively sandier sedimentary and degrading tell environments, during periods of rainfall, and higher groundwater conditions. Research results also suggest potential solutions for rapid mapping of threatened Delta sites, and urge a collaborative global effort to maps them before they disappear.
Finley, Jason R; Brewer, William F; Benjamin, Aaron S
Emerging "life-logging" technologies have tremendous potential to augment human autobiographical memory by recording and processing vast amounts of information from an individual's experiences. In this experiment undergraduate participants wore a SenseCam, a small, sensor-equipped digital camera, as they went about their normal daily activities for five consecutive days. Pictures were captured either at fixed intervals or as triggered by SenseCam's sensors. On two of five nights, participants watched an end-of-day review of a random subset of pictures captured that day. Participants were tested with a variety of memory measures at intervals of 1, 3, and 8 weeks. The most fruitful of six measures were recognition rating (on a 1-7 scale) and picture-cued recall length. On these tests, end-of-day review enhanced performance relative to no review, while pictures triggered by SenseCam's sensors showed little difference in performance compared to those taken at fixed time intervals. We discuss the promise of SenseCam as a tool for research and for improving autobiographical memory.
Sanchez, Tiago A; Mocaiber, Izabela; Erthal, Fatima S; Joffily, Mateus; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G; de Araujo, Draulio B; Oliveira, Leticia
The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n = 22, 12 male) were scanned while viewing neutral (people) or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies) flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a) judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b) to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0 or 90(∘) orientation difference) or (c) in a hard condition (0 or 6(∘) orientation difference). Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. Region of interest analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.
Tiago Arruda Sanchez
Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.
Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin
Emotion effects in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have previously been reported for a range of visual stimuli, including emotional words, pictures, and facial expressions. Still, little is known about the actual comparability of emotion effects across these stimulus classes. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating emotion effects in response to words, pictures, and facial expressions using a blocked within-subject design. Furthermore, ratings of stimulus arousal and valence were collected from an independent sample of participants. Modulations of early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive complex (LPC) were visible for all stimulus domains, but showed clear differences, particularly in valence processing. While emotion effects were limited to positive stimuli for words, they were predominant for negative stimuli in pictures and facial expressions. These findings corroborate the notion of a positivity offset for words and a negativity bias for pictures and facial expressions, which was assumed to be caused by generally lower arousal levels of written language. Interestingly, however, these assumed differences were not confirmed by arousal ratings. Instead, words were rated as overall more positive than pictures and facial expressions. Taken together, the present results point toward systematic differences in the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli of emotional content, not only in terms of a valence bias evident in ERPs, but also concerning their emotional evaluation captured by ratings of stimulus valence and arousal.
Mädebach, Andreas; Kieseler, Marie-Luise; Jescheniak, Jörg D
In this study we explored the locus of semantic interference in a novel picture-sound interference task in which participants name pictures while ignoring environmental distractor sounds. In a previous study using this task (Mädebach, Wöhner, Kieseler, & Jescheniak, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43, 1629-1646, 2017), we showed that semantically related distractor sounds (e.g., BARKING dog ) interfere with a picture-naming response (e.g., "horse") more strongly than unrelated distractor sounds do (e.g., DRUMMING drum ). In the experiment reported here, we employed the psychological refractory period (PRP) approach to explore the locus of this effect. We combined a geometric form classification task (square vs. circle; Task 1) with the picture-sound interference task (Task 2). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the tasks was systematically varied (0 vs. 500 ms). There were three central findings. First, the semantic interference effect from distractor sounds was replicated. Second, picture naming (in Task 2) was slower with the short than with the long task SOA. Third, both effects were additive-that is, the semantic interference effects were of similar magnitude at both task SOAs. This suggests that the interference arises during response selection or later stages, not during early perceptual processing. This finding corroborates the theory that semantic interference from distractor sounds reflects a competitive selection mechanism in word production.
Sugimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Ryoichi; Koike, Atsushi
The authors developed a software-based realtime IPTV monitoring system based on Reduced Reference framework, and evaluated the proposed system. One of the quality issues of the IPTV service is the picture quality degradation caused by packet loss. The proposed system precisely estimates the PSNR of the corrupted received picture by extracting and comparing image features from transmission and receiver side. Computer simulations show that PSNR estimation with a 0.945 correlation coefficient at a data channel bitrate of 36kbps is possible using the proposed system.
Pottage, Claire L; Schaefer, Alexandre
The emotional enhancement of memory is often thought to be determined by attention. However, recent evidence using divided attention paradigms suggests that attention does not play a significant role in the formation of memories for aversive pictures. We report a study that investigated this question using a paradigm in which participants had to encode lists of randomly intermixed negative and neutral pictures under conditions of full attention and divided attention followed by a free recall test. Attention was divided by a highly demanding concurrent task tapping visual processing resources. Results showed that the advantage in recall for aversive pictures was still present in the DA condition. However, mediation analyses also revealed that concurrent task performance significantly mediated the emotional enhancement of memory under divided attention. This finding suggests that visual attentional processes play a significant role in the formation of emotional memories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge ARB; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J
We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P < 0.05 uncorrected). In a second experiment, another 9/15 subjects performing a semantic decision task activated ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at thi...
Perani, D; Schnur, T; Tettamanti, M; Gorno-Tempini, M; Cappa, S F; Fazio, F
We report two positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral activation during picture and word matching tasks, in which we compared directly the processing of stimuli belonging to different semantic categories (animate and inanimate) in the visual (pictures) and verbal (words) modality. In the first experiment, brain activation was measured in eleven healthy adults during a same/different matching task for textures, meaningless shapes and pictures of animals and artefacts (tools). Activations for meaningless shapes when compared to visual texture discrimination were localized in the left occipital and inferior temporal cortex. Animal picture identification, either in the comparison with meaningless shapes and in the direct comparison with non-living pictures, involved primarily activation of occipital regions, namely the lingual gyrus bilaterally and the left fusiform gyrus. For artefact picture identification, in the same comparison with meaningless shape-baseline and in the direct comparison with living pictures, all activations were left hemispheric, through the dorsolateral frontal (Ba 44/6 and 45) and temporal (Ba 21, 20) cortex. In the second experiment, brain activation was measured in eight healthy adults during a same/different matching task for visually presented words referring to animals and manipulable objects (tools); the baseline was a pseudoword discrimination task. When compared with the tool condition, the animal condition activated posterior left hemispheric areas, namely the fusiform (Ba 37) and the inferior occipital gyrus (Ba 18). The right superior parietal lobule (Ba 7) and the left thalamus were also activated. The reverse comparison (tools vs animals) showed left hemispheric activations in the middle temporal gyrus (Ba 21) and precuneus (Ba 7), as well as bilateral activation in the occipital regions. These results are compatible with different brain networks subserving the identification of living and non-living entities; in
Burton, John K.; Bruning, Roger H.
