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Sample records for satellite outpatient pharmacies

  1. Implementing an operating room pharmacy satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P J; Maland, L; Bair, J N; McCall, J D; Wong, K C

    1983-07-01

    Implementation of an operating room (OR) pharmacy satellite is described, and its impact on cost-effectiveness and efficiency of drug distribution is analyzed. The OR satellite provided pharmacy coverage for 30-35 patients per day in 10 centralized surgical suites, 2 obstetric suites, and 1 burn-unit suite in a 401-bed teaching hospital. Objectives of the satellite were to consolidate accountability for drug distribution and control, reduce controlled substance loss and waste, reduce inventory costs, and improve recording of patient charges. Stock on the OR supply cart was reduced, controlled substances were dispensed to anesthesiologists from the satellite, and a system of standardized anesthesiology exchange trays was developed. A new billing form served as both the charging document and replacement list. Reduction in the medication cart stock resulted in smaller discrepancies in patient charges. For the five most commonly used controlled substances, accounting discrepancies were reduced. Inventory turnover increased and inventory dollar value and cost per patient were reduced. The percent of nurses who believed that a pharmacist should work in the area increased from 31% before implementation of the satellite to 95% after. The pilot OR pharmacy satellite was a financial success. Efficiency and effectiveness in drug distribution and control were improved, and communication between pharmacists and other medical personnel working in the OR areas was enhanced.

  2. Effective management strategy for establishing an operating room satellite pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J I; Schoeneman, P F; Buchanan, B

    1988-11-01

    The steps involved in justifying and implementing an operating room (OR) pharmacy satellite are described. A hospital administrator's viewpoint on the project is included. Objectives of the satellite were to reduce inventory costs, improve control of distribution, reduce loss of revenue and improve patient charging, improve IV compounding and labeling, and significantly improve narcotic control and accountability. The satellite provides comprehensive services 12 hours a day, five days a week. Effective after-hours procedures have been developed to provide efficient drug distribution when the pharmacy is closed. Achieved benefits of the satellite include decreased drug inventory, improved patient charging, accurate labeling, improved IV compounding, and improved pharmacy/surgery relations. The OR pharmacy satellite is a successful cost-effective operation.

  3. Quality-improvement initiatives focused on enhancing customer service in the outpatient pharmacy.

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    Poulin, Tenley J; Bain, Kevin T; Balderose, Bonnie K

    2015-09-01

    The development and implementation of quality-improvement initiatives to enhance customer service in an outpatient pharmacy of a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center are described. Historically low customer service satisfaction rates with the outpatient pharmacy at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center prompted this quality-improvement project. A three-question survey was designed to be easily and quickly administered to veterans in the outpatient pharmacy waiting area. Using 5-point Likert scale, veterans were asked to rate (1) their overall experience with the outpatient pharmacy service and (2) their satisfaction with the customer service provided by the pharmacy department. They were also asked how they thought the pharmacy department could improve its customer service. After receiving feedback from the survey, several quality-improvement initiatives were developed. The initiatives were categorized as environmental, personnel, communicative, and technological. For each initiative, one or more tasks were developed and the initiatives were subsequently implemented over eight months. After each task was completed, veterans were surveyed to measure the impact of the change. A total of 79 veterans were surveyed before the implementation of the quality-improvement initiatives, and 49% and 68% rated their experience with the outpatient pharmacy and customer service favorably, respectively. Twenty-five veterans were surveyed after the implementation of numerous quality-improvement interventions, with 44% and 72% rating their experience with the outpatient pharmacy and customer service favorably. Customer service satisfaction with an outpatient pharmacy service at a VA medical center was enhanced through the implementation of various quality-improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How to plan workflow changes: a practical quality improvement tool used in an outpatient hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Christine; Chau, Connie; Giridharan, Neha; Huh, Youchin; Cooley, Janet; Warholak, Terri L

    2013-06-01

    A quality improvement tool is provided to improve pharmacy workflow with the goal of minimizing errors caused by workflow issues. This study involved workflow evaluation and reorganization, and staff opinions of these proposed changes. The study pharmacy was an outpatient pharmacy in the Tucson area. However, the quality improvement tool may be applied in all pharmacy settings, including but not limited to community, hospital, and independent pharmacies. This tool can help the user to identify potential workflow problem spots, such as high-traffic areas through the creation of current and proposed workflow diagrams. Creating a visual representation can help the user to identify problem spots and to propose changes to optimize workflow. It may also be helpful to assess employees' opinions of these changes. The workflow improvement tool can be used to assess where improvements are needed in a pharmacy's floor plan and workflow. Suggestions for improvements in the study pharmacy included increasing the number of verification points and decreasing high traffic areas in the workflow. The employees of the study pharmacy felt that the proposed changes displayed greater continuity, sufficiency, accessibility, and space within the pharmacy.

  5. Professional Organizations for Pharmacy Students on Satellite Campuses.

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    Scott, Mollie Ashe; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication.

  6. Delay in the Provision of Medication by a Pharmacy Outside the Respiratory Outpatient Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masataka; Fujita, Sachiko; Kannen, Miwa; Kawase, Kaori; Kaneshiro, Kazumi; Takatsuki, Kiyonobu

    2017-03-01

     Respiratory medicine physicians prescribe many different kinds of medications depending on patient's condition. To examine an outside pharmacy's ability to meet the demand of our respiratory prescription services, we developed a questionnaire for all the patients who came to our outpatient department from November 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016. A total of 298 of 330 patients answered the questionnaire. Overall, 169 patients mainly went to the pharmacy near our hospital, whereas 64 patients mainly went to another pharmacy. Specifically, 23 of 219 patients who answered the question "When you went to the pharmacy with prescription, have you ever been not immediately given medication?", were not immediately given medication by the pharmacy. The results show that the other pharmacy significantly delayed medication compared with the one near our hospital. Interestingly, there were many types of inhaler cases that were out of stock in both pharmacies. Also, we found that 9 of 11 patients who were not provided medication on the spot acquired the medication within 1 or 2 d. Further, 10 of 20 patients who were not provided medication on the spot were only able to obtain the medication once. We did not observe any changes in patients' physical condition due to the delay in medication.

  7. [Working conditions in outpatient clinics adjacent to private pharmacies in Mexico City: perspective of physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Portillo, Sandra P; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Cuadra-Hernández, Silvia Magali; Idrovo, Álvaro J; Nigenda, Gustavo; Dreser, Anahí

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the working conditions of physicians in outpatient clinics adjacent to pharmacies (CAFs) and their organizational elements from their own perspective. We carried out an exploratory qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 CAF physicians in Mexico City. A directed content analysis technique was used based on previously built and emerging codes which were related to the experience of the subjects in their work. Respondents perceive that work in CAFs does not meet professional expectations due to low pay, informality in the recruitment process and the absence of minimum labour guarantees. This prevents them from enjoying the benefits associated with formal employment, and sustains their desire to work in CAF only temporarily. They believe that economic incentives related to number of consultations, procedures and sales attained by the pharmacy allow them to increase their income without influencing their prescriptive behaviour. They express that the monitoring systems and pressure exerted on CAFs seek to affect their autonomy, pushing them to enhance the sales of medicines in the pharmacy. Physicians working in CAFs face a difficult employment situation. The managerial elements used to induce prescription and enhance pharmacy sales create a work environment that generates challenges for regulation and underlines the need to monitor the services provided at these clinics and the possible risk for users. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING WAITING TIME IN OUTPATIENT PHARMACY OF LAGOS UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwe Henry C.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Time, money and expertise are resources that are indispensable to productivity, performance, efficiency, success and growth of any health institution. This research was aimed at identifying and measuring some of the factors influencing patient waiting time in an outpatient pharmacy. The study employed the use of time monitoring card and time study analysis to volunteered participants. A situation analysis conducted revealed an average of 167 minutes of waiting time. The dispensing time averaged 17.65 minutes, and 67.97% of total waiting time by the patient was due to delay components. The major delay components included patient queues for billing of prescription sheets, payment to the cashier and subsequent time wait before drugs are dispensed. The total waiting time for the dispensing process averaged 55.11 minutes. Generally, there were undue delays caused by the dispensing procedure with a 32.03% lag of processing components and operations in the pharmacy. Factors indentified to influence the outpatient waiting time included, queuing and queuing characteristics-type and integrity of queue, adherence to hospital visits and medication for special disease programs, dispensing time, average waiting time (service time plus queuing time, nature of illness or disease presentation, admission status of patient(s, accrued time from other health services provided to the patient prior to services provided by the pharmacist, incentives for providing efficient services, management structures and operational procedures of outpatient hospital pharmacy, implementation of legal rights on waiting time, inadequate treatment or dispensing facilities, technological innovations of automation and computerization , service efficiency and internal operational factors.

  9. Evaluation Management of Drugs and Relations with Quality of Outpatient Pharmacy Services in One of Hospital Pontianak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggy Erwansani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays government policy which embodies the National Social Security System (SJSN where the presence of this system that every Indonesian people entitled to social security to be able to meet the basic needs of living. This study aims to describe the pharmaceutical drug outpatient management Hospital X Pontianak City and analyze the relationship management with the quality of pharmaceutical care medicine outpatient Hospital X Pontianak. This medication management including planning, organizing, directing, and monitoring. This study uses a quantitative approach which is an observational analytic research using cross sectional study with a sample of outpatient pharmacy customer research in Hospital X Pontianak. Collecting data using questionnaires from 100 customers outpatient with consecutive sampling method. The results using Pearson Correlation analysis showed the drug management relationship with the quality of outpatient pharmacy services which means the value of aspects planning (r=0.626; p<0,001, organizing (r=0.409; p<0,001, directing (r=0.359; p<0,001, and controlling (r=0.426; p<0,001 with R2 multiple 66.80%. The description of pharmaceutical drug management in outpatient Hospital X produce an average value 96.90% so as to be in very good category, there by proving the existence of a strong relationship between the four functions of management of the quality of pharmaceutical care medicine outpatient Hospital X.

  10. Pharmacies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...

  11. Medication Errors Among Geriatrics at the Outpatient Pharmacy in a Teaching Hospital in Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Dellemin Che; Ibrahim, Noor Shufiza; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the medication errors among geriatrics at the outpatient pharmacy in a teaching hospital in Kelantan and the strategies to minimize the prevalence. A retrospective study was conducted that involved screening of prescription for a one-month period (March 2001). Only 15.35% (1601 prescription) of a total 10,429 prescriptions were for geriatrics. The prescriptions that were found to have medication errors was 403. Therefore, the prevalence of medication errors per day was approximately 20 cases. Generally, the errors between both genders were found to be comparable and to be the highest for Malays and at the age of 60–64 years old. Administrative errors was recorded to be the highest which included patient’s particulars and validity of the prescriptions (70.22%) and drugs that available in HUSM (16.13%). Whereas the total of prescribing errors were low. Under prescribing errors were pharmaceutical error (0.99%) and clinical error (8.68%). Sixteen cases or 3.98% had more than 1 error. The highest prevalence went to geriatrics who received more than nine drugs (32.16%), geriatrics with more than 3 clinical diagnosis (10.06%), geriatrics who visited specialist clinics (37.52%) and treated by the specialists (31.07%). The estimated cost for the 403 medication errors in March was RM9,327 or RM301 per day that included the cost of drugs and humanistic cost. The projected cost of medication errors per year was RM 111,924. In conclusion, it is very clear that the role of pharmacist is very great in preventing and minimizing the medication errors beside the needs of correct prescription writing and other strategies by all of the heath care components. PMID:22973127

  12. Impact of a Clinical Pharmacy Service on the Management of Patients in a Sickle Cell Disease Outpatient Center.

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    Han, Jin; Bhat, Shubha; Gowhari, Michel; Gordeuk, Victor R; Saraf, Santosh L

    2016-11-01

    Ambulatory care clinical pharmacy services have expanded beyond primary care settings, but literature supporting the benefits of clinical pharmacy involvement with patients who have rare diseases such as sickle cell disease (SCD) is lacking. Hydroxyurea is the only agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of SCD; full benefit in controlling pain episodes and other complications is achieved through monitored escalation to a maximum tolerated dose. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the impact of a newly implemented clinical pharmacy service on the management of patients with SCD. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 385 adults with SCD who received care between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, at a single Sickle Cell Outpatient Center that implemented a clinical pharmacy service in August 2013. Data were collected on hydroxyurea dose escalation, immunization completion rates, and health maintenance metrics (screening for nephropathy with microalbuminuria testing, retinopathy with annual retinal examinations, and pulmonary hypertension with echocardiography). The impact of the clinical pharmacy service on quality measurements was evaluated by using univariate and multivariate analyses. The number of pharmacist encounters, defined as a clinic visit when a clinical pharmacist interacted with a patient as documented in the medical records, was associated with an improved hydroxyurea dose escalation rate (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-2.05, p=0.02). Immunization rates for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and influenza vaccine were 66%, 47%, and 62%, respectively. The number of pharmacist encounters was associated with improved immunization completion rates (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62, pmanaging a rare disease, SCD, was associated with an improved hydroxyurea dose escalation rate, immunization completion

  13. The evaluation of pharmacist-technician teams applied to a satellite pharmacy.

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    Kershaw, B P; Zarowitz, B J; Solomon, D K; Mouzakis, M M

    1989-01-01

    The team work group design has been suggested as a mechanism to integrate clinical and distributive pharmacy services, expand clinical roles, enhance staff satisfaction, and promote resource efficiency. A pharmacist-technician team was created at Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, and the effects of the team were assessed via pre and post data collection of attitudinal, behavioral and pharmacy service aspects. Each of three satellite teams were responsible for all pharmacy services to a target group of patients. The results of the team design include a significant decrease in pharmacist and technician perceptions of role stress, especially in the categories of role overload, role isolation, and role ambiguity, and less total hours of work lost by pharmacists (54% improved) and technicians (29% improved). The nurses perceived slightly better pharmacy services upon survey, although not statistically significant, and IV solution wastage decreased 5.6%. Clinical pharmacist compliance to standards of practice was unchanged in spite of increased supervisional responsibilities. We were able to show that the pharmacist-technician team design decreased stress and created more efficient pharmacy services.

  14. [Survey on Information Sharing and Approaches to Cooperation between Hospitals and Community Pharmacies in the Care of Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chika; Ogata, Kentaro; Nishida, Emi; Kakimoto, Hideki; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Fukuda, Mahiru; Oda, Mayumi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2016-11-01

    Outpatients undergoing chemotherapy receive oral anticancer drugs, supportive care medicine, and drugs for complications from health insurance pharmacies(ie, drugstores). Therefore, drugstore personnel and patients were surveyed using a questionnaire to ascertain the current conditions of information sharing between drugstores and hospitals. Only 31% of the patients surveyed responded that they received cancer chemotherapy via the drugstores, while a few of them understood the need for information sharing with the drugstore. We also found that the drugstores required a considerable amount of patient information including prescribed therapeutic drugs, treatment regimens, disease conditions, and test value. Therefore, we held a study session and clinical conference to facilitate the creation of an information-sharing system. In conclusion, it is imperative for drugstores and hospitals to cooperate and establish a strategy for information sharing in the future.

  15. Lean Hospital Approach to Identify Critical Waste in the Outpatient Pharmacy Instalation of RSI PKU Muhammadiyah Pekajangan

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    Lusi Rahmani Putri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This Research Purpose to identify critical waste, root cause of critical waste, up to giving recommended improvement to minimize critical waste in the outpatient pharmacy. This research uses qualitative approach with case study design. The health service process is visualized with value stream mapping, the amount of critical waste is obtained by distributing questionnaires, while the root cause of critical waste is acquired by 5 why method of interview. The recommended improvementis accomplished by discussion between team and expert panel. Based on the value stream mapping, it has obtained 16,67% of ratio value added to waste for non concoction prescription and 14.52% of ratio value added to waste for concoction prescription. Based on waste questionnaire distribution, motion got the highest rank as the most often exist waste with 19% percentage. The root causes of this motion waste is nonexistence of a routine schedule on the work space organization, which affecting the effectiveness of pharmacy staff to complete their task. The recommended improvement to minimize this waste motion is to conduct 5S method.

  16. Changes of Outpatient Pharmacy in Our Hospital by Automation%自动化建设给我院门诊药房带来的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿张轩; 金雪

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide beneficial reference for the development and construction of automated outpatient pharmacy. METHODS: The automation of outpatient pharmacy was conducted by rapid delivery system, intelligent storage system, massive addition system and smart dispensing system. A comparative analysis was performed for the changes brought about by the automation of outpatient pharmacy of our hospital in terms of pharmaceutical administration, quality of drug dispensing, pharmacists' work efficiency and so on. RESULTS: Automated outpatient pharmacy optimized pharmaceutical administration, strengthened storage management and drug maintenance, resolved validity period and achieved lot number tracking. Internal dispensing error was decreased by 65.3% from 32.6 events per week to 11.3 events per week. Automated pharmacy equipments were involved in 90% of outpatient prescriptions dispensing to realize the transformation of "drug standing by for patient" from "patient waiting for drug", improve work efficiency and ensure patients' safety. CONCLUSION: Pharmacy automation contributes to improving pharmaceutical administration and service level in outpatient pharmacy of large-scale hospitals in China.%目的:为国内大型医院自动化门诊药房的建设与发展提供参考.方法:采用快速出药、智能存储、批量上药及智能发药等设备对我院门诊药房进行自动化改造,分析门诊药房自动化改造后药品管理、调剂质量、药师工作效率等方面发生的改变.结果:门诊药房自动化优化了药品管理,有利于药品养护,加强了库存管理,解决了效期管理难题,实现了药品批号追踪;调剂差错由改造前的32.6件/周减少至改造后的11.3件/周,降低了65.3%;自动化药房设备参与了约90%的门诊处方调配,实现了药品调剂从“人等药”到“药等人”的转变,提高了工作效率,保障了患者的用药安全.结论:自动化有利于提高国内大型医院门

  17. Outpatient Pharmacy Management in Hospital:Status and Trends%医院门诊药房管理现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文森; 孙洁; 王书杰; 尹晓飞

    2012-01-01

    通过对18所医院的门诊药房调查发现,所有医院的门诊药房均存在着同种药品、同一规格只对应单一的某个生产厂家,没有自由选择药品品牌和规格的权力等实际问题,提出构建“门诊药房超市”引入竞争机制,让自主选择药品,药师提供面对面的用药咨询指导,全面提高药学服务水平和患者满意率.%By investigating the outpatient pharmacy departments of 18 hospitals, the author finds that one medicine, one specification only corresponds to one manufacturer in all the outpatient pharmacy departments. It provides the convenience of development of sick competitions. Patients do not have power to choose the brand and specification of medicines by themselves. Construction of "outpatient pharmacy supermarket" is put forward, such as introducing competition, making independent choices for patients, providing advisory of drug face - to - face, comprehensively improving the level of pharmacy service and satisfaction rate of patients.

  18. Satisfaction of clients with the services of an outpatient pharmacy at a university hospital in northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Girmay, Genet; Moges, Elsabet; Tesfa, Meseret; Abraha, Messele

    2015-06-11

    Evaluation of patient/client satisfaction with pharmacy services as a crucial part of the health services through appropriate studies is important. This will help identify specific areas of the service which need improvement in realizing high quality pharmacy services in general and enhance the positive changes in the current pharmaceutical services provision in Ethiopia. The current study aimed at assessing the level of client satisfaction with the services of the outpatient pharmacy of Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH) in northwestern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 400 clients who had prescriptions/orders filled at the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital during the period of 5th to 25th of November 2013. The data on the level of satisfaction of clients with the services of the outpatient pharmacy in the hospital was collected using a structured interview guide adopted from an instrument translated into Amharic and validated. The data collected was entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The overall mean score the respondents gave to satisfaction with the pharmaceutical services was 2.48 out of a maximum of 5.00 score. The mean scores for all the individual parameters rated were less than 3.00. Maximum mean scores were given for parameters asking about the promptness of prescription medication service (2.99), and professionalism of the pharmacy staff (2.96) with the lowest being scored for information given to clients about the storage of medication (1.25), and explanations of possible side effects (1.27). Clients who were served free of fee recorded significantly higher level of satisfaction than those who paid. Higher levels of satisfaction were also reported among illiterates, older adults and those with no job compared to those with higher education, merchants and government employees. This study showed that the overall mean satisfaction level of clients

  19. APPLICATION OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY TO REDUCE MEDICATION ERRORS IN THE OUTPATIENT PHARMACY UNIT: A CASE STUDY FROM THE KING FAHD UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, SAUDI ARABIA

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    Ahmed Al Kuwaiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors will affect the patient safety and quality of healthcare. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology in reducing medication errors in the outpatient pharmacy of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia. It was conducted through the five phases of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC model using various quality tools. The goal was fixed as to reduce medication errors in an outpatient pharmacy by 20%. After implementation of improvement strategies, there was a marked reduction of defects and also improvement of their sigma rating. Especially, Parts per million (PPM of prescription/data entry errors reduced from 56,000 to 5,000 and its sigma rating improved from 3.09 to 4.08. This study concluded that the Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology is found to be more significant in reducing medication errors and ensuring patient safety.

  20. Analysis on Existing Automatic Dispensing Pattern in Hospital Outpatient Pharmacy%医院门诊药房现行自动化调剂模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁茂本; 王国如; 吕新颜

    2015-01-01

    目的:推动医院门诊药房自动化调剂模式发展。方法走访国内数家三级甲等综合性医院门诊药房和自动化药房系统生产厂家,并参阅相关文献,分析现行自动化调剂模式。结果与结论先进的门诊药房自动化调剂模式是集实时发药、智能预配发药、自助发药多种模式于一体的自动化和智能化系统,可提高配方准确率,降低了劳动强度,体现了我国现代化药房的建设和发展方向。%Objective To promote the development of the existing automatic dispensing pattern in the hospital outpatient pharmacy. Methods By conducting the visiting to the outpatient pharmacy of several domestic class 3A general hospitals and manufacturers for producing the automatic pharmacy systems and refering to pertinent literatures, the existing automatic dispensing patterns were ana-lyzed. Results and Conclusion The advanced automatic dispensing pattern of outpatient pharmacy is an automatic and intelligent system integrating the real-time dispensing, intelligently pre-allocation dispensing and self-service dispensing, which improves the dispensing accuracy, reduces the labor intensity and reflects the construction and development direction of modern pharmacy in our country.

  1. A prescription survey about combined use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergic medicines in the dementia outpatient using electronic medication history data from community pharmacies

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    Kurata K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaori Kurata,1 Eitarou Taniai,2 Kanae Nishimura,3 Kenji Fujita,3 Akira Dobashi1 1Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan; 2Informational Headquarters, Yakuju Corporation, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3General Incorporated Foundation Social University, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: We investigated prescriptions regarding the combined use of donepezil hydrochloride (DPZ and anticholinergics for elderly outpatients in Japan to determine the impact that combination therapy has on decreasing their cognitive functions. Methods: Using electronic medication records from 142 community pharmacies, outpatients older than 40 years of age taking DPZ, with or without other prescription medicines, were assessed over 6 years, beginning in 2007. We estimated the number of medicines administered along with DPZ, the number of anticholinergics administered along with DPZ, and the medicines' anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB scale cumulative score based on data from the top four pharmacies that filled the highest number of prescriptions for DPZ for outpatients with dementia in 2010. Data were gathered from records of 431 patients; only three patients were younger than 60 years. Results: There was a 1.94-fold increase in the number of prescriptions including DPZ over 6 years. The proportion of patients to whom other medicines were administered along with DPZ was 65.6% (n=283 and the proportion of those taking at least one anticholinergic agent was 24.1% (n=104. The mean number of medicines among subjects taking at least one anticholinergic was 5.7, and the mean cumulative ACB score for anticholinergics contained in these medicines was 2.6. Among 104 patients to whom the anticholinergics were administered along with DPZ, two outpatients taking urologic medicines such as oxybutynin hydrochloride or tolterodine tartrate were found. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that it is

  2. 门诊药房药学服务实践体会%Practice and Experience of Pharmaceutical Service in Outpatient Pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洪梅; 钱青; 张蓉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To improve the quality of pharmaceutical service by exploring the theories and Methods of pharmaceutical service in outpatient pharmacy. Methods The outstanding characteristics of pharmaceutical service were analyzed in outpatient pharmacy by consulting the related literature and combining the actual situation in the hospital. Results Standardizing working system can improve the accuracy of pharmacists in dispensing drugs and shorten the waiting time of outpatients;the medical errors would be reduced by strictly checking prescription;various approaches to guide rational drug use with patient-oriented to improve the prevention and drug treatment;carefully commenting on the prescriptions could realize the continuous development of quality of medication. Conclusion Paci-fication of prescription and review process,comprehensive medication guide,and appropriate prescription intervention practice plays a very important role in pharmaceutical service of outpatient pharmacy.%目的:探索门诊药房药学服务的理论和方法,提高药学服务质量。方法查阅相关文献并结合医院实际情况,分析门诊药房在药学服务实践中的突出特点。结果规范工作制度能提高药师调配药品的准确性,减少患者的等候时间;严格执行处方审核制度能及时发现医生诊疗过程中的问题处方,减少医疗差错;以患者为中心,利用多种途径指导合理用药,能提高药品的预防和治疗作用;开展处方点评工作,对抽取处方和科室进行综合分析、评价,改进并提高药品治疗质量。结论规范处方调剂和审核流程、全面的用药指导、适当的处方点评在门诊药学服务实践中起着重要作用。

  3. 面向服务的门诊药房系统建模%Outpatient pharmacy service-oriented system modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭辉; 李廷全; 覃勇

    2012-01-01

    SOA就是面向服务的架构,是一种以通用为目的、可扩展、具有联合协作性的架构。SOA技术在门诊信息系统中的应用,用以解决传统软件开发所带来的修改、维护困难,难以推广和移植的缺点。使用UML等建模工具对门诊信息系统中药房功能子系统进行建模,并基于SOA技术,发现、定义其所包含的服务组件,并定义各服务的功能,为下一步的代码实现奠定了基础。%SOA is Service Oriented Architecture which is a kind of general purpose,scalable framework with a joint collaboration.The traditional software development is difficult to modify,maintain,promote and transplant.The application of SOA technology in the outpatient information systems is used to solve these shortcomings.The UML and other modeling tools to modeling the pharmacy functional subsystem of outpatient information system are used.Meanwhile,SOA technology is used to find and definite the service components which it contains,and to define the various service functions.It is a foundation of the next step for code achievement.

  4. Design and Application of Questionnaire of Satisfaction in Outpatient Pharmacy Service%门诊药房服务满意度调查表的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀丽; 郑造乾; 袁雍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the present status of our pharmaceutical service for further improving ihe service quality of outpatient pharmacy. Methods To design the hospital outpatient pharmacy service satisfaction questionnaire and to conduct the questionnaire survey on 400 outpatients in our hospital by the convenient sample method. Meanwhile, the reliability of questionnaire was tested. Results We recovered 380 valid questionnaires with the effective recovery rate of 95%. The outpatients scored the satisfaction on the waiting time, sequence and convenience for taking medicines, and the activity of pharmacist service. Conclusion By designing ihe questionnaire, hospital is convenient to find out the existing questions in the pharmaceutical service and beneficial for continuously improving the service quality of the outpatient pharmacy.%目的 了解医院门诊药学服务现状,以进一步提高服务质量.方法 设计医院门诊药房服务满意度调查表,采用便利抽样法对400名患者进行问卷调查,并对调查表的信度进行检验.结果 回收有效问卷380份,回收率为95.00%.患者对等候取药时间、取药的次序、取药的方便度以及药师服务的主动性等满意度进行了评分.结论 医院通过表格的设计,便于查找服务中存在的问题并不断改进,以提高门诊药房的服务质量.

  5. Influence Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction towards Drug Purchase Intention in Anggrek Outpatient Pharmacy Depo at Hasan Sadikin Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of service is an evaluation which focused on customer’s awareness about a structural construction of a service or product that involves 5 main aspects which are tangibility, empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. Based on monthly reports of pharmacy installation only about 30% of patients buy drugs in the Anggrek out patient depo out off patients visiting Anggrek out patient specialist clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of service quality and customer satisfaction to purchase intention in the Anggrek out patient depo Hasan Sadikin hospital at Bandung. The method used in this study is analytical survey with cross sectional design. The samples used were 200 patients, consist of 104 customers who have visited more than one times and 96 first visit costumer to this clinic. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using Smart PLS V 2.0 software. The results of this study showed that the service quality with tangible dimensions, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy are affecting the customer satisfaction with a score of 12.755 t-count (greater than t-table 1.983 and a positive value of the original sample of 0.800. Customer satisfaction affecting the customer purchase intentions with t-count is greater than t-table values of 5.012 and 0.726 of the original positive sample. While the service quality does not directly influence customer purchase intention with the t-test is smaller than t-table is 1.455 and the negative of the original sample -0.287. Some of service quality influence customers that causes not purchasing drugs from the out patient depo there are effect of unavailability of counseling, long waiting time of service, the need for special counseling room, a spacious waiting room, and the completeness of drug availability.

  6. 门诊药房药患纠纷的预防措施与处理技巧%Outpatient pharmacy medicine preventive measures and treatment techniques of disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱国

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the preventive measures and treatment techniques of drug disputes in outpatient pharmacy. Method:Of our hospital in February 2013 to June 2015 outpatient pharmacy error accidents handling relevant data are collected, analyzed the influence factors of medicine of disputes appear, and corresponding prevention measures are put forward. Result:For outpatient medicine of disputes appear, carry out effective preventive measures and treatment skills, can make medicine with disputes rate reduce. Conclusion:The influence factors of outpatient pharmacy medicine of dispute is more, to perfect the related system and operation, can prompt physicians and pharmacists professional skills and improving the quality of our service, reduce the incidence of disputes.%目的:探究门诊药房药患纠纷的预防措施和处理技巧。方法:对本院2013年2月~2015年6月门诊药房差错事故等处理的相关资料进行收集,对药患纠纷出现的影响因素进行分析,并提出相应的预防措施。结果:针对门诊药患纠纷的出现,实施有效的预防措施与处理技巧,可以促使药患纠纷率有效降低。结论:门诊药房药患纠纷的影响因素较多,完善有关制度与操作,能够促使医师与药师专业技能和服务质量的不断提升,降低药患纠纷发生率。

  7. Experience of Prevention of Outpatient Pharmacy Prescription Close to Failure%浅谈防范门诊药房处方用药接近失误的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练文毅; 杨红梅; 肖楚瑶

    2014-01-01

    Objective Through the intervention of unqualified prescriptions of outpatient prescription drug use, reduce er ors and near miss. Methods The pharmacist in the prescription in the process of examination, registration of unqualified prescription, monthly report on medical department, issued unqualified prescription doctor performance appraisal. Results Through PDCA, outpatient pharmacy prescription close to failure decreased from 2.81 per thousand to 1.27 per thousand.Conclusion By taking proper measures, ef ective control of the outpatient pharmacy prescription medication er or rates.%目的:通过对不合格处方进行干预,降低门诊处方用药差错和接近失误。方法药师在处方审核过程中,对不合格的处方进行登记汇总,每月报送医务部,对开出不合格处方的医生进行绩效考核。结果通过开展PDCA,门诊药房处方用药接近失误由2.81‰下降到1.27‰。结论通过采取适当的防范措施,有效地控制了门诊药房处方用药差错的发生率。

  8. 我院对外药房分区间小范围盘点的实施方案介绍%Implementation of Inter-district Small-scale Stocktaking in Outpatient Pharmacy of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 季波; 张晓琳

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To strength pharmacy management, improve pharmacy stocktaking efficiency and lower the error rate of the stocktaking in outpatient pharmacy. METHODS: Based on "Army No. 1" inventory management system, the data were retrieved and adjusted using Excel spreadsheet, and the inter- district small- scale inventory table of the outpatient pharmacy was designed in which certain individuals should be responsible for certain drugs and the order of drugs in the inventory table were in line with the arrangement order of drugs. RESULTS: The new drug stocktaking model reduced the error rate of traditional monthly drug stocktaking by 3%. CONCLUSION: The established drug stocktaking method reduces human and material resources, facilitates a more flexible, convenient and rapid stocktaking, and greatly enhances the conformity rate between drugs and accounts.%目的:加强药房管理,提高药房盘点效率,降低药品盘点误差.方法:依托"军卫一号"库存管理系统,从中提取数据并应用Excel表格加以调整,设计对外药房分区间(按药柜划分)小范围盘点表,采用定人定药使库存盘点表药品排序与药品摆放顺序相符的方式进行盘点.结果:新方案实施误差率较传统的每月式盘点降低了3个百分点.结论:该盘点方法不仅减少了人力物力,而且使得盘点更为灵活、方便、快捷,账物相符率也有了明显的提高.

  9. Designing a modern hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B G; Boyar, R L; Raspante, P S

    1986-02-01

    Cooperation between the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects in planning a modern hospital pharmacy is described. The pharmacy director at an 870-bed voluntary nonprofit institution and the hospital's architects planned the design for a new 3250-square foot pharmacy department. They developed a preliminary floor plan based on the following functions that the pharmacy would perform: centralized unit dose drug distribution; compounding; bulk and unit dose prepackaging; preparation of sterile products; controlled substance storage; outpatient and employee prescription dispensing; reserve stock storage; purchasing, receiving, and inventory control; drug information services; and administrative services. A final floor plan was designed that incorporated these functions with structural and utility requirements, such as placement of the computer system and dispensing and lighting fixtures. By integrating modern material management concepts with contemporary hospital pharmacy practice, the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects were able to plan and construct a pharmacy that receives, processes, and dispenses medication efficiently.

  10. Analysis of Drug Administration and Payment Errors in Outpatient Pharmacy%关于门诊西药房药品管理和发放差错探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the management of outpatient pharmacy and issuing of error. Methods Analyze the reason why pharmacy and issuing of errors happend. Results The reason was that the large pharmacy,high working intensity,and therefore these proned to error. Conclusion Reasonable and effective management can reduce the release of any mistakes,and improve the quality of medical services and patient service experience.%目的:探析门诊西药房的药品管理和发放差错。方法通过文献分析门诊西药房的管理问题和发放差错的原因。结果门诊西药房差错原因主要是药房的工作量大,工作强度高,因而容易出现差错。结论合理有效的管理能够减少药品发放差错,并提高医疗服务质量和患者的服务体验。

  11. Changes in number and distribution of community and ambulatory pharmacies in Virginia from 1994 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D W; Carroll, N V

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether market changes have resulted in a decrease in the number or geographic distribution of pharmacies available to ambulatory patients in Virginia. Retrospective review of Virginia Board of Pharmacy records of pharmacy registrations in 1994 and 1999. The Commonwealth of Virginia. All pharmacies classified as outpatient pharmacies (including community and other types of ambulatory pharmacies) and operating in Virginia in 1994 and 1999. Not applicable. Changes in the total number, geographic distribution, and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan distribution of outpatient pharmacies between 1994 and 1999. The total number of outpatient pharmacies increased from 1,290 to 1,337 between 1994 and 1999. Chain pharmacies, mass merchandiser, and grocery pharmacies increased in number while independent pharmacies declined. There was little change in the geographic or metropolitan/nonmetropolitan distribution of pharmacies. Changes in the number and distribution of community and other ambulatory pharmacies in Virginia have not diminished their availability to consumers.

