WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite increase rates

  1. Dynamic Routing Algorithm for Increasing Robustness in Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-ni; ZHANG Da-kun

    2008-01-01

    In low earth orbit(LEO)and medium earth orbit(MEO)satellite networks,the network topology changes rapidly because of the high relative speed movement of satellites.When some inter-satellite links (ISLs)fail,they can not be repaired in a short time.In order to increase the robustness for LEO/MEO satellite networks,an effective dynamic routing algorithm is proposed.All the routes to a certain node are found by constructing a destination oriented acyclic directed graph(DOADG)with the node as the destination.In this algorithm,multiple routes are provided,loop-free is guaranteed,and as long as the DOADG maintains,it is not necessary to reroute even if some ISLs fail.Simulation results show that comparing to the conventional routing algorithms,it is more efficient and reliable,costs less transmission overhead and converges faster.

  2. Error resilient H.264/AVC Video over Satellite for low Packet Loss Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2007-01-01

    The performance of video over satellite is simulated. The error resilience tools of intra macroblock refresh and slicing are optimized for live broadcast video over satellite. The improved performance using feedback, using a cross- layer approach, over the satellite link is also simulated. The ne...... Inmarsat BGAN system at 256 kbit/s is used as test case. This systems operates at low loss rates guaranteeing a packet loss rate of not more than 10~3. For high-end applications as 'reporter-in-the-field' live broadcast, it is crucial to obtain high quality without increasing delay....

  3. Satellite Based Extrusion Rates for the 2006 Augustine Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Dean, K. G.; Skoog, R.; Valcic, L.

    2006-12-01

    Extrusion rates were calculated from polar orbiting infrared satellite data for the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. The pixel integrated brightness temperatures from the satellite data were converted to estimates of ground temperature by making assumptions and using first hand observations about the geometry of the hot area (lava dome, flows and pyroclastic flow deposits) relative to the cold area in the kilometer scale pixels. Extrusion rate is calculated by assuming that at a given temperature, a lava emits an amount of radiation proportional to its volume. On ten occasions during the activity, helicopter based infrared imagers were used to validate the satellite observations. The pre-January 11 thermal activity was not significantly above background in satellite data. The first strong thermal anomalies were recorded during the first explosive phase on January 11. During successive explosive phases in January, bright thermal signals were observed, often saturating the sensors. Large areas (many km2) were observed to be warm in the satellite data, indicative of pyroclastic flows. Sometime during or after January 29, during a phase of sustained ash emission, the thermal signal became persistent, suggesting the beginning of lava effusion. The extrusion rates derived from satellite data varied from 0 to nearly 7 m3/s, giving an eruption rate of 2.7 m3/s. The extrusion event produced two blocky lava flows which moved down the north flank of the volcano. Extrusion occurred through at least March 15 (day 76) when a sharp drop in extrusion rate and thermal signal is observed. Based on the derived extrusion rates, it is estimated that 18 million m3 of lava was extruded during the course of the eruption. This value agreed well with photogrammetric measurements, but does not agree with volumes derived through subtraction of digital elevation models post- and pre- eruption. It should be noted that the thermal approach only works for hot lavas, and does not

  4. Causes of differences in model and satellite tropospheric warming rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Fyfe, John C.; Pallotta, Giuliana; Flato, Gregory M.; Meehl, Gerald A.; England, Matthew H.; Hawkins, Ed; Mann, Michael E.; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Bonfils, Céline; Cvijanovic, Ivana; Mears, Carl; Wentz, Frank J.; Po-Chedley, Stephen; Fu, Qiang; Zou, Cheng-Zhi

    2017-07-01

    In the early twenty-first century, satellite-derived tropospheric warming trends were generally smaller than trends estimated from a large multi-model ensemble. Because observations and coupled model simulations do not have the same phasing of natural internal variability, such decadal differences in simulated and observed warming rates invariably occur. Here we analyse global-mean tropospheric temperatures from satellites and climate model simulations to examine whether warming rate differences over the satellite era can be explained by internal climate variability alone. We find that in the last two decades of the twentieth century, differences between modelled and observed tropospheric temperature trends are broadly consistent with internal variability. Over most of the early twenty-first century, however, model tropospheric warming is substantially larger than observed; warming rate differences are generally outside the range of trends arising from internal variability. The probability that multi-decadal internal variability fully explains the asymmetry between the late twentieth and early twenty-first century results is low (between zero and about 9%). It is also unlikely that this asymmetry is due to the combined effects of internal variability and a model error in climate sensitivity. We conclude that model overestimation of tropospheric warming in the early twenty-first century is partly due to systematic deficiencies in some of the post-2000 external forcings used in the model simulations.