Nouns were presented in triads as pictures, printed words, or spoken words and followed by various types of interference. Measures of short- and long-term memory were obtained. In short-term memory, pictorial superiority occurred with acoustic, and visual and acoustic, but not visual interference. Long-term memory showed superior recall for…
Turner-Bowker, Diane M.
Subtle effects of gender stereotyping in children's literature were studied in 30 noted children's books from 1984 through 1994. Results show more males in titles and pictures, with no difference in central roles. Males were described as more active, but adjectives used for females were more positively evaluated. (SLD)
Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.
Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…
Arciszewski, H.F.R.; De Greef, T.E.
The last decade shows significant steps in connecting military command and control systems from different defense forces optimizing joint and combined operations. However, a Common Operational Picture (COP) that provides all actors with sufficient, accurate, and timely information is still an
An increasingly prevalent and accessible form of hybrid nonfiction picture books blends factual information with poetry or poetic devices to create literary nonfiction. This important form of hybrid text has been sparsely examined. This article addresses three questions about poetic nonfiction picture books: first, how might we categorize picture…
A discussion of how pictures made specifically for the gallery viewer in the 17th century produce certain kinds of presence in order to catch attention......A discussion of how pictures made specifically for the gallery viewer in the 17th century produce certain kinds of presence in order to catch attention...
Bessette-Symons, Brandy A
Emotional material is commonly reported to be more accurately recognised; however, there is substantial evidence of increased false alarm rates (FAR) for emotional material and several reports of stronger influences on response bias than accuracy. This pattern is more frequently reported for words than pictures. Research on the mechanisms underlying bias differences has mostly focused on word lists under short retention intervals. This article presents four series of experiments examining recognition memory for emotional pictures while varying arousal and the control over the content of the pictures at two retention intervals, and one study measuring the relatedness of the series picture sets. Under the shorter retention interval, emotion increased false alarms and reduced accuracy. Under the longer retention interval emotion increased hit rates and FAR, resulting in reduced accuracy and/or bias. At both retention intervals, the pattern of valence effects differed based on the arousal associated with the picture sets. Emotional pictures were found to be more related than neutral pictures in each set; however, the influence of relatedness alone does not provide an adequate explanation for all emotional differences. The results demonstrate substantial emotional differences in picture recognition that vary based on valence, arousal and retention interval.
Winograd, Eugene; And Others
Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)
Weiss, Renee; Adelson-Goldstein, Jayme; Shapiro, Norma
This teacher resource book offers over 100 reproducible communicative practice activities and 768 picture cards based on the vocabulary of the Oxford Picture Dictionary. Teacher's notes and instructions, including adaptations for multilevel classes, are provided. The activities book has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700 words. The…
Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi
Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…
Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip
Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…
Gao, Yang; Bintz, William P.
Picture books, when used thoughtfully and artfully, can teach theories to graduate students in literacy and foreign language education. In this article, the authors described how a pair of picture books is used to teach Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development" and Krashen's "Input Hypothesis" in the fields of literacy…
Survey on factors influencing X-ray picture quality: 1) identification of patient and imaged body part. 2) Object properties - thickness, density, built; spatial expansion and arrangement of anatomical parts; object parts in a homogenic and an inhomogenic environment; object movements. 3) Examination technique - matching to medical issue; positioning and adjustment; projection; picture format in keeping with the medical issue; object-related fade-in; distance ratios; contrast medium distribution or deposition; compression. 4) Technical factors of picture production - radiation quality tube voltage; reproducible mAs and mR/mAs; automatic exposure equipment; focal spot size; scattered radiation grid; image intensifier and indirect radiography system; exposure time, dose-to-exposure-time ratio; film-screen combination; cassette with uniform pressure contact; film processing system; radiation safety and light safety. 5) Physical imaging parameters - mean optical density; resolution capacity; contrast reproduction; noise; modulation transmission function. 6) Perceptible picture properties - luminance density; picture contrast; recognizability of details; impression of grain structure; blurred picture structure; visually conspicuous elements. 7) Requirements on picture viewing - viewing device with high luminance density and equalized illumination; possible modification of brilliance; possible fade-in operations and prevention of ambient glare; spot light with iris diaphragm; possible viewing by magnifying lens; selection of correct viewing distances; repeated picture viewing or evaluation by two or more viewers. (orig./HP) [de
Tepper, Clary A.; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright
Examined gender differences in emotional language in children's picture books, using 178 books read to or by preschool children. Males had higher representations on titles, pictures, and central roles, but males and females were associated with equal amounts of emotional language and similar types of emotional words. (SLD)
Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok
When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case...
Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok
When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case study of multilingual children's encounter with a…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892... communications system. (a) Identification. A picture archiving and communications system is a device that... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications...
Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.
Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with
Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula
Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture…
Boerma, Inouk E; Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in
DeFauw, Danielle L.; Saad, Klodia
This article presents an authentic writing opportunity to help ninth-grade students use the writing process in a science classroom to write and illustrate picture books for fourth-grade students to demonstrate and share their understanding of a biology unit on cells. By creating a picture book, students experience the writing process, understand…
Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)
The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)
In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.
The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.
Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.
A central problem in diagnostic radiology is to compare a new X-ray picture with a previous picture and from this comparison be able to decide if anatomical changes have occurred in the patient or not. It is of primary interest that these pictures are identical in projection. If not it is difficult to decide with confidence if differences between the pictures are due to anatomical changes or differences in their projection geometry. In this thesis we present a non invasive method that makes it possible to find the relative changes in the projection geometry between the exposure of a previous picture and a new picture. The method presented is based on the projection slice theorem (central section theorem). Instead of an elaborate search for a single new picture a pre-planned set of pictures are exposed from a circular orbit above the patient. By using 3D Fourier transform techniques we are able to synthesize a new X-ray picture from this set of pictures that is identical in projection to the previous one. The method has certain limits. Those are as follows: *The X-ray focus position must always be at a fixed distance from the image plane. *The object may only be translated parallel to the image plane and rotated around axes perpendicular to this plane. Under those restrictions, we may treat divergent projection pictures as if they are generated by a parallel projection of a scaled object. The unknown rotation and translation of the object in the previous case are both retrieved in two different procedures and compensated for. Experiments on synthetic data has proved that the method is working even in the presence of severe noise
The author introduces a multiprocessor system which has been specially developed to enable mechanical devices to interpret pictures presented in real time. The separate processors within this system operate simultaneously and independently. By means of freely moveable windows the processors can concentrate on those parts of the picture that are relevant to the control problem. If a machine is to make a correct response to its observation of a picture of moving objects, it must be able to follow the picture sequence, step by step, in real time. As the usual serially operating processors are too slow for such a task, the author describes three models of a special picture processing computer which it has been necessary to develop. 3 references.
Sand, Anders; Wiens, Stefan
As researchers debate whether emotional pictures can be processed irrespective of spatial attention and perceptual load, negative and neutral pictures of simple figure-ground composition were shown at fixation and were surrounded by one, two, or three letters. When participants performed a picture discrimination task, there was evidence for motivated attention; that is, an early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) to negative versus neutral pictures. When participants performed a letter discrimination task, the EPN was unaffected whereas the LPP was reduced. Although performance decreased substantially with the number of letters (one to three), the LPP did not decrease further. Therefore, attention to simple, negative pictures at fixation seems to resist manipulations of perceptual load.