  12. 品管圈活动在门诊药房药师专业培训中的应用实践%Application of Quality Control Circle in Pharmacist Professional Training in Outpatient Pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炜华; 张文志; 王玉和

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To improve the professional training effect for pharmacist of outpatient pharmacy . Meth-ods: Activities were implemented according to the steps of quality control circle ( QCC ) . The reasons for poor train-ing effect were analyzed by brainstorming method , the formulation and implementation of countermeasures were in-vestigated by fishbone diagram , tangible and intangible results were evaluated and the standard work procedures were made . Results: The training effects had a significant difference ( P < 0 . 01 ) before and after QCC with the rate of target completion of 84% and the improvement rate of 33%. Members ’ abilities were greatly improved . Con-clusion: The implementation of QCC is feasible for improving the professional training effects for pharmacist in out-patient pharmacy of our hospital , it is to be worth application .%目的:提升门诊药房药师专业培训效果。方法:按照品管圈管理模式的步骤实施各项活动,运用头脑风暴法分析培训效果欠佳的原因,采用鱼骨图探讨对策的拟定与实施,评价有形成果和无形成果,并制订标准化工作流程。结果:活动前和活动后培训效果有显著差异(P <0.01),目标达成率为84%,改善幅度为33%,圈能力得到显著提升。结论:品管圈活动的开展对提升我院门诊药房药师专业培训效果是可行的,建议推广应用。

  13. 门诊药房差额动态盘点体系的建立与评估%Introduction and Evaluation about Dynamic Inventory Balance System in Outpatient Pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平; 王金莉; 王丽丽; 马辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Method of dynamic inventory balance is improved and evaluated, so the method can be applied to outpatient pharmacy. Methods:The exact quantity of drug can be determined by the difference between instant microcomputer inventory quantity and actual quantity. In addition, it can analyze and evaluate inventory forms. Results: This method can accurately reflect the situation whether drug quantities match the accounts, because it is effective to overcome the effects of drug sales. Conclusion:After more than two years' practice, this method can effectively shorten inventory time and improve efficiency without influencing the inventory accuracy. This method can be applied to outpatient pharmacy.%目的:通过对差额动态盘点方法完善与评估,拟对门诊药房实行动态盘点。方法:利用即时微机库存数量与实际数量的差额来确定药品准确数量,对盘点表进行对比分析和评估。结果:该方法有效克服了因药品销售而造成的影响,比较准确地反映帐物相符情况。结论:经过2年多的实践,该方法在不影响盘点准确率的情况下,能有效减少盘点用时,提高劳动效率,可在门诊药房推广应用。

  14. 我院门诊药房绩效分配方案的实践%Practice of Performance Evaluation-related Distribution Program in Outpatient Pharmacy of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐璐

    2016-01-01

    随着公立医院综合改革的全面展开,现有的人事薪酬模式已不能适应医院药学的发展需求,亟需建立行之有效的薪酬激励制度,变革医院药学工作的现状。根据我院门诊药房的特点,我们采取细化分工,明确岗位职责,制定考评细则,利用360度评价法综合考评量化、质化指标,并且运用PDCA循环的方法对考核方案的可行性进行评估,旨在建立科学合理、公平有效的绩效分配方案,以提高药学服务质量。。%With fully comprehensive reform of public hospital, the existing personnel salary model has been unable to meet the needs of the development of hospital pharmacy. Thus there is an urgent need to establish effective compensation incentive system to change the status quo of hospital pharmacy. According to the characteristics of our hospital outpatient pharmacy, we take a detailed division of labor, a clear job responsibility to formulate detailed rules for examination and assessment, using 360 degree evaluation method for comprehensive evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators, and the method of PDCA cycle to evaluate the feasibility of the evaluation scheme. This is aimed at building scientiifc and reasonable, fair and effective performance bonus distribution program to improve the quality of pharmaceutical service.

  15. 门诊药房调配差错原因分析及干预措施探讨%Cause analysis and intervention measures of the dispensing errors in outpatient pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾潇潇; 陈珲; 李星; 邓小中

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the dispensing errors in outpatient pharmacy, and provide references for strengthening the management of pharmacy errors. Methods:The total of 267 dispensing errors recorded in drug dispensing errors registration in outpatient pharmacy from March 2011 to March 2012 were collected. The data were sorted and analyzed by use of Excel software, and the causes of the dispensing errors and intervention measures were discussed. Results:In 267 dispensing errors, there were 131 records of missing dispensing drugs, 30 records of excess dispensing drugs, and 106 records on dispensing wrong medicines. The main causes of dispensing errors were the drug names with similar pronunciation, different drugs located in the same spot, one drug with a variety of specifications varieties and drugs with similar packaging. Conclusion:The dispensing errors could be reduced through the establishment and improvement management system of related errors, strengthening on-the-job training, the post system and business learning of pharmacists and raising the risk awareness.%  目的:调研我院门诊药房药品调配差错情况,为加强药房差错管理提供参考。方法:收集我院门诊药房2011年3月–2012年3月记载在《药品调配差错登记本》中的267条药品调配差错数据,运用Excel表进行分类汇总和统计,分析造成调配差错可能的原因,并对可能的干预措施进行探讨。结果:267条药品调配差错中,少调药品差错记录131条,多调药品差错记录30条,错调药品差错记录106条。药名音似、摆放位置相近、一品多规和包装形似是造成调配差错可能的影响因素。结论:通过建立和完善相关差错管理制度,加强对药师的在岗培训、岗位制度和业务的学习,提高风险意识,可以在一定程度上减少调配差错。

  16. Management and operation effects of the outpatient and emergency department pharmacy intravenous admixture services%我院门急诊静脉药物配置中心的管理及运行效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏涣新; 黄灿炘

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the operation mechanism and effects of an outpatient and emergency department pharmacy intravenous admixture services ( PIVAS). Methods Many measures were taken,such as defining personal responsibilities,formulating reasonable management models,working processes,transfusion processes for outpatients and emergency patients, and quality control standards, implementing on - the -job training for nursing staff and layered quality control, and so on. Results It ensured the safety of clinical intravenous medication,reduced the occurrence of unreasonable drug use,drug wasting,and adverse drug events. Conclusion The PIVAS in outpatient and emergency department can improve the safety of clinical intravenous medication and increase patient satisfaction.%目的 探讨门急诊静脉药物配制中心管理机制及运行效果.方法 明确人员职责与排班,制订合理的管理模式、工作流程、门诊患者输液流程、急诊患者输液流程及质量管理规范,并对护理人员进行岗位培训,制订管理规范和工作流程,进行分层质量控制.结果 管理制度的运行保证了临床静脉用药安全,减少了不合理用药、药品浪费以及用药不良事件的发生.结论 门诊静脉药物配置中心在提高患者静脉用药安全和提高患者满意度方面发挥了积极的作用.

  17. Investigation and Analysis of Outpatient Pharmacy Management and Distribution of Errors%门诊西药房药品管理与发放差错的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳宇; 闫彩霞; 廖义芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:对本院门诊西药房药品管理与发放差错展开调查分析,讨论避免差错的措施,改善医疗服务质量。方法:回顾分析2009年5月-2013年5月本院门诊西药房药品管理与发放情况,观察组选取开展数字化管理后的药房药品管理与发放情况,对照组选取开展数字化管理前的药房药品管理与发放情况,对两组资料进行统计学分析,比较两组库存药品盘点时间、患者取药等候时间、药品报损率以及账实相符率。结果:门诊西药房发生药品发放差错共100例,其中观察组单人配发原因15例,疏忽原因8例,药品摆放原因7例;对照组单人配发原因36例,疏忽原因18例,药品摆放原因16例;观察组药品发放差错发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组各项药品管理与发放数据显著优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:数字化管理应用于门诊西药房,具有提高门诊西药房工作效率、改善账实相符率、降低西药报损率以及缩减各类失误的发生率,从而提高患者满意度等优点,值得各医院广泛推广。%Objective:To investigate and analyze the outpatient pharmacy management and the distribution error, discuss the measures to avoid the medication error,improve the quality of medical services.Method:The outpatient pharmacy management and distribution from May 2009 to May 2103 in our courtyard were retrospectively analyzed.The control group selected to carry out the real drug management system management and distribution,the observation group selected to carry out the real drug management and digital management of distribution,statistical analysis was conducted on two group data,drug inventory count time,waiting time,patients taking medicine drug loss rate and the consistence rate of two groups were compared. Result:The outpatient pharmacy drug release errors were 100 cases,in the observation group, single allotment causes in 15

  18. Factors influencing the exit knowledge of patients for dispensed drugs at outpatient pharmacy of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirko N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigatu Hirko,1 Dumessa Edessa2 1Department of Pharmacy, Bisidimo Hospital, East Hararghe Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: A satisfactory counseling process between the patient and pharmacist is critical for rational use of dispensed drug(s and is highly influenced by many factors including the experience of pharmacist in dispensing process. To improve patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs, it is necessary to understand the factors that optimize a pharmacist interaction with a patient in each activity of the dispensing process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the pharmacist and patient factors that influence knowledge of dispensed drugs by ambulatory patients at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 422 respondents. Data were collected by interviews using a structured questionnaire that measures “exit knowledge” of the ambulatory patients for dispensed drugs. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Potential covariates were identified using χ2 test, and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to adjust for the covariates.Results: Our findings showed significant proportions of the patients did not recall the name of their dispensed medication (53.6%, major side effects (66.4%, and what to do in case of missed doses (65.4%. Patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs was significantly associated with their educational level (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–3.84 [primary], AOR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04 [secondary], and AOR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.35–5.46 [tertiary]; clear instruction from the pharmacist (AOR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.16–9.72; and the politeness of the pharmacist (AOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04.Conclusion: We found that the

  19. Specific Plan and Implementation of Performance Evaluation in Outpatient Pharmacy of Our Hospital%我院门诊药房绩效考核的具体方案与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永红; 范开华; 金伟华; 王诗华; 蒋燕

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for improving the working enthusiasm and the working quality of the dispensers in outpatient pharmacy. METHODS: The scientific evaluation method for the working performance was formulated, and the working performance was evaluated according to workload and ability of work, responsibility of post, attitude of work, colleague' s comments, examinations, rewards and punishments so as to calculate the bonus by score ranks. The workload and ability of work scored 50 points, responsibility of post 15 points, attitude of work 15 points, colleague's comments 5 points, examinations 15 points. Rewards and punishment were not included in total score. RESULTS: After implementing performance evaluation plan, the monthly quantitative evaluation of workload and quality of work of each pharmacist became available. The quantitative evaluation method motivated the working enthusiasm of the dispensers, decreased dispensing errors, improved working quality and service attitude, enhanced labour discipline. CONCLUSION: The performance evaluation methods can improve the level of outpatient pharmacy management to some extent.%目的:为提高门诊药房调剂人员的工作积极性和工作质量提供参考.方法:制定科学的绩效考核方案,根据调剂人员的工作量及工作能力、岗位责任、工作态度、同事评价、考试、奖惩情况几方面标准综合评分,按所得分值排名后计算奖金金额:工作量及工作能力占50分,岗位责任占15分,工作态度占15分,同事评价占5分,考试占15分,奖惩情况未计入100分里面,于所得总分后加减.结果:实施该绩效考核方案后每月对每个调剂人员的工作量与工作质量等有了量化考核,激励了调剂人员的工作积极性,降低了出错率,提升了工作质量,改善了服务态度,强化了劳动纪律.结论:该绩效考核方案一定程度上提高了门诊药房的管理水平.

  20. 门诊药房易混淆药品调查与对策分析%Investigation and Countermeasures on Drug Confusion in Outpatient Pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To guarantee the safe use of easy-to-confuse drugs, avoid accidents, so as to improve the level of pharmacy administration.Methods: The situation of easy to confuse drugs in our pharmacy during 2014 was statistically classiifed, and the preventive measures were put forwardResults: A variety of reasons leading to drug dispensing errors were found, including similar generic names and outer packagings, the same generic names with different dosage forms, etc.Conclusion: To strengthen the management of similar drugs; to strictly comply with the "four check ten pairs" and other standard operating procedures during dispensing; to place neatly these easy-to-confuse drugs by category and location with obvious identiifcation; to post warning signs for similar drugs; to carefully check the patient information in the delivery of drugs, as well as the usage and dosage;to regularly check the numbers of similar drugs. The above measures can greatly reduce the risk of errors in dispensing personnel, and improve the safety management level.%目的:保障易混淆药品用药安全,避免差错事故,提升药事管理水平。方法:对本院门诊药房2014年度易混淆药品进行分类统计,提出防范措施。结果:通过调查与分析,找出导致药品调剂差错的多种原因,即通用名相似、外包装相似、通用名相同但剂型规格不同等。结论:应加强相似药品管理,药师调配时严格遵守“四查十对”等标准操作规程;易混淆药品分区摆放;相似药品张贴警示标识;药师在交付药品时仔细核对患者信息,进一步核对用法用量;定时清点相似药品数量。以上措施可大大减少调剂人员发生差错的几率,提高安全用药管理水平。

  1. Analysis of the oral medication for cardiovascular diseases at the outpatient pharmacy in 2012-2013%2012-2013年我院门诊西药房口服心血管类药品用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓓蕾

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析2012-2013年我院门诊西药房口服心血管系统药物的用药情况,为合理用药和药品监管提供参考。方法:就上海同济大学附属同济医院2012-2013年口服心血管药品的销售金额及用药频度(DDDs)等进行统计分析。结果:在2012-2013年心血管系统疾病用药中,国产药品和进口药品(含合资)占所有药品的比例呈稳定趋势,心血管药物的DDDs和DDC两项的排名均比较稳定。结论:我院心血管系统的药物使用频率稳定性好,用药情况基本合理。%Objective:To analyze the oral medication for cardiovascular diseases at the outpatient pharmacy in 2012-2013 so as to provide a reference for the rational use of drug and drug regulation. Methods:The sales and deifned daily doses (DDDs) for oral cardiovascular drugs were statistically analyzed. Results:Among the cardiovascular medication, the proportion of both domestic and imported drugs (including joint ventures) to all drugs appears a stable trend and the ranks of DDDs and DDC of cardiovascular drugs were relatively stable. Conclusion:DDDs for cardiovascular diseases are stable with a basically rational use of drug in our hospital.

  2. Analysis of Prescriptions in the Outpatient Pharmacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Xi'an Medical College Baoji Hospital from 2010 to 2012%2010-2012年西安医学院附属宝鸡医院门诊中成药处方点评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽娟

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To improve the quality of the outpatient prescriptions of Chinese patent medicine in the outpatient pharmacy of traditional Chinese medicine and promote the rational use of traditional Chinese medicine . METHODS:4 965 outpatient prescriptions of Chinese patent medicine in the outpatient pharmacy of traditional Chinese medicine in Xi'an Medical College Baoji Hospitals ( hereinafter referred to as “our hospital”) from 2010 to 2012 period were analyzed statistically in accordance with “hospital prescription review management practices ( Trial )” and “Prescription Management Methods” issued .RESULTS: Of a total of 4 965 prescriptions reviewed , 4725 ( 95.21%) were qualified prescriptions versus 240 unqualified prescriptions .The unqualified prescriptions manifested mainly as discrepancies between diagnosis and medication , repeated drug use , unreasonable in usage or dosage forms , and nonstandard in prescription writing etc .CONCLUSIONS:The writing of the outpatient prescriptions of Chinese patent medicine in the outpatient pharmacy of traditional Chinese medicine of our hospital is far from standard , and the rational use of drugs remains to be strengthened .%目的:提高门诊药房的中成药处方质量,促进中成药的合理使用。方法:随机抽取西安医学院附属宝鸡医院(以下简称“我院”)2010-2012年门诊中成药处方4965张,参考2010年《医院处方点评管理规范(试行)》和《处方管理办法》对处方进行点评。结果:共抽查的4965张处方中,合格处方4725张,不合格处方240张,处方合格率为95.17%。不合格处方主要表现为用药与诊断不符,重复用药,剂型、剂量及用法不合理,书写不规范等。结论:我院处方书写欠规范,合理用药水平有待加强。

  3. 品管圈用于提高门诊西药房药品质量管理实践%Application of Quality Control Circle for Improving Drug Quality Management in Outpatient Western Medicine Pharmacy of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨华; 周祖萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:提高门诊西药房药品质量管理水平。方法根据门诊患者满意度调查表,收集患者意见,其中81.2%的不满因药品管理不善导致。采用头脑风暴法分析导致药品质量的原因,为药品潮解、药品失效、冷藏药品没按贮藏条件冷藏。按照品管圈的十大步骤实施各项活动,拟订活动计划、拟订对策及实施,评价有形成果(药品质量管理提高)和无形成果(圈能力),制订标准化工作流程。结果药品潮解主要是因协定处方及拆零片剂所致;药品失效主要是因药师工作责任心不强,积压药品所致;冷藏药品未冷藏保管主要因冷藏药品品种多、数量大、冰柜少所致。针对以上原因,采取协定处方标准化分装,请领药品规范化,冷藏药品采取少量多批领取并增加冷柜的方法,对药师增强工作责任心等系列措施。活动后潮解药品由活动前的13次下降到5次,失效药品由活动前的5次下降到2次,冷藏管理药品由活动前的16次下降到6次;同时圈员们的工作积极性、团队凝聚力、解决问题的能力等方面均有大幅提高。结论品管圈管理模式的应用,可提高医院门诊西药房的药品质量管理水平。%Objective To improve the drug quality management of outpatient western medicine pharmacy. Methods The opinions of pa-tients were collected according to the outpatient satisfaction questionnaire, in which 81. 2% was caused by the drugs mismanage-ment. The brainstorming method was adopted to analyze the causes leading to the drug quality problems, including the drug deliques-cence, drug invalidation and cold storage of refrigerated drugs without according to storage conditions. The various activities were imple-mented according to 10 steps of quality control circle ( QCC ) , the plan, countermeasures and implementation of activities were protocolled, the tangible results ( improvement of drug

  4. Diversification strategies for hospital pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E; Phillips, D J; Meyer, G E

    1984-09-01

    Several ways used by the pharmacy department of a large university hospital to generate revenue through diversification are described. The department offers its facilities and staff as a resource in training medical service representatives for several pharmaceutical manufacturers, which is projected to provide $85,000 in net income for fiscal year (FY) 1983-84. The pharmacy department also conducts a six-month program for training pharmacy technicians, which yields a small net profit. The pharmacy department actively participates in educational programs such as college courses and clerkships earning extra income. An apothecary-style outpatient pharmacy was set up under a for-profit corporation. Services have been expanded to include the preparation of i.v. solutions that support home care. A durable medical equipment (DME) business is planned. The ambulatory and home-care programs are expected to generate approximately $165,000 in net profit next year. Contract pharmaceutical services are provided to another hospital. The net income generated through diversification in this pharmacy department will exceed $250,000 in FY 1983-84.

  5. Antihistamine drugs usage analysis of outpatient pharmacy of skin disease hospital from 2010 to 2012%皮肤病医院2010-2012年门诊药房抗组胺药物使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore application and problems of antihistamine drugs usage of outpatient pharmacy of our hospital from 2010 to 2012.Methods With hospital information system (HIS),extracted the data of antihistamines usage,including drug name,specification,quantity,sales etc.in outpatient pharmacy of our hospital from 2010 to 2012.At the same time,a retrospective analysis of 3000 copies of dermatology prescription for allergic skin disease and skin itching of outpatient department was issued,evaluated antihistamines usage.Results The use of antihistamines of the out-patient service pharmacy was reasonable.Usage and dosage in part of prescriptions had shortcomings,mainly the larger dose and the longer course of treatment; the combination treatment was also not reasonable,too much emphasis on efficacy,while ignoring the poisonous side effect.Conclusion Outpatient department should strengthen the rational use of antihistamine drugs,reduce side effects of drugs and ensure patient health.%目的 分析和了解2010至2012年间我院门诊药房抗组胺药物的使用情况及存在问题.方法 利用医院信息系统(HIS),提取我院在2010至2012年门诊药房抗组胺药物的使用情况数据,包括药物名称、药品规格、使用量、销售量等.同时,结合皮肤科对门诊过敏性皮肤病、瘙痒性皮肤病所开具的处方3000份,并进行回顾性分析,评价抗组胺药物的使用情况.结果 门诊药房抗组胺药物的使用情况基本合理,部分处方中用法用量有不足之处,主要表现为剂量较大而且疗程较长,其中联合用药也有不合理之处,过分注重疗效而忽视了抗组胺药物的毒副作用.结论 门诊部门应加强对抗组胺药物的合理使用,降低药物的毒副作用,保证病人身体健康.

  6. Outpatient Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thirds of all operations are performed in outpatient facilities, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outpatient surgery provides patients with the convenience of recovering at home, and can cost less. ...

  7. Pharmacy alternatives (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...

  8. Clinical Pharmacy Education in a Dental Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)

  9. Social Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy - Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, Anna Birna; Granas, Anne Gerd

    2016-01-01

    This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social...... and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, “What’s in a name?” and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general...... pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking) differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out...

  10. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  11. Improvement of Pharmaceutical Care Quality Management in Outpatient Pharmacy of Our Hospital by QCC%开展品管圈活动提升我院门诊药房药学服务品质化管理的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海莲; 姜德春; 任雷涛; 王雅葳; 郭红; 刘荣; 李通; 闫素英

    2013-01-01

    目的:采用品管圈方法提升门诊药房药学服务品质化管理.方法:我院门诊西药房全部药师参与品管圈活动,其中发药圈制订《药师发药技能手册》和《门诊问题处方分析手册》等,组织门诊药师学习并进行笔试考核以提高审方技能;调配圈制订“易混淆药品外观图册”供药师学习以提高调配药品的准确性,并结合药房货位改造、开展调配工作经验分享会等措施减少调配差错;科研圈通过提升与医师和患者的沟通技巧,对不合理处方进行有效干预.通过统计活动前、后老年患者的处方进行相应有形成果的评价和比较.结果:与活动前比较,活动后发药圈对不合理处方的审出率增加22.8%,调配圈药品调配差错率降低64%,科研圈对不合理处方的医师干预成功率由21%升高到72%.结论:品管圈活动可以有效促进门诊药房药学服务品质化管理的全面提升.%OBJECTIVE:To improve pharmaceutical care quality management in outpatient pharmacy by Quality control circle (QCC).METHODS:All pharmacists in outpatient pharmacy of western medicine participated in QCC.The distribution circle set two handbooks,one was handbook for pharmacists dispensing skills,the other was handbook for outpatient prescription problems analysis; the study and written examination were organized among outpatient pharmacists to improve the skills.The dispensing circle set handbook for confusable drug appearance for pharmacists to improve accuracy of drug dispensing,and dispensing error could be reduced by pharmacy location transformation and organizing experience sharing meeting,etc.Research circle effectively intervened in unreasonable prescription through improving communication skills of doctor and the patient.The prescriptions of elderly patients were analyzed statistically before and after QCC to evaluate and compare visible achievement.RESULTS:The distribution circle improved audit rate of

  12. Defining professional pharmacy services in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2013-01-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision, yet none encompass the full range of professional services delivered by community pharmacy. The majority of current pharmacy service definitions and nomenclature refer to either the professional philosophy of pharmaceutical care or to specific professional pharmacy services; particularly pharmaceutical services provided by pharmacists with a focus on drug safety, effectiveness and health outcomes. The objective of this paper is therefore to define a professional pharmacy service within the context of the community pharmacy model of service provision. A professional pharmacy service is defined as "an action or set of actions undertaken in or organised by a pharmacy, delivered by a pharmacist or other health practitioner, who applies their specialised health knowledge personally or via an intermediary, with a patient/client, population or other health professional, to optimise the process of care, with the aim to improve health outcomes and the value of healthcare." Based on Donabedian's framework, the professional pharmacy service definition incorporates the concepts of organizational structure, process indicators and outcome measures. The definition will assist in many areas including recognition of the full range of services provided by community pharmacy and facilitating the identification of indicators of professional pharmacy service implementation and sustainable provision. A simple conceptual model for incorporating all services provided by community pharmacy is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 南阳市中心医院门诊西药房248例药物咨询情况分析%ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICAL CONSULTATION SERVICE OF 248 CASES IN THE OUTPATIENT.PHARMACY IN THE CENTER HOSPITAL OF NANYANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏简汇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨本院门诊西药房的药物咨询情况,总结咨询内容,提高我院药学服务质量,为更好的指导临床工作提供依据.[方法]对我院2009年7~12月门诊西药房248例药物的咨询情况进行回顾性分析,对咨询的药物类型、咨询内容进行统计分析.[结果]咨询药物的不良反应、药物之间的相互作用、用法用量的比例较高,分别占33.06%、27.42%、20.16%;咨询的药物类型排序前3位的分别为心脑血管系统药物、呼吸系统药物、中枢神经系统药物,分别占26.61%、20.16%、17.74%.[结论]药物咨询服务是临床药学工作的重要组成部分,也是提高药学服务的重要环节,同时药物咨询对于提高患者的用药安全性及提高药师的知识水平具有重要的作用.%[Objective]To investigate the hospital outpatient pharmacy drug consultation, summarize the consultation content and improve the quality of service in our hospital pharmacy, so that to provide a better basis for clinical work.[Methods]248 cases were collected in our hospital from July 2009 to December 2009 in the outpatient pharmacy, and we retrospectively analyzed the consultation, the types of medicines device on the consultation content for statistical analysis.[Results]The rates of the consulting adverse drug reactions, drug interactions and dosage showed to be high, and accounted for 33.06%, 27.42% and 20.16%, respectively; The top 3 consultation drug types were cardiovascular system drugs, respiratory system agents and central nervous system drugs, and accounted for 26.61%, 20.16% and 17.74%, respectively.[Conclusion]Clinical Pharmacy drug counseling service is an important part of the work, and also an important part of improving pharmaceutical care, drug counseling plays an important role in improving the patient medication safety and the level of knowledge of pharmacists.

  14. Improvement Effect of Smart Drug Shelves on Service Process in Outpatient Pharmacy of West Hospital of Our Hospital%浅析智能药架对我院西院门诊药房服务流程改进的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛菁; 冯雷; 李瀛; 朱珠; 刘燕; 葛悦

    2014-01-01

    目的:门诊药房使用智能药架改进服务流程,为新流程的服务效果提供数据支持。方法:分析智能药架服务流程下药师调配时间和患者取药等候时间的数据,并比较流程改造前、后的患者取药等候时间等数据之间的差异。结果:智能药架流程下药师调配时间在5 min之内的占71.52%,在10 min之内的占95%以上;在9个时段中,2013-10-21患者取药等候时间中位数比2010-10-18均有不同程度的缩短。结论:智能药架服务流程提高门诊药房工作效率,缩短患者取药等候时间,提升门诊药房服务水平。%Objective:To analyze the improvement effect of smart drugs shelves on the service process in the outpatient pharmacy and to provide supporting data for the new service process. Methods:The dispensing time of pharmacists and the waiting time of pa-tients were studied and compared before and after the use of smart drugs shelves. Results: After the use of smart drugs shelves, 71. 52% of dispensing time was in 5min, and more than 95% was in 10min. In the 9 periods, the medians of patient waiting time on Oct 21, 2013 were all shorter than those on Oct 18, 2010. Conclusion:The use of smart drugs shelves can improve service efficiency, shorten patient waiting time and enhance service level of outpatient pharmacy.

  15. Analysis of the retreated medicine situation and the counter-measure in the outpatient pharmacy%门诊药房退药情况分析与解决对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the reason of the outpatient retreated medicine in 2013 to promote the rational use of medicine in the hospitals. Methods: The retreated medicine prescriptions of 1 225 in the outpatient from January to December in 2013 were collected, in which the retreated drugs that were not issued were not included. The reasons and variety of the retreated medicine were analyzed. Results: In the 1 225 retreated medicine prescriptions, the adverse drug reaction was the first reason for the retreated medicine ( accounting for 38.3%) and the prescriptions with typing errors were the second ( accounting for 22.29%). The type of the retreated medicine was mainly the antimicrobial drugs (accounting for 29.14%) and followed by cardiovascular system drugs (accounting for 21.55%). Conclusion: The hospital should enhance the diagnosis and treatment quality, strengthen the communication with the patients, improve the pharmaceutical service level, develop the pharmacist consulting services, and consummate the management system of the retreated medicine to reduce the occurrence of the outpatient retreated medicine.%目的:分析2013年门诊退药情况发生原因,促进医院的合理用药。方法:收集2013年1月至12月门诊退药处方1225张,不包括未发出药品的退药。对退药原因、退药品种进行分析。结果:在1225张门诊退药处方中,退药原因以药物不良反应居首位,占38.37%;其次为医师处方输入错误,占22.29%。退药品种以抗微生物类药物为主,占29.14%;其次为心血管系统用药,占21.55%。结论:医院应提高诊疗质量,加强医患沟通;提高药学服务水平,开展药师用药咨询服务;完善退药管理制度,以减少门诊退药情况的发生。

  16. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  17. Retrospective Analysis of 290 Cases of Drug Consulting Records in the Outpatient Pharmacy%我院290例门诊药物咨询回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓兰; 刘宪军

    2013-01-01

      目的:提高药物咨询质量,促进患者合理用药。方法:采用回顾性方法,对我院门诊药房2011年5月份至2012年4月份290例门诊患者咨询记录进行统计、分析。结果:290例咨询记录中,用法用量咨询占44.48%,药品有无咨询占21.03%,不良反应咨询占6.21%,药理作用及适应征咨询占5.52%,特殊人群用药咨询占4.83%,相互作用咨询占4.14%。结论:咨询药师应具备具备丰富的专业知识、较强的责任心和良好的沟通能力;药物咨询可提高患者用药依从性,促进患者合理用药。%Objective: To improve the quality of drug consultation and promote rational drug use. Methods:290 cases of drug consulting records in our outpaitient pharmacy from May 2011 to April 2012 were analyzed statistically by a retrospective method. Results: The rates of consulting usage and dosage, drug supply, adverse drug reactions, pharmacological action and indications, medication for specific group of people,and drug interactions, showed to be high, and accounted for 44.48%, 21.03%, 6.21%, 5.52%, 4.83%, and 4.14%, respectively. Conclusion: The necessary qualities of medical staff are comprehensive professional knowledge,strong sense of responsibility and good communication skills. Drug consulting is a valid way to improve the drug compliance and promote rational drug use.

  18. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  19. 我院门诊不合理处方常见问题分析及药学服务%The common problems analysis of unreasonable outpatient prescriptions and phar-macy services in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁少丽; 龙丽辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:对不合理处方进行统计分析,提高患者用药的安全性和有效性。方法通过我院药师对2012年第三季度672张不合理处方的分析,揭示我院门诊处方中的常见问题。通过药师对医师、患者面临不合理处方的事前干预总结,提出一些减少不合理处方、改善医患关系的对策。结果不合格处方存在的问题主要为处方修改、用法用量和书写规范性;药师的事前干预是减少不合理处方的基础。结论处方合格率的上升、患者用药安全性和有效性的保证,在一定程度上,依赖于药师不合理处方的事前干预。%Objective To statistically analyze the irrational prescriptions and to improve the safety and effectiveness of medication . Methods The pharmacists in our hospital analyzed 672 unreasonable prescriptions in 2012 ,in order to reveal the common problems of outpatient prescription .Some countermeasures ,which could reduce the number of unreasonable prescriptions and improve the doctor-patient relationship ,were proposed through the prior intervention summary of pharmacists to the irrational prescriptions be-tween doctors and patients .Result The main problems of the unqualified prescriptions were prescription changes ,the usage and dosage ,and the normative writing .The prior intervention of pharmacist was the essential to reduce the irrational prescriptions . Conclusion The rational ratio improvement of clinicians′prescriptions ,and the improvement of the safety and efficacy of the drug using ,in some certain ,relay on the pharmacists′prior intervention to the irrational prescriptions .

  20. Improving pharmacy supply-chain management in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J A; Martin, V; Frank, S

    2000-12-01

    Anesthesia services can account for a significant portion of a healthcare organization's costs. Deaconess Hospital of Evansville, Indiana, used a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to implement process improvements that yielded significant cost savings while improving patient care. Shifting responsibility for drug distribution from the operating room (OR) nurses to a pharmacist, the hospital established a satellite pharmacy service for the OR. As a result, the hospital was able to improve control of drug distribution and record-keeping, reduce turnaround time for medication preparation, lower its medication charge error rate, and increase the percentage of surgeries that start on time. The success of the OR satellite pharmacy led the hospital to expand satellite pharmacy services to labor and delivery, the cardiac cath laboratory, and the intensive care units.

  1. Pharmacy immunization partnerships: a rural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, S A; Madhavan, S S; Borker, R D; Maine, L L

    2001-01-01

    To describe the Pharmacy Immunization Project, a pharmacy/county health department (CHD) partnership model for immunizing infants and adults in rural areas, and to develop service procedures and disseminate lessons learned for adapting the model to different settings. Independent community pharmacies in five contiguous rural counties in West Virginia. Participating pharmacies varied markedly in space, prescription volume, and population of service areas. Childhood and adult immunization service. Pharmacists partnered with nurses from CHDs to offer year-round immunizations at times when other providers were typically closed. Working under standing orders of the CHD medical directors, nurses also conducted routine well-baby examinations in the pharmacy. Promotions involved direct mailing, posters, fliers, direct communication, and ads in newspapers, radio, and TV. Pharmacists' and CHDs' continued willingness to participate, use of the service by local citizens, and feedback from participants and other health care providers and the West Virginia Immunization Program (WVIP). All sites except one continued their participation through the life of the project. The one exception was a pharmacy with few infant patients, which discontinued participation during year 4 of the project. Remaining sites were used and well accepted by the community. The WVIP remains a loyal supporter, and no problems arose with local health care providers. The model appears adaptable to urban as well as rural practice and to chain as well as independent practice in states not authorizing pharmacists to administer vaccines, for pharmacists who for other reasons prefer not to administer, and for those who prefer to offer adult immunization on a seasonal basis. From the CHD perspective, the partnership model is useful in establishing "satellite" locations to target hard-to-reach patients. Recommendations regarding agreements and responsibilities are available, as are lessons learned during project

  2. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Gray

    2015-01-01

    Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  3. New Pharmacy Schools Needed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Russell Teagarden

    2011-01-01

      [...] pharmacy school graduates could have many more options with some adaptations made to their education and training, but, regrettably, these other options are not taken into account by those who...

  4. [Analysis of pharmaceutical intervention in outpatients pharmacy department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Gómez, E; Lázaro López, A; Horta Hernández, A

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar las intervenciones farmacéuticas realizadas en el Área de Pacientes Externos de un hospital de segundo nivel. Métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y descriptivo. La recogida de datos se realizó desde octubre de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2011. Variables analizadas: Número de pacientes, edad, Servicio Clínico prescriptor, patología, problemas relacionados con la medicación (PRMs) y resultados negativos asociados a la medicación (RNM), tipo de intervención farmacéutica y principios activos implicados. Resultados principales: Se realizaron 231 intervenciones farmacéuticas, correspondientes a 231 PRMs detectados en 184 pacientes. Principales PRMs detectados: Interacciones farmacológicas (26%), errores en prescripción (15,6%) e incumplimiento terapéutico (15,6%). Sólo 26 (11,2%) PRMs provocaron RNMs. Las intervenciones principales fueron: recomendar modificaciones en el tratamiento (35,6%), potenciar monitorización de la eficacia del tratamiento (34,6%) y potenciar adherencia a los tratamientos (15,6%). Conclusión: La presencia de un farmacéutico optimiza la farmacoterapia de los pacientes evitando que se produzcan elevado número de RNMs.