  5. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p sodium reduction...

  6. The RMB Exchange Rate Keeps Increasing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In July 2005, the People's Bank of China officially announced that it would adopt a manageable floating exchange rate, adjusted according to a basket of currencies based on market supply and demand. On that day, the exchange rate of the RMB to the U.S. Dollar increased by 21 percent, and since then the RMB exchange rate has gradually turned to a more flexible exchange rate convention, rather than focusing on the Dollar only.

  7. Temperature effect on proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells from turkeys with different growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D L; Coy, C S; Strasburg, G M; Reed, K M; Velleman, S G

    2016-04-01

    Poultry selected for growth have an inefficient thermoregulatory system and are more sensitive to temperature extremes. Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle and mediate all posthatch muscle growth. Their physiological functions are affected by temperature. The objective of the current study was to determine how temperature affects satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle (breast muscle) of turkeys selected for increased 16 wk body weight (F line) in comparison to a randombred control line (RBC2) from which the F line originated. Pectoralis major muscle satellite cells were thermally challenged by culturing between 33°C and 43°C to analyze the effects of cold and heat on proliferation and differentiation as compared to control temperature of 38°C. Expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors: myogenic differentiation factor 1 (MYOD1) and myogenin (MYOG) were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At all sampling times, proliferation increased at a linear rate across temperature in both the RBC2 and F lines. Differentiation also increased at a linear rate across temperature from 33 to 41°C at all sampling times in both the F and RBC2 lines. Satellite cells isolated from F line turkeys were more sensitive to both hot and cold temperatures as proliferation and differentiation increased to a greater extent across temperature (33 to 43°C) when compared with the RBC2 line. Expression of MYOD1 and MYOG increased as temperatures increased from 33 to 41°C at all sampling times in both the F and RBC2 lines. These results demonstrate that satellite cell function is sensitive to both cold and hot temperatures and p. major muscle satellite cells from F line turkeys are more sensitive to temperature extremes than RBC2 satellite cells.

  8. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  9. Effects of systematic sampling on satellite estimates of deforestation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steininger, M K; Godoy, F; Harper, G, E-mail: msteininger@conservation.or [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science-Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Options for satellite monitoring of deforestation rates over large areas include the use of sampling. Sampling may reduce the cost of monitoring but is also a source of error in estimates of areas and rates. A common sampling approach is systematic sampling, in which sample units of a constant size are distributed in some regular manner, such as a grid. The proposed approach for the 2010 Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a systematic sample of 10 km wide squares at every 1 deg. intersection of latitude and longitude. We assessed the outcome of this and other systematic samples for estimating deforestation at national, sub-national and continental levels. The study is based on digital data on deforestation patterns for the five Amazonian countries outside Brazil plus the Brazilian Amazon. We tested these schemes by varying sample-unit size and frequency. We calculated two estimates of sampling error. First we calculated the standard errors, based on the size, variance and covariance of the samples, and from this calculated the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Second, we calculated the actual errors, based on the difference between the sample-based estimates and the estimates from the full-coverage maps. At the continental level, the 1 deg., 10 km scheme had a CI of 21% and an actual error of 8%. At the national level, this scheme had CIs of 126% for Ecuador and up to 67% for other countries. At this level, increasing sampling density to every 0.25 deg. produced a CI of 32% for Ecuador and CIs of up to 25% for other countries, with only Brazil having a CI of less than 10%. Actual errors were within the limits of the CIs in all but two of the 56 cases. Actual errors were half or less of the CIs in all but eight of these cases. These results indicate that the FRA 2010 should have CIs of smaller than or close to 10% at the continental level. However, systematic sampling at the national level yields large CIs unless the

  10. Medium-rate speech coding simulator for mobile satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperi, Maurizio; Perosino, F.; Rusina, F.; Albertengo, G.; Biglieri, E.

    1986-01-01

    Channel modeling and error protection schemes for speech coding are described. A residual excited linear predictive (RELP) coder for bit rates 4.8, 7.2, and 9.6 kbit/sec is outlined. The coder at 9.6 kbit/sec incorporates a number of channel error protection techniques, such as bit interleaving, error correction codes, and parameter repetition. Results of formal subjective experiments (DRT and DAM tests) under various channel conditions, reveal that the proposed coder outperforms conventional LPC-10 vocoders by 2 subjective categories, thus confirming the suitability of the RELP coder at 9.6 kbit/sec for good quality speech transmission in mobile satellite systems.

  11. 75 FR 5513 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription Services and Satellite Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Services and Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress... rates for the preexisting satellite digital audio radio services' use of the ephemeral recordings... preexisting satellite digital audio radio services (``SDARS''). 73 FR 4080. In SoundExchange, Inc....