Winograd, E; Smith, A D; Simon, E W
One recurrent theme in the literature on aging and memory is that the decline of memory for nonverbal information is steeper than for verbal information. This research compares verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect, the finding that pictures are remembered better than words. In the first experiment, an interaction was found between age and type of material; younger subjects recalled more pictures than words while older subjects did not. However, the overall effect was small and two further experiments were conducted. In both of these experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. In addition, performing a semantic orienting task had no effect on recall. The finding of a picture superiority effect in older subjects indicates that nonverbal codes can be effectively used by subjects in all age groups to facilitate memory performance.
Simakov, M. B.
At the beginning of 2004 the total number of discovered planets near other stars was 119 All of them are massive giants and met practically in all orbits In a habitable zone from 0 8 up to 1 1 AU at less 11 planets has been found starting with HD 134987 and up to HD 4203 It would be naive to suppose existence of life in unique known to us amino-nucleic acid form on the gas-liquid giant planets Nevertheless conditions for onset and evolutions of life can be realized on hypothetical satellites extrasolar planets All giant planets of the Solar system have a big number of satellites 61 of Jupiter 52 of Saturn known in 2003 A small part of them consist very large bodies quite comparable to planets of terrestrial type but including very significant share of water ice Some from them have an atmosphere E g the mass of a column of the Titan s atmosphere exceeds 15 times the mass of the Earth atmosphere column Formation or capture of satellites is a natural phenomenon and satellite systems definitely should exist at extrasolar planets A hypothetical satellite of the planet HD 28185 with a dense enough atmosphere and hydrosphere could have biosphere of terrestrial type within the limits of our notion about an origin of terrestrial biosphere As an example we can see on Titan the largest satellite of Saturn which has a dense nitrogen atmosphere and a large quantity of liquid water under ice cover and so has a great exobiological significance The most recent models of the Titan s interior lead to the conclusion that a substantial liquid layer
This thesis deals with the characterisation and prediction of GNSS-satellite-clocks. A prerequisite to develop powerful algorithms for the prediction of clock-corrections is the thorough study of the behaviour of the different clock-types of the satellites. In this context the predicted part of the IGU-clock-corrections provided by the Analysis Centers (ACs) of the IGS was compared to the IGS-Rapid-clock solutions to determine reasonable estimates of the quality of already existing well performing predictions. For the shortest investigated interval (three hours) all ACs obtain almost the same accuracy of 0,1 to 0,4 ns. For longer intervals the individual predictions results start to diverge. Thus, for a 12-hours- interval the differences range from nearly 10 ns (GFZ, CODE) until up to some 'tens of ns'. Based on the estimated clock corrections provided via the IGS Rapid products a simple quadratic polynomial turns out to be sufficient to describe the time series of Rubidium-clocks. On the other hand Cesium-clocks show a periodical behaviour (revolution period) with an amplitude of up to 6 ns. A clear correlation between these amplitudes and the Sun elevation angle above the orbital planes can be demonstrated. The variability of the amplitudes is supposed to be caused by temperature-variations affecting the oscillator. To account for this periodical behaviour a quadratic polynomial with an additional sinus-term was finally chosen as prediction model both for the Cesium as well as for the Rubidium clocks. The three polynomial-parameters as well as amplitude and phase shift of the periodic term are estimated within a least-square-adjustment by means of program GNSS-VC/static. Input-data are time series of the observed part of the IGU clock corrections. With the estimated parameters clock-corrections are predicted for various durations. The mean error of the prediction of Rubidium-clock-corrections for an interval of six hours reaches up to 1,5 ns. For the 12-hours
Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry
THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut
Antje B M Gerdes
Full Text Available In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence, and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP, independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception.
Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita
This study presents the results of the adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese (EP). Following the original procedure of Lang et al., 2000 native speakers of EP rated the 1,182 pictures of the last version of the IAPS set on the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Results showed that the normative values of the IAPS for EP are properly distributed in the affective space of valence and arousal, showing the typical boomerang-shaped distribution observed in previous studies. Results also point to important differences in the way Portuguese females and males react to affective pictures that should be taken into consideration when planning and conducting research with Portuguese samples. Furthermore, the results from the cross-cultural comparisons between the EP ratings and the ratings from the American, Spanish, Brazilian, Belgian, Chilean, Indian, and Bosnian-Herzegovinian standardizations, showed that in spite of the fact that IAPS stimuli elicited affective responses that are similar across countries and cultures (at least in Western cultures), there are differences in the way Portuguese individuals react to IAPS pictures that strongly recommend the use of the normative values presented in this work. They can be downloaded as a supplemental archive at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental or at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases.
Barbarotto, Riccardo; Laiacona, Marcella; Macchi, Valeria; Capitani, Erminio
We present a new corpus of 80 pictures of unreal objects, useful for a controlled assessment of object reality decision. The new pictures were assembled from parts of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart [J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Learning Memory 6; 1980: 174] set and were devised for the purpose of contrasting natural categories (animals, fruits and vegetables), artefacts (tools, vehicles and furniture), body parts and musical instruments. We examined 140 normal subjects in a free-choice and a multiple-choice object decision task, assembled with 80 pictures of real objects and above 80 new pictures of unreal objects in order to obtain a difficulty index for each picture. We found that the tasks were more difficult with pictures representing natural entities than with pictures of artefacts. We found a gender by category interaction, with a female superiority with some natural categories (fruits and vegetables, but not animals), and a male advantage with artefacts. On this basis, the difficulty index we calculated for each picture is separately reported for males and females. We discuss the possible origin of the gender effect, which has been found with the same categories in other tasks and has a counterpart in the different familiarity of the stimuli for males and females. In particular, we contrast explanations based on socially determined gender differences with accounts based on evolutionary pressures. We further comment on the relationship between data from normal subjects and the domain-specific account of semantic category dissociations observed in brain-damaged patients.
Senokossoff, Gwyn W.
This article discusses the benefits of using picture books with adolescent readers, describes strategies that can be taught with picture books, and provides examples of books the author has used. Some of the topics discussed include: reading comprehension, visual literacy, interactive read-aloud with facilitative talk, literary elements, and…
Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.
(SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one
The American Satellite Company (ASC) communications satellite is deployed from the payload bay of the Shuttle Discovery. A portion of the cloudy surface of the earth can be seen to the left of the frame.
Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.