  5. 我院门诊药房使用智能发药系统发现的问题与相关改进%Problems and Relative Improvements of Application of Intelligent Dispensing System in Outpatient Phar-macy of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂春; 王俊; 邓艾平; 王奕

    2016-01-01

    目的:为促进门诊药房智能发药系统的有效使用提供参考。方法:分析我院在使用门诊药房智能发药系统过程中出现的主要问题,总结相关改进措施及成效。结果与结论:针对门诊药房智能系统在使用过程中存在的药品效期管理方法烦琐、发药系统设备易发生出药差错、药品上机率低、处方发药窗口分流不均、盘存账物相符率不高、盘存数据汇总操作复杂等问题。我院制订了系列改进措施,包括规范加药规程、合理利用发药系统中的注射剂柜、更改软件设置以缩小各发药窗口的处方分配量、利用Ex-cel软件进行盘存数据的导入和转换等措施。改进后智能发药系统药品有效期管理方法简化且可控,设备出药差错率由0.43%下降到0.33%,药品上机率由59%上升到76%,各取药窗口处方调配数差异缩小,部分药品加药频次由日均16次下降至5次,药品账物相符率由89.1%增加到96.3%,盘存数据汇总耗时缩短等。以上措施不但有效利用了发药设备,且提高了工作效率和工作质量,减少了相关人员的工作量,提高了为患者调配药品的服务水平。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for improving the application of intelligent dispensing system in outpatient phar-macy. METHODS:The main problems existed in intelligent dispensing systems of outpatient pharmacy in our hospital were ana-lyzed,and the relative improvement measures and achievements were summarized. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:There still were some problems which can not be ignored,such as cumbersome drug expiry management method,drug delivery error easily caused by dispensing system,low proportion of drug delivered by machine,uneven distribution of prescription drug windows,low propor-tion of account agreeing with physical inventory,complex inventory data summary. A series of improvement measures were formu-lated in our hospital

  6. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  7. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists’ attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Material and methods. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal ...

  8. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  9. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic

  10. 由我院门诊西药房患者投诉原因谈药品包装、规格的合理性%Discussion of the Rationality of Package Specification of Drugs from the Respective of Patients' Complaint Reasons in Outpatient Western Medicine Pharmacy of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祖萍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for improving patient's satisfaction degree and the rationality of drug package and specification. METHODS: 96 cases of patients' complaints from Jan. To Jun. In 2011 in the outpatient western medicine pharmacy of our hospital were collected and analyzed. Patients were classified according to patient' s age and reasons for complaints were summarized, and the relationship of them with drug package and specification was analyzed. RESULTS: There were 25 cases of children patients (mainly parents' complaint, 26.1% ), 39 cases of middle-aged patients (40.6% ) and 32 cases of elderly patients (33.3%). Reasons for complaints were drug dispensing errors, waiting for a long time to getting medicine, delivering meta-morphotic drugs and bad service attitude. Drug dispensing errors were associated with similar drug package; drug dispensing and subpackging wasted much time so as to take a long time for getting medicine; metamorphotic drugs may result from absence of bubble cap package. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacists should improve comprehensive quality and professional skill and strengthen sense of responsibility to provide high-quality pharmaceutical care for patients; it is suggested enhancing the rationality of drug package, specification and capacity by pharmaceutical enterprises.%目的:为提高患者满意度及药品包装、规格合理性提供参考.方法:通过收集我院2011年1-6月门诊西药房患者投诉登记本记载的96起投诉案例,按患者年龄段分类投诉患者,同时归纳投诉原因,并分析其与药品包装、规格的关系.结果:儿童患者投诉25起(主要为患儿家长投诉,26.1%)、中青年患者投诉39起(40.6%)、老年患者投诉32起(33.3%).投诉原因包括发错药、取药等待时间长、发变质药品、服务态度差.其中发错药与药品外包装相似有一定关系;调配拆零药品耗时多可导致取药等待时间长;药品未采用泡罩包装可导致药品易

  11. Controlling pharmacy costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, S

    1988-01-01

    There are many costs associated with parenteral nutrition: physician time, nursing time, biochemical monitoring, patient education, ancillary equipment and the nutrition solutions themselves. The solutions are easily identified as responsible for a large proportion of these costs. There are several strategies that can be used to help control pharmacy costs, such as selection of ingredients, purchasing contracts, standardized formulae and prescribing procedures, preprinted doctor's order forms, automated manufacturing and labelling processes, patient monitoring, all-in-one preparation, and contracted manufacturing services. Individual pharmacies need to know what options are available in order to select those that, in the context of their own institutions, can lead to cost savings and improved efficiency.

  12. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  13. Discrepancies Between Medical and Pharmacy Records for Patients on Anti-HIV Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, Monique M R; Frankfort, Suzanne V; Mathôt, Ron A A; Mulder, Jan W; Meenhorst, Pieter L; van Gorp, Eric C M; Koks, Cornelis H W; Hoetelmans, Richard M W; de Boer, Anthonius; Beijnen, Jos H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate drug notations in outpatient medical records and in pharmacy records in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: Data on 103 patients were obtained from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1999, by medical chart review and

  14. Discrepancies Between Medical and Pharmacy Records for Patients on Anti-HIV Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, Monique M R; Frankfort, Suzanne V; Mathôt, Ron A A; Mulder, Jan W; Meenhorst, Pieter L; van Gorp, Eric C M; Koks, Cornelis H W; Hoetelmans, Richard M W; de Boer, Anthonius; Beijnen, Jos H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate drug notations in outpatient medical records and in pharmacy records in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: Data on 103 patients were obtained from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1999, by medical chart review and c

  15. Pharmacy management of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, H Eric

    2007-09-01

    Although standard vaccines have traditionally been granted full coverage in managed care, the recent introduction of several novel vaccine products has necessitated the revision of pharmacy management strategies throughout the nation. To review pharmacy management strategies for a number of emerging vaccines, with unique plan perspectives from SelectHealth, an Intermountain Healthcare company serving approximately 500,000 members in Utah. Because several recently introduced vaccines target previously unaddressed diseases and carry higher costs than traditional vaccines, several plans have adapted a novel approach to manage vaccine coverage on an individual product basis. At SelectHealth, recently introduced vaccines for rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus (HPV) have required special attention in terms of pharmacy management. After carefully weighing acquisition and administration costs, anticipated uptake and use, direct and indirect health care costs averted, and quality of life issues, plan leadership decided to cover many of the new vaccines (i.e., rotavirus, RSV, and herpes zoster) under a nonstandard vaccination benefit. However, because substantial cost savings and high use of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was anticipated within SelectHealth, the plan decided to fully cover the product. Although they complicate traditional pharmacy management, novel vaccines provide clinical benefit that managed care organizations cannot ignore. One universal strategy will not suffice in managing all the different vaccines entering the market, and a tailored approach should be employed based on the individual characteristics and use of each product.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of drug-drug interaction screening software in community and hospital pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Jacob; Colon, Lisa R; Wang, Victoria S; Malone, Daniel C; Murphy, John E; Armstrong, Edward P

    2006-06-01

    Computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening is widely used to identify potentially harmful drug combinations in the inpatient and outpatient setting. To evaluate the performance of drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening software in identifying select clinically significant DDIs in pharmacy computer systems in community and hospital pharmacies. Ten community pharmacies and 10 hospital pharmacies in the Tucson metropolitan area were invited to participate in the study in 2004. To test the performance of each of the systems used by the pharmacies, 25 medications were used to create 6 mock patient profiles containing 37 drug-drug pairs, 16 of which are clinically meaningful DDIs that pose a potential risk to patient safety. Each profile was entered into the computer pharmacy system, and the system response in terms of the presence or absence of a DDI alert was recorded for each drug pair. The percentage of correct responses and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each system to correctly classify each drug pair as a DDI or not was calculated. Summary statistics of these measures were calculated separately for community and hospital pharmacies. Eight community pharmacies and 5 hospital pharmacies in the Tucson metropolitan area agreed to participate in the study. The median sensitivity and median specificity for community pharmacies was 0.88 (range, 0.81-0.94) and 0.91 (range, 0.67-1.00), respectively. For hospital pharmacies, the median sensitivity and median specificity was 0.38 (range, 0.15-0.94) and 0.95 (range, 0.81-0.95), respectively. Based on this convenience sample of 8 community pharmacies and 5 hospital pharmacies in 1 metropolitan area, the performance of community pharmacy computer systems in screening DDIs appears to have improved over the last several years compared with research published previously in 2001. However, significant variation remains in the performance of hospital pharmacy computer

  17. Importance of social pharmacy education in Libyan pharmacy schools: perspectives from pharmacy practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Saad Saleh Abrika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the perceptions among pharmacy practitioners in Libya on the importance of social pharmacy education. A qualitative methodology was employed to conduct this study. Using a purposive sampling technique, a total of ten Libyan registered pharmacists were interviewed. Based on the content analysis of the interviews, two major themes emerged, namely the understanding of social pharmacy education and the need for incorporating social pharmacy courses into the pharmacy education curriculum. The majority of the respondents knew about the concept. Of those that had no prior knowledge of this term, half of them expressed interest in knowing more about it. There was a positive perception of introducing social pharmacy into the undergraduate curricula among the respondents, and they believed that it is necessary for future pharmacists to know about social pharmacy components. The findings from the pharmacy practitioners??evaluation suggest the need to incorporate social pharmacy courses into the curricula of all pharmacy schools in Libya.

  18. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  19. Outpatient Imaging Efficiency - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Use of medical imaging - state data. These measures give you information about hospitals' use of medical imaging tests for outpatients. Examples of medical imaging...

  20. Outpatient Imaging Efficiency - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Use of medical imaging - national data. These measures give you information about hospitals' use of medical imaging tests for outpatients. Examples of medical...

  1. Outpatient Imaging Efficiency - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Use of medical imaging - provider data. These measures give you information about hospitals' use of medical imaging tests for outpatients. Examples of medical...

  2. Potential Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    OpenAIRE

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compoun...

  3. ASHP statement on the pharmacy technician's role in pharmacy informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.

  4. Student Mentors in Pharmacy Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated use of upper-level undergraduate pharmacy students, rather than graduate students, as mentors/teaching assistants in a pharmacy ethics course. Course participants felt the student mentors facilitated their successful completion of the course, and that carefully selected, trained, and supported upper-level undergraduate student…

  5. Measuring empathy in pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjortoft, Nancy; Van Winkle, Lon J; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2011-08-10

    To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Two factors, "perspective-taking" and "compassionate care," emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students.

  6. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.

  7. Infections in outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian Mobin, Sheila S; Keyes, Geoffrey R; Singer, Robert; Yates, James; Thompson, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    In the plastic surgery patient population, outpatient surgery is cost effective and will continue to grow as the preferred arena for performing surgery in healthy patients. Although there is a widespread myth that outpatient surgery centers may suffer from increased infection rates due to lax infection control, the data presented from American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities-accredited facilities prove the contrary. There is a lack of data investigating infection prevention in the perioperative period in plastic surgery patients. As data collection becomes more refined, tracking the postoperative care environment should offer additional opportunities to lower the incidence of postoperative infections.

  8. Attitude of fourth year Doctor of Pharmacy students towards pharmacy profession and their career preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Saad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.

  9. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  10. Predicting tobacco sales in community pharmacies using population demographics and pharmacy type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Lisa M; Farris, Karen B; Peterson, N Andrew; Aquilino, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the population demographics of the location of pharmacies were associated with tobacco sales in pharmacies, when controlling for pharmacy type. Retrospective analysis. Iowa. All retailers in Iowa that obtained tobacco licenses and all pharmacies registered with the Iowa Board of Pharmacy in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND INTERVENTIONS: Percentage of pharmacies selling tobacco (examined by pharmacy type using chi-square analysis); median income and distribution of race/ethnicity in the county for pharmacies that did or did not sell tobacco (t tests); predictors of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco (logistic regression using the independent variables county-level demographic variables and pharmacy characteristics). County gender composition, race/ethnicity make-up, and income levels were different for tobacco-selling and -nonselling pharmacies. Logistic regression showed that whether a pharmacy sold tobacco was strongly dependent on the type of pharmacy; compared with independent pharmacies (of which only 5% sold tobacco products), chain pharmacies were 34 times more likely to sell tobacco products, mass merchandiser outlets were 47 times more likely to stock these goods, and grocery stores were 378 times more likely to do so. Pharmacies selling tobacco were more likely to be located in counties with significantly higher numbers of multiracial groups. The best predictor of whether an Iowa pharmacy sells tobacco products is type of pharmacy. In multivariable analyses, population demographics of the county in which pharmacies were located were generally not predictive of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco.

  11. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...

  12. Opportunities and challenges in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...

  13. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.

  14. Clinical Pharmacy Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Melody; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States. PMID:19325949

  15. College/school of pharmacy affiliation and community pharmacies' involvement in public health activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C; Mount, Jeanine; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree

    2009-11-12

    To examine the relationship between pharmacy college/school affiliation and community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness activities. Telephone interviews were completed with 1,704 community pharmacies randomly sampled from 17 states to determine the pharmacies' involvement in immunization promotion, vaccine distribution, in-house immunization delivery, and health emergency preparedness and response, affiliation with college/school of pharmacy, and selected pharmacy and public health-related characteristics. Pharmacy college/school-affiliated community pharmacies were more likely than non-affiliated pharmacies to participate in immunization and emergency preparedness when controlling for pharmacy characteristics. College/school affiliation generally became nonsignificant, however, when public health-related characteristics were included in the analysis. Affiliation with a college/school of pharmacy was related to community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness.

  16. Pharmacy Dashboard: An Innovative Process for Pharmacy Workload and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Ashley; Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work.

  17. Pharmacy school survey standards revisited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mészáros, Károly; Barnett, Mitchell J; Lenth, Russell V; Knapp, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    ..., and these criteria are reflected in the Author Instructions provided on the Journal's Web site. This paper discusses the relevance of these criteria for publication of survey research regarding pharmacy colleges and schools...

  18. [The role of home palliative care by health insurance pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taneko

    2011-12-01

    Our Pharmacy has been practicing pharmaceutical management guidance for 69 homecare patients in the last 13 years. After we started a home parenteral nutrition service, an opportunity to work with the end-stage cancer patient was increased. To contribute to the patient and community health team, we have practiced pharmaceutical management guidance for homecare patient based on the medical and pharmacology point of view with other area of occupational people. We distributed a pain diary and medical usage of drug guidance to the end-stage cancer outpatients. We also made a drug instructional manual and provided a proper prescription to the patient. Because of our efforts, we believe that we had good consistent results from the end-stage cancer outpatients. On the other hand, we have a lot of problems that have to be resolved. They are associated with medical treatment fee, drug dispensing fee, pharmacy management pressure felt from a low dispensing fee, poor quality stocked narcotic drugs and a low recognition of the pharmacist from the patients and regional community medical team. We believe that we can contribute more to the patients, if we can overcome these problems.

  19. Management of Outpatient Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Waslen, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    The severity of burns depends on the depth and extent of body surface involved. The total body surface area (TBSA) involved can be estimated by the ‘rule of nines’; body locations are 9% of body surface or multiples of nine. Depth and TBSA can be used to classify burns as minor, moderate, or critical. Diagnosis depends on history and physical examination. Most burns can be treated in an outpatient setting. Treatment should include debriding necrotic tissue, preventing infection and encouragin...

  20. Drug utilization and cost in a Medicaid population: A simulation study of community vs. mail order pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoane-Vazquez Enrique

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outpatient drugs are dispensed through both community and mail order pharmacies. There is no empirical evidence that substitution of community pharmacy with mail order reduces overall drug expenditures. The need for evaluating the potential effects on utilization and costs of the possible extension of mail order services in Medicaid provides the rationale for conducting this study. This study compares drug utilization and drug product cost in community vs. mail order pharmacy dispensing services in a Medicaid population. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study comparing utilization and cost patterns in community vs. mail order pharmacy. A simulation model was employed to assess drug utilization and cost in mail order pharmacy using community pharmacy claim data. The model assumed that courses of drug therapy (CDT in mail order pharmacy would have utilization patterns similar to those found in community pharmacy. A 95% confidence interval surrounding changes in average utilization and average cost were estimated using bootstrap analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying drug selection criteria and supply, fill point, and medication possession ratio (MPR. Sub-analyses were performed to address differences between mail order and community pharmacy related to therapeutic class and dual-eligible patients. Data for the study derived from pharmacy claims database of Ohio Medicaid State program for the period January 2000-September 2004. Drug claims were aggregated to obtain a set of CDTs representing unique patient IDs and unique drug products. Drug product cost estimates excluded dispensing fees and were used to estimate the cost reduction required in mail order to become cost neutral in comparison with community pharmacy. Results The baseline model revealed that the use of mail order vs. community pharmacy would result in a 5.5% increase in drug utilization and a 5.4% cost reduction required in mail order

  1. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  2. A public health pharmacy course at a Malaysian pharmacy school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Ahmed, Syed Imran

    2009-11-12

    To develop and implement a new course on public health into the bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum in Malaysia. A required 2-credit-hour course was designed to provide an overview of public health pharmacy roles and the behavioral aspects of human healthcare issues. Graded activities included nursing home visits, in-class quizzes, mini-projects, and poster sessions, and a comprehensive final examination. The majority of the students performed well on the class activities and 93 (71.5%) of the 130 students enrolled received a grade of B or higher. A Web-based survey was administered at the end of the semester and 90% of students indicated that they had benefited from the course and were glad that it was offered. The majority of students agreed that the course made an impact in preparing them for their future role as pharmacists and expanded their understanding of the public health roles of a pharmacist. A public health pharmacy course was successfully designed and implemented in the BPharm curriculum. This study highlighted the feasibilities of introducing courses that are of global relevance into a Malaysian pharmacy curriculum. The findings from the students' evaluation suggest the needs to incorporate a similar course in all pharmacy schools in the country and will be used as a guide to improve the contents and methods of delivery of the course at our school.

  3. Pharmacy Education Development In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Peymani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in 1922, a pharmacy division was set up atthe school of medicine. In 1926, the first union of Iranianpharmacy students who had graduated in France and returnedto Iran. Duration of this course was 3 years. In 1939 this coursechanges to 4-years program and 140 Credits. After that TehranUniversity changed the Pharmacy degree from Masters todoctorate (Pharm.D. and the duration of the study wasincreased to 5 years [1, 2].During all these years pharmacy department were belongto faculty of medicine. In 1956 the first faculty of pharmacywas established. Then, in 1973 each academic year waschanged into two semesters. After this modification, Pharmacystudents would get their Pharm.D degree after writing thesesand taking an oath [1]. Graduates need to present and defendtheir theses in different fields of pharmacy and this addsanother year to their studies and generally after 6 yearsstudents can graduate as Doctor in Pharmacy. The Pharm.Ddegree program requires at least 2-years of specific preprofessional(undergraduate coursework followed by 4-academic years of professional study. Pharmacy colleges andschools accept students directly from high school for Pharm.Dprogram [3].When Iranian students finished eight years of primaryschool and four years of high school in natural sciences(Experimental Sciences Diploma, can attend a nationalentrance exam for universities. At now, we have 16 faculty ofpharmacy in university of medical sciences. After Fivesemesters which is equal to 90-100 credits of general and basicsciences study, students entrance National test named “thebasic sciences exam” which is held for pharmacy students[3].

  4. Opportunities for pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip J

    2007-07-15

    To summarize key points from the most recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Preventing Medication Errors, and their relevance to health-system pharmacists. Creating a culture of safety is an important antecedent to making changes needed to reduce medication errors. The patient can play an important, but often unrealized, role in preventing medication errors. There are considerable opportunities to improve the application of technology to prevent medication errors. The National Hospital Pharmacy surveys conducted ty the American Society of Health- System Pharmacists have demonstrated the slow rate of adoption of technologies. Pharmacists can play a leadership role in improving both the patients' role and the use of technology to improve medication-use safety. There are major opportunities for pharmacists to re-think how involved patients are in their care in the institutional setting, by seeing patients as building another check into the medication-use system and by recommitting ourselves to getting patients involved. There are also opportunities to help with patient-safety technology decisions. These extremely expensive technologies almost always involve people changing what they do and their implementation and use often involve other people besides pharmacists, yet the potential is great for new technologies to reduce medication errors.

  5. The future of pain pharmacy: driven by need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson TJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Timothy J Atkinson, Alev H Gulum, William G Forkum Veteran Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Murfreesboro, TN, USA Background: Opioid prescribing has increased by ~400% over the past 20 years in the US and has been correlated with dramatic increases in accidental overdose-related deaths. Emerging evidence of serious dose-dependent side effects of opioid analgesics has led to recommendations from multinational pain societies and governments to decrease opioid doses and increase referrals to pain specialists. Demand for pain specialists of all types has increased; however, training programs for health care professionals struggle to satisfy this need. Objective: The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of clinical pharmacy specialists in pain management and to discuss available residency training programs and subspecialties within each program. Methods: We surveyed all eleven accredited pharmacy postgraduate year two (PGY-2 Pain and Palliative Care Residency programs in the US. Program information was derived from interviews with residency directors, current residents, program brochures, and residency Web sites. Data collected included core, elective, and longitudinal rotations, with the time frame dedicated to each experience. Primary practice areas, as well as inpatient vs outpatient focus, were also documented. Additionally, a review of the available literature was completed to determine the areas in greatest need for future pain specialists. Results: Pharmacy pain specialists have been referenced as highly effective additions to interdisciplinary pain management teams. Pharmacists provide expertise in complex pain medication management, which remains the primary focus of most chronic pain encounters. The PGY-2 programs surveyed differ considerably, with the majority providing significant emphasis to either acute pain management or palliative care with brief or limited exposure to chronic pain management. Four of the eleven

  6. 76 FR 51415 - Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On... to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., d/b/a Esplanade Pharmacy (Registrant), of New Orleans, Louisiana. The Show Cause Order proposed the revocation of...

  7. Disillusionment in Pharmacy Students: A Reconsideration with the Advent of Clinical Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, William M.; Speranza, Kenneth A., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study with 168 students from three professional classes at the University of Connecticut's School of Pharmacy suggest that clinical pharmacy education may overcome the disillusionment toward pharmacy shown to develop in pharmacy students as they progress through a professional curriculum. (LBH)

  8. Errors associated with outpatient computerized prescribing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Salzberg, Claudia; Keohane, Carol A; Zigmont, Katherine; Devita, Jim; Gandhi, Tejal K; Dalal, Anuj K; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the frequency, types, and causes of errors associated with outpatient computer-generated prescriptions, and to develop a framework to classify these errors to determine which strategies have greatest potential for preventing them. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 3850 computer-generated prescriptions received by a commercial outpatient pharmacy chain across three states over 4 weeks in 2008. A clinician panel reviewed the prescriptions using a previously described method to identify and classify medication errors. Primary outcomes were the incidence of medication errors; potential adverse drug events, defined as errors with potential for harm; and rate of prescribing errors by error type and by prescribing system. Results Of 3850 prescriptions, 452 (11.7%) contained 466 total errors, of which 163 (35.0%) were considered potential adverse drug events. Error rates varied by computerized prescribing system, from 5.1% to 37.5%. The most common error was omitted information (60.7% of all errors). Discussion About one in 10 computer-generated prescriptions included at least one error, of which a third had potential for harm. This is consistent with the literature on manual handwritten prescription error rates. The number, type, and severity of errors varied by computerized prescribing system, suggesting that some systems may be better at preventing errors than others. Conclusions Implementing a computerized prescribing system without comprehensive functionality and processes in place to ensure meaningful system use does not decrease medication errors. The authors offer targeted recommendations on improving computerized prescribing systems to prevent errors. PMID:21715428

  9. Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmocology: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)

  10. Understanding Business Models in Pharmacy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdford, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to define business models, contrast the business models in pharmacy schools, and discuss issues that can arise from misunderstandings about whom pharmacy schools serve and how they do so. PMID:28720910

  11. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamoudi, N M; Shirwaikar, A A; Ali, H S; Al Ayoubi, E I

    2011-01-01

    .... Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians...

  12. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...

  13. Pediatric outpatient anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannallah, R S

    1987-02-01

    Successful anesthetic management of children undergoing outpatient surgery requires that the surgeon and anesthesiologist be actively involved in all aspects of management. Guidelines should be established in consultation with the surgeons, nurses, and administrators to ensure proper selection and preoperative preparation of patients. The psychological evaluation and preparation of children, and the use of pharmacologic premedication when indicated, will ensure a pleasant experience for all involved. The anesthesiologist should choose a specific anesthetic agent and a technique that are appropriate for each individual child. Use of "routine" induction techniques is rarely, if ever, appropriate. Early ambulation and discharge are very desirable in outpatients. Long-acting drugs and techniques that are associated with excessive drowsiness or nausea and vomiting should not be utilized. Special attention must be paid to the analgesic requirements of the child. Regional blocks should be used whenever possible to supplement "light" general anesthesia and to limit the need for narcotics during recovery. Specific criteria for discharge ensure the safety and protection of the child and staff.

  14. A Novel Clinical Pharmacy Management System in Improving the Rational Drug Use in Department of General Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Bao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system is widely used to improve work efficiency of hospitals in China. However, it is lack of the function providing pharmaceutical information service for clinical pharmacists. A novel clinical pharmacy management system developed by our hospital was introduced to improve the work efficiency of clinical pharmacists in our hospital and to carry out large sample statistical analyzes by providing pharmacy information services and promoting rational drug use. Clinical pharmacy management system was developed according to the actual situation. Taking prescription review in the department of general surgery as the example, work efficiency of clinical pharmacists, quality and qualified rates of prescriptions before and after utilizing clinical pharmacy management system were compared. Statistics of 48,562 outpatient and 5776 inpatient prescriptions of the general surgical department were analyzed. Qualified rates of both the inpatient and outpatient prescriptions of the general surgery department increased, and the use of antibiotics decreased. This system apparently improved work efficiency, standardized the level and accuracy of drug use, which will improve the rational drug use and pharmacy information service in our hospital. Meanwhile, utilization of prophylactic antibiotics for the aseptic operations also reduced.

  15. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and...

  16. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...

  17. Motivational interviewing and specialty pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bruce A; Bertram, Carl T

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented in substance abuse and health care literature that motivational interviewing is an evidenced-based and effective intervention for influencing patient behaviors and associated positive health outcomes. The introduction of motivational interviewing training in specialty pharmacy has great potential to increase patient and pharmacist satisfaction, maximize adherence rates, and improve health outcomes. This commentary examines the need for effective approaches for improving patient adherence and outcomes and briefly describes the history and efficacy of motivational interviewing. Case studies using traditional approaches to patient care and motivational interviewing are analysed, and real-world experience using motivational interviewing is presented in the form of a specialty pharmacy case study.

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  19. Pharmacy benefit managers, pharmacies, and pharmacogenomic testing: prescription for progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Eric J

    2010-08-11

    Few would argue that the ability to match individual patients with the safest and most effective drugs and doses would be a major advance for clinical medicine. But while clinicians have been reluctant to routinely use pharmacogenomic analyses to guide their prescribing practices, pharmacy benefit managers and drugstores are proceeding with major pharmacogenetic initiatives.

  20. Market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Singh, Reshmi L; Cline, Richard R; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2006-09-01

    From a pharmacist workforce perspective, an understanding of pharmacy location is important for monitoring access points for pharmacist services such as medication dispensing, medication counseling, medication therapy management, and disease management. To understand access to community pharmacies, our goal was to describe changes in pharmacy mix (independent vs chain) between 1992 and 2002 for 87 counties in Minnesota. Study objectives were to describe the association of (1) change in population density, (2) metropolitan designation, change in (3) proportion of nonwhite population, (4) proportion of elderly population, and (5) household income with change in (a) number of community pharmacies overall, (b) number of chain pharmacies, (c) number of independent pharmacies, and (d) the independent-to-total community pharmacy ratio. Records from the State of Minnesota Board of Pharmacy were used to examine changes in the community pharmacy mix from 1992 to 2002. Data on county level demographics in 1990 and 2000 were obtained from the US Census Bureau and Datanet. Chi-square analysis was used to test the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. As of 2002, every county in Minnesota had at least one pharmacy as was the case in 1992. The ratio of independent to chain pharmacies changed from approximately 2:1 in 1992 to approximately 1:1 in 2002. Chi-square results revealed that change in population density was significantly associated with change in the number of community pharmacies overall (Pchain pharmacies (P=0.03). The findings revealed an interesting u-shaped pattern for the association between population density and change in independent pharmacies. It appears that chain pharmacies follow changes in population density for making decisions about market entry and exit. The results suggest that some independent pharmacies might be closing due to chain competition in high population density growth areas. However, there was also evidence to

  1. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2015: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212

  2. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  3. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    2016-01-01

    Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...

  4. Community pharmacy practice in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nousheen Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.

  5. Action research in pharmacy practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2015-01-01

    -based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...

  6. Effect of pharmaceutical care on clinical outcomes of outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hua Shao,1 Guoming Chen,1 Chao Zhu,2 Yongfei Chen,1 Yamin Liu,1 Yuxing He,2 Hui Jin3 1Department of Pharmacy, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 3Department of Endocrinology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Background: In the People’s Republic of China, outpatients have limited time with their physicians. Thus, compared to inpatients, outpatients have lower medication adherence and are less knowledgeable about their disease.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pharmaceutical care on clinical outcomes of outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: A randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial was conducted recruiting a total of 240 T2DM outpatients from Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University. ­The control group (CG received only common care from medical staff, whereas the inter­vention group (IG received extra pharmaceutical care from clinical pharmacists. Biochemical data such as blood pressure (BP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin A1 (HbA1c, and blood lipid were collected before and after 6-month intervention. The primary end points in this study were FBG and HbA1c.Results: After the intervention, most of the baseline clinical outcomes of the patients in IG significantly improved, while only body mass index, diastolic BP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol (TC improved significantly in patients in the CG. Compared to CG, in IG, there were significant improvements in FBG, HbA1c, TC, the target attainment rates of HbA1c, and BP.Conclusion: Pharmaceutical care provided by clinical pharmacists could improve the control of diabetes of outpatients, and clinical pharmacists could play an important role in diabetes management. Keywords: clinical pharmacist, pharmaceutical care, type 2

  7. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...

  8. Osteoarthrosis in outpatient practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreyevna Galushko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to elucidate the awareness of osteoarthrosis - OA (the most common location and treatment methods among primary care physicians. Subjects and methods. The questionnaire developed at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, was used to interview 1912 specialists (therapists, rheumatologists, neurologists, and surgeons who made a primary outpatient reception in the local polyclinics of 25 Russian Federation’s cities with a population of more than 500,000. Results. In the opinion of the physicians of all specialties, knee joints turned out to be the most location of OA. In practice, the rheumatologists encountered knee, hip, and hand joint lesions in OA in 92, 42, and 38%, respectively. Analysis of therapeutic preferences has shown that virtually all the physicians prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and only two thirds do structure-modifying drugs (chondroprotectors for OA patients. When treating OA, only the rheumatologists use slow-acting drugs in practically 100% of cases, by preferring chondroitin sulfate. The physicians of all specialties use topical glucocorticoid therapy extensively. The rheumatologists use this therapy most probably due to the fact that patients with severe polyarticular OA come to see them. Notwithstanding the fact that new guidelines for the treatment of OA were published in 2008, most physicians are oriented to the 1995 guidelines, frequently giving rise to therapeutic errors and wrong treatment.

  9. Social Pharmacy: Its Performance and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.

  10. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  11. Comparison of patients' expectations and experiences at traditional pharmacies and pharmacies offering enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-06-15

    To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.

  12. Pediatric emergency department discharge prescriptions requiring pharmacy clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle C; Gittelman, Michael A; Widecan, Michelle L; Luria, Joseph W

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze and classify reasons why retail pharmacies need to contact the pediatric emergency department (PED) for clarification on outpatient prescriptions generated using an electronic prescribing system and to categorize the severity of errors captured. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a PED that cares for approximately 92,000 patients annually. All pharmacy callbacks documented in the electronic medical record between August 1, 2008 and July 31, 2009 were included. A datasheet was used to capture patient demographics (age, sex, race, insurance), prescriptions written, and reason for callback. Each call was then assigned a severity level, and time to respond to all calls was estimated. Frequencies were used to analyze the data. A total of 731 errors for 695 callbacks were analyzed from 49,583 prescriptions written at discharge. The most common errors included administrative/insurance issues 342/731 (47%) and prescription writing errors 298/731 (41%). The errors were classified as insignificant (340/729 [47%]), problematic (288/729 [40%]), significant (77/729 [11%]), serious (12/729 [1.64%]), and severe (12/729 [1.64%]). Almost 96% of errant prescriptions were not able to be filled as originally written and required a change by the prescriber. These calls required approximately 127 hours to complete. Prescription errors requiring a pharmacy callback are typically insignificant. However, 13.8% of callbacks about an error were considered significant, serious, or severe. Automated dose checking and verifying insurance coverage of prescribed medications should be considered essential components of prescription writing in a PED.

  13. Reducing wait time in a hospital pharmacy to promote customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E; Dickinson, Alyce M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different interventions on wait times at a hospital outpatient pharmacy: (1) giving feedback to employees about customer satisfaction with wait times and (2) giving a combined intervention package that included giving more specific feedback about actual wait times and goal setting for wait time reduction in addition to the customer satisfaction feedback. The relationship between customer satisfaction ratings and wait times was examined to determine whether wait times affected customer service satisfaction. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCBA' within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction; and A' was a follow-up condition that was similar to the original baseline condition. Wait times were reduced by approximately 20%, and there was concomitant increased shift in levels of customer satisfaction, as indicated by the correlation between these variables (r = -0.57 and P customer's wait time. Data from this study may provide useful preliminary benchmarking data for standard pharmacy wait times.

  14. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  15. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription, and the date of transmittal; (2) Ensure that... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial...

  16. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    .... When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training...

  17. The 2011 PHARMINE report on pharmacy and pharmacy education in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart

    2011-10-01

    The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students' Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. THE CONSORTIUM SURVEYED PHARMACIES AND PHARMACISTS IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU.

  18. Pharmacy Locations, Pharmacies, licensed - name, address, contact info, Published in 2006, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pharmacy Locations dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Pharmacies, licensed - name,...

  19. The future of pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Almarsdottir, Anna Birna

    2015-01-01

    The chapter starts by outlining the current and future scenario related to pharmacy practice research. This chapter then sets the scene by discussing issues that are pertinent for practice research. These issues are changes in population demographics; changes in technology, the role of the pharmacy...... as an institution and consumer behaviour; as well as changes in the pharmacy profession. It also outlines the major shifts in pharmacy practice research, which include interprofessional collaboration and teamwork with patients, describing and measuring outcomes of interventions as well as patients’ cultural...... diversity. It concludes by drawing attention to methodologies that would be most commonly used in future pharmacy practice research. Some of the future methodological challenges could be the emergence of big and complex data sets, dealing with electronic health records and pharmacy practice researchers...

  20. Rural pharmacy in Canada: pharmacist training, workforce capacity and research partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Soon, Judith A.; Levine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To characterize rural health care and pharmacy recruitment and retention issues explored in Canadian pharmacy strategic guidelines and Canadian Faculties of Pharmacy curricula; compare the availability of pharmacy workforce across Canadian jurisdictions; and identify models for potential collaborations between universities and rural pharmacies in the North. Methods. Review of Canadian pharmacy strategic documents, Canadian Faculty of Pharmacy websites, Canadian pharmacy workforce ...