  12. Strategies to Increase Adenoma Detection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Eelco C; Wallace, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR), i.e., the proportion of average risk patients with at least one adenoma detected during screening colonoscopy, is inversely associated with the development of interval colorectal cancer. Increasing the ADR is therefore an important proxy for increase in quality and efficacy of (screening) colonoscopy. Several potentially modifiable factors, such as, procedural and technological factors, and quality improvement programs, and their effect on the ADR will be reviewed. Procedural factors, such as, bowel preparation, withdrawal time, and position changes of the patient are associated with the ADR. While the relation of others, such as inspection during insertion, use of antispasmodic agents, and second inspection in the proximal colon, with the ADR is not completely clear. Many new colonoscopy technologies have been evaluated over recent years and are still under evaluation, but no unequivocal positive effect on the ADR has been observed in randomized trials that have mostly been performed by experienced endoscopists with high baseline ADRs. Several quality improvement programs have been evaluated and seem to have a positive effect on endoscopists' ADR. Increase in ADR is important for the protective benefit of colonoscopy. There are now extensive methods to measure, benchmark, and improve ADR but increased awareness of these is critical. We have provided an overview of potential factors that can be used to increase personal ADRs in every day practice.

  13. MARKETING STRATEGY TO INCREASE BED OCCUPANCY RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  14. Increasing granular flow rate with obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Murray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple experiment involving spheres rolling down an inclined plane towards a bottleneck and through a gap. Results of the experiment indicate that flow rate can be increased by placing an obstruction at optimal positions near the bottleneck. We use the experiment to develop a computer simulation using the PhysX physics engine. Simulations confirm the experimental results and we state several considerations necessary to obtain a model that agrees well with experiment. We demonstrate that the model exhibits clogging, intermittent and continuous flow, and that it can be used as a tool for further investigations in granular flow. Received: 22 November 2015, Accepted: 19 February 2016; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; Reviewed by: C. M. Carlevaro, Instituto de Física de Líquidos y Sistemas Biológicos, La Plata, Argentina; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.080003 Cite as: A Murray, F Alonso-Marroquin, Papers in Physics 8, 080003 (2016

  15. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  16. An Investigation on Advantages of Utilizing Adaptive Bit Rate for LEO Satellite Link Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the advantages of using adaptive bit rate in the communication link of a LEO satellite. While doing the study, it is assumed that there is a communication subsystem on-board responsible for gathering the information sent by a number of ground user terminals. The subsystem which operates based on Store-and-Forward (SAF Scenario, contains two communication links, one for receiving data from user terminals (store case, and the other for forwarding the stored data to an Earth station (forward case. In fact, the current work aims to improve the volume of the data forwarded to Earth station. To this end, the Forward case bit rate is varied adaptively, and then by analyzing the power budget in a practical condition, the improvement achieved is evaluated. The results specifically obtained for a sample LEO satellite shows that utilizing adaptive bit rate instead of fixed bit rate can increase the daily data exchange up to about 100%.

  17. 76 FR 591 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription and Satellite Digital Audio Radio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription and Satellite Digital... subscription and satellite digital audio radio services for the digital performance of sound recordings and...

  18. Influence of satellite-derived photolysis rates and NOx emissions on Texas ozone modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertain photolysis rates and emission inventory impair the accuracy of state-level ozone (O3 regulatory modeling. Past studies have separately used satellite-observed clouds to correct the model-predicted photolysis rates, or satellite-constrained top-down NOx emissions to identify and reduce uncertainties in bottom-up NOx emissions. However, the joint application of multiple satellite-derived model inputs to improve O3 State Implementation Plan (SIP modeling has rarely been explored. In this study, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES observations of clouds are applied to derive the photolysis rates, replacing those used in Texas SIP modeling. This changes modeled O3 concentrations by up to 80 ppb and improves O3 simulations by reducing modeled normalized mean bias (NMB and normalized mean error (NME by up to 0.1. A sector-based discrete Kalman filter (DKF inversion approach is incorporated with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx-Decoupled Direct Method (DDM model to adjust Texas NOx emissions using a high resolution Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI NO2 product. The discrepancy between OMI and CAMx NO2 vertical column densities (VCD is further reduced by increasing modeled NOx lifetime and adding an artificial amount of NO2 in the upper troposphere. The sector-based DKF inversion tends to scale down area and non-road NOx emissions by 50%, leading to a 2–5 ppb decrease in ground 8 h O3 predictions. Model performance in simulating ground NO2 and O3 are improved using inverted NOx emissions, with 0.25 and 0.04 reductions in NMBs and 0.13 and 0.04 reductions in NMEs, respectively. Using both GOES-derived photolysis rates and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together reduces modeled NMB and NME by 0.05 and increases the model correlation with ground measurement in O3 simulations and makes O3 more sensitive to NOx emissions in the O3 non-attainment areas.