In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.
programmed for eventual integration with the Iridium Network , which is then tested. C. THESIS ORGANIZATION The thesis addresses these questions...NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS by Faisal S. Alshaya September 2017 Co-Advisors: Steven J. Iatrou...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LEVERAGING THE NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 5
Full Text Available Studies of patients with aphasia have found dissociations in their ability to read words and name pictures (Hillis & Caramazza, 1995; Hillis & Caramazza, 1991. Persian orthography is characterised by nearly regular orthography-phonology (OP mappings however, the omission of some vowels in the script makes the OP mapping of many words less predictable. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive lexico-semantic variables across reading and picture naming tasks in Persian aphasia while considering the variability across participants and items using mixed modeling. Methods and Results A total of 21 brain-injured Persian-speaking patients suffering from aphasia were asked to name 200 normalized Snodgrass object pictures and words taken from Bakhtiar, Nilipour and Weekes (2013 in different sessions. The results showed that word naming performance was significantly better than object naming in Persian speakers with aphasia (p<0.0001. Applying McNemar’s test to examine individual differences found that 18 patients showed significantly better performance in word reading compared to picture naming, 2 patients showed no difference between naming and reading (i.e. case 1 and 10, and one patient (i.e. case 5 showed significantly better naming compared to reading χ (1=10.23, p< 0.01 (see also Figure 1. A mixed-effect logistic regression analysis revealed that the degree of spelling transparency (i.e. the number of letters in a word divided by the number of its phonemes had an effect on word naming (along with frequency, age of acquisition (AoA, and imageability and picture naming (along with image agreement, AoA, word length, frequency and name agreement with a much stronger effect on the word naming task (b= 1.67, SE= 0.41, z= 4.05, p< 0.0001 compared to the picture naming task (b= -0.64, SE= 0.32, z= 2, p< 0.05. Conclusion The dissociation between word naming and picture naming shown by many patients suggests at least two routes are available
Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.
A growing number of sources of radioactivity from human activities are found in the marine environment. They are known to include global nuclear fallout following atmospheric weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations, past dumping of radioactive wastes, nuclear submarine accidents, contributions from nuclear testing sites, loss of radioactive sources, and the burn-up of satellites using radioisotopes as power sources. Overall, the world's marine environment contains radionuclides that differ from one region to another. Differences are due to dynamic marine environmental processes and the particular source of radionuclides in a region. Scientific assessments of marine radioactivity, therefore, require knowledge of both the source terms and oceanic processes. Radioactivity now is deposited unevenly over the world's oceans. Global fallout is known to be mainly due to nuclear weapon tests carried out in the 1960s. On the other hand, discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or past dumping of liquid and solid radioactive wastes generally are confined to more localized areas. Even so, soluble radionuclides have been transported over long distances by prevailing ocean currents. To estimate radionuclide inputs from local sources, scientists need to better understand the distribution of radionuclides throughout the world's oceans and seas. The understanding is important for analysing the results from scientific investigations of localized areas, such as part dumping sites, which then can be reviewed more thoroughly. As a contribution to fuller understanding of the marine environment, the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) started a five-year project in 1996 entitled ''Research on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity (MARS)''. The work is supported by Japan's Science and Technology Agency (STA). This article briefly review this project, and describes related research activities and scientific investigations of MEL
Concha Casajús Quirós
Full Text Available Throughout the past decades and especially since digitization, the Diaporama (slide show has multiplied its presence. It appears in television news programmes, in documentaries, in cinema itself, in exhibition halls and museums, in video-art contests, in instalations, and in theatrical and musical shows. For the “civilization of entertainment” it has become a useful and indispensable tool at the service of information, communication, science and technology, and expansion of culture and art. Multimedia programmes have opened the possibility for ‘anyone who can use a computer’ to become a producer of diaporamas (slide shows. Diaporamas can be very simple or very complex and of variable quality. Quantity can exclude creativity whilst stimulating the diaporama’s evolution and development. It is important to consider the traits that make up the diaporama’s identity, how these differ from the kinetic picture, in which ways they contribute to the static image and the world of art. It is also worthwhile finding out their meaning, validity, why they are so powerful and their relation to the world of creation.
Schott, G D
Pictures created spontaneously by patients with brain disease often display impaired or diminished artistry, reflecting the patient's cerebral damage. This article explores the opposite: those pictures created in the face of brain disease that show enhanced or enduring artistry, and those that emerge for the first time in artistically naïve patients. After comments on background issues relating to the patient and the viewer, the paintings and drawings are considered in relation to the heterogeneous conditions in which this artistic creativity is seen. These conditions include various dementias-most notably frontotemporal lobar dementia, stroke, Parkinson's disease, autism and related disorders and psychiatric disease, epilepsy, migraine and trauma. In the discussion, it is argued that evidence of underlying brain dysfunction revealed by these pictures often rests on the abnormal context in which the pictures are created, or on changes in artistry demonstrated by a sequence of pictures. In the former, the compulsive element and sensory and emotional accompaniments are often important features; in the latter, evolving changes are evident, and have included depiction of increasing menace in portrayal of faces. The occurrence of synaesthesia, and its relation to creativity, are briefly discussed in respect of two unusual patients, followed by considering the role of the anterior and frontal lobes, mesolimbic connections and the right hemisphere. In at least some patients, impaired inhibition leading to paradoxical functional facilitation, with compensatory changes particularly in the right posterior hemisphere, is likely to be pivotal in enabling unusual artistry to emerge; preservation of language, however, is not a prerequisite. Many patients studied have been artists, and it appears possible that some of those with an artistic predisposition may be more likely to experience pathologically obsessive creativity. The discussion concludes that occasionally pictures
Best, Jr., Richard A; Elsea, Jennifer K
... and law enforcement purposes, in addition to the civil applications that have been supported for years. In 2007, it moved to transfer responsibility for coordinating civilian use of satellites to the Department of Homeland Security. The transfer occurred, however, apparently without notification of key congressional oversight committees.
Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart
In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload
Weldon, M S; Roediger, H L; Challis, B H
In three experiments, we examined why pictures are remembered better than words on explicit memory tests like recall and recognition, whereas words produce more priming than pictures on some implicit tests, such as word-fragment and word-stem completion (e.g., completing -l-ph-nt or ele----- as elephant). One possibility is that pictures are always more accessible than words if subjects are given explicit retrieval instructions. An alternative possibility is that the properties of the retrieval cues themselves constrain the retrieval processes engaged; word fragments might induce data-driven (perceptually based) retrieval, which favors words regardless of the retrieval instructions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that words were remembered better than pictures on both the word-fragment and word-stem completion tasks under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions. In Experiment 2, pictures were recalled better than words with semantically related extralist cues. In Experiment 3, when semantic cues were combined with word fragments, pictures and words were recalled equally well under explicit retrieval conditions, but words were superior to pictures under implicit instructions. Thus, the inherently data-limited properties of fragmented words limit their use in accessing conceptual codes. Overall, the results indicate that retrieval operations are largely determined by properties of the retrieval cues under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions.
Meike Katrin Uhrig
Full Text Available AbstractPictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a single pictures presented for 6 s, (b a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation towards positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < .001 and were less arousing (all p ≤ .02. Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.
Uhrig, Meike K; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne
Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.
Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias
Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use.