  1. Use of pharmacy informatics resources by clinical pharmacy services in acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Gregory T; Weeks, Douglas L

    2009-11-01

    The use of pharmacy informatics resources by clinical pharmacy services and the presence of a pharmacy informatics specialist in acute care hospitals were evaluated. Two hundred randomly selected pharmacies in general medical and surgical hospitals in the United States with at least 100 acute care beds were surveyed via mail. Survey items gathered information regarding facility attributes, opinions about staff pharmacists' understanding of information technology, and departmental utilization of pharmacy informatics. Of the 200 surveys mailed, 114 (57%) were returned completed. When asked to rate their departments' use of pharmacy informatics, 82% indicated that pharmacy informatics use was good or fair, while 12% considered information use to be optimized. A majority of respondents (60%) indicated that a pharmacy informatics specialist was employed within the pharmacy, with 47% indicating that the specialist was a pharmacist. An overwhelming percentage of these pharmacists received informatics training on the job, and roughly half had specialty positions integrated into their pharmacist job description. No significant association existed between the use of pharmacy informatics and facility teaching status (teaching versus nonteaching), geographic location (urban versus rural), or use of computerized prescriber order entry. Employment of a pharmacy informatics specialist was significantly associated with the use of such informatics applications as database mining, renal-dosing-rules engines, antibiotic-pathogen matching-rules engines, and pharmacokinetic-monitoring rules engines. The use of clinical pharmacy informatics in patient care in acute care hospitals with at least 100 beds was significantly more likely when a pharmacy informatics specialist was present in the pharmacy. However, 4 in 10 hospital pharmacies did not employ a pharmacy informatics specialist.

  2. Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee

    2016-08-01

    Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.

  3. Potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions dispensed in community and hospital pharmacies in East of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dirin, Mandana Moradi; Mousavi, Sarah; Afshari, Amir Reza; Tabrizian, Kaveh; Ashrafi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aim to evaluate and compare type and prevalence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in prescriptions dispensed in both community and hospital setting in Zabol, Iran. Methods: A total of 2796 prescriptions were collected from community and inpatient and outpatient pharmacy of Amir-al-momenin only current acting hospital in Zabol, Iran. The prescriptions were processed using Lexi-Comp drug interaction software. The identified DDIs were categorized into five classes (A, B, C, ...

  4. To explore the standardization of the hospital pharmacy management%医院药房的规范化管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐姞

    2015-01-01

    医院药房主要负责审核调配处方和提供药学咨询服务,是医院的重要职能部门,是直接面对患者的窗口,如何保证药房质量管理、改变服务理念、提升服务层次、为患者提供高品质的药学服务,本文对此谈几点粗浅的认识。%With the development of the society, pharmacy management mechanism, the system will inevitably to the scientific management, standardized management, legal management transformation, truly for the masses to provide efficient, safe and cheap drugs. Outpatient pharmacy, ward pharmacy, pharmacy department of hospital pharmacy, such as integrating technology, management, management of comprehensive institutions. The stand or fall of pharmacy management not only affect their own work, also directly affect the curative effect of drugs, the patients' medical security, the hospital's image, and each patient's vital interest, relates to the reputation of the hospital in the community and the long-term development of hospital. The pharmacy is an important part of the work floor management, pharmacy staff sense of responsibility is the premise of providing high quality pharmaceutical care for patients, standardization, institutionalization, modernization and scientific management is the important guarantee to improve the quality of pharmaceutical care. Therefore, the standardized management of the hospital pharmacy has very important significance. The author combines the actual conditions of their own work, talk to a pharmacy management point of view.

  5. The development of quality indicators for community pharmacy care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, J. de; Kijlstra, N.B.; Daemen, B.J.G.; Bouvy, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To develop a national system of quality indicators for community pharmacy care, reported by community pharmacies. Methods: After preliminary validation, an online consensus study was conducted. Pharmacy practice experts (round 1) and practising pharmacists (round 2) were approached.

  6. Rural pharmacy closures: implications for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Kelli; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius based on driving distance ("sole community pharmacy"), may affect access to prescription and over-the-counter drugs and, in some cases, leave the community without proximate access to any clinical provider. This policy brief documents the closure of local retail pharmacies in which the pharmacist was the only clinical provider available in the community at the time the pharmacy closed. Characteristics of the community and the retail pharmacy are described. The findings may suggest future policy actions to minimize the risk or mitigate the negative consequences of pharmacy closures. Key Findings. (1) Between May 1, 2006, and October 31, 2010, 119 sole community pharmacies closed. (2) Of those 119 pharmacies, 31 were located in rural communities with no other health professionals or clinical providers. (3) In 16 states, at least 1 community lost a sole community retail pharmacy, and there was no other pharmacy within 10 miles (actual driving distance). (4) Of the 31 pharmacy closures in communities with no other providers, 17% were located in remote rural areas designated with a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) score of 10 or higher. Such a score means that, on average, 60 minutes of travel time is required to reach an urbanized area, and 40 minutes is required to reach a large urban cluster of 20,000 population or more.

  7. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Paradis, Johanne; Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The lack of interest of researchers in relation to question of hospital pharmacy management, and the status quo of existing managerial practices serving the reforms, justifies analysis of theoretical foundations of hospital pharmacy management. The objective is twofold. First, provide an overview of the socio-historical eras of the organizational theories in order to position the hospital pharmacy management on the axis of the changing ways of thinking about the organization and management. S...

  8. Taking the pulse of Internet pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Peterson, R T; Huang, L

    2001-01-01

    Like most businesses, online pharmacy companies will only be successful if they make sure customers are satisfied with the service they receive. But what attributes of service quality lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction? This study identified 19 Internet pharmacy service quality dimensions in three categories: (1) product cost and availability, (2) customer service, and (3) the online information system. Our analysis uncovered attributes that tend to determine consumer satisfaction and points out ways to improve overall service quality in the Internet pharmacy arena.

  9. Benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-10-11

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.

  10. Evaluation of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire in European community pharmacies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phipps, D.L.; Bie, J. de; Herborg, H.; Guerreiro, M.; Eickhoff, C.; Fernandes-Llimos, F.; Bouvy, M.L.; Rossing, C.; Mueller, U.; Ashcroft, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) when applied to a pan-European sample of community pharmacies. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Setting: Community pharmacies in Denmark,

  11. Pharmacy Education in the Context of Australian Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Jennifer L.; Nation, Roger L.; Roller, Louis; Costelloe, Marian; Galbraith, Kirstie; Stewart, Peter; Charman, William N.

    2008-01-01

    Accredited pharmacy programs in Australia provide a high standard of pharmacy education, attracting quality students. The principal pharmacy degree remains the 4-year bachelor of pharmacy degree; however, some universities offer graduate-entry master of pharmacy degrees taught in 6 semesters over a 2-year period. Curricula include enabling and applied pharmaceutical science, pharmacy practice, and clinical and experiential teaching, guided by competency standards and an indicative curriculum ...

  12. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire...

  13. Multiple pharmacy use and types of pharmacies used to obtain prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Kevin A; Mott, David A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate trends and patterns in the prevalence of multiple pharmacy use (MPU) and to describe the number and types of pharmacies used by multiple pharmacy users from 2003 to 2009. Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. United States from 2003 to 2009. 89,941 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey over 7 years. Analysis of respondent pharmacy use behaviors. Annual use of more than one pharmacy and number and types of pharmacies used. MPU among patients using medications increased significantly during the study period (from 36.4% [95% CI 35.2-37.6] in 2003 to 43.2% [41.9-44.4] in 2009)-a relative increase of 18.7% ( P = 0.01). Multiple pharmacy users used between 2 and 17 different pharmacies per year to obtain prescription medications. Although approximately 70% of multiple pharmacy users used only two pharmacies, the proportion using three or more pharmacies increased from 24.1% (22.5-25.7) in 2003 to 29.1% (27.4-30.8) in 2009. Mail service pharmacy use had the largest relative increase among multiple pharmacy users during the study period (27.2%), and MPU was nearly twice as high (75%) among mail service users compared with non-mail service users. MPU is common on a national level and has increased greatly in recent years. Patient use of pharmacies that have the potential to share medication information electronically is low among multiple pharmacy users, suggesting increased workload for pharmacists and potential medication safety concerns. This has important implications for pharmacists, as it potentially impedes their ability to maintain accurate medication profiles for patients.

  14. Considerations in Determining the Ideal Pharmacy Residency Candidate/RE: Considerations in Determining the Ideal Pharmacy Residency Candidate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardis M Copenhaver; Jennie B Jarrett; Jennifer Phillips; Jacob P Gettig

    2017-01-01

    Every year the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Match for pharmacy residency programs becomes more competitive as the pool of applicants outnumbers available pharmacy residency positions...

  15. Fellowships in community pharmacy research: Experiences of five schools and colleges of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margie E; Frail, Caitlin K; Gernant, Stephanie A; Bacci, Jennifer L; Coley, Kim C; Colip, Lauren M; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; McGivney, Melissa Somma; Rodis, Jennifer L; Smith, Megan G; Smith, Randall B

    2016-01-01

    To describe common facilitators, challenges, and lessons learned in 5 schools and colleges of pharmacy in establishing community pharmacy research fellowships. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Schools and colleges of pharmacy with existing community partnerships identified a need and ability to develop opportunities for pharmacists to engage in advanced research training. Community pharmacy fellowships, each structured as 2 years long and in combination with graduate coursework, have been established at the University of Pittsburgh, Purdue University, East Tennessee State University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and The Ohio State University. Program directors from each of the 5 community pharmacy research fellowships identified common themes pertaining to program structure, outcomes, and lessons learned to assist others planning similar programs. Common characteristics across the programs include length of training, prerequisites, graduate coursework, mentoring structure, and immersion into a pharmacist patient care practice. Common facilitators have been the existence of strong community pharmacy partnerships, creating a fellowship advisory team, and networking. A common challenge has been recruitment, with many programs experiencing at least one year without filling the fellowship position. All program graduates (n = 4) have been successful in securing pharmacy faculty positions. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy share similar experiences in implementing community pharmacy research fellowships. Early outcomes show promise for this training pathway in growing future pharmacist-scientists focused on community pharmacy practice. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Understanding of Pictograms among Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Yasmin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate awareness and significance of pictograms among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. The study was conducted in two public and private sector institutes of Karachi during July to Oct 2013. Altogether 306 pharmacy and non pharmacy students participated in the study. A self administered questionnaire was used for this purpose. Nineteen pictograms from the USP-DI and corresponding set of 19 locally developed pictograms conveying the same medication instructions or messages were evaluated. Respondents were evaluated for their interpretation of all 38 pictograms. More than 98% of the pharmacy students agreed that pictograms attracts attention of people to provide information about medicine use. 97% considered that pictograms are used as universal language that can be easily understood by everyone and they are effective tools for educating the illiterate patients. 97.87% non pharmacy students agreed that patients are unfamiliar with medical terminologies and pictograms may be used to convey the medically significant information to patients. Both pharmacy and non pharmacy students preferred USP-DI pictograms over the pictograms of local origin. It is a need of time to introduce pictograms as a topic in curriculum of Pharm -D courses like Dispensing Pharmacy, Hospital pharmacy and Community pharmacy so that during professional life pharmacist can use these tools to improve patient counseling techniques. It is a way to maximize patient care and provide patient education regardless of any barrier.

  17. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2014: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.

  18. Pharmacy students' perceptions of natural science and mathematics subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-08-15

    To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.

  19. Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Practice Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)

  20. JSC Pharmacy Services for Remote Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.

  1. Online pharmacies: safety and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D; Jano, Elda

    2007-01-01

    Sales of consumer products over the Internet have grown rapidly, including sales of pharmaceutical products. Online pharmacies mimic mail order pharmacies. To operate legally online, pharmacies must be licensed in every state in which sales occur. Although online pharmacies provide benefits to consumers, when compared with traditional pharmacies patients' safety may be compromised. Purchasing prescription drugs online may pose a risk to consumers because they cannot tell whether the site is offering drugs of the same quality offered by a retail pharmacy. There is also a possibility that prescription drugs purchased online may be counterfeit, illegal, or unapproved. A U.S. General Accounting Office study conducted in June 2004 showed that most counterfeit and unapproved drugs sold online are from non-U.S. pharmacies. The Food and Drug Administration and other government agencies have worked to enforce laws on drug sales over the Internet. The biggest challenge in regulating non-U.S. pharmacies is due to their off-shore location. Unfortunately, given the widespread anonymous and ever-changing nature of the Internet, it is very difficult to close down illegal websites.

  2. Developing patient education in community pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.T.G.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians’ patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy. Thi

  3. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Petkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.

  4. Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Practice Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)

  5. Collaborative pharmacy practice: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law AV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and

  6. Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Model to Optimize Hospital Pharmacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Mohammadnejhad, Seyed Mohsen; Ravangard, Ramin; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hospital pharmacy is responsible for controlling and monitoring the medication use process and ensures the timely access to safe, effective and economical use of drugs and medicines for patients and hospital staff. Objectives: This study aimed to optimize the management of studied outpatient pharmacy by developing suitable queuing theory and simulation technique. Patients and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study conducted in a military hospital in Iran, Tehran in 2013. A sample of 220 patients referred to the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital in two shifts, morning and evening, was selected to collect the necessary data to determine the arrival rate, service rate, and other data needed to calculate the patients flow and queuing network performance variables. After the initial analysis of collected data using the software SPSS 18, the pharmacy queuing network performance indicators were calculated for both shifts. Then, based on collected data and to provide appropriate solutions, the queuing system of current situation for both shifts was modeled and simulated using the software ARENA 12 and 4 scenarios were explored. Results: Results showed that the queue characteristics of the studied pharmacy during the situation analysis were very undesirable in both morning and evening shifts. The average numbers of patients in the pharmacy were 19.21 and 14.66 in the morning and evening, respectively. The average times spent in the system by clients were 39 minutes in the morning and 35 minutes in the evening. The system utilization in the morning and evening were, respectively, 25% and 21%. The simulation results showed that reducing the staff in the morning from 2 to 1 in the receiving prescriptions stage didn't change the queue performance indicators. Increasing one staff in filling prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 10 persons in the average queue length and 18 minutes and 14 seconds in the average waiting time. On the other hand, simulation

  7. Using queuing theory and simulation model to optimize hospital pharmacy performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Mohammadnejhad, Seyed Mohsen; Ravangard, Ramin; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    Hospital pharmacy is responsible for controlling and monitoring the medication use process and ensures the timely access to safe, effective and economical use of drugs and medicines for patients and hospital staff. This study aimed to optimize the management of studied outpatient pharmacy by developing suitable queuing theory and simulation technique. A descriptive-analytical study conducted in a military hospital in Iran, Tehran in 2013. A sample of 220 patients referred to the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital in two shifts, morning and evening, was selected to collect the necessary data to determine the arrival rate, service rate, and other data needed to calculate the patients flow and queuing network performance variables. After the initial analysis of collected data using the software SPSS 18, the pharmacy queuing network performance indicators were calculated for both shifts. Then, based on collected data and to provide appropriate solutions, the queuing system of current situation for both shifts was modeled and simulated using the software ARENA 12 and 4 scenarios were explored. Results showed that the queue characteristics of the studied pharmacy during the situation analysis were very undesirable in both morning and evening shifts. The average numbers of patients in the pharmacy were 19.21 and 14.66 in the morning and evening, respectively. The average times spent in the system by clients were 39 minutes in the morning and 35 minutes in the evening. The system utilization in the morning and evening were, respectively, 25% and 21%. The simulation results showed that reducing the staff in the morning from 2 to 1 in the receiving prescriptions stage didn't change the queue performance indicators. Increasing one staff in filling prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 10 persons in the average queue length and 18 minutes and 14 seconds in the average waiting time. On the other hand, simulation results showed that in the evening, decreasing the staff

  8. The ethics of leadership in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, B K

    1995-10-01

    The pharmacy profession's responsibility to provide ethical leadership to its members is explained, and areas where pharmacy should take a leadership role are described. Changes taking place in health care offer many opportunities for pharmacy in its transformation into a fully clinical discipline. The profession needs to address the ethical issues that will affect it as part of this revolution. The role pharmacy is taking to eliminate medication misadventuring will be a test case for the profession's ability to exert the leadership it must, as part of its new definition of itself. Pharmacy needs to define the structure, process, and outcomes necessary to improve its own practice to avoid drug misadventuring, with a clear set of practice and ethical standards, and engage medicine and nursing to adopt similar standards. Pharmacy should also take a leadership role in health care reform, working with other clinicians to ensure that the changes provide better outcomes for patients. Health care professionals are bound together by a common moral purpose: to act in the patient's best interest. Thus, each health profession is a moral community, which must determine and promote ethical behavior among its members. Pharmacy must practice ethical leadership: it must define and prove its contribution to patient outcomes, further develop legal and ethical standards, and examine its responsibilities for vulnerable patient groups such as children. It must work to overcome the traditional dominance of medicine; pharmacy, nursing, and medicine must come together in service of the patient and develop a cross-professional conception of ethics. Pharmacy also must participate in the broader debate about health care. Pharmacy has begun to take a leadership role among the health professions through its efforts to eliminate medication misadventuring. Additional leadership challenges for the profession are suggested.

  9. The impact of clinical pharmacy services in China on the quality use of medicines: a systematic review in context of China's current healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Li, Yan; Zhai, Suodi; Hu, Yongfang; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2014-10-01

    Recently, China initiated an ambitious healthcare reform aiming to provide affordable and equitable basic health care to all by 2020. To meet these goals, new policies issued by China's Ministry of Health mandate clinical pharmacy services be integrated into China's hospitals. This review aims to highlight the impact of clinical pharmacy services on the quality use of medicines in hospitals in China. Both English and Chinese databases were used. For the English databases, Web of Science, Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and Embase were searched using the following keywords ('pharmacists' OR 'pharmacy' OR 'pharmaceutical services/pharmaceutical care') AND ('China'). For the Chinese database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database on disc was searched using the following keywords ('clinical pharmacist' OR 'clinical pharmacy' OR 'pharmaceutical care' OR 'pharmaceutical services'). Articles were then retrieved from WanFang database and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. A total of 75 published papers were included in this review. The majority of studies were conducted in the inpatient setting (68%), which included clinical pharmacy interventions such as educating doctors and patients, evaluating and monitoring the implementation of hospital policies and/or reviewing medications on the ward. In the outpatient setting, the majority of studies conducted involved educating patients. Clinical pharmacy services frequently focused on antimicrobials (44%). More than half of these studies employed an administrative intervention alongside the clinical pharmacy service. Clinical pharmacy services in China, with its unique healthcare system and cultural nuances, appear to positively influence patient care and the appropriate use of medications. From the published literature, it is expected that clinical pharmacy services can make a strong contribution to China's healthcare reform with further governmental and educational support. Published by Oxford

  10. Revitalization of Pharmaceutical Supply Management as an Effort to Increase Outpatient Customer Satisfaction in One of Private Hospital in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital pharmacies are required to provide appropriate pharmaceutical preparation. Therefore, hospital needs good pharmacy management system. The aims of this study was to analyze customer satisfaction and revitalization of pharmaceutical management in hospital A to improve customer satisfaction. This study was used cross sectional study with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative approach used survey method with questionnaires and data was analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS. The results showed that the response to the IFRS employees of pharmaceutical management in hospital A had a very good categories (88.7% and customer responses to pharmaceutical supply management in hospital A in the category satisfied (75.1%. A qualitative approach using interviews with the head of the hospital pharmacy as well as the head unit of the outpatient pharmacy services and pharmacy warehouse. Pharmaceutical management in hospital A is appropriate to the standards by the government, but still needs improvement in pharmaceutical management. Therefore, revitalization of pharmaceutical management is needed as an effort to increase customer satisfaction.

  11. Tobacco and alcohol sales in community pharmacies: policy statements from U.S. professional pharmacy associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.

  12. Exploring the intentions of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership by using theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership. Implementation of entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.

  13. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: monitoring and patient education--2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Craig A; Schneider, Philip J; Scheckelhoff, Douglas J

    2013-05-01

    The results of the 2012 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists national survey of pharmacy practice in U.S. hospital settings are presented. A stratified random sample of pharmacy directors at 1413 general and children's medical-surgical hospitals were surveyed by mail. SDI Health supplied data on hospital characteristics; the survey sample was drawn from SDI's hospital database. In this national probability sample survey, the response rate was 34.0%. The rate of pharmacist monitoring of most patients (i.e., >75%) in hospitals has increased, from 20.3% in 2000 to 46.5% in 2012. Therapeutic drug monitoring programs are in place at most hospitals; at more than 80% of hospitals, pharmacists have the authority to order laboratory tests and adjust medication dosages. A safety culture assessment has been conducted at 72.4% of hospitals. Pharmacists routinely perform discharge counseling in 24.7% of hospitals. At most hospitals, nurses are primarily responsible for medication reconciliation, but 65.9% of pharmacy directors would like pharmacy to have this responsibility. Computerized prescriber order entry is now used in 54.4% of hospitals, with barcode-assisted medication administration used in 65.5% and smart pumps used in 77% of hospitals. The majority of hospitals have fully or partially implemented electronic health records. An increase in the use of remote pharmacist review of medication orders has reduced the percentage of hospitals where orders are not reviewed before a dose is administered to 32%. Pharmacists continue to improve medication use in U.S. hospitals through patient monitoring and education, safety initiatives, collaborative practices with other health care professionals, assisting in the adoption of technologies, and the provision of pharmacy services to outpatients.

  14. The need for redesigned pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan: the perspectives of senior pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.

  15. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  16. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph (b...

  17. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...

  18. Development of a Community Pharmacy Management Elective Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgarrick, David P.; Talluto, Beverly A.

    1997-01-01

    Midwestern University-Chicago College of Pharmacy has developed a five-week elective community pharmacy management rotation in partnership with local pharmacies. Students work directly with district and pharmacy managers, covering a list of topics developed by faculty and preceptors and performing one major project and several smaller ones.…

  19. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...

  20. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...

  1. Influences on the frequency and type of community pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William R; Rippe, Julia J; Gaither, Caroline A; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Schommer, Jon C

    To describe services provided by community pharmacies and to identify factors associated with services being provided in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional national mail survey. Pharmacists actively practicing in community pharmacies (independent, chain, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets). Frequency and type of pharmacy services available in a community pharmacy, including medication therapy management, immunization, adjusting medication therapy, medication reconciliation, disease state management, health screening or coaching, complex nonsterile compounding, and point-of-care testing. With a 48.4% response rate, the survey showed that community pharmacies offered on average 3 of the 8 services studied. Pharmacy chains and supermarket pharmacies reported providing significantly more services than did mass merchandise pharmacies. The number of pharmacy services provided was positively associated with involvement in an interprofessional care team, innovativeness, and perceived workload. The number of pharmacy services was negatively correlated with having 3.5 or more pharmacy technicians on duty. Pharmacy chains and supermarkets are providing the most pharmacy services among community pharmacy settings. The number of services provided was associated with innovativeness, technician staffing, and perceived workload. Also, involvement with an interprofessional care team supported greater service delivery. Community pharmacies vary in their provision of services beyond dispensing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  3. Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-07

    Dr. Jon Mark Hirshon, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, discusses Clostridium difficile infection in outpatients.  Created: 11/7/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  4. Elderly alcoholics in outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Lolk, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, the treatment of alcoholics is provided by public outpatient alcohol clinics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elderly patients differ from younger patients with regards to sociodemographic data, drinking pattern and psychiatric comorbidity which may affect...

  5. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishing and maintaining a satellite campus connected by synchronous video conferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Brent I; McDonough, Sharon L; McConatha, Barry J; Marlowe, Karen F

    2011-06-10

    Pharmacy education has experienced substantial growth in the number of new schools and existing schools establishing satellite campuses. Several models have previously been used to connect primary and satellite campuses. We describe the Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy's (AUHSOP's) experiences using synchronous video conferencing between the Auburn University campus in Auburn and a satellite campus in Mobile, Alabama. We focus on the technology considerations related to planning, construction, implementation, and continued use of the various resources that support our program. Students' perceptions of their experiences related to technology also are described.

  7. Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Lim...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Limited Data Set This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 hospital outpatient PPS...

  8. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Outpatient Procedures PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Outpatient Procedures Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare outpatient claims. The CMS BSA...

  9. The history of pharmacy studies in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzić, N; Inić, S

    2014-02-01

    The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry).

  10. A Graduate Program in Institutional Pharmacy Management Leading to an MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA and Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.

    1981-01-01

    A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)

  11. A Graduate Program in Institutional Pharmacy Management Leading to an MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA and Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.

    1981-01-01

    A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)

  12. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prescription has been transmitted, the name of the retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription... retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription, and the date of transmittal must be added to... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled...

  13. Valued characteristics of community pharmacy residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Alissa A; Ležaja, Gabrielle S; Nemec, Eric C; Spooner, Joshua J; Kennedy, Daniel R

    To determine the attributes of postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) community pharmacy residency applicants and candidates that are most appealing to community residency program directors (CRPDs). A 22-question online survey, designed to collect residency demographics, desirable characteristics for consideration for interview invitation (applicants), and characteristics that should be displayed during an interview (candidates). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-recognized community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs). The CRPDs of 109 ASHP-recognized CPRPs throughout the United States. Not applicable. Minimum applicant requirements; rank order of valued characteristics at application and interview stage of hiring process. The response rate was 71/109 (65.1%). Applicant work experience in chain pharmacy (90.1%) and independent pharmacy (77.5%) was most highly valued by CRPDs, with 85.9% preferring applicants with a minimum of 1 year or more of community pharmacy experience. A large majority of CPRPs (91.4%) indicated a preference for applicants who have been an officer of a student organization. Among CPRPs that required minimum grade point averages (GPAs), a mean GPA of 2.88 ± 0.34 was reported (range 2.0 to 3.5; mode 3.0). Pharmacy work experience (68.1%) and letters of recommendation (59.4%) were most frequently cited as top factors in the decision-making process for selecting candidates to interview. At the interview stage, CRPDs rated interest and knowledge about the residency (62.3%), time management and prioritization (50.7%), and self-awareness and commitment to improvement (43.5%) as the most important skills for candidates to demonstrate. Community pharmacy work experience, organizational leadership experience, and positive letters of recommendation appear to be the most valued attributes of a community pharmacy residency applicant. Applicants should consider aligning themselves with these characteristics to successfully match to a community

  14. Essential Elements for a Pharmacy Practice Mentoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Anne H.; Hardy, Yolanda M.; Jarvis, Courtney; Steven C Stoner; Pitlick, Matthew; Hilaire, Michelle L.; Hanes, Scott; Carey, Katherine; Burke, Jack; Lodise, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty member...

  15. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  16. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing....... research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...

  17. A roadmap for educational research in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Dean, Meredith J; Mumper, Russell J; Blouin, Robert A; Roth, Mary T

    2013-12-16

    Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation.

  18. 42 CFR 419.21 - Hospital outpatient services subject to the outpatient prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital outpatient services subject to the... FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Categories of Hospitals and Services Subject to and Excluded From the Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System § 419.21 Hospital outpatient services...

  19. The Catch-22 of Pharmacy Practice in Pakistan’s Pharmacy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abbas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan.

  20. Prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among pharmacy students at nine U.S. schools of pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    English C; Rey JA; Schlesselman LS

    2011-01-01

    Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated. Objective This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy student...

  1. Pharmacy or PharmaNBIC: Thinking about 50 years ahead of pharmacy today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Azadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary trends and concepts in pharmacy are widely affected by the emergence of Nano-, Bio- or Info- technologies (NBI as an attempt to develop different principles of medicine. This commentary is trying to make a think tank room for 50 years ahead of today’s pharmacy, where the ambience of pharmacy will be affected by such technologies together with cognition (NBIC to achieve intelligent, low adverse reaction and holistic action medicals.

  2. Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Program: Hospital-Based Stroke Outpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Danielle; Janzen, Shannon; McIntyre, Amanda; Vermeer, Julianne; Britt, Eileen; Teasell, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have considered the effectiveness of outpatient rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a hospital-based interdisciplinary outpatient stroke rehabilitation program with respect to physical functioning, mobility, and balance. The Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Program provides a hospital-based interdisciplinary approach to stroke rehabilitation in Southwestern Ontario. Outcome measures from physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were available at intake and discharge from the program. A series of paired sample t-tests were performed to assess patient changes between time points for each outcome measure. A total of 271 patients met the inclusion criteria for analysis (56.1% male; mean age = 62.9 ± 13.9 years). Significant improvements were found between admission and discharge for the Functional Independence Measure, grip strength, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment, two-minute walk test, maximum walk test, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, and one-legged stance (P rehabilitation program was effective at improving the physical functioning, mobility, and balance of individuals after a stroke. A hospital-based, stroke-specific rehabilitation program should be considered when patients continue to experience deficits after inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmacy practice research and strategies for promoting research interest in pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritikos VS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To (1 investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a perceptions of research in general and (b attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2 identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3 identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate. Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a

  4. Pharmacy in a New Frontier - The First Five Years at the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina

    2008-01-01

    A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.

  5. An exploration of the utility of appraisals for the revalidation of pharmacy professionals in community pharmacy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Samuel D; Jacobs, Sally; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Elvey, Rebecca; Hassell, Karen; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    With revalidation in pharmacy in the United Kingdom fast approaching, appropriate systems of revalidation in community pharmacy are required. With little known about the potential use of appraisals for evaluating fitness to practice in pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in this sector, research was undertaken to explore their potential utility in a revalidation process. To examine existing structures and processes in community pharmacy appraisals in Great Britain (ie, England, Scotland, and Wales) and consider the views of pharmacy stakeholders on if, and how, appraisals could contribute to revalidation of pharmacy professionals. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior staff (eg, superintendents and professional development managers) from chain community pharmacies as well as pharmacy managers/owners from independent pharmacies. Senior staff from locum agencies and pharmacy technician stakeholders were also interviewed. Appraisals were in place for pharmacists in most chain pharmacies but not in independent pharmacies. Locum pharmacists were not appraised, either by the companies they worked for or by the locum agencies. Pharmacy managers/owners working in independent pharmacies were also not appraised. Pharmacy technicians were appraised in most chain pharmacies but only in some independent pharmacies. Where appraisals were in operation, they were carried out by line managers who may or may not be a pharmacist. Appraisals did not seem to cover areas relevant to fitness to practice but instead focused more on performance related to business targets. This was particularly true for those in more senior positions within the organization such as area managers and superintendent pharmacists. Existing systems of appraisal, on their own, do not seem to be suitable for revalidating a pharmacy professional. Considerable changes to the existing appraisal systems in community pharmacy and employer engagement may be necessary

  6. Parenteral nutrition in hospital pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoue, Maram Gamal; Al-Taweel, Dalal; Matar, Kamal Mohamed; Kombian, Samuel B

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore parenteral nutrition (PN) practices in hospital pharmacies of Kuwait and identify potential avenues for quality improvement in this service. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive, qualitative study about PN practices was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013 in Kuwait. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with the head total parenteral nutrition (TPN) pharmacists at seven hospitals using a developed questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information about the PN service at each hospital including the existence of nutritional support teams (NSTs), PN preparation practices, quality controls and guidelines/protocols. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for content. Findings - Seven hospitals in Kuwait provided PN preparation service through TPN units within hospital pharmacies. Functional NSTs did not exist in any of these hospitals. All TPN units used paper-based standard PN order forms for requesting PN. The content of PN order forms and PN formulas labeling information were inconsistent across hospitals. Most of the prepared PN formulas were tailor-made and packed in single compartment bags. Quality controls used included gravimetric analysis and visual inspection of PN formulations, and less consistently reported periodic evaluation of the aseptic techniques. Six TPN units independently developed PN guidelines/protocols. Originality/value - This study revealed variations in many aspects of PN practices among the hospitals in Kuwait and provided recommendations to improve this service. Standardization of PN practices would enhance the quality of care provided to patients receiving PN and facilitate national monitoring. This can be accomplished through the involvement of healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition support working within proactive NSTs.

  7. Offering Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship in Hospital for Pharmacy Student: A Successful Cooperation between Medical and Pharmacy Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Eslami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education has been changed in recent years. Pharmacy students need more practical and clinical skills which come from direct interaction with patients and other health care providers. To achieve this, students need more effective courses and clerkships. In this paper we describe our method to design and evaluate clinical pharmacy clerkship for the first time in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS.Methods: To  determine  the  most  beneficial way  of  education  we  designed  a  pilot  study  in educational hospital of AJUMS. After analyzing the conclusions from pilot study, 40 fifth year pharmacy student divided in ten groups and each group had a six week rotation in three different wards under supervision of medical residents. Each student was asked to provide evaluations during six total weeks of three different rotation sites.Results and Discussion: Clinical pharmacy clerkship led to successfully improved clinical skills for students such as being familiar with different practice environments, direct communication whit patients and medical team and participation in direct patient care activities. All the students participate in the course could pass the final exam and 85% of students believed this would be a necessary education course in their clerkship programs. Although there were some problems but pharmacy students benefited from this course and it gives them advantages in clinical knowledge and professional communication skills.

  8. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education.

  9. An international capstone experience for pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Dick R; Vaidya, Varun A; Hufstader, Meghan A; Ray, Max D; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A

    2013-04-12

    This report describes the experiences of the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy over 20 years with an international capstone educational experience for students. Although the university provides reciprocal opportunities to international students, this report focuses on the experiences of the college's pharmacy students who have participated in the program. This capstone course is offered as an elective course in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the college's experiential program. Goals of the program and a brief description of its organizational structure are provided. Results of a structured student satisfaction survey and a survey covering the most recent 3 years of the program are presented. This program has greatly broadened participants' cultural horizons and expanded their global view and understanding of the contributions of pharmacy to health care.

  10. Pharmacy inspections: constitutional without a warrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsmeier, L M

    1979-01-01

    The implications of the 1978 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marshall vs. Barlow's, Inc., regarding warrantless inspections of pharmacies are discussed. Reviewed are the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, related U.S. Supreme Court decisions (Camera vs. Municipal Court and See vs. City of Seattle), new "probable cause" standards, and exceptions to the requirement of warrants for inspections. The effect of the Barlow's case with specific reference to FDA, DEA and state board of pharmacy inspections is discussed. Although the Barlow's case has provided further case law in the area of administrative inspections, each case still requires individual resolution. DEA inspections are well delineated by statute and regulation. Under the "licensing exceptions," warrantless pharmacy inspections by the FDA and by boards of pharmacy are probably permissible.

  11. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ComPETe): A Pilot Survey in a Malaysia City ... Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe). ... analysis. Results: A total of 198 respondents returned the questionnaire but only 120 respondents .... Study design and data collection.

  12. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  13. The Challenges of Pharmacy Education in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges. PMID:25386011

  14. Outpatients. A pretty little sum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    2001-02-01

    Achieving the government's target of a maximum wait of 13 weeks for a first outpatient appointment requires a greater appreciation of randomness in the GP referral rate and non-attendance rate. It is possible to analyse what effect randomness will have on waiting times. The number of GP referrals received in December is a critical factor in determining end-of-year performance in meeting the 13-week target.