  19. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0...

  20. Estimation of evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea from Satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.V.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.; Sastry, J.S.

    Utilizing both the SAMIR brightness temperatures of Bhaskara 2 and GOSSTCOMP charts of NOAA satellite series, the evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea for June 1982 are estimated through the bulk aerodynamic method. The spatial distribution...

  1. The Geodesy of the Main Saturnian Satellites from Range Rate Measurements of the Cassini Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, M.; Iess, L.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Racioppa, P.; Rappaport, N. J.; Stevenson, D. J.; Tortora, P.

    2012-03-01

    During Cassini's eight-year tour in the saturnian system, the gravity field of the main satellites was inferred from range rate measurements of the spacecraft. Here we present our latest results and an overview of our analysis methods.

  2. Influence of beam wander on bit-error rate in a ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Du, Wenhe

    2008-11-15

    Based on weak fluctuation theory and the beam-wander model, the bit-error rate of a ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system is analyzed, in comparison with the condition in which beam wander is not taken into account. Considering the combined effect of scintillation and beam wander, optimum divergence angle and transmitter beam radius for a communication system are researched. Numerical results show that both of them increase with the increment of total link margin and transmitted wavelength. This work can benefit the ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system design.

  3. Internetworking PCN and ISDN in a satellite environment - Alternate rate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. M. S.

    1992-03-01

    Wide area personal communication services (PCS) can be provided using hybrid networks (PCN + satellite) in the near future. This paper deals with internetworking issues related to PCNs and wide area networks such as public switched telephone network, integrated services digital network and satellites operating in a cascaded channel, hybrid network environment. From capacity, cost and quality points of view lower bit rate (LBR) voice codecs will become very attractive in PCS environment in the future. Rate structure modifications to presently defined PCN and ISDN standards are proposed. Both fixed and mobile satellite networks can take full advantage of the revised LBR rate structure. How the currently defined rate structures and proposed LBR rate structures can coexist as a heterogeneous resource pool are discussed.

  4. Optical Survey of the Tumble Rates of Retired GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the rendezvous and docking phase of the mission, which influences the rate of propellant utilization for the Servicer/Tender. In order to provide a...in an intentional spin state about its major spin axis (as with TDRS -1[4]), there are several natural effects that influence the rotational motion of...the CCD in order to characterize the noise across the sensor. After this, collections begin—session length ranges from 15 minutes to several hours

  5. Dynamical effects of General Relativity on the satellite-to-satellite range and range-rate in the GRACE mission

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigate the impact of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) on the satellite-to-satellite range \\rho and range-rate \\dot\\rho of the twin GRACE A/B spacecrafts through their dynamical equations of motion. The present-day accuracies in measuring such observables are \\sigma_\\rho <= 1-10 micron, \\sigma_\\dot\\rho <= 1 micron s^-1. Studies for a follow-on of such a mission points toward a range-rate accuracy of the order of \\sigma_\\dot\\rho = 1 nm s^-1 or better. We also compute the dynamical range and range-rate perturbations caused by the first six zonal harmonic coefficients J_L, L=2,3,4,5,6,7$ of the classical multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential in order to evaluate their aliasing impact on the relativistic effects. Conversely, we also quantitatively assessed the possible a-priori \\virg{imprinting} of GTR itself, not solved-for in all the GRACE-based Earth's gravity models produced so far, on the estimated values of the low degree zonals of the geopotential. T...

  6. Satellite change detection analysis of deforestation rates and patterns along the Colombia-Ecuador border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, Andrés; Echavarria, Fernando R; Rundquist, Donald C

    2004-05-01

    This study uses Landsat satellite data to document the rates and patterns of land-cover change along a portion of the Colombia-Ecuador border during a 23-yr period (1973-1996). Human colonization has resulted in extensive deforestation in both countries. Satellite change detection analysis showed that the annual rates of deforestation were considerably higher for the Colombian side of the border. In addition, loss of forest cover on the Colombian side for the study period was almost 43%, while only 22% on the Ecuadorian side. The study found that there is no single factor driving deforestation on either side of the border, but concluded that the higher rates on the Colombian side may be due to higher colonization pressures and intensification of illegal coca cultivation. On the Ecuador side of the border the satellite images documented patterns of deforestation that reflected road networks associated with oil exploration and development.