Laier, Christian; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias
Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. In this study, 28 healthy individuals performed 4 experimental manipulations of a pictorial 4-back WM task with neutral, negative, positive, or pornographic stimuli. Participants also rated 100 pornographic pictures with respect to sexual arousal and indicated masturbation urges previous to and following pornographic picture presentation. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis indicated an explanation of variance of the sensitivity in the pornographic picture condition by the subjective rating of the pornographic pictures as well as by a moderation effect of masturbation urges. Results contribute to the view that indicators of sexual arousal due to pornographic picture processing interfere with WM performance. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet sex addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies.
Su, W G; Su, F Z; Zhou, C H
Nowadays, most remote sensing image classification uses single satellite remote sensing data, so the number of bands and band spectral width is consistent. In addition, observed phenomenon such as land cover have the same spectral signature, which causes the classification accuracy to decrease as different data have unique characteristic. Therefore, this paper analyzes different optical remote sensing satellites, comparing the spectral differences and proposes the ideas and methods to build a virtual satellite. This article illustrates the research on the TM, HJ-1 and MODIS data. We obtained the virtual band X 0 through these satellites' bands combined it with the 4 bands of a TM image to build a virtual satellite with five bands. Based on this, we used these data for image classification. The experimental results showed that the virtual satellite classification results of building land and water information were superior to the HJ-1 and TM data respectively
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...
Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; DeSa, E.J.
Oceanographic data collected on a research vessel has been transmitted to a shore laboratory using the INMARSAT maritime satellite The system configuration used, consisted of Satellite Communication Terminals interfaced to desk top computers...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...
real-world satellite applications can quantify cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms and related water quality parameters. Provisional satellite derived cyanobacteria data and different software tools are available to state environmental and health agencies.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...
Toglia, M P; Hinman, P J; Dayton, B S; Catalano, J F
Picture and word recall was examined in conjunction with list organization. 60 subjects studied a list of 30 items, either words or their pictorial equivalents. The 30 words/pictures, members of five conceptual categories, each represented by six exemplars, were presented either blocked by category or in a random order. While pictures were recalled better than words and a standard blocked-random effect was observed, the interaction indicated that the recall advantage of a blocked presentation was restricted to the word lists. A similar pattern emerged for clustering. These findings are discussed in terms of limitations upon the pictorial superiority effect.
Ionescu, M D
Memory performance estimates of men and women before and after a recall test were investigated. College students (17 men and 20 women), all juniors, participated in a memory task involving the recall of 80 stimuli (40 pictures and 40 words). Before and after the task they were asked to provide estimates of their pre- and postrecall performance. Although no sex differences were found for total correct recall, recall for pictures, and recall for words, or in the estimates of memory performance before the recall task, there were significant differences after the test: women underestimated their performance on the words and men underestimated their performance on the picture items.
Heinrich, W.; Trakowski, W.; Beer, J.; Schucht, R.
In the last few years picture analysis became a powerful technique for measurements of nuclear tracks in plastic detectors. For this purpose rather expensive commercial systems are available. Two inexpensive microprocessor based systems with different resolution were developed. The video pictures of particles seen through a microscope are digitized in real time and the picture analysis is done by software. The microscopes are equipped with stages driven by stepping motors, which are controlled by separate microprocessors. A PDP 11/03 supervises the operation of all microprocessors and stores the measured data on its mass storage devices. (author)
Full Text Available High-quality picture books that merge text and illustration together in order to tell a story are eminent for healthy mental and social growth of children. This paper is to outline the benefits picture books bring to children between the ages three to eight, determine functions of its illustrative language, examine the process of its production, and point out a set of elements that, according to number of professional children's book illustrators, significantly contribute to the success of a picture book
Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel
The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children’s receptive language abilities were, the less time it took them to view the pictures. All participants spent the same amount of time looking at the pictures whether Chinese words were present or absent.
Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…
Hanley, G. M.
Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.
Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.
The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.
Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu
How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals' attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals' attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource.
Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ilardi, Stephen S; Young, Keith M; Stroupe, Natalie N; O'Hare, Aminda J; Bistricky, Steven L; Collison, Elizabeth; Gibson, Linzi; Schuster, Jonathan; Lepping, Rebecca J
There is evidence of maladaptive attentional biases for lexical information (e.g., Atchley, Ilardi, & Enloe, 2003; Atchley, Stringer, Mathias, Ilardi, & Minatrea, 2007) and for pictographic stimuli (e.g., Gotlib, Krasnoperova, Yue, & Joormann, 2004) among patients with depression. The current research looks for depressotypic processing biases among depressed out-patients and non-clinical controls, using both verbal and pictorial stimuli. A d' measure (sensitivity index) was used to examine each participant's perceptual sensitivity threshold. Never-depressed controls evidenced a detection bias for positive picture stimuli, while depressed participants had no such bias. With verbal stimuli, depressed individuals showed specific decrements in the detection of positive person-referent words (WINNER), but not with positive non-person-referent words (SUNSHINE) or with negative words. Never-depressed participants showed no such differences across word types. In the current study, depression is characterised both by an absence of the normal positivistic biases seen in individuals without mood disorders (consistent with McCabe & Gotlib, 1995), and by a specific reduction in sensitivity for person-referent positive information that might be inconsistent with depressotypic self-schemas.
Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Corbin-Newsome, Jawanda
By definition children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulty understanding and using language. Accordingly, visual and picture-based strategies such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) show promise in ameliorating speech and language deficits. This study reports the results of a multiple baseline across…
Marcy K. Franks
Full Text Available A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned, Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs.
Iseki, Tadahiro; Okano, Tamotsu; Kanou, Norio; Tanaka, Kazuharu; Kawasaki, Kouichi; Kawachi, Toshiaki
In our first report, we compared influence on cervical MR image (C-MRI) by fear and anxiety on between the first time and experienced patients, in which the significant difference was not seen between those patients. Then, the present study, we made a comparison of the picture sharpness of C-MRI on between patients who were in states of tension and not, and on among tense patients by several causes. Our study showed the tendency which the good quality pictures were easy to be obtained in the experienced patients who were tensely and the poor quality pictures were in the patients who were not, which could not demonstrated the statistical significant difference. However, as compared the respective cause which induces tension with the picture sharpness, the patients with tenses caused by MR device showed to be difficult to be obtained the good quality pictures. The present study suggested that ''unsuitable tension'', which was overstrung due to fear and anxiety from MR device, was difficult to obtain good quality picture of C-MRI, and that ''suitable tension'', with which could be kept still during the examination, was easy to do it. (author)
Fiedler, Klaus; Schenck, Wolfram; Watling, Marlin; Menges, Jochen I
A newly developed paradigm for studying spontaneous trait inferences (STI) was applied in 3 experiments. The authors primed dyadic stimulus behaviors involving a subject (S) and an object (O) person through degraded pictures or movies. An encoding task called for the verification of either a graphical feature or a semantic interpretation, which either fit or did not fit the primed behavior. Next, participants had to identify a trait word that appeared gradually behind a mask and that either matched or did not match the primed behavior. STI effects, defined as shorter identification latencies for matching than nonmatching traits, were stronger for S than for O traits, after graphical rather than semantic encoding decisions and after encoding failures. These findings can be explained by assuming that trait inferences are facilitated by open versus closed mindsets supposed to result from distracting (graphical) encoding tasks or encoding failures (involving nonfitting interpretations).