  15. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  16. Reducing pharmacy wait time to promote customer service: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    The present study had 3 objectives: (1) to evaluate the effects of 2 different interventions (feedback regarding customer satisfaction with wait time and combined feedback and goal setting) on wait time in a hospital outpatient pharmacy; (2) to assess the extent to which the previously applied interventions maintained their effects; and (3) to evaluate the differences between the effects of the original study and those of the present follow-up study. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCB within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; and C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction. Wait time decreased after baseline when the combined intervention was introduced, and wait time increased with the reintroduction of satisfaction feedback (alone). The results of the replication study confirm the pattern of the results of the original study and demonstrate high sensitivity of levels of customer satisfaction with wait time. The most impressive result of the replication is the nearly 2-year maintenance of lower wait time between the end of the original study and the beginning (baseline) of the replication.

  17. Therapeutic adherence in outpatients with heart failure registered with a community pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Megret Despaigne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A transverse descriptive study was carried out, according to the classification of therapeutic compliance, to evaluate adherence in 250 patients with a diagnosis of Heart Failure, registered with the health department of the municipality of Santiago de Cuba in 2009. The sample characterization was studied, with an assessment of adherence level and possible associated factors for sex, age and toxic habits. As an instrument for the work, data extraction was scheduled and the interview was carried out at patients' homes; the results were expressed in percentage and level of influence for associated factors. This was determined using the chi-square test. In the investigated population, adherence was greater for females, for age group 67-82 years, and toxic habits were found to have prevalence. Prevailing pharmacoterapies were digoxin, chlortalidone, captopril and isosorbide dinitrate, and a high level of adherence was found, both for the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, in the studied sample. A good level of therapeutic adherence was found for 63.6% of the patients, regular level of adherence was found for 32% and only 4.4% or patients presented with poor adherence. Influencing factors were: knowledge of the treatment, number of medications, frequency of administration, and satisfaction with the service of pharmaceutical care.Realizou-se estudo descritivo transversal, de acordo com a classificação de adesão à terapêutica, para avaliar a adesão em 250 pacientes com diagnóstico de disfunção cardíaca, registrada no departamento de saúde do município de Santiago de Cuba, em 2009. A caracterização da amostra foi estudada, com a avaliação do nível de adesão e possíveis fatores associado a sexo, idade e hábitos tóxicos. Como instrumento para o trabalho, esquematizou-se aa extração de dados e realizou-se a entrevista nas moradias dos pacientes. Os resultados foram expressos em porcentagem e em nível de influência dos fatores associados, determinados por meio do teste do Q quadrado. Na população sob investigação, a adesão foi maior para as mulheres da faixa etária de 67 a 82 anos, e os hábitos tóxicos foram prevalentes. Na amostra em estudo, as farmacoterapias predominantes foram digoxina, clortalidona, captopril e dinitrato de isossorbida e se observou alto nível de adesão tanto para os tratamentos farmacológicos quanto para os não-farmacológicos. Observou-se alto nível de adesão para 63,6% dos pacientes, nível regular para 32% 3 somente 4,4% dos pacientes apresentaram baixa adesão. Os fatores que influenciaram foram conhecimento a respeito do tratamento, número de medicamentos, frequência de administração e satisfação com o serviço de atenção farmacêutica.

  18. A Study of Outpatient Pharmacy Utilization at Naval Hospital, Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    may also be placed on certain drugs based on their potential for abuse or misuse (DoD, 1999). When developing formulary management strategies, it is...FENTANYL 11 $ 2,560.24 BLOOD SUGAR DIAGNOSTIC 28 $ 2,193.86 OXYCODONE HCL/ACETAMINOPHEN 137 $ 2,076.71 METHYLPHENIDATE HCL 31 $ 1,996.63 HYDROCODONE

  19. Blood cultures in ambulatory outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupland Kevin B

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood cultures are a gold standard specific test for diagnosing many infections. However, the low yield may limit their usefulness, particularly in low-risk populations. This study was conducted to assess the utility of blood cultures drawn from ambulatory outpatients. Methods Blood cultures drawn at community-based collection sites in the Calgary Health Region (population 1 million in 2001 and 2002 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed by linkages to acute care health care databases for utilization of acute care facilities within 2 weeks of blood culture draw. Results 3102 sets of cultures were drawn from 1732 ambulatory outpatients (annual rate = 89.4 per 100,000 population. Significant isolates were identified from 73 (2.4% sets of cultures from 51 patients, including Escherichia coli in 18 (35% and seven (14% each of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Compared to patients with negative cultures, those with positive cultures were older (mean 49.6 vs. 40.1 years, p Conclusion Blood cultures drawn in outpatient settings are uncommonly positive, but may define patients for increased intensity of therapy. Strategies to reduce utilization without excluding patients with positive cultures need to be developed for this patient population.

  20. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  1. Doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.

  2. Quality safeguards and regulation of online pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito

    2001-01-01

    Using econometric evidence, this article confirms that distribution of medicines online is split into two market segments of very diverse quality, and identifies the factors that drive quality and quality assurance in this activity. Unlike fraudulent, ‘rogue,’ websites, which offer scant guarantees and usually sell just a few medicines without prescription, online pharmacies offering insurance coverage and linked to conventional pharmacies typically sell a whole range of drugs, require third-...

  3. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christian E L; Phipps, Denham L; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-06-06

    Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in England and Wales. 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. 3 main themes were identified. According to the 'dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures' theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the 'complying with procedures' theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme 'procedural compliance versus using professional judgement' highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions and attitudes towards rule-breaking behaviour and the impact this

  4. Developing a Business Plan for Critical Care Pharmacy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.

  5. Medicinal chemistry and the pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok

    2011-10-10

    The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.

  6. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  7. Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services at independent and chain pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesacher, B; Corey, R

    1997-03-01

    Patients' satisfaction with pharmaceutical services at independent community pharmacies and chain community pharmacies was studied. An interviewer administered the Pharmacy Encounter Survey (PES) face-to-face to 260 consecutive people immediately after their visits to randomly selected chain pharmacies (n = 10) or independent pharmacies (n = 16) in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. The 15-item PES gathers demographic data and asks respondents to rate their satisfaction with the time it took for prescriptions to be filled, the technical skills and courtesy of pharmacy personnel, the convenience of the pharmacy's location, and other aspects of the experience. An aggregate of responses across the two pharmacy types showed an excellent or very good rating given by most respondents for all items. Respondents were most satisfied with pharmacy location and least satisfied with time spent waiting for prescriptions to be filled. However, for each item rated, and for the overall visit, respondents rated independent pharmacies better than chain pharmacies. The PES was a practical, easy-to-administer tool for measuring satisfaction, an increasingly important dimension of quality in managed care organizations. People interviewed with the PES at independent and chain community pharmacies in Philadelphia County rated the pharmacies highly, with higher ratings being given to the independent pharmacies.

  8. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: Prescribing and transcribing-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Craig A; Schneider, Philip J; Scheckelhoff, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    The results of the 2016 ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings are presented. A stratified random sample of pharmacy directors at 1,315 general and children's medical-surgical hospitals in the United States were surveyed using a mixed-mode method offering a choice of completing a paper survey or an online survey. IMS Health supplied data on hospital characteristics; the survey sample was drawn from IMS's hospital database. The survey response rate was 29.8%. Drug policy development by pharmacy and therapeutics committees continues to be an important strategy for improving prescribing. Strict formulary systems are maintained in 63.0% of hospitals, and 89.7% of hospitals use clinical practice guidelines that include medications. Pharmacists have the authority to order laboratory tests in 89.9% of hospitals and order medications in 86.8% of hospitals. Therapeutic interchange policies are used in 89.2% of hospitals. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been implemented partially or completely in most hospitals (99.1%). Computerized prescriber-order-entry systems with clinical decision support are used in 95.6% of hospitals, and 92.6% of hospitals have barcode-assisted medication administration systems. Transitions-of-care programs are increasing in number, with 34.6% of hospitals now offering discharge prescription services. Pharmacists practice in 39.5% of hospital ambulatory or primary care clinics. The most common service offered by pharmacists to outpatients is anticoagulation management (26.0%). When pharmacists practice in ambulatory care clinics, 64.5% have prescribing authority through collaborative practice agreements. Pharmacists continue to expand their role in improving the prescribing of medications in both hospital and outpatient settings. The adoption of EHRs and medication-use technologies has contributed to this growth. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  10. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  11. Migraine management in community pharmacies: practice patterns and knowledge of pharmacy personnel in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2013-10-01

    To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P personnel had inadequate knowledge on migraine management. Pharmacists had better knowledge on question asking (mild migraine 5.1 ± 2.1 vs 3.1 ± 1.3, respectively, P personnel, particularly the pharmacists. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  12. Patient satisfaction with community pharmacy: comparing urban and suburban chain-pharmacy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among pharmacy students at nine U.S. schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Clayton; Rey, Jose A; Schlesselman, Lauren S

    2011-07-01

    Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated. This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools. An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine schools of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviors. More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score ≥ 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student's AUDIT scores. These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.

  14. Prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among pharmacy students at nine U.S. schools of pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.

  15. Pharmacy and generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs: missing in action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Timothy E

    2007-06-01

    Generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs is an issue that is gathering a lot of attention in the neurology community but is not receiving much attention within pharmacy. Several proposals have been drafted that restrict a pharmacist's decision-making in generic substitution. These proposals highlight concerns about the pharmacy community related to generic substitution. Careful consideration needs to be given to these issues by pharmacists and pharmacy professional organizations. Unless pharmacy as a profession takes strong positions in support of a pharmacist's ability to make decisions about pharmacotherapy and addresses many of the pharmacy-related problems of generic substitution, policies that negatively impact pharmacy will be established.

  16. The structure and function of urban pharmacies: visits to community pharmacies in inner-city Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, T J; Wilson, L A

    1992-01-01

    Visits were made to 21 pharmacies in two poor neighborhoods on the west side of Chicago and interviews conducted with pharmacists-in-charge. The objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive description of the function, capabilities, and problems of urban pharmacy. We present results on the structure and function of these inner-city pharmacies. The pharmacies fit one of three structural forms: chain, independent, or medical center. The majority of respondents viewed the function of the inner-city pharmacy as patient-centered but also identified several barriers to effective patient communication. The results suggest that inner-city physicians and pharmacists should communicate with patients more often and in ways that patients understand. Also, Medicaid and other drug insurance programs should develop patient information networks and coverage packages intended to maximize patient health status.

  17. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  18. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  19. Influences on Malaysian pharmacy students' career preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny

    2010-11-10

    To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location.

  20. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David

    2008-07-01

    To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.

  1. Relationship between e-prescriptions and community pharmacy workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011. 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Think-aloud protocols and pharmacy group interviews. Pharmacy staff descriptions of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delayed and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. An overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in serious time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, lack of formal training and the disconnect between pharmacy procedures for verifying prescription accuracy and presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases because of legislative mandates, it is essential that the technology supporting e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended increase in medication errors, user frustration, and stress.

  2. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  3. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  4. ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY IN PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Krbavčič

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral and ethical principles in production and distribution of medicaments in R Slovenia are based on medieval heritage reflected in Dispensatorium Norinbergense by Valerius Cordus (1545 as proven by the solemn pledge given by Joanes Leykauff, apothecary at Novo mesto (1598 and the Apothecaries ordinance for the Duchy of Creina (given in Ljubljana, 1710. The subsequent evolution of pharmacy demonstrates the continuos care for quality production and distribution of medicament according to ethical and deontological normatives of its time.Codex of pharmaceutical ethics of the Slovenian pharmaceutical society (2000, Codex of apothecaries deontology by the Apothecaries chamber of Slovenia (1994, The deontological codex of medicinal biochemists of Slovenia (1992 are three basic documents for pharmacist’s activities in Slovenia. Detailed instructions on production, distribution, prescribing and expediting to patients are given by the Medicinal products act and Medical devices act already harmonized with the European aquis communautaire.Some ethical dilemmas concerning prescription free medicinals and selfmedication in EC and R Slovenia are presented. Insufficient or nonexistent communication between patients, medical doctors and pharmacists lead to noncompliant or risky medicamentation.

  5. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  6. TV Outpatient Department Is Welcomed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A middle school teacher living in Huairou, located on the outskirts of Beijing, dialed the number of the "Outpatient Department" on the Beijing TV Station. She asked the medical specialists about cervical cancer. A woman professor answered: "Of all the pernicious tumors, cervical cancer responds the best to treatment. After an operation the five-year survival rate is 60 percent. Commonly speaking, the earlier the cancer is found, the better the chance for cure. The five-year survival rate of the first stage of cervical cancer call be more than 90 percent."

  7. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog

    2014-04-28

    Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to

  8. Promoting weight management services in community pharmacy: perspectives of the pharmacy team in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted

  9. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range

  10. Screening for mental disorders in cardiology outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, M.; Rasmussen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the frequency of mental disorders in cardiology outpatients to the number of patients with psychological problems identified by cardiologists. In a cardiology outpatient service, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these 86......, were frequent in cardiology outpatients. Even in cases where the cardiologists identified psychological problems, the diagnosis had no consequence, as none of the patients was offered relevant treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  11. Arguments for theory-based pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Bissell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81.......Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81....

  12. An Elective Course in Community Pharmacy Management with Practitioner Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Joseph B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A course in community pharmacy management that involves community pharmacy managers in the instruction of the course found a high degree of pharmacist interest in course projects and in participation in the program. (MSE)

  13. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  14. Dispensing errors in community pharmacy: perceived influence of sociotechnical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbach, Sheryl; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Parekh, Ashish; Herderick, Michelle

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the impact of pharmacists' perceptions of errors in dispensing, errors in communication, delays in prescription processing, efficiency and physical mobility in the pharmacy by practice setting and sociotechnical factors (i.e. pharmacy design, drive through pick-up window services and automated dispensing systems). Community pharmacy practice in the USA. A two-page survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1047 community pharmacies. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the impact of attitudinal items with respect to pharmacy practice setting (e.g. mass merchant, supermarket, chain and independent) and sociotechnical factors. Pharmacy characteristics, pharmacist experience and total dispensing errors were also addressed. The response rate was 45.0% (n = 429). Pharmacists perceived that pharmacy design significantly (P pharmacy practice and other environments.

  15. Information Technology Use in Community Pharmacies in Harare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information technology (IT) has transformed the practice of pharmacy ... advanced e-mail management skills (58.7%) were the most cited pharmacists' ... Harare community pharmacies and to ... part of a chain business or independent (X2.

  16. Perseverance Pays Off: Albert Bowie, Doctor of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshul, Barbra

    1997-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Albert Bowie of San Juan Pueblo, who became the first Native American to graduate from the University of New Mexico's Doctor of Pharmacy program. A sidebar discusses academic opportunities in the field of pharmacy. (TD)

  17. Cost Savings Associated With Pharmacy Student Interventions During APPEs

    OpenAIRE

    Shepler, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the impact of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions in terms of number and cost savings throughout advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) using a Web-based documentation program.

  18. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  19. Pharmacy residents' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2007-08-15

    The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.

  20. Pharmacy in Turkey: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, H

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacy in Turkey underwent a radical change within the last decade. Introduction of the Health Transformation Program in 2003 has had a significant impact on Turkey's pharmacy system in accordance with objectives of the program to establish new pricing regulations for pharmaceuticals based on reference prices, and to develop better computer based health information/record systems. In this context, Pharmaceutical Tracking (Track-and-Trace) System using two dimensional matrix barcodes was initiated to prevent not only drug counterfeiting, but also fraud against the medical insurance system and off-record transactions within the pharmaceutical sector; and the process of recording prescriptions in an electronic format was launched. Some other improvements have also been made with respect to pharmacy education, law and practice. In contrast with all these positive outcomes, Turkish pharmacy sector is currently in a deep financial struggle. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the recent developments in Turkish pharmacy system and to discuss future roles and challenges of the profession.

  1. Private pharmacy staff in Hanoi dispensing steroids - theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson M; Binh NT; Tomson G; Chuc NTK; Falkenberg T

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate self reported practice and actual practice of private pharmacy staff in relation to drug regulations and provision of prednisolone (a prescription-only corticosteroid) on request to treat lower back pain. Method: Sixty private pharmacies in Hanoi were randomly selected. Self reported practice was assessed through interviews with pharmacy staff using a questionnaire; actual practice was assessed with the Simulated Client Method with 5 encounters in each pharmacy (a ...

  2. Self-medication with antibiotics in the Republic of Srpska community pharmacies: pharmacy staff behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša

    2012-10-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The adherence impact of a program offering specialty pharmacy services to patients using retail pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Janice M; Matlin, Olga S; Lotvin, Alan M; Brennan, Troyen A; Falkenrath, Randy; Kymes, Steven; Singh, Surya C; Kyrychenko, Pavlo; Shrank, William H

    2016-01-01

    A new service model integrates the specialty pharmacy's comprehensive service with the retail pharmacy's patient contact, giving patients options for medication delivery to home, pharmacy, or doctor's office. Evaluate the impact of the new service model on medication adherence. Retrospective cohort study One hundred fifteen CVS retail stores in Philadelphia participated in a pilot from May 2012 to October 2013, and 115 matched CVS retail stores from around the nation served as controls. All eligible patients from the intervention and control stores received specialty medications through CVS retail pharmacies prior to implementation of the new service model. The intervention patients were transitioned from retail pharmacy service to the specialty pharmacy with delivery options. The control patients received standard retail pharmacy services. Proportion of days covered and first fill persistence were tracked for 12 months before and after program implementation. Under the new service model, 228 patients new to therapy in the post period had a 17.5% increase in the rate of obtaining a second fill as compared to matched controls. Patients on therapy in both the pre- and the post-periods had a pre-post increase of 6.6% in average adherence rates and a pre-post increase of 10.8% in optimal adherence rates as compared to 326 matched controls. The study demonstrated significant improvement in both adherence to therapy and first-fill persistence among patients in the new service model integrating specialty pharmacy's comprehensive services with the retail pharmacy's patient contact and medication delivery choices. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Specifics of marketing tools application in pharmacies: Case study Pharmacies Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pharmacies in the social and health systems has gone through significant changes in the last decades of the twentieth century. From the place for the production of medicines, through procurement and distribution, pharmacy eventually became the modern health care facilities that participates in the health system and the retail pharmaceutical market. The dualistic role of pharmacy requires adjustment to the demands of contemporary health policy and market principles. Implementation of modern tools of business, such as marketing, was not present to a greater extent until recently in pharmacies, so this study is focused on the example of Pharmacy Subotica, which emphasizes the practical importance and specifics of marketing in pharmaceutical practice. Activities in the implementation of the marketing mix in the period 2009-2012 will be shown in this paper, as well as indicators of business success of Pharmacies Subotica in the same period. Following a four-year period in which strategy related to elements of the marketing mix strategy (4P, was implemented the growth of financial performance indicators (number of issued fiscal receipt and financially volume of business. At the same time, due to the more rigid regulations, the number of prescriptions in 2012 declined in amount. Pharmacy Subotica is one of the first pharmacies in Serbia, which has structured and implemented marketing planning tools for the purpose of positioning in the retail pharmaceutical market. By modeling business policy in line with modern market principles, developments of information technology and the ethics of health care workers, this institution has made pioneering steps in pharmaceutical marketing in the Serbian pharmacy.

  5. 78 FR 26069 - Top RX Pharmacy; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Enforcement Administration Top RX Pharmacy; Decision and Order On November 8, 2012, Chief Administrative Law... ALJ's reasoning suggests that ``inaction'' on the part of a pharmacy's principals in dispensing.../Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195, 77 FR 62316, 62317-22 (2012). Order Pursuant to the authority vested in me by...

  6. 76 FR 66965 - Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011... Registration, BT9856002, issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify his...

  7. Medicine shortages--a study of community pharmacies in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, K; Ahonen, R; Karttunen, P; Kanerva, R; Timonen, J

    2015-02-01

    To explore the frequency, the reasons behind, and the consequences of medicine shortages in Finnish community pharmacies. During the 27-day study period in the autumn of 2013, randomly selected pharmacies reported on medicines that were in short supply from orders made to wholesalers. Altogether 129 (66%, n=195) pharmacies participated in the study, and the study material consisted of 3311 report forms. Of the study pharmacies, 79.8% had medicine shortages daily or almost daily. Medicines in short supply were most commonly medicines that affect the nervous system (30.8%) and the cardiovascular system (17.5%). The reason behind the shortage was reported to the pharmacies in 11.2% of the shortage cases. The medicine shortages caused problems for the pharmacies in 33.0% of the cases. In most cases (67.0%) the medicine shortages did not cause problems for the pharmacies, usually because a substitutable product was available (48.5%). Medicine shortages are common in Finnish community pharmacies. Medicines in short supply were commonly used medicines. The reason behind the shortage was rarely told to the pharmacies. Medicine shortages caused problems for the pharmacies in one-third of all the shortage cases. These shortages may be significant for the customers or the pharmacies, as they cause customer dissatisfaction and increase the workload of the pharmacy staff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Development and Implementation of a Community Pharmacy Practice Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Fred G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A clerkship at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy was developed to provide students with (1) experience in the identification, development,, implementation, and evaluation of patient care services in community pharmacies and (2) the skills required to successfully operate a community pharmacy on a day-to-day basis.…

  9. An Evaluation of the Education of Hospital Pharmacy Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Robert S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…

  10. Clinical Pharmacy Education and Training Program: A Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of the report is to give a state-of-the-art picture of clinical pharmacy education and training in the United States as represented by 4 prototype pharmacy school curricula chosen for documentation by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Criteria for selection relate to the environment in which the various curricula are…

  11. Regional Druggists: Pharmacy Schools Seek Rx for Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Describes the responses of pharmacy schools in New England to the current shortage of pharmacists. The lengthened pharmacy program, recently expanded from 5 years to 6, is being accompanied by increased regional cooperation, with internships and some tuition breaks for pharmacy students. (SLD)

  12. Impact of Hurricane Ivan on pharmacies in Baldwin County, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Wolkin, Amy; Sanchez, Carlos; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Young, Stacy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Oberst, Kathleen; Batts, Dahna; Thomas, Charles C; Rubin, Carol

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Hurricane Ivan, which made landfall east of Mobile, Alabama, on September 16, 2004, on pharmacies in the affected areas. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Baldwin County, Alabama. Pharmacy community rapid-needs-assessment survey. 41 hospital and community (chain and independent) pharmacies. Posthurricane pharmacy hours of operations, prescription volumes, infrastructure damage, and prehurricane disaster planning. During the week of the hurricane, both chain and independent community pharmacies within the evacuation zone worked significantly fewer hours (46% and 49%, respectively) and dispensed significantly fewer prescriptions (37% and 52%) compared with the same week of the prior year. Overall, 40% of pharmacies depleted their supplies of certain medications (e.g., anxiolytics, antihypertensives). A total of 60% of the chain and independent pharmacies outside the evacuation zone closed because of loss of electricity, but pharmacies with a generator were significantly less likely to report having turned away patients. The proportion of pharmacies that had a disaster plan but turned away patients or rationed or ran out of medications was similar to that of pharmacies without a disaster plan. Although Hurricane Ivan primarily affected the operation of pharmacies within the evacuation zone, pharmacies in the surrounding area were also affected because of loss of power. Emergency management officials should evaluate the efficacy of specific guidelines outlined in disaster plans and identify ways to deliver essential medications to people in disaster-affected areas.

  13. The general pharmacy work explored in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, M. P.

    Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six

  14. The general pharmacy work explored in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six weeks

  15. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  16. Disability in Cultural Competency Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Justin J.; Okoro, Olihe; Kimberlin, Carole; Odedina, Folakemi T.

    2011-01-01

    Improving health care providers' knowledge and ability to provide culturally competent care can limit the health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations. As racial and ethnic cultures dominate cultural competency topics in education, alternative cultures such as disability have consistently been underrepresented. This article will make the case that persons with disabilities have a unique cultural identity, and should be addressed as an important component of cultural competency education in pharmacy schools. Examples of efforts in pharmacy education to incorporate cultural competency components are highlighted, many of which contain little or no mention of disability issues. Based on initiatives from other health professions, suggestions and considerations for the development of disability education within pharmacy curricula also are proposed. PMID:21519416

  17. 42 CFR 419.22 - Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective payment system. 419.22 Section 419.22 Public Health CENTERS... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Categories of Hospitals and Services...

  18. Integrated Pharmacies at Community Mental Health Centers: Medication Adherence and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W Abel; Gorman, Jack M; Odorzynski, Melissa; Peterson, Mark J; Clayton, Carol

    2016-11-01

    Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied. To determine potential benefits of placing a pharmacy within a mental health service delivery setting on both adherence to medication and health outcomes. A retrospective cohort analysis of medication adherence rates, hospital and emergency department (ED) use, and related costs between patients of CMHCs was conducted using integrated pharmacies versus community pharmacies. Data were from Medicaid claims paid by Southwest Michigan Behavioral Health for all (behavioral and nonbehavioral) inpatient and outpatient services as well as pharmacy prescriptions filled from April 1, 2014, through April 30, 2015. The primary study analysis was composed of an adult dataset representing persons served from 1 of the 2 CMHCs who had filled at least 2 prescriptions for a specific medication from 1 of 2 Genoa pharmacies located in a CMHC during the study period. Each unique patient dataset in the treatment group was matched to a corresponding control patient dataset prescribed the same medication using a modified version of the Gale-Shapley algorithm. The primary analysis compared medication possession ratio, which is a measure of adherence that indicates gaps or oversupply in a patient's medication use history. Statistical tests were performed using the R statistical programming language and Microsoft Excel. Patients using pharmacies integrated within the CMHCs had higher medication adherence rates, lower rates of hospitalization, and lower ED use than those filling their prescriptions at

  19. Regulation of online pharmacy: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Paul

    2003-02-01

    This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.

  20. Community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, Sophie; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists can use medication records to assist individuals who are loyal to their pharmacy in better managing their pharmacotherapy. However, the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia remains unknown. To assess the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia and identify factors associated with loyalty. Using the Quebec Health Insurance Board databases, a cohort study of individuals with schizophrenia who claimed an antipsychotic drug for the first time between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 was conducted. Such individuals were considered loyal to their community pharmacy if they filled all their prescriptions for any drug at the same community pharmacy during the second year after antipsychotics initiation. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with community pharmacy loyalty (measured in the first year after antipsychotics initiation). Of the 6159 individuals in the study, 57.8% were loyal to one pharmacy. Men were more likely to be loyal (Adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), as were individuals aged 30-64 years and those aged ≥65 years, when compared to individuals 20-29 years (1.70; 1.48-1.95 and 2.39; 1.97-2.90, respectively). Individuals who filled their antipsychotics on a weekly basis were also more likely to be loyal (1.39; 1.18-1.63). Factors associated with non-loyalty were welfare beneficiary status (0.79; 0.70-0.89), having substance-use disorder (0.69; 0.60-0.80), a greater number of different types of drugs (5-8 types = 0.76; 0.66-0.87; 9-51 = 0.59; 0.50-0.69), and emergency department visits (0.71; 0.60-0.82). Results suggest that medication records in community pharmacies are incomplete for 42.2% of individuals with schizophrenia. Individuals more likely to experience more severe illness were also those less likely to be loyal. Given the potentially severe consequences of medication-related problems

  1. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  2. Availability of prescription drugs for bipolar disorder at online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Michael

    2016-03-15

    There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder. Using the search term "buy [drug name]" in the Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines, the characteristics of the online pharmacies found on the first two pages of search results were investigated. The availability of the requested dosage and formulations of two brand (Seroquel XR, Abilify) and three generic drugs (lamotrigine, lithium carbonate and bupropion SR) were determined. Of 30 online pharmacies found, 17 (57%) were rated as rogue by LegitScript. Of the 30 pharmacies, 15 (50%) require a prescription, 21 (70%) claim to be from Canada, with 20 of these having a Canadian International Pharmacy association (CIPA) seal on the website. Only 13 of the 20 sites with a CIPA seal were active CIPA members. There were about the same number of trust verification seals on the rogue and legitimate pharmacy sites. Some rogue pharmacies are professional in appearance, and may be difficult for consumers to recognize as rogue. All five brand and generic drugs were offered for sale online, with or without a prescription. However, many substitutions were presented such as different strengths and formulations including products not approved by the FDA. No evaluation of product quality, packaging or purchasing. Psychotropic medications are available online with or without a prescription. The majority of online pharmacy websites were rogue. Physicians should ask about the use of online pharmacies. For those who choose to use online pharmacies, two measures to detect rogue pharmacies are recommended: (1) only purchase drugs from pharmacies that require a prescription, and (2) check all pharmacy verification seals directly on the website

  3. Awareness and recall in outpatient anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennervirta, Johanna; Ranta, Seppo O-V; Hynynen, Markku

    2002-07-01

    We studied the incidence of awareness and explicit recall during general anesthesia in outpatients versus inpatients undergoing surgery. During a 14.5-mo period, we structurally interviewed 1500 outpatients and 2343 inpatients. Among outpatients, there were five cases of awareness and recall (one with clear intraoperative recollections and four with doubtful intraoperative recollections). Of the inpatients, six reported awareness and recall (three with clear and three with doubtful intraoperative recollections). The incidence of clear intraoperative recollections was 0.07% in outpatients and 0.13% in inpatients. The difference in the incidence was not significant. Among outpatients, those with awareness and recall were given smaller doses of sevoflurane than those without awareness and recall (P awareness and recall are rare complications of general anesthesia, and outpatients are not at increased risk for this event compared with inpatients undergoing general anesthesia. Rapid recovery from general anesthesia is a crucial element of outpatient surgery. However, this practice may predispose a patient to receive less anesthetic, with increased risk for awareness and recall. We have shown that outpatients undergoing an operation using general anesthesia are not at increased risk for awareness compared with inpatients.

  4. Drug-related problems in a sample of outpatients with chronic diseases: a cross-sectional study from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azzam SI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sayer I Al-Azzam,1 Karem H Alzoubi,1 Salah AbuRuz,2 Qais Alefan1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 2Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan Abstract: Optimization of drug therapy and preventing drug-related problems (DRPs are major factors to improve health care, reduce expenditure, and potentially save lives. This study aimed at describing the types, numbers, and frequencies of DRPs in the outpatient settings of a group of hospitals in Jordan. The study was set in the cardiology, endocrine, and respiratory outpatient clinics of five major hospitals in Jordan. Patients who visited the above clinics during the period from September 2012 to December 2013, were candidates for this study. Each included subject was fully assessed for DRPs by clinical pharmacists according to a specially designed and validated pharmaceutical care manual. The main outcome measures were the number and types of DRPs. Data were collected from 2,898 patients (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.59±13.5 years. The total number of identified DRPs was 32,348, with an average of 11.2 DRPs per patient. The most common DRPs were a need for additional or more frequent monitoring, a problem in patients’ adherence to self-care activities or nonpharmacological therapy, and that the patient was not given instruction in or did not understand nonpharmacological therapy or self-care advice. The numbers of DRPs per patient in our sample were associated with older age (>57 years, being unmarried, having an education level of high school or less, not having health insurance, and the presence of certain clinical conditions, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, cardiac catheterization, heart failure, and gout. In conclusion, implementation of clinical pharmacy services is a strategy to limit DRPs

  5. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  6. Challenges to Pharmacy Education In Asian Region (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan A. Rathore

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available “Professionalism” in pharmacy profession is endeavored and aimed at by almost all the pharmacy education institutions. Indeed it is one of the core objectives aimed in developing pharmacy curricula. However to this broad terminology there is no clear consensus on definition of professionalism found in literature and thus becomes a big challenge for academicians involved in curriculum development. Ironically, professionalism is not the only challenge which pharmacy educationists have to cope with.There are several other fronts faced by pharmacy education in this era of rapid progress.

  7. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S

    2004-12-01

    To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.

  8. Using Bourdieu's Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfield, Jon

    2015-12-25

    To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs.

  9. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  10. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  11. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  12. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.

  13. Students' Satisfaction with a Web-Based Pharmacy Program in a Re-Regulated Pharmacy Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Mattsson, Sofia; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-08-25

    In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 (n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates' satisfaction with the program were analyzed (n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction.

  14. Factors associated with pharmacy students' attitudes towards learning communication skills - A study among Nordic pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2017-03-28

    Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (βadjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p communication skills improvement (βadjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pcommunication skills are not the result of personality (βadjusted -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dispensing behaviour of pharmacies in prescription drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhl, Dennis; Stargardt, Tom; Schneider, Udo; Fischer, Katharina E

    2016-02-01

    We aim to investigate pharmacies' dispensing behaviour under the existing dispensing regulations in Germany. Using administrative data, we performed a cross-sectional retrospective study to analyse whether the competitive environment and pharmacy characteristics, i.e., organisation, lead to dispensing choices aimed at by third-party payers. We specified generalised linear models with the share of imported pharmaceuticals, generic share, and share of preferred brands as dependent variables. The final dataset contained 49,260,902 prescriptions from 16,797 pharmacies. The average share of imported pharmaceuticals across the pharmacies was 18.4% (standard deviation (SD) 8.8), the average generic share was 92.8% (SD 2.1), and compliance with preferred brands was 81.3% (SD 5.9). Pharmacies with little competition used fewer imported pharmaceuticals (ppharmacies yielded similar results. The difference in outcomes between pharmacies in the first and 4th quartiles of the pharmacy organisation variable is 17.4% vs. 17.0% for share of imported pharmaceuticals, 92.8% vs. 92.7% for generic share and 81.9% vs. 81.1% for compliance with preferred brands. We show that pharmacies' dispensing choices meet the aims of payers at high levels. However, dispensing behaviour varies between pharmacies. Increasing competition among pharmacies and targeting pharmacies with high shares of bill auditing seem viable options to improving dispensing behaviour as defined by payers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medication adherence communications in community pharmacies: A naturalistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Nathaniel M; Young, Gary J; Hall, Judith A; Noland, Carey; Kim, Ayoung; Peterson, Conner; Hong, Mina; Hale, John

    2016-03-01

    To describe the extent of pharmacy detection and monitoring of medication non-adherence, and solutions offered to improve adherence. Participants were 60 residents of the Boston area who had a generic chronic medication with 30 day supplies from their usual pharmacy. Participants received a duplicate prescription which they filled at a different pharmacy. For 5 months, participants alternated between the two pharmacies, creating gaps in their refill records at both pharmacies but no gaps in their medication adherence. Participants followed a scripted protocol and after each pharmacy visit reported their own and the pharmacy staff's behavior. Across 78 unique community pharmacies and 260 pharmacy visits, pharmacies were inconsistent and inadequate in asking if participants had questions, discussing the importance of adherence, providing adequate consultations with new medication, and detecting and intervening on non-adherence. Insurers rarely contacted the participants about adherence concerns. There is a need for more structured intervention systems to ensure pharmacists are consistently and adequately educating patients and detecting/managing potential medication non-adherence. The present study calls for more attention to building infrastructure in pharmacy practice that helps pharmacists more consistently identify, monitor, and intervene on medication adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activity and the Role of Keio University Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy opened an insurance pharmacy on its campus in 2001. This pharmacy was opened with the objectives of 1) educating pharmacists to serve the regional community; 2) heightening students' motivation; and 3) providing practical education geared to the needs of actual healthcare settings. Since my appointment as director in 2003, I have led various initiatives to determine an ideal business model for a university pharmacy. This paper reports these initiatives and discusses the mission and future prospects of university pharmacies. In terms of education, all 4th-year students provide medication guidance to simulated patients at our university pharmacy counters, and are briefed by pharmacists about pharmacy administration and dispensing activities. Over three periods each academic year, trainees from other universities have been accepted for long-term on-site training. Students also work at local facilities for elderly persons to learn how to effectively communicate with this demographic and to better understand their unique pharmacokinetic profiles, impaired QOL, etc. Students can also participate in health promotion and drug education courses for regional residents, and support their self-medication. Pharmacies are important points of contact with local communities where residents' lives can be medically monitored. It is important for pharmaceutical universities to operate their own pharmacies in order to determine and stay abreast of the evolving challenges society expects pharmaceutical science to address. University pharmacies need to become models for general community pharmacies.