  7. Bit Error Rate Due to Misalignment of Earth Station Antenna Pointing to Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One problem causing reduction of energy in satellite communications system is the misalignment of earth station antenna pointing to satellite. Error in pointing would affect the quality of information signal to energy bit in earth station. In this research, error in pointing angle occurred only at receiver (Rx antenna, while the transmitter (Tx antennas precisely point to satellite. The research was conducted towards two satellites, namely TELKOM-1 and TELKOM-2. At first, measurement was made by directing Tx antenna precisely to satellite, resulting in an antenna pattern shown by spectrum analyzer. The output from spectrum analyzers is drawn with the right scale to describe swift of azimuth and elevation pointing angle towards satellite. Due to drifting from the precise pointing, it influenced the received link budget indicated by pattern antenna. This antenna pattern shows reduction of power level received as a result of pointing misalignment. As a conclusion, the increasing misalignment of pointing to satellite would affect in the reduction of received signal parameters link budget of down-link traffic.

  8. Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka-Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka- Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite project will develop a novel Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) that is capable of establishing high data rate inter-satellite links with a throughput of 500 megabits per second (Mb/s) and providing millimeter ranging precision. The system will be designed to operate with high performance and reliability that is robust against various interference effects and network anomalies. The Ka-band radio resulting from this work will improve upon state of the art Ka-band radios in terms of dimensional size, mass and power dissipation, which limit their use in small satellites.

  9. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  10. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  11. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  12. 75 FR 32228 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... in 1994, Congress directed that the rates be adjusted by the Librarian of Congress using the system... (``CARPs'') administered by the Librarian of Congress and the Copyright Office. Accordingly, the Librarian... the Librarian. When Congress again reauthorized the license under the Satellite Home Viewer...

  13. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate..., hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing...

  14. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... California, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural...

  15. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... California, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural...

  16. 18 CFR 2.18 - Phased electric rate increase filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phased electric rate increase filings. 2.18 Section 2.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Federal Power Act § 2.18 Phased electric rate increase filings....

  17. Editorial: Short-course adjuvant trastuzumab will increase cure rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: Short-course adjuvant trastuzumab will increase cure rates in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. ... Journal Home > Vol 107, No 8 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get ... from 32 Countries:.

  18. Validating Microwave-Based Satellite Rain Rate Retrievals Over TRMM Ground Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B. L.; Wolff, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    Multi-channel, passive microwave instruments are commonly used today to probe the structure of rain systems and to estimate surface rainfall from space. Until the advent of meteorological satellites and the development of remote sensing techniques for measuring precipitation from space, there was no observational system capable of providing accurate estimates of surface precipitation on global scales. Since the early 1970s, microwave measurements from satellites have provided quantitative estimates of surface rainfall by observing the emission and scattering processes due to the existence of clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere. This study assesses the relative performance of microwave precipitation estimates from seven polar-orbiting satellites and the TRMM TMI using four years (2003-2006) of instantaneous radar rain estimates obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) sites at Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ) and Melbourne, Florida (MELB). The seven polar orbiters include three different sensor types: SSM/I (F13, F14 and F15), AMSU-B (N15, N16 and N17), and AMSR-E. The TMI aboard the TRMM satellite flies in a sun asynchronous orbit between 35 S and 35 N latitudes. The rain information from these satellites are combined and used to generate several multi-satellite rain products, namely the Goddard TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), NOAA's CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). Instantaneous rain rates derived from each sensor were matched to the GV estimates in time and space at a resolution of 0.25 degrees. The study evaluates the measurement and error characteristics of the various satellite estimates through inter-comparisons with GV radar estimates. The GV rain observations provided an empirical ground-based reference for assessing the relative performance of each sensor and sensor

  19. Increasing Vaccination Rates in a Pediatric Chronic Hemodialysis Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for serious complications from vaccine-preventable childhood diseases. Despite this risk, vaccination rates remain low. The barriers to vaccination in the pediatric population on dialysis are multifactorial. The advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) is well poised to serve as a wellness champion for this chronic population. This article chronicles an APRN-led quality improvement project to increase vaccination rates to 100% in an outpatient pediatric population on hemodialysis. A quality improvement system was created to systematically review immunizations upon admission to the hemodialysis unit and annually thereafter. Over a two-year period, immunization rates improved significantly.

  20. 75 FR 81003 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... an alternative approach that is consistent with the language of section 2794; is more narrowly... trend increases. HHS reviewed available data and literature on insurance rate increases in States and... above, many States have these provisions today. The second factor is whether the State...

  1. 76 FR 29963 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... guidance and training to assist issuers in complying with their obligations under the program. Comment... expressed concern that allowing aggregated filings for products would mask rate increase variations between... ensure that issuers cannot mask high increases for certain products within the combined filings. To the...