MacNamara, Annmarie; Jackson, T Bryan; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan
Internalizing disorders such as anxiety may be characterized by an imbalance between bottom-up (stimulus-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) attention. The late positive potential (LPP) can be used to assess these processes when task-irrelevant negative and neutral pictures are presented within a working memory paradigm. Prior work using this paradigm has found that working memory load reduces the picture-elicited LPP across participants; however, anxious individuals showed a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP, suggesting increased distractibility. The current study assessed transdiagnostic associations between specific symptom dimensions of anxiety, the LPP, and behavior in a clinically representative, heterogeneous group of 76 treatment-seeking patients with internalizing disorders, who performed a working memory task interspersed with negative and neutral pictures. As expected, negative pictures enhanced the LPP, and working memory load reduced the LPP. Participants with higher social anxiety showed increased LPPs to negative stimuli during early and late portions of picture presentation. Panic symptoms were associated with reduced LPPs to negative pictures compared with neutral pictures as well as a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP during the late time window. Reduced positive affect was associated with greater behavioral interference from negative pictures. Hypervigilance for negative stimuli was uniquely explained by social anxiety symptoms, whereas panic symptoms were associated with the opposing effect-blunted processing/avoidance of these stimuli. Panic symptoms were uniquely associated with reduced top-down control. Results reveal distinct associations between neural reactivity and anxiety symptom dimensions that transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J
We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in > or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at this low statistical threshold false positives need to be excluded. The semantic decision paradigm was therefore repeated, within subject, in two different scanners (1.5 and 3 T). Both scanners consistently localised left OT activation for words relative to fixation and pictures relative to words, but there were no consistent effects for words relative to pictures. Finally, in a third experiment, we minimised the voxel size (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 mm(3)) and demonstrated a striking concordance between the voxels activated for words and pictures, irrespective of task (naming vs. one-back) or script (English vs. Hebrew). In summary, although we detected differential activation for words relative to pictures, these effects: (i) do not withstand statistical rigour; (ii) do not replicate within or between subjects; and (iii) are observed in voxels that also respond to pictures of objects. Our findings have implications for the role of left OT activation during reading. More generally, they show that studies using low statistical thresholds in single subject analyses should correct the statistical threshold for the number of comparisons made or replicate effects within subject. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Results of the analysis of skull roentgenological pictures of 61 patients wih primary hyperparathyroidism are presented. All the patients were operated. Diagnosis is confirmed during the operation and histological examination. Alterations of skull are disclosed in 90% of patients
Culbertson, Hugh M.
Results of two studies indicate that word messages carry more impact than pictures and an analysis of variance reveals that iconicity and sensationalism each related positively to both evaluative-ethical and interest-vitality ratings. (RB)
Vance, H. Robert; Stone, J. E.
The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised assesses standard American English receptive vocabulary in individuals, both handicapped and nonhandicapped, ages 2 to 40. This paper describes the test's administration, summation of data, standardization, reliability, and validity. (JDD)
Full Text Available The lack of qualification of a common operating picture (COP) directly impacts the situational awareness of military Command and Control (C2). Since a commander is reliant on situational awareness information in order to make decisions regarding...
Tintswalo Brenda Mahlaola
Background: The Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has led to an in- ... incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media. .... confidentiality of electronic data in terms of medical ethics,.
Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna
An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect--that is, better recognition of "to-be-remembered" than of "to-be-forgotten" pictures--was observed, although its size was smaller than previously reported for words or line drawings. The magnitude of the directed forgetting effect correlated negatively with participants' depression and dissociation scores. The results indicate that, at least in an item method, directed forgetting occurs for complex pictures as well as words and simple line drawings. Furthermore, people with higher levels of dissociative or depressive symptoms exhibit altered memory encoding patterns.
Van Damme, Stefaan; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Moseley, G Lorimer
Threatening stimuli are thought to bias spatial attention toward the location from which the threat is presented. Although this effect is well-established in the visual domain, little is known regarding whether tactile attention is similarly affected by threatening pictures. We hypothesised that tactile attention might be more affected by cues implying physical threat to a person's bodily tissues than by cues implying general threat. In the present study, participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) concerning which of a pair of tactile (or auditory) stimuli, one presented to either hand, at a range of inter-stimulus intervals, had been presented first. A picture (showing physical threat, general threat, or no threat) was presented in front of one or the other hand shortly before the tactile stimuli. The results revealed that tactile attention was biased toward the side on which the picture was presented, and that this effect was significantly larger for physical threat pictures than for general threat or neutral pictures. By contrast, the bias in auditory attention toward the side of the picture was significantly larger for general threat pictures than for physical threat pictures or neutral pictures. These findings therefore demonstrate a modality-specific effect of physically threatening cues on the processing of tactile stimuli, and of generally threatening cues on auditory information processing. These results demonstrate that the processing of tactile information from the body part closest to the threatening stimulus is prioritized over tactile information from elsewhere on the body.
Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai
Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.
Ferrera, G. A.
In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.
Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas
The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements....
Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre
Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo
Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems
Lerner, C; Ross, G
A system for objectively scoring the magazine picture collage was developed and applied to the collages of 12 psychiatric inpatients and 12 paired controls. As a group, the patient collages had fewer cuttings, tended to lack an overall balance and central theme, and contained fewer pictures of people and more of animals. The results are consistent with those reported by other researchers as well as with general clinical experience, and as such, lend support to the construct validity of the scoring system.
Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.; Wallon, S.; Royon, Ch.
The proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, deep-inelastic proton scattering is related to deep-inelastic onium scattering. A three parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range has been obtained. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. (author)
Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.
Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the pic...
Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna
An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect that is, better recogni...
Full Text Available We are living in a world surrounded by images; everywhere we go we are overwhelmed by commercials, plasma screens, posters etc. We get lost in these “perfect” pictures, we dream about that perfect body, that perfect sunny holiday and that perfectly happy family. We spend time consuming those pictures, but we don’t spend time to see ourselves as we are, to discover our inner self. But, can we discover ourselves in pictures? I believe so, but only when the pictures are created and not consumed. When pictures are created, creation becomes therapy and the result of the work becomes a means of self discovery and exploration. There are many examples of artists using different media like: sculpture, painting, installation, video that create pictures making use of their own body/face, of their own lives, of their own dreams, hallucinations or obsessions. This is a good way to bring their problems out of the subconscious, to use them in a creative and playful way, to visualize them and to share them with the world. The paper intends to explore the possibilities of self discovery through creating pictures, and in what proportion this activity can become therapy, art or both. The analysis will focus on the possibilities of accepting and comprehending oneself by taking pictures of oneself; on how genuine self-portraits can overcome the individual conflict between who one actually is, what one believes people’s perceptions of oneself are and who one thinks people want one to be in order to be accepted or even successful.
Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.
satellites. The method is simple enough to be implemented for real-time monitoring, especially since it does not require the full vector field measurement. We demonstrate the method on 5 years of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) data and show how the monitoring depends on the local time...
Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.
We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....
Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...
Satellite Photometric Error Determination Tamara E. Payne, Philip J. Castro, Stephen A. Gregory Applied Optimization 714 East Monument Ave, Suite...advocate the adoption of new techniques based on in-frame photometric calibrations enabled by newly available all-sky star catalogs that contain highly...filter systems will likely be supplanted by the Sloan based filter systems. The Johnson photometric system is a set of filters in the optical
"This is not your father's low-light sensor," Steve Miller, senior research scientist and deputy director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, said at a 5 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting. He and others at the briefing were showing off the nighttime sensing capability of the day/night band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Earth-observing research satellite, a joint NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite that was launched on 28 October 2011. Noting that low-light satellite technology has been available for about 40 years, Miller said that the VIIRS day/night band "is truly a paradigm shift in the technology and capability."
In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.
Oddo-Sommerfeld, Silvia; Hänggi, Jürgen; Coletta, Ludovico; Skoruppa, Silke; Thiel, Aylin; Stirn, Aglaja V
Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent desire for the amputation of physically healthy limbs. Prior studies highlighted the importance of superior and inferior parietal lobuli (SPL/IPL) and other sensorimotor regions as key brain structures associated with xenomelia. We expected activity differences in these areas in response to pictures showing the desired body state, i.e. that of an amputee in xenomelia. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 12 xenomelia individuals and 11 controls while they viewed pictures of their own real and virtually amputated body. Pictures were rated on several dimensions. Multivariate statistics using machine learning was performed on imaging data. Brain activity when viewing pictures of one's own virtually amputated body predicted group membership accurately with a balanced accuracy of 82.58% (p = 0.002), sensitivity of 83.33% (p = 0.018), specificity of 81.82% (p = 0.015) and an area under the ROC curve of 0.77. Among the highest predictive brain regions were bilateral SPL, IPL, and caudate nucleus, other limb representing areas, but also occipital regions. Pleasantness and attractiveness ratings were higher for amputated bodies in xenomelia. Findings show that neuronal processing in response to pictures of one's own desired body state is different in xenomelia compared with controls and might represent a neuronal substrate of the xenomelia complaints that become behaviourally relevant, at least when rating the pleasantness and attractiveness of one's own body. Our findings converge with structural peculiarities reported in xenomelia and partially overlap in task and results with that of anorexia and transgender research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qian, K X; Feng, Z G; Ru, W M; Zeng, P; Yuan, H Y
Previously it has been found by pump haemolysis testing that the flow rate has a remarkable effect on index of haemolysis (IH), while pressure head does not affect IH. Recent investigation with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technology has demonstrated that IH is directly related to the flow pattern of stream field in impeller vane channels. PIV is a visible approach showing the real flow status in the pump. The different positions of a tracer particle in two PIV pictures taken at 20 micros intervals decide the velocity value and direction. The velocity vectors of many particles draw the flow pattern of the stream field. The same pictures are taken at 2, 4 and 6 l min(-1) flow rates while the pressure head is kept unchanged at 100 mmHg; then the pictures are taken at 4 l min(-1) flow with different pressure heads of 80, 100 and 120 mmHg. Results reveal that the flow rate of 4 l min(-1) (IH = 0.030) has the best stream field, and neither turbulence nor separation can be seen. In other flow rates (IH: 0.048 - 0.082), there is obviously second flow. Meanwhile, no significant difference can be seen among the PIV pictures of different pressure heads pumped, which agrees with the results of haemolysis testing showing that pressure has no effect on pump haemolysis. It may be concluded that the haemolysis property of a centrifugal pump can be assessed approximately by PIV pictures, which are much easier to take than haemolysis tests.
Burlacu, M.-M.; Kohlenberg, J.; Prathaban, M.
Interest in small satellites is growing fast world- wide. Businesses, governments, universities and other organizations around the world are starting their own small satellite programs. The surveys conducted by the space agencies and universities shows a promising increase in the use of small satellites for commercial applications. More number of operators offers or plans to offer mobile phone services by satellite. With the help of cost effective small satellite, mobile operators can be able to provide the services cheaper. Hence, it is always interesting to study the effect of low cost small satellite over the mobile market. In this article, we present SmartSim (Small Satellites Mobile Market Simulator) - the new module of Simobiz business simulation game, in which we have implemented two operators, a normal satellite operator and a nanosatellite operator, with specific terminals and services. Our main focus in this work is to understand the future market of small satellite in mobile telecommunication network.
Full Text Available The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants’ transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object’s nonobvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object’s newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-colour exemplar. Infants’ performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to elicit the object’s nonobvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object’s label before learning about the object’s hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds’ performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object’s nonobvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-colour exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ learning and transfer from picture books.
Khu, Melanie; Graham, Susan A.; Ganea, Patricia A.
The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants’ transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object’s non-obvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object’s newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-color exemplar. Infants’ performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to attempt to elicit the object’s non-obvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object’s label before learning about the object’s hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds’ performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object’s non-obvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-color exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ learning and transfer from picture books. PMID:24611058
Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.
Khu, Melanie; Graham, Susan A; Ganea, Patricia A
The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants' transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object's non-obvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object's newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-color exemplar. Infants' performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to attempt to elicit the object's non-obvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object's label before learning about the object's hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds' performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object's non-obvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-color exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants' learning and transfer from picture books.
Sampurno, A. W.; Rahmat, A.; Diana, S.
Diagrams/pictures conventions is one form of visual media that often used to assist students in understanding the biological concepts. The effectiveness of use diagrams/pictures in biology learning at school level has also been mostly reported. This study examines the ability of high school students in reading diagrams/pictures biological convention which is described by Mental Representation based on formation of causal networks. The study involved 30 students 11th grade MIA senior high school Banten Indonesia who are studying the excretory system. MR data obtained by Instrument worksheet, developed based on CNET-protocol, in which there are diagrams/drawings of nephron structure and urinary mechanism. Three patterns formed MR, namely Markov chain, feedback control with a single measurement, and repeated feedback control with multiple measurement. The third pattern is the most dominating pattern, differences in the pattern of MR reveal the difference in how and from which point the students begin to uncover important information contained in the diagram to establish a causal networks. Further analysis shows that a difference in the pattern of MR relate to how complex the students process the information contained in the diagrams/pictures.
Lee, Hachoung; Oh, Songjoo
It has been suggested that reading/writing habits may influence the appreciation of pictures. For example, people who read and write in a rightward direction have an aesthetic preference for pictures that face rightward over pictures that face leftward, and vice versa. However, correlations for this phenomenon have only been found in cross-cultural studies. Will a directional change in reading/writing habits within a culture relate to changes in picture preference? Korea is a good place to research this question because the country underwent gradual changes in reading/writing direction habits, from leftward to rightward, during the 20th century. In this study, we analyzed the direction of drawings and photos published in the two oldest newspapers in Korea from 1920-2013. The results show that the direction of the drawings underwent a clear shift from the left to the right, but the direction of the photos did not change. This finding suggests a close psychological link between the habits of reading/writing and drawing that cannot be accounted for simply by an accidental correspondence across different cultures.