  18. Motivations and Predictors of Cheating in Pharmacy School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs.

  19. Essential elements for a pharmacy practice mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Anne H; Hardy, Yolanda M; Jarvis, Courtney; Stoner, Steven C; Pitlick, Matthew; Hilaire, Michelle L; Hanes, Scott; Burke, Jack; Lodise, Nicole M

    2013-03-12

    Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty members has dramatically increased. While some faculty members gain teaching experience during postgraduate residency training, new pharmacy practice faculty members often need professional development to meet the demands of their academic responsibilities. A mentoring program can be 1 means of improving faculty success and retention. Many US colleges and schools of pharmacy have developed formal mentoring programs, whereas several others have informal processes in place. This paper discusses those programs and the literature available, and makes recommendations on the structure of mentoring programs.

  20. Pharmacist-based Donepezil Outpatient Consultation Service to improve medication persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,2 Keiko Yamamura,3 Yusuke Suzuki,4 Hiroyuki Umegaki,4 Katsuro Shigeno,5 Ryo Matsushita,1 Yoshimichi Sai,1 Ken-ichi Miyamoto,1 Kiyofumi Yamada61Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacy, Hashima Municipal Hospital, Hashima, Gifu, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 5Department of Pharmacy Practice and Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 6Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, JapanAim: Donepezil is widely used to delay the progression of cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, but the efficacy of pharmacotherapy is often reduced by poor adherence to medication. In order to improve adherence by providing information about AD and the significance of pharmacotherapy, the Donepezil Outpatient Consultation Service (DOCS was set up. The influence of this service on medication persistence was assessed in the present study.Methods: Among outpatients starting donepezil therapy, we enrolled 59 patients between April 2008 and September 2010 before establishment of the DOCS (non-DOCS group and 52 patients between October 2010 and March 2012 who attended the DOCS (DOCS group. Each patient's and their caregiver's understanding about the clinical features of AD and pharmacotherapy with donepezil were also assessed. Their understanding was compared before and after the DOCS, and the 1-year medication persistence rate and the reasons for discontinuation were also investigated.Results: The 1-year medication persistence rate was significantly higher in the DOCS group than in the non-DOCS group (73

  1. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  2. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  3. Impact of the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative on Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed.

  4. Change management in pharmacy: a simulation game and pharmacy leaders' rating of 35 barriers to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Aurélie; Lebel, Denis; Hall, Kevin; Bussières, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective was to rank barriers to change in pharmacy practice. Our secondary objective was to create a simulation game to stimulate reflection and discussion on the topic of change management. The game was created by the authors and used during a symposium attended by 43 hospital pharmacy leaders from all regions of Canada (Millcroft Conference, Alton, Ontario, June 2013). The main theme of the conference was 'managing change'. The simulation game, the rating of 35 barriers to change and the discussion that followed provided an opportunity for hospital pharmacy leaders to reflect on potential barriers to change, and how change might be facilitated through the use of an organized approach to change, such as that described in Kotter's eight-step model. This simulation game, and the associated rating of barriers to change, provided an opportunity for a group of hospital pharmacy leaders in Canada to reflect on the challenges associated with managing change in the healthcare setting. This simulation game can be modified and used by pharmacy practitioners in other countries to help identify and rank barriers to change in their particular pharmacy practice setting. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Guidelines for the Clinical Pharmacy Preceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Donald C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Qualities that describe the performance of the clinical pharmacy preceptor are outlined, with particular concern for the personal and technical components of his role as a teacher. The guidelines were developed at an invitational workshop at the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center. (LBH)

  6. Academic Due Process in Clinical Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Richard R.; Iovacchini, Eric V.

    1979-01-01

    The historical evolution of academic due process, its current concept as revealed in the Supreme Court ruling in Horowitz vs Board of Curators of the University of Missouri, and the application of that judicial opinion to clinical clerkship programs in pharmacy are discussed. Guidelines to protect faculty and administration are offered. (JMD)

  7. Prediction of Achievement in Clinical Pharmacy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lee S.

    1978-01-01

    A study sought to identify student characteristics which account for academic achievement in clinical pharmacy courses. Preclinical grade point average was the best predictor. Subscales of the California Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, work experience, sex, and age were the other predictor variables. (SW)

  8. NASA LaRC Hazardous Material Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenet, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In 1993-1994 the Office of Environmental Engineering contracted SAIC to develop NASA Langley's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. One of the priority projects identified in this contract was the development of a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN)/hazardous materials reutilization (HAZMART) program in the form of a Hazardous Materials Pharmacy. A hazardous materials pharmacy is designed to reduce hazardous material procurement costs and hazardous waste disposal costs. This is accomplished through the collection and reissue of excess hazardous material. Currently, a rarely used hazardous material may be stored in a shop area, unused, until it passes its expiration date. The material is then usually disposed of as a hazardous waste, often at a greater expense than the original cost of the material. While this material was on the shelf expiring, other shop areas may have ordered new supplies of the same material. The hazardous material pharmacy would act as a clearinghouse for such materials. Material that is not going to be used would be turned in to the pharmacy. Other users could then be issued this material free of charge, thereby reducing procurement costs. The use of this material by another shop prevents it from expiring, thereby reducing hazardous waste disposal costs.

  9. Documentation of pharmacotherapeutic interventions of pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King ED

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During patient care rounds with the medical team, pharmacy students have made positive contributions for the benefit of the patient. However, very little has been documented regarding the impact these future healthcare professionals are making while on clinical rotations.The objective of this study was to assess the impact that clinical interventions made by 6th year pharmacy students had on overall patient outcome. Using a special program for a personal digital assistant (PDA, the students daily recorded the pharmacotherapeutic interventions they made. The interventions ranged from dosage adjustments to providing drug information. Data was collected over a 12-week period from various hospitals and clinics in the Jacksonville, Florida area.In total, there were 89 pharmaceutical interventions performed and recorded by the students. Fifty interventions involved drug modification and fifty-four interventions were in regards to drug information and consulting. Of the drug information and consulting interventions, 15 were drug modification.This study shows the impact pharmacy students make in identifying, recommending, and documenting clinical pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Similar to pharmacists, pharmacy students can also have a positive contribution towards patient care.

  10. History of clinical pharmacy and clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R R

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of the Symposium on Clinical Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacology is to describe the present and future functional roles of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists in drug research, professional education, and patient care. Clinical pharmacy is a relatively new professional discipline, being only about 15 years old. This new breed of pharmacists is patient rather than drug product oriented. The discipline arose out of dissatisfaction with old practice norms and the pressing need for a health professional with a comprehensive knowledge of the therapeutic use of drugs. The clinical pharmacy movement began at the University of Michigan in the early 1960s, but much of the pioneering work was done by David Burkholder, Paul Parker, and Charles Walton at the University of Kentucky in the latter part of the 1960s. Clinical pharmacology is a professional discipline that combines basic pharmacology and clinical medicine. Its development began in the early 1950s, primarily as a result of the efforts of Harry Gold. It has had a slower growth than clinical pharmacy but it has made many important contributions to our knowledge of human pharmacology and the rational use of drugs.

  11. The WHO UNESCO FIP Pharmacy Education Taskforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouse Mike

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.

  12. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community...... pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects...... no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation...

  13. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community...... pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects...... no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation...

  14. Anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburne, J I

    1983-04-01

    This issue of the Bulletin deals with the principles of anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization with emphasis on techniques for laparoscopy and minilaparotomy. General anesthesia techniques provide analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation and are particularly useful for managing the anxious patient. Disadvantages include increased expense, need for specialized equipment, and highly trained personnel, and delayed recovery. Complications, though relatively rare, can be life-threatening and include aspiration of stomach contents, hypoxia, hypercarbia, hypotension, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiorespiratory arrest, and death. There is no single preferred technique of general anesthesia, athough most anesthetists employ methods that allow rapid recovery of faculties, enabling the patient to be discharged soon after surgery. To accomplish this end, light anesthesia with sodium thiopental induction and nitrous oxide maintenance is often used. Short duration muscle relaxation with an agent such as succinylcholine supplements this technique. Other techniques include light anesthesia with inhalational anesthetic agents and the use of intravenous ketamine. Local anesthesia augmented by systemic and/or inhalational analgesia is supplanting general anesthesia techniques for laparoscopy in many locales. This approach is also particularly well-suited for minilaparotomy in developing countries, where it has achieved its greatest popularity. The local technique carries with it reduced morbidity and mortality but may not entirely relieve discomfort. The primary danger of local anesthesia is respiratory depression due to excessive narcosis and sedation. The operator must be alert to the action of the drugs and should always use the minimal effective dose. Although toxicity due to overdosage with local anesthetic drugs is occasionally experienced, allergic reactions to the amide-linkage drugs such as lidocaine or bupivacaine are exceedingly rare. For outpatient

  15. Core Elements of Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Guillermo V; Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; Roberts, Rebecca M; Hicks, Lauri A

    2016-11-11

    The Core Elements of Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship provides a framework for antibiotic stewardship for outpatient clinicians and facilities that routinely provide antibiotic treatment. This report augments existing guidance for other clinical settings. In 2014 and 2015, respectively, CDC released the Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs and the Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for Nursing Homes. Antibiotic stewardship is the effort to measure and improve how antibiotics are prescribed by clinicians and used by patients. Improving antibiotic prescribing involves implementing effective strategies to modify prescribing practices to align them with evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management. The four core elements of outpatient antibiotic stewardship are commitment, action for policy and practice, tracking and reporting, and education and expertise. Outpatient clinicians and facility leaders can commit to improving antibiotic prescribing and take action by implementing at least one policy or practice aimed at improving antibiotic prescribing practices. Clinicians and leaders of outpatient clinics and health care systems can track antibiotic prescribing practices and regularly report these data back to clinicians. Clinicians can provide educational resources to patients and families on appropriate antibiotic use. Finally, leaders of outpatient clinics and health systems can provide clinicians with education aimed at improving antibiotic prescribing and with access to persons with expertise in antibiotic stewardship. Establishing effective antibiotic stewardship interventions can protect patients and improve clinical outcomes in outpatient health care settings.

  16. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  17. Qualitative study on the implementation of professional pharmacy services in Australian community pharmacies using framework analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2016-08-25

    Multiple studies have explored the implementation process and influences, however it appears there is no study investigating these influences across the stages of implementation. Community pharmacy is attempting to implement professional services (pharmaceutical care and other health services). The use of implementation theory may assist the achievement of widespread provision, support and integration. The objective was to investigate professional service implementation in community pharmacy to contextualise and advance the concepts of a generic implementation framework previously published. Purposeful sampling was used to investigate implementation across a range of levels of implementation in community pharmacies in Australia. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using a framework methodology. Data was charted using implementation stages as overarching themes and each stage was thematically analysed, to investigate the implementation process, the influences and their relationships. Secondary analyses were performed of the factors (barriers and facilitators) using an adapted version of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and implementation strategies and interventions, using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) discrete implementation strategy compilation. Six stages emerged, labelled as development or discovery, exploration, preparation, testing, operation and sustainability. Within the stages, a range of implementation activities/steps and five overarching influences (pharmacys' direction and impetus, internal communication, staffing, community fit and support) were identified. The stages and activities were not applied strictly in a linear fashion. There was a trend towards the greater the number of activities considered, the greater the apparent integration into the pharmacy organization. Implementation factors varied over the implementation stages, and additional factors were added

  18. Expectations and responsibilities regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies: perspectives of consumers and pharmacy support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Priya; McFarland, Reanna; La Caze, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Most sales of complementary medicines within pharmacies are conducted by pharmacy support staff. The absence of rigorous evidence for the effectiveness of many complementary medicines raises a number of ethical questions regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies. Explore (1) what consumers expect from pharmacists/pharmacies with regard to the sale of complementary medicines, and (2) how pharmacy support staff perceive their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of pharmacy support staff and consumers in pharmacies in Brisbane. Consumers were asked to describe their expectations when purchasing complementary medicines. Pharmacy support staff were asked to describe their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. Interviews were conducted and analysed using the techniques developed within Grounded Theory. Thirty-three consumers were recruited from three pharmacies. Consumers described complementary medicine use as a personal health choice. Consumer expectations on the pharmacist included: select the right product for the right person, expert product knowledge and maintaining a wide range of good quality stock. Twenty pharmacy support staff were recruited from four pharmacies. Pharmacy support staff employed processes to ensure consumers receive the right product for the right person. Pharmacy support staff expressed a commitment to aiding consumers, but few evaluated the reliability of effectiveness claims regarding complementary medicines. Pharmacists need to respect the personal health choices of consumers while also putting procedures in place to ensure safe and appropriate use of complementary medicines. This includes providing appropriate support to pharmacy support staff. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. CLINICAL STATISTICAL STUDIES ON HEMATURIA IN OUTPATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    青木, 正治; 熊本, 悦明

    1982-01-01

    Clinical statistical studies on hematuria were performed in outpatients who were seen at our Department, during the 7-year period from 1974 through 1980. Of the 11,574 outpatients studied, the total number of outpatients with hematuria 1,705; macroscopic hematuria was found in 446 cases (3.9%) and microscopic hematuria was in 1,259 cases (10.9%). The most frequent cause of macroscopic hematuria was malignant urinary tumors and that of microscopic hematuria was urinary tract infections. Macros...

  20. [Outpatient treatments of haemorrhoidal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staumont, Ghislain; Gorez, Etienne; Suduca, Jean-Michel

    2011-10-01

    Only three non-surgical treatments of haemorrhoids are clearly validated: infrared coagulation, injection sclerotherapy and rubber band ligation. Those procedures are only indicated for painless symptoms related to internal haemorrhoids, i.e. bleeding at defecation or spontaneously reducible prolapse. Their main interest is to be possible on the outpatient clinic, with a simple anuscope, without enema or anaesthesia, since they are applied to non-sensitive area on the top of internal haemorrhoids. The aim of all these treatments is to create local fibrosis, which reduces vascular tissue and hold rectal mucosa to underlying muscle. Short-dated efficiency of all techniques is similar on bleeding. After one and three years, rubber band ligation is clearly more efficient than other techniques, especially on prolapse. Secondary effects are non-constant and usually minor, as transient pain or tenesmus, and mild bleeding for few days. Infrequent complications may occur, only after haemorrhoidal banding and sclerotherapy, as thrombosis, massive delayed bleeding or local abscess. Exceptional life-threatening pelvic cellulitis cases have been reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental contamination with methotrexate in Canadian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merger, Delphine; Tanguay, Cynthia; Langlois, Éric; Lefebvre, Michel; Bussières, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate environmental contamination with methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide in Quebec, Canada, community pharmacies and to describe hazardous drug handling practices in these pharmacies. Three standardized sites were sampled in each participating community pharmacy. Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection were 0.10, 0.12, and 0.41 ng/mL for cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate, respectively. Nine working practices were assessed. 20 community pharmacies participated in the study, and 60 samples were analyzed. No traces of cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide were detected. Traces of methotrexate were found in 12 of 20 pharmacies (60%). Of the 20 pharmacies, 8 (40%) had a storage space reserved for hazardous drugs and none had a preparation area reserved for handling methotrexate tablets. All of the participating community pharmacies had a tablet counter reserved for the handling of hazardous drugs, and all pharmacies cleaned their tablet counter reserved for handling hazardous drugs after use. None of the pharmacies cut or crushed methotrexate tablets. The growing number of hazardous drugs represents a challenge for community pharmacies. Community pharmacists must be made aware of their presence and the need to comply with personal protection measures to reduce staff occupational exposure to hazardous drugs.

  2. Assessment tool for pharmacy drug-drug interaction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warholak, Terri L; Hines, Lisa E; Saverno, Kim R; Grizzle, Amy J; Malone, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    To assess the performance of pharmacy clinical decision support (CDS) systems for drug-drug interaction (DDI) detection and to identify approaches for improving the ability to recognize important DDIs. Pharmacists rely on CDS systems to assist in the identification of DDIs, and research suggests that these systems perform suboptimally. The software evaluation tool described here may be used in all pharmacy settings that use electronic decision support to detect potential DDIs, including large and small community chain pharmacies, community independent pharmacies, hospital pharmacies, and governmental facility pharmacies. A tool is provided to determine the ability of pharmacy CDS systems to identify established DDIs. It can be adapted to evaluate potential DDIs that reflect local practice patterns and patient safety priorities. Beyond assessing software performance, going through the evaluation processes creates the opportunity to evaluate inadequacies in policies, procedures, workflow, and training of all pharmacy staff relating to pharmacy information systems and DDIs. The DDI evaluation tool can be used to assess pharmacy information systems' ability to recognize relevant DDIs. Suggestions for improvement include determining whether the software allows for customization, creating standard policies for handling specific interactions, and ensuring that drug knowledge database updates occur frequently.

  3. The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.

  4. Attitude of Pharmacy Students Towards a Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam

    Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.

  5. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  6. Study of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in Prescriptions of University- Based Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mousavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs are adverse reactions caused by a combination of drugs; they are often predictable and therefore avoidable or manageable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature, type and prevalence of potential DDIs in prescriptions dispensed in university-based community pharmacies in Tehran, Iran.Methods: From July 2012 to February 2014, sample of 1260 prescriptions were collected from community and outpatient hospital pharmacies affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS, Iran. The prescriptions were assessed using the reference text “drug interaction facts”. The identified DDIs were categorized according to their level of significance into three classes (minor, moderate, major.Results: At least one drug-drug interaction was present in 339 (26.9% of prescriptions and a total of 751 cases of interactions were found in prescriptions. Major DDIs represented 7.3% of all DDIs detected, whereas moderate DDIs were 75% of all DDIs. The mean number of drugs per prescriptions was 3.2, with a median of 4 (range, 2-10.There was a positive association between number of prescribed drugs and occurrence of DDIs (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.9-2.4. The prescriptions of medical specialist had greater risk of occurrence of moderate severity DDIs than general practitioners (OR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.08-2.15.Conclusion: Despite the prescriptions were collected from university-based pharmacies, but the overall prevalence of potential DDIs were high among patients. Physicians should be aware of potentially harmful DDIs. Meanwhile Pharmacists can contribute to the detection and prevention of drug-related injuries. Appropriate education, collaborating drug selection and pharmaceutical care are strongly recommended for physicians and pharmacists.

  7. Trends in opioid analgesics sales to community pharmacies and hospitals in Italy (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraceni, A T; Brunelli, C; Rocco, P; Minghetti, P

    2013-08-01

    Opioid consumption data in Italy have been widely studied. However, only aggregate data can be found in the published literature, and differences are expected by distribution setting (community pharmacies and hospitals). The aim of our paper is to analyse opioids sales trends in Italy in the decade 2000-2010, in an effort to explore such differences. Quarterly sales data of opioid medicinal products sold by wholesalers to both community pharmacies (retail) and to hospitals (non-retail) during the time period 2000-2010 were supplied by IMS Italy. Data were standardized using the Defined Daily Doses per day per 1000 inhabitants (DDDd/1000). Opioid sales have steadily increased during the time period considered going from 1.04 DDDd/1000 in 2000 to 4.9 in 2010 (+292%). Nonetheless relevant differences can be found both by distribution setting and drug type. In particular retail sales have increased by 286 % for WHO Step II opioids and by 575% for WHO Step III drugs, while non-retail sales have increased by 48% and 263%, respectively. In 2010, fentanyl and buprenorphine transdermal patches and oxycodone are more widely prescribed than morphine, in the retail setting, with fentanyl at large in the first position. In hospitals morphine and fentanyl almost equally share the 75% of the market. Data suggest that morphine is no more the opioid of first choice for severe pain in Italy, at least for outpatients. This is contradicting most international guidelines available in the 2000-2010 decade.

  8. Communication during gynecological out-patient encounters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, A.M. van

    1999-01-01

    The intimate nature of women's health problems presented during gynecological encounters places great demands on gynecologists' communicative behavior. The present study examined what patients expect from their gynecologist, how gynecologists and patients actually communicate during out-patient

  9. Hospital Outpatient PPS Partial Hospitalization Program LDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Partial Hospitalization Program LDS This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 claims...

  10. Hospital Outpatient PPS Partial Hospitalization Program LDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Partial Hospitalization Program LDS This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 claims...

  11. Dexamethasone for pain after outpatient shoulder surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholdt, K. T.; Mønsted, P. N.; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has analgesic properties when given intravenously before surgery, but the optimal dose has not been determined. We hypothesised that a dose of 40 mg dexamethasone would improve analgesia after outpatient shoulder surgery compared with 8 mg. Methods A randomised, double...... a dose–response relationship, increasing the dexamethasone dose from 8 to 40 mg did not improve analgesia significantly after outpatient shoulder surgery....

  12. Medication therapy management services in community pharmacy: a pilot programme in HIV specialty pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D

    2010-12-01

    Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Using critical realism as a framework in pharmacy education and social pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Carmen; Boughey, Chrissie

    2012-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that positivism is capable of representing the complexity of social pharmacy and pharmacy education. It is argued that critical realism provides a framework that allows researchers to look at the nature of reality and at mechanisms that produce, or have the tendency to produce, events and experiences of those events. Critical realism is a framework, not a method. It allows researchers to make observations about phenomena and explain the relationships and connections involved. The researcher has to look for mechanisms and structures that could explain why the phenomena, the connections, and the relationships exist (or do not) and then try to show that these mechanisms do exist. This article first contextualizes critical realism, then briefly describes it, and lastly exemplifies the use of critical realism in a discussion of a research project conducted in pharmacy education. Critical realism may be particularly useful in interdisciplinary research, for example, where practitioners and researchers are working together in a social pharmacy or pharmacy education setting. Critical realism requires the practitioners and the researchers to question and make known their assumptions about their own realities and to think of a complex problem or phenomenon in terms of a stratified reality, generative mechanisms, and tendencies. Critical realism may make research more rigorous and also allow researchers to conceive of a greater breadth of research designs for their work.

  14. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-01-01

    study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic......Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...... is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented...

  15. [Art nouveau: pharmacy shops in Nancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Florence; Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, an important artistic activity develops in Nancy. The "Ecole de Nancy" transforms a provincial city into one of the metropolis of "Art Nouveau". The pharmacists participate at the activity of their town and eight of them choose the new style for their pharmacy. In 1902, Rosfelder is the first to modify his shop, and later, Jacques, Delidon, Mouzin, Godfrin brothers, Monal and Fandre, before, during and after the First World War, have a same step. For the ornament, the artists use plants derived from local medicinal flora. "Art Nouveau", adept of curves, appears to be ideal to symbolize vegetable kingdom. In these pharmacy shops, fine arts join materia medica.

  16. Pharmacy students' interpretation of academic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne; Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-08-15

    To explore pharmacy students' recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents' year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students' perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties.

  17. [Literature, history and pharmacy: a possible dialogue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Irene Nogueira de

    2015-01-01

    In the Memory Center of the Pharmacy School of UFMG there are documents relating to the passage of Carlos Drummond de Andrade through the institution, a fact that has led to reflection on the presence of the pharmacy and the pharmaceutical expert in literature. By means of interdisciplinary dialogue and research into elements that prove this presence, active participation and presence in the literature, an attempt was made to historicize these ties, not only of the poet from Itabira, but other men of letters, be they pharmaceutical professionals or people inspired by them. The objective was also to highlight some evidence that supports and demonstrates the importance of this professional in Brazilian society of the late-nineteenth century and early-twentieth century.

  18. [Medical equipment product lines in basic pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesková, B; Lipská, J

    2003-07-01

    Medical appliances dispensed in basic type pharmacies for cash or vouchers for medical or orthopedic appliances require expertise of pharmacists and laboratory assistants concerning the assortment, payment, construction of prices, conditions for prescription, ordering, properties, and functions of individual appliances. Using the method of frequency analysis, the analysis of data from five pharmacies within a period of three months (more than 17,000 records) revealed how individual subgroups of medical appliances and their concrete items are represented in both types of dispensation. The method of the semistructured questionnaire (10 respondents) was used to find what problems are encountered in dispensation, and which medical appliances and their subgroups are the sources of the problems. The respondents regard the contemporary level of knowledge concerning medical appliances gained in pregradual studies as insufficient.

  19. Survey of Pharmacy Schools' Approaches and Attitudes toward Curricular Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Therese I; Fan, Jingyang; Nieto, Marcelo J

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To identify ways in which curricular integration is addressed in US pharmacy schools, the structure of therapeutics and foundational science courses, and perceptions of the effects current curricular integration methods have on student learning. Methods. An electronic survey was sent to academic leaders representing 131 pharmacy schools in the United States. Frequency data was tabulated and demographic analysis was performed. Results. Respondent data represents 94 schools of pharmacy. Arranging similar content from various disciplines in a course, a skills laboratory and pharmacy practice experiences were the most common methods for achieving curricular integration. More than one half of the schools indicated that foundational sciences were integrated with therapeutics. The most common reported challenge to curricular integration was logistics. Conclusion. Pharmacy education in the United States has evolved in addressing curricular integration in the curricula, which is consistent with changes in accreditation standards. Most pharmacy schools reported a variety of methods for achieving the intent of curricular integration.

  20. Pharmacoeconomics education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhinova, Tatiana; Rascati, Karen

    2013-09-12

    To determine the extent of pharmacoeconomics education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy provided to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in 2011. E-mails requesting syllabi and information about courses covering pharmacoeconomic topics were sent to all US colleges and schools of pharmacy from which PharmD students had graduated in 2011 (n=103). Of 87 responding pharmacy colleges and schools, 85 provided pharmacoeconomics education in 2011. The number of hours dedicated to pharmacoeconomic-related topics varied from 2 to 60 per year (mean=20). CONCLUSIONS. Pharmacoeconomics education is provided at almost all US colleges and schools of pharmacy; however, variation in the number of teaching hours and topics covered demonstrates a lack of standardization in the PharmD curriculum. Pharmacy administrators and educators should invest more resources and tools to standardize training in this area.

  1. Challenges for Managed Care from 340B Contract Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Adam J

    2016-03-01

    The federal 340B Drug Pricing Program has expanded rapidly, with important yet still unmeasured impact on both managed care practice and policies. Notably, providers increasingly rely on external, contract pharmacies to extend 340B pricing to a broad set of patients. In 2014, 1 in 4 U.S. retail, mail, and specialty pharmacy locations acted as contract pharmacies for 340B-covered entities. This commentary discusses crucial ways in which 340B growth is affecting managed care pharmacy through formulary rebates, profits from managed care paid prescriptions, disruption of retail pharmacy networks, and reduced generic dispensing rates. Managed care should become more engaged in the discussion on how the 340B program should evolve and offer policy proposals to mitigate the challenges being encountered. There is also an urgent need for objective, transparent research on the 340B program's costs, benefits, and implications for managed care pharmacy and practice.

  2. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y

    2003-02-01

    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  3. Managing Conflict: A Guide for the Pharmacy Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumschild, Ryan J; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strategy used may often be based on the situational context and the personality of the employee or manager. The more that pharmacy leaders can engage in conflict resolution with employees and external leaders, the more proactive they can be in achieving positive results. If pharmacy directors understand the source of conflicts and use management strategies to resolve them, they will ensure that conflicts result in a more effective patient-centered pharmacy service.

  4. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohla, Miklos; Haberfeld, Heinz; Sinzinger, Helmut; Kritz, Harald; Tscharre, Maximilian; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. Methods and results Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Mean age was 58±17 years and 67.8% were women. 21% of men and 16% of women had a BMI≥30 kg/m2. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 7%, hypercholesterolaemia was identified in 57%, and 44% had elevated BP. Among fasting individuals (n=1814), DM was found in 18%. In total, 30% were confronted with a CVRF they were previously unaware of, and pharmacists recommended 45% of all participants to actively consult a physician. A first-time diagnosis of a CVRF was most frequent in the age groups between 25 and 64 (32% of participants). Conclusions This pharmacy-based approach for cardiovascular risk screening found similar overall prevalences of CVRFs as reported by national surveys, but revealed underdiagnoses, particularly in lower age groups. A previously unknown CVRF was identified in every third individual, frequently prompting the pharmacists to recommend the consultation of a physician. An active screening approach at pharmacies might therefore serve as an effective alternative to the public preventive medical examination, particularly in younger age groups. PMID:27738518

  5. The depth, duration, and degree of outpatient pediatric polypharmacy in Colorado fee-for-service Medicaid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, James A; Feudtner, Chris; Valuck, Robert J; Kempe, Allison

    2015-10-01

    Outpatient pediatric polypharmacy is poorly characterized. Identification of at-risk populations has clinical implications for pharmacy case management programs. We described the degree of exposure to polypharmacy using parameters of depth (concurrent medication count) and duration, reported commonly dispensed medications and exposure to three example potential drug-drug interactions by different depths of polypharmacy, and determined patient characteristics associated with exposure to increased degrees (a function of depth and duration) of polypharmacy. Retrospective cohort study of Colorado fee-for-service Medicaid patients aged polypharmacy using daily concurrent medication counts and duration of polypharmacy using days exposed to a certain depth. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess patient characteristics associated with different degrees of polypharmacy. Of 242 230 patients, 35% percent were exposed to any depth of polypharmacy, most commonly to anti-infective medications. Patients with higher depth polypharmacy were exposed to less common medications (psychotropic drugs, anticonvulsants, cardiovascular agents, and opioids) and to higher rates of exposure to potential drug-drug interactions. Of 47 972 patients exposed to ≥3 concurrent medications, 50% were exposed for polypharmacy was associated with increasing age, male gender, and presence of a complex chronic condition. Outpatient pediatric polypharmacy occurs to a substantial degree for a small but vulnerable population of children, who may be candidates for pharmacy case management. We must determine whether increased exposure to high-degree polypharmacy causes harm. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Pharmacy Technology: A Community College's Response to a Growing Health Care Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Janice N.; Kabat, Ellen J.

    1991-01-01

    A needs assessment received 526 responses from 958 Iowa pharmacy-related businesses, and 183 businesses participated in a DACUM process to validate competencies for pharmacy technicians. Results were used to design a competency-based pharmacy technician curriculum. (SK)

  7. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. Methods: We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. Results: We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. Conclusion: The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients’ access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46. PMID:23795168

  8. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    OpenAIRE

    Naughton, Cynthia A.; Schweiger, Teresa A.; Angelo, Lauren B.; Lea Bonner, C.; Dhing, Conrad W.; Farley, Joel F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students’ education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and ...

  9. SOME ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Miroshnichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a number of aspects of the development of hospital pharmacy abroad. It is revealed that the focus of professional pharmaceutical associations in the information and educational fields creates the basis for creation of strategy of development of hospital pharmacy. The analysis of population dynamics of pharmaceutical staff in hospital pharmaciesis held, and the detailed characteristics of activities of certain categories of specialists of hospital pharmacies is presented.

  10. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-10-10

    Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite

  11. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  12. Pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A vision of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Asiri, Yousef; Albogami, Yaser; Spratto, George; Alshehri, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the need for

  13. Succession planning in US pharmacy schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Amburgh, Jenny; Surratt, Christopher K; Green, James S; Gallucci, Randle M; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L; Blouin, Robert A

    2010-06-15

    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice.

  14. Pharmacy student absenteeism and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca

    2012-02-10

    To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.

  15. Using the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey as a quality metric for ambulatory care pharmacies: older adults' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D

    2016-05-26

    To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication about health and medicines is perceived important and likely

  16. Comparison of outpatient utilization of psychopharmaceuticals between Croatia and Scandinavian countries (2001-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Šostar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurotropic drugs account for 15% of total drug utilization in Croatia. The aim was to estimate outpatient consumption of psychotropic drugs in Croatia in correlation with Scandinavian countries. Data on drug utilization in Croatia were collected and analyzed for the 2001-2003 period. Data were obtained from Zagreb Municipal Pharmacy and extrapolated to the total number of pharmacies. All drugs were classified according to Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical (ATC drug classification system. These data were used to calculate a number of defined daily doses (DDD and DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID. Data of the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee were used for Scandinavian countries. In Croatia, total utilization of psychopharmaceuticals of 144.9 DDD/TID in 2001, 148.9 DDD/TID in 2002 and 141.9 DDD/TID in 2003 exceeded that recorded in Scandinavian countries. Anxiolytics accounted for 90% of psycholeptic utilization in Croatia versus 22% in Sweden and 34% in Finland. The anxiolytic/antidepressant ratio decreased in Croatia by 35.19% (7.19 in 2001 and 4.66 in 2003, whereas in Scandinavian countries it showed a constant rate (0.7 in Finland, 0.4 in Denmark and Norway, and 0.3 in Sweden.

  17. Are all pharmacy staff interested in potential future roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Rhiannon; Chesney, Kate Marie; Keast, Emilia Paulina; Ng, Lye Jinn; Qi, Sarah; Samaranayaka, Sashika; Wang, Eddie

    2012-12-01

    To determine the current perceived roles and responsibilities of pharmacy staff in community pharmacies in New Zealand, and attitudes to proposed new advanced roles for pharmacy staff. Structured interviews were conducted within five community pharmacies, including at least two pharmacists, two dispensary staff and two pharmacy assistants. The interviews were structured to determine previous experience, current roles and responsibilities and the perceived future roles of pharmacy staff within a community pharmacy setting. Thematic analysis from 27 interviews identified key findings. Current roles appeared to be fairly well defined. Pharmacy assistants listed key roles as customer interactions and sales focus, noting that the dispensary was outside their area of responsibility. Technicians identified their role as being dispensary focused while pharmacists saw their role as the 'final check' to ensure accuracy as well as providing dispensing, counselling and managerial roles. With potential future roles, the assistants were less interested than the other groups, citing contentment with current situation and training as a barrier. Some technicians indicated an interest in furthering their roles, but many were reluctant and saw that additional training was too time consuming. Whilst pharmacists appeared to be interested in further scopes of practice, they appeared more reluctant to do this at the expense of handing dispensing responsibility to a non-pharmacist. Whilst there is a push for pharmacists to provide advanced clinical services, it is important to acknowledge that many staff working within community pharmacies are satisfied with their current role. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-01-01

      To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers...

  19. Effect of Dispositional Traits on Pharmacy Students' Attitude Toward Cheating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marilyn D Saulsbury; Ulysses J Brown III; Simone O Heyliger; Ruby L Beale

    2011-01-01

    .... A questionnaire was administered primarily to pharmacy students at a comprehensive university in the southeastern United States to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, idealism, relativism, student...