  2. Ionosphere influence on success rate of GPS ambiguity resolution in a satellite formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Leandro

    2015-10-01

    Satellite formation flying is one of the most promising technologies for future space missions. The distribution of sensors and payloads among different satellites provides more redundancy, flexibility, improved communication coverage, among other advantages. One of the fundamental issues in spacecraft formation flying is precise position and velocity determination between satellites. For missions in low Earth orbits, GPS system can meet the precision requirement in relative positioning, since the satellite dynamics is modeled properly. The key for high accuracy GPS relative positioning is to resolve the ambiguities to their integer values. Ambiguities resolved successfully can improve the positioning accuracy to decimetre or even millimetre-level. So, integer carrier phase ambiguity resolution is often a prerequisite for high precision GPS positioning. The determination of relative position was made using an extended Kalman filter. The filter must take into account imperfections in dynamic modeling of perturbations affecting the orbital flight, and changes in solar activity that affects the GPS signal propagation, for mitigating these effects on relative positioning accuracy. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the impact of ionosphere variation, caused by changes in solar activity, in success rate of ambiguity resolution. Using the Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP) concept, the ambiguity success rate is analyzed and the expected precision of the ambiguity-fixed solution is calculated. Evaluations were performed using actual data from GRACE mission and analyzed for their performance in real scenarios. Analyses were conducted in different configurations of relative position and during different levels of solar activity. Results bring the impact of various disturbances and modeling of solar activity level on the success rate of ambiguity resolution.

  3. Future increases in extreme precipitation exceed observed scaling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiawei; Sherwood, Steven C.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Evans, Jason P.

    2017-01-01

    Models and physical reasoning predict that extreme precipitation will increase in a warmer climate due to increased atmospheric humidity. Observational tests using regression analysis have reported a puzzling variety of apparent scaling rates including strong rates in midlatitude locations but weak or negative rates in the tropics. Here we analyse daily extreme precipitation events in several Australian cities to show that temporary local cooling associated with extreme events and associated synoptic conditions reduces these apparent scaling rates, especially in warmer climatic conditions. A regional climate projection ensemble for Australia, which implicitly includes these effects, accurately and robustly reproduces the observed apparent scaling throughout the continent for daily precipitation extremes. Projections from the same model show future daily extremes increasing at rates faster than those inferred from observed scaling. The strongest extremes (99.9th percentile events) scale significantly faster than near-surface water vapour, between 5.7-15% °C-1 depending on model details. This scaling rate is highly correlated with the change in water vapour, implying a trade-off between a more arid future climate or one with strong increases in extreme precipitation. These conclusions are likely to generalize to other regions.

  4. An increase in the rate of global mean sea level rise since 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuang; Sun, Wenke; Heki, Kosuke; Qian, An

    2015-05-01

    The global mean sea level (GMSL) was reported to have dropped 5 mm due to the 2010/2011 La Niña and have recovered in 1 year. With longer observations, it is shown that the GMSL went further up to a total amount of 11.6 mm by the end of 2012, excluding the 3.0 mm/yr background trend. A reconciled sea level budget, based on observations by Argo project, altimeter, and gravity satellites, reveals that the true GMSL rise has been masked by El Niño-Southern Oscillation-related fluctuations and its rate has increased since 2010. After extracting the influence of land water storage, it is shown that the GMSL has been rising at a rate of 4.4 ± 0.5 mm/yr for more than 3 years, due to an increase in the rate of both land ice loss and steric change.

  5. Increasing cesarean birth rates: a clash of cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    Cesarean birth rates in the United States reached a high of 27.6% in 2003, a 6% increase over 2002. A cultural conflict appears to exist between the views of those who believe that birth is normal and many cesareans are unnecessary and the views of those who feel that higher rates are justifiable. Childbirth educators can share cultural concepts of normal birth in their classroom.

  6. Increasing Cesarean Birth Rates: A Clash of Cultures?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    Cesarean birth rates in the United States reached a high of 27.6% in 2003, a 6% increase over 2002. A cultural conflict appears to exist between the views of those who believe that birth is normal and many cesareans are unnecessary and the views of those who feel that higher rates are justifiable. Childbirth educators can share cultural concepts of normal birth in their classroom.

  7. The increasing predictive validity of self-rated health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Schnittker

    Full Text Available Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not.