Cox, N. L. J.
The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with
Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.
The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.
Schienle, Anne; Schäfer, Axel; Hermann, Andrea; Walter, Bertram; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter
Findings from several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies implicate the existence of a distinct neural disgust substrate, whereas others support the idea of distributed and integrative brain systems involved in emotional processing. In the present fMRI experiment 12 healthy females viewed pictures from four emotion categories. Two categories were disgust-relevant and depicted contamination or mutilation. The other scenes showed attacks (fear) or were affectively neutral. The two types of disgust elicitors received comparable ratings for disgust, fear and arousal. Both were associated with activation of the occipitotemporal cortex, the amygdala, and the orbitofrontal cortex; insula activity was nonsignificant in the two disgust conditions. Mutilation scenes induced greater inferior parietal activity than contamination scenes, which might mirror their greater capacity to capture attention. Our results are in disagreement with the idea of selective disgust processing at the insula. They point to a network of brain regions involved in the decoding of stimulus salience and the regulation of attention.
Richard G. Innes
Full Text Available A new white paper from Ace Parsi and Linda Darling-Hammond, “Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning,” has a discussion on Page 7 about supposed success of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS used in that state from 1992 to 1998. This discussion paper explains the numerous problems with that description. The Kentucky-related comments in the Parsi/Darling-Hammond paper claim a basis in a technical report titled “Commonwealth Accountability and Testing System: 2007–08 Technical report, Version 1.2” created by Measured Progress in 2009. Unfortunately, the Kentucky Department of Education recently redesigned its web site and this technical report is no longer online. However, if the report actually does show the information attributed to it by Parsi and Darling-Hammond, that information is incorrect. Of course, as a closeout epitaph of yet another failure, Kentucky’s now failed Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, which succeeded the failed KIRIS system, the 2007-08 technical report may not have received an appropriate level of attention to detail. The comments below are referenced to reports issued during or shortly after the events occurred and are known to this long-time Kentucky resident to present an accurate picture.
Rosmej, F. B.
Exotic solid density matter such as heated hollow crystals allow extended material studies while their physical properties and models such as the famous ionization potential depression are presently under renewed controversial discussion. Here we develop an atomic-solid-plasma (ASP) model that permits ionization potential depression studies also for single and multiple core hole states. Numerical calculations show very good agreement with recently available data not only in absolute values but also for Z-scaled properties while currently employed methods fail. For much above solid density compression, the ASP model predicts increased K-edge energies that are related to a Fermi surface rising. This is in good agreement with recent quantum molecular dynamics simulations. For hot dense matter a quantum number dependent optical electron finite temperature ion sphere model is developed that fits well with line shift and line disappearance data from dense laser produced plasma experiments. Finally, the physical transparency of the ASP picture allows a critical discussion of current methods.
Kuroda, Shigehito; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Akira; Moriishi, Takeji; Takada, Keiichi.
CT picture of the shoulder joint was analyzed in 124 shoulders (114 patients). A line perpendicular to a given line between the precornu of acetabular tegmen (A) and the postcornu of acetabular tegmen (B) was drawn and the intersection where the line and the caput humeri meet (C) was obtained. The angle of CAB was defined as the backward angular aperture of the acetabular tegmen. The angular aperture was 26.2 0 +-1.9 in 16 so-called loose shoulders, 17.3 0 +-1.0 in 28 loose shoulders restricted to the inward rotation, and 12.2 0 +-0.4 in 80 normal shoulders, showing a distinct correlation between the angular aperture and the degree of loose shoulder. An increased backward angular aperture of the acetabular tegmen was considered greatly attributable to the forward glenohumeral movement resulting from malformation of the acetabular tegmen and flaccidity of the joint. Glenoid osteotomy was thus performed in 9 patients, 6 of whom underwent CT scanning before and after osteotomy. Coronal and transverse CT images of the shoulder joint disclosed a noticeable improvement of the glenohumeral alignment. The angular aperture shown on CT seems to be of major importance not only in the diagnosis of so-called loose shoulder but also in surgical choice. (Namekawa, K.)
Full Text Available While it is well known that space environment can produce spacecraft anomaly, defining space environment effects for each anomalies is difficult. This is caused by the fact that spacecraft anomaly shows various symptoms and reproducing it is impossible. In this study, we try to find the conditions of when spacecraft failures happen more frequently and give satellite operators useful information. Especially, our study focuses on the geosynchronous satellites which cost is high and required high reliability. We used satellite anomaly data given by Satellite News Digest which is internet newspaper providing space industry news. In our analysis, 88 anomaly cases occurred from 1997 to 2008 shows bad corelation with Kp index. Satellite malfunctions were likely to happen in spring and fall and in local time from midnight to dawn. In addition, we found the probability of anomaly increase when high energy electron flux is high. This is more clearly appeared in solar minimum than maximum period.
Haus, E.; Bambusi, D.
We study the dynamics of an elastic body whose shape and position evolve due to the gravitational forces exerted by a pointlike planet. The main result is that, if all the deformations of the satellite dissipate some energy, then under a suitable nondegeneracy condition there are only three possible outcomes for the dynamics: (i) the orbit of the satellite is unbounded, (ii) the satellite falls on the planet, (iii) the satellite is captured in synchronous resonance i.e. its orbit is asymptotic to a motion in which the barycenter moves on a circular orbit, and the satellite moves rigidly, always showing the same face to the planet. The result is obtained by making use of LaSalle’s invariance principle and by a careful kinematic analysis showing that energy stops dissipating only on synchronous orbits. We also use in quite an extensive way the fact that conservative elastodynamics is a Hamiltonian system invariant under the action of the rotation group
The concept of a "picture superiority effect" is discussed. Examined are a number of perceptual considerations that need to be given to picture construction. Parameters which appear to attract the learner's attention to a picture are considered. (CW)
Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Haitao; Dong, Tao; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Hui; Li, Dequan
In this paper, the cognitive multi-beam satellite system, i.e., two satellite networks coexist through underlay spectrum sharing, is studied, and the power and spectrum allocation method is employed for interference control and throughput maximization. Specifically, the multi-beam satellite with flexible payload reuses the authorized spectrum of the primary satellite, adjusting its transmission band as well as power for each beam to limit its interference on the primary satellite below the prescribed threshold and maximize its own achievable rate. This power and spectrum allocation problem is formulated as a mixed nonconvex programming. For effective solving, we first introduce the concept of signal to leakage plus noise ratio (SLNR) to decouple multiple transmit power variables in the both objective and constraint, and then propose a heuristic algorithm to assign spectrum sub-bands. After that, a stepwise plus slice-wise algorithm is proposed to implement the discrete power allocation. Finally, simulation results show that adopting cognitive technology can improve spectrum efficiency of the satellite communication.