  20. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-08-01

    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  1. Evaluation of community pharmacy service mix: evidence from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William R; Kreling, David H; Schommer, Jon C; Gaither, Caroline A; Mott, David A; Pedersen, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    To describe the mix of pharmacy services being offered in different types of community pharmacy practices and to identify factors associated with a community pharmacy offering pharmacy services. Cross-sectional study. Community pharmacies (independent, chain, mass merchandiser, and supermarket pharmacies). Pharmacists practicing full-time or part-time who worked in community pharmacies and responded to the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey. Mailed survey from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey, which included core content questions for all sampled pharmacists and supplemental surveys that included workplace questions for a selected subsample of pharmacists. Type and frequency of pharmacy services being offered in a community pharmacy, including dispensing and product-related services (e.g., specialty compounding), and pharmacist care services (e.g., immunizations, smoking cessation, health screening, medication therapy management, wellness screening, nutritional support, and disease management services). Four pharmacist care services were reported as being offered at more than 10% of community pharmacy practices: immunizations, smoking cessation, health screening, and diabetes management. The number of pharmacist care services offered at a community pharmacy was positively associated with having at least three pharmacists on duty, innovativeness of the pharmacy, status as an independent pharmacy, and status as a supermarket pharmacy. More than one half of the community pharmacy practices did not offer any of the eight pharmacist care services included in a pharmacy service index. Pharmacy services were reported at relatively few community pharmacies, and were associated with pharmacy innovativeness, pharmacist staffing levels, and pharmacy setting. Some community pharmacies are offering pharmacy services as part of their business strategy, while others are dedicated to dispensing services. Continued study of pharmacy service availability in

  2. The Marketing Strategy of Pötting’s Pharmacy Using the Marketing Tool Service Blueprint

    OpenAIRE

    Šilberská, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis is focused on marketing strategy plan of a private pharmacy using service blueprint as a marketing tool. At the beginning the thesis deals with characteristics of specifics and state regulations of pharmacy marketing. Then the thesis analyses Czech pharmacy market in particular with regard to the expansion of pharmacy chains and also puts emphasis on current pharmacy trends that influence management and marketing of private pharmacies. The main goal is firstly to describe t...

  3. Pharmaceutical consultation in UAE community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Hamoudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist′s opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full

  4. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, N M; Shirwaikar, A A; Ali, H S; Al Ayoubi, E I

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed

  5. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P vaccination rates were higher among community pharmacy patients, there were racial disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations among both community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Increased emphasis on educational campaigns among pharmacists and their patients, especially minorities, may be needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Could community pharmacies help to improve youth health? Service availability and views of pharmacy personnel in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Emma; Kelly, Fiona; Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Clark, Terryann

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the availability of youth-relevant community pharmacy services in New Zealand (NZ), and the opinions of pharmacy personnel on the appropriateness of these services for young people aged 12-24. Pharmacist and pharmacy support staff (PSS) questionnaires were developed collaboratively with a Youth Advisory Group (YAG) and were mailed to 500 randomly selected community pharmacies in NZ. Response rates for questionnaires were 50.5 % for pharmacists and 37.0 % for PSS. The majority of community pharmacies in NZ offer public health services relevant to youth health including emergency contraception, condoms, smoking cessation, weight management and harm reduction services for drug use. Not all pharmacy personnel believed these services are appropriate for youth, particularly for those aged 16 or under. PSS appeared less likely than pharmacists to feel services were appropriate. Community pharmacies are offering an increasing range of youth-relevant health services, and may, therefore, be able to improve youth healthcare access. More research is required to investigate the barriers to young people accessing services from pharmacies, and also the challenges for pharmacy personnel in providing services to this age group.

  7. StrengthsFinder Signature Themes of Talent in Doctor of Pharmacy Students in Five Midwestern Pharmacy Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Kristin K.; Farris, Karen B.; Kelley, Katherine A.; Marshall, Vincent D.; Plake, Kimberly S; Scott, Steven A.; Sorensen, Todd D.; Yee, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe student pharmacists’ Signature Themes from the Clifton StrengthsFinder across 5 Midwestern pharmacy institutions and to compare themes by gender, institution, and undergraduate population.

  8. The organizational framework of community pharmacies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sílvia Filipa; van Mil, J W Foppe; da Costa, Filipa Alves

    2015-10-01

    The role of the pharmacist has undergone profound changes over the recent years. In most European countries, the tendency seems to be that pharmacists are moving from being product-oriented to service-oriented. An interesting series of papers describing care related services of pharmacy in various countries has been published in 2006, but much has changed since then. This paper aims to provide an updated view on the overall health care sector in Europe, with a special focus on services in community pharmacy. To list and compare health care and community pharmacy structure in Europe; and to discuss the facilitators and barriers that can be found in health care systems and may promote or hinder the implementation of new community pharmacy services. European community pharmacy practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken where data were collected using an online survey sent to a purposive sample of representatives from 27 European countries. Main outcome measure variation in professional community pharmacy services across Europe. Data were obtained from 22 respondents in 19 countries (70.4%). Health care is mainly provided by a form of public National Health Services in 17 of the 19 countries. Demographic criteria for founding new pharmacies were present in 17 countries. Medicines are exclusively available in pharmacies in approximately one third of the countries. Smoking cessation (93.8%), drug waste management (81.3%) and pharmaceutical care programmes for specific diseases (77.8%) were reported as the most widely disseminated services in European pharmacies. There are still major differences between community pharmacy practice in Europe. Differences are mostly due to the legal framework and remuneration issues, which impact on the range of services available from pharmacies to the community of each country.

  9. Workload and availability of technology in metropolitan community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrepnek, Grant H; Armstrong, Edward P; Malone, Daniel C; Abarca, Jacob; Murphy, John E; Grizzle, Amy J; Rehfeld, Rick A; Woosley, Raymond L

    2006-01-01

    To assess workload characteristics and the presence of prescription processing technologies within metropolitan community pharmacies in the United States. Cross-sectional postal survey. 18 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. 3000 managers located in community pharmacies processing at least 500 third-party claims per month for four major pharmacy benefits managers. 34-item survey instrument designed to collect data about the pharmacy including demographics, workload issues, handling of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and pharmacists' attitudes toward computerized DDI alerts. Workload (hours of operation, prescription volume, staffing hours, prescription processing intensity) and prescription processing technologies (telecommunication systems, automated counting/filling or verification devices, number of computer terminals, and computer software vendors). Overall, 736 usable surveys were returned (response rate, 25.3%). On average, respondents reported a volume of approximately 1340 prescriptions per week processed at a rate of almost 17 prescriptions per hour. Independent pharmacies processed approximately 3 prescriptions per hour more than chain pharmacies even though a statistically equal or slightly lower proportion of those pharmacies had automated technologies. The presence of technology was generally high for all pharmacies, particularly countertop tablet/capsule-counting devices and telefacsimile machines. The most common software vendors differed considerably between chain and independent pharmacies. The number of prescriptions processed per hour and number of technologies available increased with the total weekly volume of prescriptions processed in this national survey. A majority of pharmacies had at least one type of automated prescription processing technology and an automated telecommunication system for accepting new or refill prescriptions. Independent pharmacies processed more prescriptions per hour than did chains but did so

  10. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).

  11. Exploring consumer understanding and preferences for pharmacy quality information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyanbola OO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05. Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”. Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality

  12. The I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model: professional pharmacy unshackled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.

  13. Interprofessional education in introductory pharmacy practice experiences at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kim M; Blumenthal, Donald K; Burke, John M; Condren, Michelle; Hansen, Richard; Holiday-Goodman, Monica; Peterson, Charles D

    2012-06-18

    To assess the extent to which US colleges and schools of pharmacy are incorporating interprofessional education into their introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs), and to identify barriers to implementation; characterize the format, structure, and assessment; and identify factors associated with incorporating interprofessional education in IPPEs. An electronic survey of 116 US colleges and schools of pharmacy was conducted from March 2011 through May 2011. Interprofessional education is a stated curricular goal in 78% of colleges and schools and consistently occurred in IPPEs in 55%. Most colleges and schools that included interprofessional education in IPPEs (70%) used subjective measures to assess competencies, while 17.5% used standardized outcomes assessment instruments. Barriers cited by respondents from colleges and schools that had not implemented interprofessional education in IPPEs included a lack of access to sufficient healthcare facilities with interprofessional education opportunities (57%) and a lack of required personnel resources (52%). Many US colleges and schools of pharmacy have incorporated interprofessional education into their IPPEs, but there is a need for further expansion of interprofessional education and better assessment related to achievement of interprofessional education competencies in IPPEs.

  14. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  15. Geriatric Pharmacy Curriculum in U.S. Pharmacy Schools: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, William; Pratt, Clara Collette

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 72 pharmacy schools shows 22 percent of the schools had no geriatric coursework, 35 percent offered only courses in which the geriatric content averaged under 12 percent of course content, and 43 percent offered courses that focused primarily on geriatrics, most including a major clinical component. (Author/MSE)

  16. Assessing the Attributes which Influence Pharmacy School Selection Utilizing the Freshman Pharmacy Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Victoria F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of data indicates that student-centered, as opposed to institution-centered or program-centered, attributes have a greater impact on the student's decision-making process when selecting a pharmacy school. Significant differences in attribute influence based on demographic variables are presented. (Author/MLW)

  17. The Annual Pharmacy Undergraduate Research Seminar at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Carl J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 10 years, the undergraduate research seminar has provided an opportunity for presentation and evaluation of undergraduate research projects, enabled students to learn about research activity and graduate study in a variety of pharmacy specialties, and created enthusiasm among students. (MSE)

  18. The Origin, Goals, and Development of a Clinical Pharmacy Emphasis in Pharmacy Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harry A.; Swintosky, Joseph V.

    1983-01-01

    The origin, goals, and development of a clinical emphasis are reviewed, beginning with some fundamental developments in pharmacy practice and education brought about by economic, political, social, scientific, and technological forces. The challenge of fitting the desirable curriculum element into a limited program length is discussed. (MSE)

  19. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  20. The Annual Pharmacy Undergraduate Research Seminar at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Carl J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 10 years, the undergraduate research seminar has provided an opportunity for presentation and evaluation of undergraduate research projects, enabled students to learn about research activity and graduate study in a variety of pharmacy specialties, and created enthusiasm among students. (MSE)

  1. [Consumption of medicinal herbs in patients attending a gastroenterology outpatient clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa Jordà, F; Pellicer Bataller, J; Ferrando Ginestar, J; Borghol Hariri, A; Bustamante Balén, M; Ortuño Cortés, J; Ferrando Marrades, I; Llobera Bertran, C; Sala Lajo, A; Miñana Morell, M; Nolasco Bonmatí, A; Fresquet Febrer, J L

    2004-04-01

    The consumption of medicinal herbs is one of the most important topics in alternative and complementary medicine. The widespread use of these substances among the general population gives rise to the possibility of therapeutic or toxic effects in patients seeking conventional medical assistance. To determine the frequency of medicinal herb use, the species consumed and the profile of medicinal herb consumers among patients with gastrointestinal disorders, patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of the Francesc de Borja district hospital (Gandía, Spain) over a 5-month period were interviewed and 539 valid questionnaires were obtained. A total of 34.7% of the interviewees had taken medicinal herbs at some time and 26.9% had used them in the last year. Self-prescription was reported by 67.1%. Medicinal herbs were mainly obtained in the pharmacy or herbalist's (74.7%). The results of medicinal herb therapy were considered good or excellent by 80.3% of the interviewees, average by 18.6% and poor by 1.1%. In the univariate analysis, medicinal herb consumption was positively associated with female sex (p Mentha pulegium (4.4%) and Valeriana officinalis (4.4%). The results show that consumption of medicinal herbs is frequent among patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a district hospital. The probable profile of those showing maximum consumption is: female sex, university education, lower gastrointestinal disorder, functional gastrointestinal disorder, psychotropic drug consumption and use of TE.

  2. Improving Injectable Medicines Prescription in Outpatient Services: A Path Towards Rational Use of Medicines in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Bairami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Injection is one of the most common medical procedures in the health sector. Annually up to 16 billion injections are prescribed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, many of them are not necessary for the patients, increase the healthcare costs and may result in side effects. Currently over 40% of outpatient prescriptions in Iran contain at least one injectable medicine. To address the issue, a working group was established (August 2014 to April 2015 to provide a comprehensive policy brief to be used by national decision-makers. This report is the extract of methods that were followed and the main policy options for improving injectable medicines prescribing in outpatient services. Thirty-three potential policy options were developed focusing on different stakeholders. The panel reached consensus on seven policy options, noting effectiveness, cost, durability, and feasibility of each policy. The recommended policy options are targeted at patients and public (2 policies, insurers (2, physicians (1, pharmacies (1, and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME (1.

  3. Success and safety in outpatient microlumbar discectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Natalie M; Sasso, Rick C

    2006-07-01

    Currently, many spine surgeons perform microlumbar discectomies on an outpatient basis. Yet, it is often customary for patients to have a 1-night stay in the hospital. Many studies have shown the efficacy of microlumbar discectomy (MLD) and its preference among surgeons for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. It has also been shown to be safe, successful, and cost-effective. However, a large comprehensive study of this magnitude, gauging safety, success, and patient satisfaction for these procedures on an outpatient basis has not yet been done. One thousand three hundred seventy-seven MLD procedures have been done from 1992 to 2001 by 1 surgeon. A retrospective chart review was done on all procedures. Patients were then contacted by either telephone or mail to complete an outcome questionnaire. Seven hundred thirteen patients (53.9%) completed the questionnaire. Follow-up questionnaires were not completed due to deaths, incorrect contact information, and refused responses. Out of all MLD procedures, 55 (4.0%) were done with a hospital stay-only 24 of these (1.7%) were originally intended outpatient procedures. Of those that were done on an outpatient basis, 8.6% had a complication, including 6.4% who had a recurrent disc herniation. When asked, 81.6% said they would undergo the procedure again as an outpatient. In 82.1% the surgery's outcome was good, very good, or excellent. MLD is a routine procedure that can be performed on an outpatient basis safely, successfully, and with high patient satisfaction.

  4. APOM-project : a survey of pharmacy organization and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, MP; van der Werf, JJ; Tromp, TFJ

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, a Ph.D-study started regarding pharmacy, organization and management (APOM) in the Netherlands. The APOM-project deals with the structuring and steering of pharmacy organization. This article describes the summary of the empirical results of a survey in a relatively I ge sample (n = 169).

  5. Time Investment in Drug Supply Problems by Flemish Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerdt, Elfi; Simoens, Steven; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Drug supply problems are a known problem for pharmacies. Community and hospital pharmacies do everything they can to minimize impact on patients. This study aims to quantify the time spent by Flemish community pharmacies on drug supply problems. Materials and Methods: During 18 weeks, employees of 25 community pharmacies filled in a template with the total time spent on drug supply problems. The template stated all the steps community pharmacies could undertake to manage drug supply problems. Results: Considering the median over the study period, the median time spent on drug supply problems was 25 min per week, with a minimum of 14 min per week and a maximum of 38 min per week. After calculating the median of each pharmacy, large differences were observed between pharmacies: about 25% spent less than 15 min per week and one-fifth spent more than 1 h per week. The steps on which community pharmacists spent most time are: (i) "check missing products from orders," (ii) "contact wholesaler/manufacturers regarding potential drug shortages," and (iii) "communicating to patients." These three steps account for about 50% of the total time spent on drug supply problems during the study period. Conclusion: Community pharmacies spend about half an hour per week on drug supply problems. Although 25 min per week does not seem that much, the time spent is not delineated and community pharmacists are constantly confronted with drug supply problems.

  6. An Opportunity Revisited: Research in Community Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    Research in ambulatory pharmacy is needed because of changes in its organizational financing and patient population. With health care payers seeking to move patients out of hospitals and into less costly care environments, pharmacy must help discover how to care for this growing patient population effectively and efficiently. (MSE)

  7. Requests Made in Community Pharmacies: Implications for Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G. Dwaine; Linn, Lawrence S.

    1978-01-01

    A study that sought to identify and describe the nature and content of questions asked by pharmacy patrons at the prescription counter is reported. The results indicate that the pharmacy is an important area in primary and self-health care, and that students should be trained in methods of responding and educating in one-to-one situations. (JMD)

  8. A Study of Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miederhoff, Patrick; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Pharmacy students' attitudes toward drug abuse was compared with those of students with different majors. Scores were compared with professional practitioners in other studies using the Measurement of Attitudes Toward Drugs scale. Changes in attitudes as students proceed through their pharmacy curricula were also investigated. (SW)

  9. Development of Multimedia Computer Applications for Clinical Pharmacy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlict, John R.; Livengood, Bruce; Shepherd, John

    1997-01-01

    Computer simulations in clinical pharmacy education help expose students to clinical patient management earlier and enable training of large numbers of students outside conventional clinical practice sites. Multimedia instruction and its application to pharmacy training are described, the general process for developing multimedia presentations is…

  10. Cognitive Moral Development and Clinical Performance: Implications for Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, David A.; Berger, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    A study explored the notion that moral reasoning skills are important to the provision of pharmaceutical care. It compared the moral reasoning skills of two classes of pharmacy students with those of practitioners who scored high on measures of pharmaceutical care and clinical decision making. Implications for pharmacy school admissions and…

  11. Enrollments in Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy, 1988-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Richard P.; Sherman, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Data gathered in the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of pharmacy school enrollments in the 1988-89 academic year are presented. Data analyzed includes entry level degree programs, post-BS PharmD, graduate program enrollments, and attrition. (Author/MLW)

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education in United States Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…

  13. Perceived Stress by Students in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…

  14. Preparing to Enter Pharmacy School. Health Careers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shailer

    Designed to provide a plan for preparing and gaining admission to a pharmacy school, this book presents step-by-step information for the pharmacy school candidate. After an introductory overview, the application process is detailed in 13 chapters covering the following topics: (1) the expanding group of health careers (including the possibility of…

  15. Substance Use Attitudes and Behaviors at Three Pharmacy Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; DeSimone, Edward M., II; Forrester, Joy H.; Fankhauser, Martha P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco…

  16. A Prescription for Reframing Continuing Pharmacy Education in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anita M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…

  17. Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jerome W.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    The Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences initiated a Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice. The program aimed to enable pharmacists to develop their practice to better serve the self-care needs of customers. In a pilot group 26 participating pharmacists took a sequence of home study modules and workshops…

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education in United States Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…

  19. [The Library of the Franciscan pharmacy in Jerusalem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The inventory of the pharmacy of Franciscan monks in Jerusalem contained the description of the eighty books they kept in their Library. Most of them could be identified. A great number were of Italian origin, 45 were redacted in Latin, and 32 in an Italian language. 27 dealt with pharmacy, 18 with medicine and 17 were encyclopaedias or hygiene books.

  20. Hard Core Pharmacology: How Much Is Taught in Pharmacy Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey was sent to eighty-five American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy-member schools and affiliates to learn how many lectures are accorded to core sequences in pharmacology. The data were intended to provide a frame of reference for the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy. (Author/MLW)

  1. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children.

  2. Life in a fishbowl: accountability and integrity in pharmacy leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumschild, Ryan J; Weber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    The Director's Forum is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems by providing practical information on various leadership topics. Pharmacists are bound to practice in the best interest of the patient and are obligated to act with integrity and in an ethical manner. Pharmacy directors and their leadership staff are additionally bound to manage their department with integrity. Staff often scrutinize the pharmacy director's actions, giving the director a feeling of "life in a fishbowl." Every action of the leader is judged in the context of personal integrity or their individual commitment to moral, spiritual, and ethical values. The objective of this article is to describe how a pharmacy leader manages this responsibility. This article addresses the pharmacy leader's obligations to act with integrity, reviews key integrity concerns in pharmacy leadership, and provides guidance for leading and managing in the context of ethics and integrity. Pharmacy directors must always be aware that they are open to both department and public scrutiny if they do not conduct themselves in a professional manner. Being accountable for their actions and maintaining a high standard of integrity, leaders can keep the focus of their departments on the goal of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  3. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  4. Cognitive Moral Development and Clinical Performance: Implications for Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, David A.; Berger, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    A study explored the notion that moral reasoning skills are important to the provision of pharmaceutical care. It compared the moral reasoning skills of two classes of pharmacy students with those of practitioners who scored high on measures of pharmaceutical care and clinical decision making. Implications for pharmacy school admissions and…

  5. APOM-project : a survey of pharmacy organization and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, MP; van der Werf, JJ; Tromp, TFJ

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, a Ph.D-study started regarding pharmacy, organization and management (APOM) in the Netherlands. The APOM-project deals with the structuring and steering of pharmacy organization. This article describes the summary of the empirical results of a survey in a relatively I ge sample (n = 169). G

  6. aculty of Pharmacy, Muhirnbili University College of Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27. The Quality of Pharmacy Practice Among Dispensers in Private Pharmacies: A Case Study in. Dar es Salaam ... Regarding the levels of education of the respondents, the study revealed that 26.7 .... absence of\\the pharqacists pose a risk of.

  7. Service quality in community pharmacy: an exploration of determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Although various instruments have been developed to measure customer satisfaction with community pharmacy services, there is limited research regarding pharmacy staffs' understanding of service quality and its determinants. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pharmacy staff regarding the factors that constitute a high level of service quality using the service quality determinants proposed by the Conceptual Model of Service Quality. Structured interviews were conducted with 27 pharmacy assistants and 6 pharmacists in 3 community pharmacies in Sydney. The interview questions focused on the participants' perceptions of consumer expectations, the translation of these perceptions into service quality specifications, the actual service delivery, and the communication to customers. From the pharmacy staff perspective, service quality is significantly limited by insufficient internal communication and control processes that impede role clarity and the resolution of conflicting role expectations among customer service personnel. Participants indicated that these problems could be alleviated through the implementation of more transparent, realistic, measurable, and accepted quality specifications by pharmacy management. The study indicates that the extent to which pharmacy management sets, maintains, and communicates service quality specifications to staff directly affects role clarity, role conflict, and organizational commitment among customer service staff, which in turn directly influence the level of service quality provided to the customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Internship Experience: A Manual for Pharmacy Preceptors and Interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussing, Paul G., Ed.

    Responsibilities or practice requirements of pharmacy interns at three levels of expertise are outlined, and guidelines for using the designations in supervision and instruction are presented. Recent trends in pharmacy internship and the methodology that was used to identify performance dimensions, responsibilities, and tasks are examined, along…

  9. Perceived Stress by Students in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…

  10. Substance Use Attitudes and Behaviors at Three Pharmacy Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; DeSimone, Edward M., II; Forrester, Joy H.; Fankhauser, Martha P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco…

  11. A Prescription for Reframing Continuing Pharmacy Education in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anita M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…

  12. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... constitutes dispensing by means of the Internet unless such person is a pharmacist who is acting in the...

  13. Pharmacy ethics: evaluation pharmacists' ethical attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Pooneh Salari; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Asghari, Fariba

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in pharmacy practice from prescription dispensing to more patient-centered relationship intensifies the necessity of clinical decision-making. Pharmacists' knowledge as well as ethical reasoning affects their clinical decision-making. Unfortunately in Iran pharmacy ethics did not develop along with medical ethics and special considerations are of major importance. The study was designed to evaluate pharmacists' attitude toward some principles of bioethics. A cross-sectional survey was performed on a sample of Iranian pharmacists attended in continuous education programs in 2010. Based on the pharmacists' attitude toward common ethical problems, 9 Likert-type scale scenarios were designed. A thousand pharmacists were surveyed and 505 questionnaires were filled. For the whole questionnaire the strongly disagree answer was the most ethical answer. On a scale from 1-5 on which 5=strongly disagree, the total score of pharmacists ethical attitude was 17.69 ± 3.57. For easier analysis we considered the score of 1 for agree and strongly agree answers, score of 2 for neutral answers and score of 3 for disagree and strongly disagree answers. The total score in confidentiality for all participants was 4.15 ± 1.45 out of 9, in autonomy 6.25 ± 1.85 out of 9, in non-maleficence 5.14 ± 1.17 out of 6 and in justice was 2.27 ± 0.89 out of 3, however there was no significant difference between men and women in the total score and the score of each theme. The older participants (> 40 years) significantly had lower total score (Pethical guidelines and improving pharmacy ethics curriculum is highly critical to provide the best pharmaceutical care and to make clinical decisions in critical situations. Therefore further quantitative and qualitative investigations into finding pitfalls and challenges in this issue are highly recommended.

  14. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  15. Perceived importance of pharmacy management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Richard J; MacKinnon, George E; MacKinnon, Neil J; Kennedy, Pamela L

    2005-05-15

    U.S. and Canadian health-system pharmacists' perceptions of the importance of managerial skills and self-ratings of skills were studied. A questionnaire asking recipients to rate the importance of 61 pharmacy management skills and to rate their own skill levels was prepared. The instrument was mailed in 2000 to pharmacy managers in Canada. Participants in the Leadership in Healthcare Administration for Pharmacists conference in Phoenix, Arizona, received the survey at the end of the 2001 and 2002 conferences. Participants in the 2002 Department of Veterans Affairs pharmacists' conference in Memphis, Tennessee, received the survey eight weeks before the conference. The net response rates for the Canadian, Arizona, and Tennessee surveys were 52.7%, 56.9%, and 38.4%, respectively. The five skills rated most important in each of the three surveys were all practice foundation skills and tended to be required by all health care managers. Skills rated least important were also generally similar among the surveys. Only five skills demonstrated a significant mean difference in perceived importance among the surveys. In all three surveys, demonstrating ethical conduct was rated the most important skill and was judged by participants to be their greatest strength. Using an organized system for staying current with managerial literature was cited as the greatest weakness by the Tennessee sample and the second greatest weakness by the Canadian sample. Surveys in the United States and Canada found differences and similarities in pharmacy managers' opinions of the importance of managerial skills and in self-rated managerial strengths. Also identified were gaps in training.

  16. From community pharmacy to healthy living pharmacy: positive early experiences from Portsmouth, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Portlock, Jane; Rutter, Paul; Nazar, Zacharia

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown the potential for community pharmacies to promote better health and prevent disease by providing individual services in a limited range of settings. In the UK, the healthy living pharmacy (HLP) framework has been developed to allow pharmacies to provide a portfolio of such services tailored to local need. This paper reports an evaluation of the uptake and success of HLP introduction in Portsmouth, the original pathfinder site for a national program. To assesses the impact on service provision and staff engagement at an early stage in HLP program development. Quantitative data, derived from pharmacy records, on service provision by HLPs (n = 17) and non-HLPs (n = 19) during April 2011-March 2012 was evaluated for trends and differences. Face-to-face interviews were conducted during November 2011 and February 2012, to gauge staff opinion on HLP development and sustainability, using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Significantly more clients per pharmacy were seen in HLPs than non-HLPs for the following services: targeted respiratory medicine use reviews (medians: 29 vs 11; P = 0.0167); smoking cessation at initiation (62 vs 18; P mix and additional training of non-pharmacist staff to become healthy living champions. Obstacles to HLP development were managing the increased workload, raising awareness of clients and other healthcare professionals of the services available, and receiving remuneration for service provision. These data point to a largely successful introduction of the HLP program in Portsmouth and the potential for improving client health. Staff interviews suggest that adoption and sustainability of the scheme depend on achieving the right skill mix, including the introduction of healthy living champions, motivation of the entire staff team and the provision of adequate funding for services offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacy Students' Self-Identified Interests in a Hospital Pharmacy Internship Course in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After revision of pharmacy curriculum by, Iranian Health and Education Ministry reviewed in 2005, it was decided that pharmacy students need extra internship courses such as hospital internship course. Hospital internship course could provide students with the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and master the skills required for current pharmacy practices in community and hospital setting. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze pharmacy students’ experiences during hospital internship. Methods: Each student attended in 3 wards and provided a logbook for each ward. Students were asked to document at least one topic interesting for them on each day. The collected information was divided into sections and analyzed using SPSS ver 14. Results: Seventeen students enrolled in the course. Endocrinology and nephrology wards had the highest and neurology the lowest number of attended students. Seven hundred and one reported learning subjects were divided into 24 areas. The highest numbers of reported topics were the drugs indications, adverse drug reactions and diagnosis of diseases while the lowest number was pretreatment laboratory tests, pharmacoeconomy, counseling medical staffs and off label use of medications. Gastroenterology and endocrinology wards with 210 reports had the highest and neurology ward with 12 had the lowest number of reports. Conclusion: Completing the logbooks was an encouragement for students to seek and document and learn new topics and also a major feature of the clinical assessment scheme of the course. The majority of the reported topics were learning objectives but not the interventional ones. The present study showed us some areas of pharmacy education which need further attention.

  18. Pharmacy benefit caps and the chronically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Geoffrey F; Goldman, Dana P; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Zheng, Yuhui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine medication use among retirees with employer-sponsored drug coverage both with and without annual benefit limits. We find that pharmacy benefit caps are associated with higher rates of medication discontinuation across the most common therapeutic classes and that only a minority of those who discontinue use reinitiate therapy once coverage resumes. Plan members who reach their cap are more likely than others to switch plans and increase their rate of generic use; however, in most cases, the shift is temporary. Given the similarities between these plans and Part D, we make some inferences about reforms for Medicare.

  19. A growing codependency: compounding pharmacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Bryan; Lundevall, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are in constant contact with potent compounds. When compounding with powders, there is a susceptibility to environmental conditions such that proper containment be in place to keep the employees safe, the medicine free from cross contamination or the introduction of outside contaminants, and the workplace free from floating active pharmaceutical ingredient particles. Adapting powder hoods as safety devices that work in direct relation to clearly defined standard operating procedures and good lab practices will facilitate a safer lab environment for employees and ensure good-quality prescriptions. This article discusses the safety concerns of compounding with powders and the safety measures to consider when purchasing powder hoods.

  20. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  1. [Drugs of a Baroque monastery pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábek, Pavel

    2013-08-01

    This paper deal with a manuscript from the years 1714-1720, originating most probably from the hospital of the Brothers of Mercy in Nové Mesto nad Metují. it contains the records of the hospital pharmacy about the drugs prepared for both patients and monks who operated this hospital. The included drugs were mainly intended for elderly males. The manuscript lists about fifteen hundred drugs and more than three hundred active ingredients, of which about two thirds were of plant origin. The paper presents the compositions of more important drugs and partly deals also with their preparation.

  2. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  3. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2009-10-01

    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.

  4. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    of prescribed medicines at Swedish community pharmacies. METHOD: Non-participant observations and audio recordings were used as data-collecting methods. The content of the dialog was categorized into 2 deductively decided main categories-medicinal and non-medicinal issues-and 12 inductively decided...... subcategories. RESULTS: A total of 282 pharmacy encounters were observed and recorded, of which 259 fully coincided with the inclusion criteria. After categorizing the content of each encounter the results showed that there was little or no dialog regarding medicinal issues during the pharmacy encounter...... in Swedish community pharmacies. Forty percent of the dialog concerns non-medical issues and almost half of the encounter was silent. CONCLUSION: Medicines are an essential treatment method in healthcare, and pharmaceutical expertise is available to patients who enter a community pharmacy. The results...

  5. Professional Stereotypes of Interprofessional Education Naive Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912

  6. Historical development and emerging trends of community pharmacy residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Samuel F; Adams, Alex J; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R; Burns, Anne L; Owen, James A

    2011-10-10

    Clinical pharmacy services necessitate appropriately trained pharmacists. Postgraduate year one (PGY1) community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) provide advanced training for pharmacists to provide multiple patient care services in the community setting. These programs provide an avenue to translate innovative ideas and services into clinical practice. In this paper, we describe the history and current status of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs, including an analysis of the typical settings and services offered. Specific information on the trends of community programs compared with other PGY1 pharmacy residencies is also discussed. The information presented in this paper is intended to encourage discussion regarding the need for increasing the capacity of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs.

  7. Is a pharmacy student the customer or the product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdford, David A

    2014-02-12

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient.

  8. Independent Community Pharmacists' Perspectives on Compounding in Contemporary Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Timothy B.; Fontane, Patrick E.; Berry, Tricia; Chereson, Rasma; Bilger, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify compounding practices of independent community pharmacy practitioners in order to make recommendations for the development of curricular objectives for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Methods Independent community practitioners were asked about compounding regarding their motivations, common activities, educational exposures, and recommendations for PharmD education. Results Most respondents (69%) accepted compounding as a component of pharmaceutical care and compounded dermatological preparations for local effects, oral solutions, and suspensions at least once a week. Ninety-five percent were exposed to compounding in required pharmacy school courses and most (98%) who identified compounding as a professional service offered in their pharmacy sought additional postgraduate compounding education. Regardless of the extent of compounding emphasis in the practices surveyed, 84% stated that PharmD curricula should include compounding. Conclusions Pharmacy schools should define compounding curricular objectives and develop compounding abilities in a required laboratory course to prepare graduates for pharmaceutical care practice. PMID:19564997

  9. A pharmacogenetics service experience for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R; Wong, Shan S; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A; Cavallari, Larisa H

    2013-10-14

    To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Students', residents', and fellows' achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics.

  10. Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Daniels, Lacy; Demps, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist's and patient's roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students' knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations.

  11. Medicaid program; clarification of outpatient hospital facility (including outpatient hospital clinic) services definition. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    Outpatient hospital services are a mandatory part of the standard Medicaid benefit package. This final rule aligns the Medicaid definition of outpatient hospital services more closely to the Medicare definition in order to: Improve the functionality of the applicable upper payment limits (which are based on a comparison to Medicare payments for the same services), provide more transparency in determining available hospital coverage in any State, and generally clarify the scope of services for which Federal financial participation (FFP) is available under the outpatient hospital services benefit category.

  12. Attitudes of First-Year Pharmacy Students and Preceptors to a "Mini-Externship" in Hospital and Community Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivey, Michael P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of Montana School of Pharmacy has included a miniexternship experience in a required introductory course. Goals of a survey of 67 first year students and 17 preceptors included students' demographic profile and prior exposure to pharmacy practice, assessment of the influence of the externship on career goals, etc. (MLW)

  13. Attitudes of Doctor of Pharmacy Students Toward the Application of Social and Administrative Pharmacy in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootman, J. Lyle; Johnson, C. Anderson

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons for Minnesota's class of 1977 supported the hypothesis that clinical pharmacy students become more receptive to pharmacy administrations skills and services as they gain clinical experience, especially in consultation services. Comparisons with the class of 1976 failed to support the hypothesis, however. (LBH)

  14. What is a Pharmacist: Opinions of Pharmacy Department Academics and Community Pharmacists on Competences Required for Pharmacy Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; de Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education), and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it), on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the

  15. Attitudes of Doctor of Pharmacy Students Toward the Application of Social and Administrative Pharmacy in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootman, J. Lyle; Johnson, C. Anderson

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons for Minnesota's class of 1977 supported the hypothesis that clinical pharmacy students become more receptive to pharmacy administrations skills and services as they gain clinical experience, especially in consultation services. Comparisons with the class of 1976 failed to support the hypothesis, however. (LBH)

  16. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Dimensional modeling analysis for outpatient payments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-zhong; Guo, Yi-min

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces a data warehouse model for outpatient payments, which is designed according to the requirements of the hospital financial management while dimensional modeling technique is combined with the analysis on the requirements. This data warehouse model can not only improve the accuracy of financial management requirements, but also greatly increase the efficiency and quality of the hospital management.

  18. The Transition from Inpatient to Outpatient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Alan L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents case of 29-year-old white male veteran, whose case illustrates need for coordination of inpatient and outpatient services for chronically suicidal patients to reduce risk during transition. Includes comments on case from Phillip Kleespies, Sarah Marshall, Teri Pokrajac, and Richard Amodio and from Mark Goldblatt. (NB)

  19. Outpatient coronary angioplasty: feasible and safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagboom, Ton; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Laarman, Gert Jan; van der Wieken, Ron

    2005-04-01

    This study tested the safety and feasibility of coronary angioplasty on an outpatient basis. The purpose of this approach includes cost-effectiveness and patient comfort. Six hundred forty-four patients were randomized to either transradial or transfemoral PTCA using 6 Fr equipment. Patients were triaged to outpatient management based on a predefined set of predictors of an adverse outcome in the first 24 hr after initially successful coronary angioplasty. Three hundred seventy-five patients (58%) were discharged 4-6 hr after PTCA; 42% stayed in hospital overnight. In the outpatient group, one adverse event occurred (subacute stent thrombosis 7 hr postdischarge, nonfatal myocardial infarction). There were no major vascular complications. In the hospital group, 19 patients (7%) sustained an adverse cardiac even in the first 24 hr; 1 patient died. Patients treated via the femoral route had more (minor) bleeding complications (19 patients; 6%); in 17 of these, this was the sole reason that discharge was delayed. PTCA on an outpatient basis, performed via the radial or the femoral artery with low-profile equipment, is safe and feasible in a considerable part of a routine PTCA population. A larger proportion of transradial patients can be discharged due to a reduction in (minor) bleeding complications.