  8. Increased collagen synthesis rate during wound healing in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Zhou

    Full Text Available Wound healing in muscle involves the deposition of collagen, but it is not known whether this is achieved by changes in the synthesis or the degradation of collagen. We have used a reliable flooding dose method to measure collagen synthesis rate in vivo in rat abdominal muscle following a surgical incision. Collagen synthesis rate was increased by 480% and 860% on days 2 and 7 respectively after surgery in the wounded muscle compared with an undamaged area of the same muscle. Collagen content was increased by approximately 100% at both day 2 and day 7. These results demonstrate that collagen deposition during wound healing in muscle is achieved entirely by an increase in the rate of collagen synthesis.

  9. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-05-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  10. Confirmation of gravitationally induced attitude drift of spinning satellite Ajisai with Graz high repetition rate SLR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Daniel; Kirchner, Georg; Otsubo, Toshimichi; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Bennett, James; Koidl, Franz; Kim, Young-Rok; Hwang, Joo-Yeon

    2016-02-01

    The high repetition rate Satellite Laser Ranging system Graz delivers the millimeter precision range measurements to the corner cube reflector panels of Ajisai. The analysis of 4599 passes measured from October 2003 until November 2014 reveals the secular precession and nutation of Ajisai spin axis due to the gravitational forces as predicted by Kubo (1987) with the periods of 35.6 years and 116.5 days respectively. The observed precession cone is oriented at RA = 88.9°, Dec = -88.85° (J2000) and has a radius of 1.08°. The radius of the nutation cone increases from 1.32° to 1.57° over the 11 years of the measurements. We also detect a draconitic wobbling of Ajisai orientation due to the 'motion' of the Sun about the satellite's orbit. The observed spin period of Ajisai increases exponentially over the investigated time span according to the trend function: T = 1.492277·exp(0.0148388·Y) [s], where Y is in years since launch (1986.6133), RMS = 0.412 ms. The physical simulation model fitted to the observed spin parameters proves a very low interaction between Ajisai and the Earth's magnetic field, what assures that the satellite's angular momentum vector will remain in the vicinity of the south celestial pole for the coming decades. The developed empirical model of the spin axis orientation can improve the accuracy of the range determination between the ground SLR systems and the satellite's center-of-mass (Kucharski et al., 2015) and enable the accurate attitude prediction of Ajisai for the laser time-transfer experiments (Kunimori et al., 1992).

  11. Constrained projections of high northern latitudinal photosynthesis increase by satellite observations of vegetation greenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander J.; Myneni, Ranga; Brovkin, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations of the last three decades provide strong evidence that the Earth is greening. Especially in northern high latitudes, a substantial increase of the leaf area index (LAI), an indicator of greening, is observed. For these regions, it is assumed that plant growth benefits from higher temperature (radiative effect) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (CO2 fertilization effect). This greening trend, in terms of increasing LAI, is also simulated by various global ecosystem models. We also found a persistent greening trend analyzing historical simulations of Earth system models (ESM) participating in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). However, a wide spread in magnitude of an associated increase of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) among the ESMs is found, and thus contributes to pronounced uncertainties in projections of future climate change. Here we demonstrate that the tight correlation between enhanced GPP of high northern latitudinal ecosystems and their LAI sensitivity to both key environmental factors, temperature and CO2 concentration, opens up the possibility of an Emergent Constraint on plant photosynthesis. Combining this almost linear relationship across the ensemble of CMIP5 models with the LAI trends in the long-term satellite records, we are able to constrain projections of vegetation growth increase for respective ecosystems.

  12. Is the rate of global tsunami occurrence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.

    2010-12-01

    Statistical analysis of the global tsunami catalog reveals several transient periods of rate increases in tsunami occurrence. The tsunami catalog appears to be complete for tsunamis detected by tide-gauge stations with maximum amplitudes > 0.1 m, starting soon after the April 1, 1946 Aleutian tsunami when tsunami-reporting procedures became more systematic. The long-term rate of global tsunami occurrence is approximately 7.4 events/year over this period of the catalog. This rate fluctuates, however, with a prominent rate increase in the mid-1990s for a period of about 3 years, when as many as 18 tsunamis occurred in a one-year period. Another rate increase began in 2005 and is continuing to the present day at approximately 11 events/year averaged over the 6-year time period. These rate changes persist with different minimum threshold amplitudes and are unlikely to be associated with statistical fluctuations from a stationary Poisson process. Similar apparent rate changes are evident in the global earthquake catalog (without declustering) for minimum magnitude thresholds of 6.5-8.0. Secondary sources such as landslides are noted in the tsunami catalog, though earthquakes most often trigger these sources. Evidence of temporal clustering of tsunami source inter-event times has been established in a previous study [Geist and Parsons, 2008]. However, it is unclear whether static and dynamic triggering among tsunamigenic earthquakes accounts for a large proportion of the temporally clustered events. Results from Parsons and Velasco [in press] indicate that static and dynamic triggering among earthquakes of tsunamigenic magnitude occurs within a radius of approximately 1,000 km. Based on this distance criterion for triggered events, the periods of increased rates can be explained by regional triggering, even though tsunamis from classically defined aftershock sequences are not that apparent in the tsunami catalog. Although the current rate of tsunami occurrence is higher