  20. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  1. Pharmacoeconomic education in Egyptian schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Hussein, Mustafa; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the status of pharmacoeconomics education in Egyptian schools of pharmacy and compile and construct recommendations on how Egypt and similar countries could improve their educational infrastructure in pharmacoeconomics. METHODS. A modified version of a published survey instrument was sent to all schools of pharmacy in Egypt (n= 24). The data were assessed to identify associations between offering pharmacoeconomics education and school characteristics. RESULTS. Usable responses were obtained from 20 schools (response rate: 83%). Only 7 schools offered pharmacoeconomics education, with a median of 20 teaching hours per semester. Among respondents, 4 schools had instructors with some training in pharmacoeconomics and only 1 school had a faculty member with PhD-level training. Only 4 schools offered graduate-level courses in pharmacoeconomics. Eight additional schools expressed interest in teaching pharmacoeconomics in the near future. Having 1 or more faculty members with training in pharmacoeconomics was significantly associated with offering pharmacoeconomics education (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS. Pharmacoeconomics education in Egypt is still in its infancy and there exists a unique opportunity for well-trained instructors and researchers to fill this gap. Providing structured pharmacoeconomics education to student pharmacists, researchers, and stakeholders can help countries establish an integrated scientific community that can start applying pharmacoeconomic evidence to healthcare decision-making.

  2. Marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella; Orizio, Grazia; Domenighini, Serena; Bressanelli, Maura; Schulz, Peter J; Zani, Claudia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-10-01

    Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs. These strategies differentiate according to variety (brand or generic), quality, quantity, and target group. OPs are well aware that the vacuum in the legislation allows them to reach a target of consumers that pharmacies cannot normally reach, such as those who would like to use the drug without consulting a physician (or, even worse, against the physician's advice). In this case, they usually charge a higher price, reassure the users by minimizing on the side effects, and induce them to bulk purchase through sensible price discounts. This analysis suggests that the selling of drugs via the Internet can turn into a "public health risk", as has been pointed out by the US Food and Drug Administration.

  3. Carbon nanotubes: applications in pharmacy and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; Dramou, Pierre; Xiao, Deli; Zuo, Pengli; Pham-Huy, Chuong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.). They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future.

  4. Hospital diversification: how to involve the pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E; Black, B L

    1987-05-01

    Participation by hospital pharmacy departments in planning and development of diversified services is described. Diversification requires market planning. Seven basic marketing steps are identification of mission, goals, and objectives; identification of growth strategies (market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification); market analysis of external factors (size, growth, and logistics; reimbursement and financial considerations; competition; regulatory issues; and legal issues); market analysis of internal factors (departmental organization and reporting lines, demographics of the institution, and costs and productivity associated with the new service); program development and design; implementation; and evaluation. Hospitals can diversify by expanding acute-care services through management contracts and mergers; developing new services to include long-term-care, ambulatory-care, occupational-health, and wellness programs; starting other health-care ventures, such as consulting, continuing medical education, and continuing education for nurses; and expanding into non-health-care businesses. Vertical diversification is finding new markets for existing services; horizontal diversification is development of new services for new markets. To diversify, an institution may need to change its corporate structure; it may form a family of corporations that includes a university, nonprofit hospitals, holding companies, for-profit corporations, joint ventures, and service organizations. Through diversification, institutions and pharmacy departments can create alternative sources of funding and offer more comprehensive services to patients.

  5. Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronin MA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1,2 Lacy Daniels,1,2 Elaine Demps21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, 2Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USAAbstract: Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL, an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple

  6. Incorporation of a community pharmacy-based heart failure assessment tool by advanced pharmacy practice experience students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Sarah E; Walker, Paul C; Mason, James G; Zara, Nadir; Bleske, Barry E

    To incorporate a published clinical tool related to heart failure (HF) assessment into advanced pharmacy practice experiences in the community pharmacy setting to provide a meaningful and innovative learning experience for students. Sixteen independent and chain community pharmacies that served as advanced pharmacy practice experience locations. Sixteen community pharmacy locations served as rotation sites and participated in data collection (8 chain and 8 independent). This was the first study in which pharmacy students used The One-Minute Clinic for Heart Failure (TOM-C HF) tool to assess HF within the community pharmacy setting. Trained student pharmacists identified patients who may have heart failure by evaluating medication dispensing records, interviewed the patient using the TOM-C HF tool, and made interventions as clinically appropriate. The number of students using the TOM-C HF tool, the number and types of interventions made, and student perceptions about the educational and professional value of the patient interaction. Thirty-three of 83 (40%) students completed 63 patient assessments. Thirty-five percent of patients (22/63) were candidates for an intervention. Interventions were performed in 9 of 22 patients (41%). More than 65% of students found the patient interaction to have educational and professional value. Students were able to assess HF patients and make interventions in a community pharmacy setting. The majority of students also perceived some value in these assessments. The incorporation of a clinical tool in the community setting driven by fourth-year pharmacy students has been shown to be feasible and to provide both a novel advanced practice experience. In addition, it may be expandable to the services offered at community pharmacies. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  8. Availability of snacks, candy and beverages in hospital, community clinic and commercial pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Anne; Simon, Anna; French, Simone A; Wolfson, Julian

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the availability of energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages in pharmacies and to examine differences by pharmacy type and presence of a food policy. Trained research staff visited pharmacies (n 37) to measure shelf space and variety of snacks, candy and sugar-sweetened beverages available within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register. Community clinic, hospital and commercial pharmacies in Minneapolis, MN, USA. Employees were interviewed regarding pharmacy food policies. Approximately 60 % of pharmacies had foods and/or sugar-sweetened beverages available for purchase within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register. Total shelf space (P = 0·02) and variety (P = 0·0003) differed significantly by pharmacy type and were greatest among community clinic pharmacies. Over half of pharmacies had no food policy (58·3 %). Pharmacies with food policies were less likely to have foods/beverages available within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register than pharmacies with no food policies (P = 0·03). Candy, snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages are highly available in the pharmacy environment. Presence of a policy is associated with less food availability within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register and represents an important potential intervention strategy.

  9. Relationships among Student Preadmission Characteristics, NABPLEX Scores, and Academic Performance during Later Years in Pharmacy School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Werner; Wergin, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    The extent to which the Pharmacy College Admissions Test and other admissions criteria predict (1) academic performance during later years at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy, and (2) scores on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Licensing Examination (NABPLEX), and a board of pharmacy law examination are assessed.…

  10. 75 FR 10272 - Notice Regarding 340B Drug Pricing Program-Contract Pharmacy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... independent pharmacy, or a combination of chain sites and independent pharmacies. Additionally, the commenter... their communities which would benefit covered entities, pharmacies and patients served. Comments raised... with a chain pharmacy binding on multiple locations of the chain, instead of requiring a separate...

  11. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  12. Volume, structure and funding of specialized outpatient care at the outpatient Advisory Department of Mariinskaya hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Kutyrev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technologies, and discovery of new methods of diagnostics and treatment of diseases, a shift of the disease towards chronic disease is observed. Growth in prosperity will increase average life expectancy and mean age of population. Year after year, the elderly sector grows, with several chronic diseases per person. This is especially true for St. Petersburg, where 25 % of the populations of over working age. Thus, the demand for specialized medical care, particularly outpatient, will increase. Given that outpatient care is more profitable than hospital care, particular attention should be paid to its organization and expansion (increase in area, number of personnel, logistics, and so on. The article attempts to analyze changes in the volume of specialized outpatient medical care delivered at the outpatient Advisory Department of St. Petersburg state establishment of healthcare Mariinsky hospital in the period from 2008 through 2013.

  13. Mobile applications in clinical practice: What is needed in the pharmacy scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan Elnaem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.

  14. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  15. Frequency and consequences of violence in community pharmacies in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, D; Reid, A

    2012-12-01

    Violence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously. To establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry. A two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Fifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores. Violence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.

  16. Chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudka, Sajni; Afuwape, Folasade E; Wong, Bessie; Yow, Xuan Li; Anderson, Claire; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2013-07-01

    Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection in Australia. Increasing the number of people aged 16-25 years being tested for chlamydia has become a key objective. The strategy recommends that chlamydia screening sites should be easy to access. Community pharmacies are conveniently located and easily accessible. This review aimed to determine the different types of pharmacy-based chlamydia screening interventions, describe their uptake rates, and understand issues around the acceptability of and barriers to testing. Seven electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published up to 30 October 2011 for studies that reported chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies, or had qualitative evidence on acceptability or barriers linked with interventions. Of the 163 publications identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Nine reported chlamydia screening interventions in a pharmacy setting, whereas three focussed on perspectives on chlamydia screening. Pharmacists could offer a chlamydia test to consumers attending the pharmacy for a sexual health-related consultation, or consumers could request a chlamydia test as part of a population-based intervention. Participating consumers said pharmacies were accessible and convenient, and pharmacists were competent when offering a chlamydia test. Pharmacists reported selectively offering tests to women they thought would be most at risk, undermining the principles of opportunistic interventions. Chlamydia screening from community pharmacies is feasible, and can provide an accessible, convenient venue to get a test. Professional implementation support, alongside resources, education and training programs, and incentives may overcome the issue of pharmacists selectively offering the test.

  17. Frequency and consequences of violence in community pharmacies in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, D

    2012-09-11

    BackgroundViolence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously.AimsTo establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry.MethodsA two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents\\' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees\\' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).ResultsFifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores.ConclusionsViolence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.

  18. Future-proofing the pharmacy profession in a hypercompetitive market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market.

  19. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pinternational study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.

  20. Pharmacy students′ perception about education and future career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirghani A. Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was to determine the Sudanese pharmacy students′ opinions and to measure their satisfaction about education instructions and to reveal their impact on the future carrier. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted by using pretested self-administered questionnaire among final year pharmacy students in Sudan. Results: A total of 455 students from both public and private colleges were participated in the study. Combined one-way direct with interactive method was dominant (74.5% and was preferred by (74.3%. The English was the major instruction language (62.9%, which was preferred by (66.6% of the participants. More than 3-quarters of the students had chosen the pharmacy as first choice. Students believed that pharmacy provides good future career. There was a significant association between the students′ satisfaction about choosing pharmacy as career and current academic performance (P = 0.004. Conclusion: The obtained results provide an insight into students′ opinions on different issues concerning pharmacy education instructions. These data could be utilized as an indicator of the general trends and a guideline for improving pharmacy education in Sudan.

  1. Pharmacists’ social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.

  2. Development of a supervisory skills course for hospital pharmacy workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschuk, Donna M M; Raymond, Colette B

    2010-07-01

    Many Canadian hospital pharmacies are experiencing difficulties recruiting supervisory personnel. It was expected that, through a "learning-by-doing" course, pharmacy staff would learn to apply basic skills in the day-to-day supervision of pharmacy operations and human resources and to apply the principles of supervisory documentation. A supervisory skills course targeted to pharmacy staff members was developed and implemented by the pharmacy department of a large urban health region. The course was initially offered to practising pharmacy technicians. The course design emphasized a constructivist framework incorporating authentic learning and reflective practice during seminars, with experiential and self-directed learning in the workplace. Preceptors assisted learners to achieve the course goals. Learners and preceptors provided feedback about hours spent (as the course progressed) and about their satisfaction with the course itself (at the end of the course). Learners and preceptors completed a post-program evaluation 2 months after completing the course to help in the assessment of the transfer of learning (lasting impact) associated with the course. Overall performance in the course was assessed on a pass/fail basis. Eighteen pharmacy technicians were admitted to the program, but one withdrew because of a job change. All learners successfully completed the course. Two months after the course, learners and preceptors described enhanced organization, time management, leadership, communication, and conflict-resolution skills on the part of learners, as well as their increased confidence, maturity, and ability to supervise staff. Learners' evaluations revealed a broadened perspective of pharmacy. The preceptors valued the enhancement of learners' skills and their increased enthusiasm. At the time of writing, 6 of the participants had secured supervisory positions. Creating formal instruction that engages pharmacy staff to pursue management positions is challenging

  3. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  4. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.

  5. Clinical pharmacy practice in developing countries: Focus on India and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula; Barun Ranjan Sarkar; Isha Patel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy practice is undergoing unprecedented changes as standard profession of pharmacy practice by means of pharmaceutical care. Although, the clinical pharmacy is well recognized in developed countries, but the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice is still at nascent stage in developing countries. Hence, this article is focused on the variations in implementation of clinical pharmacy education and practice in developing countries, specially focusing on highly populous coun...

  6. The global pharmacy workforce: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Claire

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed. Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries and work sector (private/public. Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrolments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures

  7. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription......-the-counter products, advice about medicine use, dose dispensing, generic substitutions, and administration of individual reimbursement registers. Except for very simple processes, compounding is centralized at 3 pharmacies. Many pharmacies offer measurement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and 60...

  8. Pharmacy students' perceptions of cultural competence encounters during practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Loren-Ashley; Vellurattil, Rosalyn Padiyara; Quiñones-Boex, Ana

    2014-03-12

    To determine pharmacy students' perceptions regarding cultural competence training, cross-cultural experiences during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and perceived comfort levels with various cultural encounters. Fourth-year pharmacy (P4) students were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of their fourth APPE. Fifty-two of 124 respondents (31.9%) reported having 1 or more cultural competence events during their APPEs, the most common of which was caring for a patient with limited English proficiency. Students reported high levels of comfort with specific types of cultural encounters (disabilities, sexuality, financial barriers, mental health), but reported to be less comfortable in other situations.

  9. Pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A vision of the fut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Aljadhey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the

  10. Integrating Internships with Professional Study in Pharmacy Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfhjelm, Ulla; Passi, Sanna; Airaksinen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy internships are an important part of undergraduate pharmacy education worldwide. Internships in Finland are integrated into professional study during the second and third year, which has several pedagogic advantages, such as better understanding of the association between academic studies and pharmaceutical work-life during the studies, and enhanced self-reflection through the feedback from preceptors and peers during the internships. The objective of this paper is to describe the Finnish integrated internship using the pharmacy curriculum at the University of Helsinki as an example. PMID:26056411

  11. Roles for pharmacy in combatting counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziance, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    To describe (1) the international scope of counterfeit drugs, (2) international and U.S. anticounterfeiting initiatives, and (3) the enhanced roles and challenges facing pharmaceutical organizations and individual pharmacists to thwart counterfeit drugs. PubMed and Ovid from 1970 to 2008 using the search terms counterfeit drugs, counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and counterfeit medicines, with English as the limiting term. Nonprimary literature sources included the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site (www.fda.gov) from 1990 to 2008 using the search term counterfeit drugs, presentations from meetings or workshops attended or accessed via the Internet, and Web sites of professional organizations. Additional resources were identified from personal bibliographies collected by the author and bibliographies of gathered articles. Counterfeit drugs--defined as those containing no active ingredient, an incorrect amount of active ingredients, incorrect ingredient, and/or unapproved labeling and packaging--represent an unquantified problem of international proportions. The existing situation has been facilitated by inconsistent national regulatory oversight, disparate unlinked databases, lack of unified anticounterfeiting actions, and inability to track the distribution of domestically produced or imported drug products between, among, and within nations. In the United States, several important anticounterfeiting initiatives announced by FDA in 2004 have been implemented but the benefits of others, such as electronic tracking of a drug's movement through the U.S. distribution chain to a dispensing pharmacy, will not be realized in the near future. The role of pharmacists as patient educators, prudent purchasers, and detectors of counterfeit drugs can typically be accomplished with minimal added expense or work; however, the impact of electronic tracking on pharmacies' expenses and workflow is unknown. Pharmacists need to be included in efforts to thwart receipt of

  12. Educating Pharmacy Students to Improve Quality (EPIQ) in colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Adrienne M; Myers, Jaclyn; Nash, James D; Lavigne, Jill E; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Plake, Kimberly S; Quiñones-Boex, Ana C; Holdford, David; West-Strum, Donna; Warholak, Terri L

    2012-08-10

    To assess course instructors' and students' perceptions of the Educating Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists to Improve Quality (EPIQ) curriculum. Seven colleges and schools of pharmacy that were using the EPIQ program in their curricula agreed to participate in the study. Five of the 7 collected student retrospective pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Changes in students' perceptions were evaluated to assess their relationships with demographics and course variables. Instructors who implemented the EPIQ program at each of the 7 colleges and schools were also asked to complete a questionnaire. Scores on all questionnaire items indicated improvement in students' perceived knowledge of quality improvement. The university the students attended, completion of a class project, and length of coverage of material were significantly related to improvement in the students' scores. Instructors at all colleges and schools felt the EPIQ curriculum was a strong program that fulfilled the criteria for quality improvement and medication error reduction education. The EPIQ program is a viable, turnkey option for colleges and schools of pharmacy to use in teaching students about quality improvement.

  13. Pharmacy 2.0: a scoping review of social media use in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Kelly; Forgione, Andrea; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Gavura, Scott; Giustini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    New "social" information and communication technologies such as social media and smartphones are allowing non-experts to access, interpret and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Pharmacists may also benefit from increased connectivity, but first there needs to be an understanding of how pharmacists engage with social media. A scoping review methodology was used to describe pharmacist and pharmacy student participation in social media networks and to describe the gaps in research. Three themes that emerged from reviewing social media use in pharmacy education were student engagement, boundaries and e-professionalism. For pharmacists, the themes of liability and professional use were prominent. Few pharmacy leadership organizations are providing guidance on social media but that appears to be changing. As the control of medical knowledge shifts from health professionals to the larger social community, pharmacists need to be present. Social media use and training in undergraduate programs is promising but experienced pharmacists also need to join the conversation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Educating Pharmacy Students to Improve Quality (EPIQ) in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jaclyn; Nash, James D.; Lavigne, Jill E.; Moczygemba, Leticia R.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Quiñones-Boex, Ana C.; Holdford, David; West-Strum, Donna; Warholak, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess course instructors’ and students’ perceptions of the Educating Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists to Improve Quality (EPIQ) curriculum. Methods. Seven colleges and schools of pharmacy that were using the EPIQ program in their curricula agreed to participate in the study. Five of the 7 collected student retrospective pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Changes in students’ perceptions were evaluated to assess their relationships with demographics and course variables. Instructors who implemented the EPIQ program at each of the 7 colleges and schools were also asked to complete a questionnaire. Results. Scores on all questionnaire items indicated improvement in students’ perceived knowledge of quality improvement. The university the students attended, completion of a class project, and length of coverage of material were significantly related to improvement in the students’ scores. Instructors at all colleges and schools felt the EPIQ curriculum was a strong program that fulfilled the criteria for quality improvement and medication error reduction education. Conclusion The EPIQ program is a viable, turnkey option for colleges and schools of pharmacy to use in teaching students about quality improvement. PMID:22919085

  15. Trends in pharmacy staff's perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-10-01

    All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions.

  16. Does deregulation in community pharmacy impact accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs? Evidence from nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habimana, Katharina; Arts, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    To analyse the impact of deregulation in community pharmacy on accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs. We analysed and compared community pharmacy systems in five rather deregulated countries (England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden) and four rather regulated countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Spain). Data were collected by literature review, a questionnaire survey and interviews. Following a deregulation, several new pharmacies and dispensaries of Over-the-Counter (OTC) medicines tended to be established, predominantly in urban areas. Unless prevented by regulation, specific stakeholders, e.g. wholesalers, were seen to gain market dominance which limited envisaged competition. There were indications for an increased workload for pharmacists in some deregulated countries. Economic pressure to increase the pharmacy turnover through the sale of OTC medicines and non-pharmaceuticals was observed in deregulated and regulated countries. Prices of OTC medicines were not found to decrease after a deregulation in pharmacy. Access to pharmacies usually increases after a deregulation but this is likely to favour urban populations with already good accessibility. Policy-makers are recommended to take action to ensure equitable accessibility and sustainable competition in a more deregulated environment. No association between pharmaceutical expenditure and the extent of regulation/deregulation appears to exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oseltamivir compounding in the hospital pharmacy during the (H1N1 influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lúcia de Mário Marin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Pandemics impose large demands on the health care system. The supply of appropriate chemotherapeutic agents, namely oseltamivir solution, presented a serious challenge in the recent influenza pandemic. This study reports on the rational series of pharmacotechnical steps that were followed to appropriately handle bulk oseltamivir powder to meet the increased demand. METHODS: During a six-week period in August and September of 2009, a task force was created in the Central Pharmacy of Hospital das Clínicas to convert imported oseltamivir phosphate into ready-to-use solution for utilization by physicians and public health authorities. The protocol included dissolution, physico-chemical tests and the bottling of a liquid microdose formulation for emergency room and outpatient dispensing with adequate quality control during all phases. RESULTS: The successful production routine was based on a specially designed flowchart according to which a batch of 33210 g of oseltamivir powder was converted into 32175 solution units during the aforementioned period with a net loss of only 2.6%. The end products were bottles containing 50 ml of 15 mg/mL oseltamivir solution. The measured concentration was stable and accurate (97.5% - 102.0% of the nominal value. The drug was prescribed as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent. DISCUSSION: Hospital pharmacies are conventionally engaged in the manipulation of medical prescriptions and specialty drugs. They are generally responsible for only small-scale equipment used for manufacturing and quality-control procedures. The compounding of oseltamivir was a unique effort dictated by exceptional circumstances. CONCLUSION: The shortage of oseltamivir solution for clinical use was solved by emergency operationalization of a semi-industrial process in which bulk powder was converted into practical vials for prompt delivery.

  18. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  19. Benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler technique in patients with asthma and COPD: a study from the Central Development Region, Nepal

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    Poudel RS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramesh Sharma Poudel,1 Rano Mal Piryani,2 Shakti Shrestha,3 Aastha Prajapati1 1Hospital Pharmacy, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Pharmacy, Shree Medical and Technical College, Chitwan, Nepal Background: The majority of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been known to perform inhaler technique inadequately. We aimed to evaluate the benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler (Rotahaler® technique in such patients and the factors associated with the correct use. Methods: A pre–post interventional study was conducted at the outpatient pharmacy in a teaching hospital of the Central Development Region, Nepal, in patients with asthma and COPD currently using a Rotahaler device. Patients’ demographics and Rotahaler technique were assessed before intervention. Those who failed to demonstrate the correct technique were educated and trained by the pharmacist, and their technique was reassessed after 2 weeks of intervention. Descriptive statistics, including Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s correlations and Kruskal–Wallis test, were performed for statistical analysis. Results: Before intervention, only 5.7% (10 of 174 of the patients demonstrated the correct Rotahaler technique and the most common errors observed were failure to breathe out gently before inhalation (98.8% and failure to hold breath for about 10 seconds after inhalation (84.8%. After the intervention (n=164, 67.1% of the patients showed their technique correctly (p≤0.001 and failure to breathe out gently before inhalation was the most common error (27.44%. Age (p=0.003, previous instruction (p=0.007, patient’s education level (p=0.013 and source of instruction (p<0.001 were associated with an appropriate technique before intervention, while age (p=0.024, duration of therapy (p=0.010 and gender (p=0.008 were

  20. Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy: What do the pharmacy customers value and expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincent; Tran, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. This study aimed to examine customers' key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing levels of stress and health.

  1. Medicine-related services in community pharmacy: public preferences for pharmacy attributes and promotional methods and comparison with pharmacists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Shivaun M; Rodgers, Ruth M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them. To compare the public's preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists' perceptions of their customers' views. Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community pharmacists. Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012) and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836). Pharmacists' perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public's desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor's surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists' perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists' expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public. Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with local medical practices to enable them to maximize opportunities for using the promotional methods judged most effective in encouraging the use of medicine-related services. Staff must be approachable and enable access to pharmacists, ensuring that

  2. Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy: What do the pharmacy customers value and expect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan V

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%. Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%, trust in the products (73%, and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95% were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or

  3. Teledermatology in pharmacies: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Melissa N; Soyer, H Peter; Nissen, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated community pharmacists' management of skin conditions in order to identify a need for further educational support. Twenty community pharmacists in Queensland completed a questionnaire regarding their management of skin conditions and their opinions regarding the usefulness of a potential teledermatology service. The pharmacists' accuracy in managing skin conditions was tested by a dermatologist who reviewed the pharmacists' advice in 33 cases obtained by 14 pharmacists. Overall agreement between the pharmacists and the dermatologist was moderate, with a kappa statistic of 0.58 (P < 0.05) The uptake of a potential teledermatology service was investigated in one pharmacy over one month. Five patients were offered the teledermatology service. Of these, two patients consented and three refused. All pharmacists (n = 20) indicated a desire for further education and supported the idea of a teledermatology service.

  4. Using knowledge rules for pharmacy mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Shaun C; Che, Chengjian; Lau, Lee Min

    2006-01-01

    The 3M Health Information Systems (HIS) Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD) is used to encode and structure patient medication data for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA). HDD Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) are responsible for initial and maintenance mapping of disparate, standalone medication master files from all 100 DoD host sites worldwide to a single concept-based vocabulary, to accomplish semantic interoperability. To achieve higher levels of automation, SMEs began defining a growing set of knowledge rules. These knowledge rules were implemented in a pharmacy mapping tool, which enhanced consistency through automation and increased mapping rate by 29%.

  5. Pharmacy Automation-Pill Counting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Mohamed Adam Adlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispensing medications in a community pharmacy was a time-consuming operation. The pharmacist dispensed most prescriptions that were in tablet or capsule form with a simple tray and spatula. Many new medications were being developed by pharmaceutical manufacturers at an ever-increasing pace, and the prices of those medications were rising steeply. A typical community pharmacist was working longer hours and often forced to hire additional staff to handle increased workloads. This extra workload did not allow the time to focus on safety issues. This new factor led to the concept of using a machine to count medications. This paper introduces a design based on using microcontrollers for counting tablets and capsules . A production flow is build to automate the whole operations

  6. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  7. Outpatient experience with oesophageal endoscopic dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, P G; Mburugu, P G

    1998-07-01

    Between March 1990 and August 1997, outpatient endoscopic balloon dilation was performed for oesophageal strictures which developed secondary to malignancies, peptic strictures, post surgical narrowing, achalasia cardia, corrosive ingestion and other causes. A total of 169 dilations were performed in the 92 cases with an average of 1.8 dilation/case (Range 1 to 8). Dilation was possible in all 92 cases without the need for fluoroscopic monitoring. Twenty three (13.6%) of the dilations were performed using pneumatic balloon while in 146(86.4%) cases wire guided metal olives were used. There were nine minor complications which were treated with medication on an outpatient basis and four major complications which required inpatient care. Three of these had perforation of the oesophagus and one died. One other patient developed aspiration pneumonia and subsequently died.

  8. Medicine-related services in community pharmacy: public preferences for pharmacy attributes and promotional methods and comparison with pharmacists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammie SM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shivaun M Gammie, Ruth M Rodgers, Ruey Leng Loo, Sarah A Corlett, Janet Krska Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Greenwich and Kent, Chatham Maritime, Kent, UK Background: Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them.Objective: To compare the public’s preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists’ perceptions of their customers’ views.Methods: Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community phar­macists.Results: Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012 and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836. Pharmacists’ perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public’s desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor’s surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists’ perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists’ expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public.Conclusion: Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with

  9. Applying Telemedicine to Outpatient Physical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Joshua L.; Davis, Daniel C.

    2002-01-01

    Few studies have specifically addressed telemedicine applied to physical rehabilitation. This ongoing pilot study examines the role of Internet-based, World Wide Web electronic communication, including textual, audio, and video, over a HIPAA-compliant network configuration, to enhance patient care in an outpatient physical therapy rehabilitation setting. Areas that can benefit from telemedicine are targeted, and include communication between physical therapist and specialty therapist, between...

  10. The corporatization of community pharmacy:implications for service provision, the public health function, and pharmacy's claims to professional status in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Joe; Langley, Christopher A.; Wilson, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacy has experienced both incomplete professionalization and deprofessionalization. Since the late 1970s, a concerted attempt has been made to re-professionalize pharmacy in the United Kingdom (UK) through role extension—a key feature of which has been a drive for greater pharmacy involvement in public health. However, the continual corporatization of the UK community pharmacy sector may reduce the professional autonomy of pharmacists and may threaten to constrain attempts at r...

  11. Safety culture in a pharmacy setting using a pharmacy survey on patient safety culture: a cross-sectional study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, P L; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, M.M; Zhang, L.L.; Zhang,C.; Qin, S F; Li, X. L.; Liu, K. X.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for pharmacy workers in China by using a Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), and to assess the psychometric properties of the translated Chinese language version of the PSOPSC. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Data were obtained from 20 hospital pharmacies in the southwest part of China. Methods We performed χ2 test to explore the differences on pharmacy staff in different hospital and quali...

  12. Disparities in internet use among orthopedic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth P; Rehman, Saqib; Goldhirsh, Jessie

    2014-02-01

    Internet access has lagged behind for patients with lower incomes and from certain ethnic groups. This study investigated the possible improvement of access to health-related information on the Internet for all patients in an urban outpatient setting, regardless of socioeconomic background. A 28-question survey was completed by 100 orthopedic outpatients evaluating associations between their age, ethnicity, income, or education level and their access to the Internet. The survey also examined how patients used the Internet to obtain information about their medical condition, their privacy concerns when conducting online research, and their use of mobile phones as a primary means of Internet access. The Internet was used by 57% of orthopedic outpatients in this urban setting. Internet access decreased with advancing age but increased with increasing income and education, findings consistent with similar studies. Despite the inability to identify an association between ethnicity and Internet access in this patient population, fewer Latinos (33%) than whites (67%) or African Americans (77%) sought information about their medical condition. Among patients who used a mobile phone as the primary method for online access, 74% were African American or Latino and 26% were white. This difference in mobile phone use for online access suggests that mobile phones have provided ethnic minorities with greater Internet access and thus may have narrowed the digital divide among the races.

  13. Outpatient surgery for acute uncomplicated appendicitis

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    Juan Pablo Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute appendicitis is one of the main indications to abdominal surgery. When the appendicitis is not complicated, is possible to do an outpatient surgery. Objective: To describe postsurgical evolution of the patients who present uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Methods: A prospective study was carried out about the evolution of 100 patients with outpatient surgery for appendectomy by uncomplicated acute appendicitis. The study was performed in the Hospital Susana Lopez de Valencia (HSLV of Popayán, Colombia. A telephone survey was conducted during the 24 hours after surgery, to determinate potential complications like pain, nausea, vomiting and oral intolerance. Clinical histories were reviewed to determinate in case the patient has re-entered because of a possible post operative complication during 30 next days after surgical intervention. Histopathological findings were also reported. Results: During postsurgical follow up, 58% of the patients did not present any kind of pain, 95% tolerated oral route, 97% did not have vomiting and 90% did not have nausea. 3% re-entered because of type 1 infection around the surgical area, 4% because of pain. We found a histopathological concordance with the acute appendicitis diagnostic in 94% of the cases. All patients reported to be satisfied with the given attention in the postsurgery. Conclusions: Patients undergo appendectomy by uncomplicated acute appendicitis treated outpatient, has an appropriate tolerance to oral route and pain control.

  14. Outpatient laser tonsillar ablation under local anaesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter J; Latif, Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Outpatient laser ablation of the palatine tonsils under local anaesthetic is an alternative technique to capsular tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis under general anaesthetic. Laser tonsillotomy ablates up to 70% of the tonsillar tissue and is performed when patients choose not to have a conventional tonsillectomy, or are unfit for a general anaesthetic. The technique described here is an adaptation of Krespis' laser-assisted serial tonsillectomy (LAST) whereby only one sitting is required. Krespis' technique effectively eliminates recurrent tonsillitis in 96% of the cases over a 4-year follow-up period and represents the only substantial study looking at treating recurrent tonsillitis with outpatient laser ablation. This study is a retrospective postal survey of 19 patients who underwent laser tonsillar ablation under local anaesthetic for recurrent chronic tonsillitis from 1997 to 2001 and was performed in liaison with the clinical audit department at Basildon Hospital. We had a response rate of 74% and an admission rate of 0%, which compares favourably with day case tonsillectomy surgery. Of the patients, 75% did not experience further episodes of tonsillitis 12 months after the procedure and 77% of the patients were glad they had the operation. Although this technique does not completely eliminate tonsillitis, it offers an alternative for those patients who prefer a procedure that is done quickly in an outpatient setting without the additional problems of general anaesthesia, overnight hospital admission and long waiting lists.

  15. Discrepancies between Patients' Preferences and Educational Programs on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Survey in Community Pharmacies and Hospital Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquart de Terline, Diane; Hejblum, Gilles; Fernandez, Christine; Cohen, Ariel; Antignac, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers' perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients' preferences. To investigate patients' viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery. We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France) and in community pharmacies throughout France. Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4%) were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6%) were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2%) questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30-2.46). Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58-1.80), nurses (1.05, 0.95-1.16), and patient associations (0.36, 0.29-0.44), along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75-0.95), the internet (0.77, 0.67-0.88), and delivery of material at the patient's home (1.26, 1.14-1.38), were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material. This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their effectiveness.

  16. Survey of Pharmacy Schools' Approaches and Attitudes toward Curricular Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poirier, Therese I; Fan, Jingyang; Nieto, Marcelo J

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify ways in which curricular integration is addressed in US pharmacy schools, the structure of therapeutics and foundational science courses, and perceptions of the effects current curricular...

  17. Survey of Pharmacy Schools' Approaches and Attitudes toward Curricular Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Therese I Poirier; Jingyang Fan; Marcelo J Nieto

    2016-01-01

      To identify ways in which curricular integration is addressed in US pharmacy schools, the structure of therapeutics and foundational science courses, and perceptions of the effects current curricular...

  18. Pharmacy education in Nigeria: The journey so far

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    Joshua Ikoni Ogaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The last four decades have witnessed developmental changes in pharmacy education in Nigeria. The paradigm change in the role of the pharmacist from a product-oriented to patient-oriented focus requires that the overall education of pharmacists be reorganized to meet the increasing changing roles. Curricular of schools of pharmacy in Nigeria are continually reviewed with the aim of attaining the dynamic competency required to reflect the paradigm shift in service focus and the development of the necessary clinical skills that will enable pharmacists to identify and meet the increasingly complex medication needs of patients. This review focuses on the historical development of pharmacy education from one school of pharmacy in the 1920s to about twenty schools 40 years later. The study looked at the continuous efforts made to produce the pharmacist with the requisite competency for the ever-changing roles in meeting the dynamic and varied needs of patients.

  19. Health Promotion in Community Pharmacy: The UK Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the research pertaining to pharmacy health promotion and examples of good practice in the UK. Concludes with a discussion about the contribution pharmacists can make and about some issues that will need to be overcome first. (Author/MKA)

  20. A Comparison of Community and Hospital Pharmacy Preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles H.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study that seeks to determine, quantitatively and qualitatively, the effectiveness of externship preceptors in training Purdue University students to practice pharmacy in community and hospital environments is described. Variables that can effect externships are appended. (JMD)