  13. Increased cardiovascular disease mortality rates in traumatic lower limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modan, M; Peles, E; Halkin, H; Nitzan, H; Azaria, M; Gitel, S; Dolfin, D; Modan, B

    1998-11-15

    We evaluated the 24-year mortality rates of male traumatic lower limb amputees (n = 201) of the Israeli army, wounded between 1948 and 1974 compared with a cohort sample representing the general population (n = 1,832). Mortality rates were significantly higher (21.9% vs 12.1%, p amputees than in controls. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality was the main cause for this difference. The prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD was determined in 101 surviving amputees (aged 50 to 65 years) and a sample of the controls (n = 96) matched by age and ethnic origin. Amputees had higher plasma insulin levels (during fasting and in response to oral glucose loading) and increased blood coagulation activity. No differences were found in rates of current symptoms of ischemic heart disease or of cerebrovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, altered plasma lipoprotein profile, impaired physical activity, smoking, or nutritional habits. Traumatic lower limb amputees had increased mortality rates due to CVD. Surviving amputees had hyperinsulinemia, increased coagulability, and increased sympathetic and parasympathetic responses (described previously). These established CVD risk factors may explain the excess mortality due to CVD in traumatic amputees.

  14. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed... ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7...

  15. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred to as...

  16. Increased cholecystectomy rate after the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, A P; Silber, J H; Costantino, G N; Kobylinski, R W; Zatz, S L

    To examine if overall cost savings may fail to result from laparoscopic ("closed") cholecystectomy if it also results in an increased total rate of cholecystectomies or generates additional costs unassociated with the open procedure. Inpatient and outpatient expenditures, incidence rates, and length of inpatient stay data for 6909 health maintenance organization enrollees with gallbladder complaints were analyzed from 1988 through 1992 using claims data from a large, private practice-based health maintenance organization. The incidence of cholecystectomy and total health maintenance organization expenditures on gallbladder disease have increased since the introduction of laparoscopic closed cholecystectomy. The rate of cholecystectomy procedures per 1000 enrollees increased from 1.35 in 1988 to 2.15 in 1992 (P < .001). Total annual medical expenditures on gallbladder disease per 1000 enrollees (in 1992 dollars) rose 11.4% during the study period (P < .001), despite a concurrent 25.1% decline in the unit cost (physician and hospital cost) for cholecystectomy procedures (P < .001). During the same study period, no significant change was noted in the rate of appendectomy per 1000 enrollees (0.76 in 1988 to 0.73 in 1992), which is a measure of nonelective surgical care, or in the inguinal hernia repair rate (2.01 in 1988 to 2.19 in 1992), which has a physician and patient discretionary component similar to that of cholecystectomy. The introduction of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery resulted in rising rates of cholecystectomy for a population of patients in a private, independent practice-based health maintenance organization. Such a rise was not seen for hernia repair surgery or appendectomy. It seems that the use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a new technology touted as reducing health care costs, may result in an increased consumption of health care resources due to changes in the indications for gallbladder surgery.

  17. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  19. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  20. Note: Inter-satellite laser range-rate measurement by using digital phase locked loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Rong; Duan, Hui-Zong; Xiao, Xin-Long; Wei, Bing-Bing; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This note presents an improved high-resolution frequency measurement system dedicated for the inter-satellite range-rate monitoring that could be used in the future's gravity recovery mission. We set up a simplified common signal test instead of the three frequencies test. The experimental results show that the dominant noises are the sampling time jitter and the thermal drift of electronic components, which can be reduced by using the pilot-tone correction and passive thermal control. The improved noise level is about 10(-8) Hz/Hz(1/2)@0.01Hz, limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the sampling circuit.

  1. Lava discharge rate estimates from thermal infrared satellite data for Pacaya Volcano during 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hilary A.; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Gurioli, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    Pacaya is one of the most active volcanoes in Central America and has produced lava flows frequently since 1961. All effusive activity between 1961 and 2009 was confined by an arcuate collapse scarp surrounding the northern and eastern flanks. However, the recent breaching of this topographic barrier, and the eruption of a large lava flow outside of the main center of activity, have allowed lava to extend into nearby populated areas, indicating the need for assessment and monitoring of lava flow hazards. We investigated whether a commonly used satellite-based model could produce accurate lava discharge rates for the purpose of near-real-time assessment of hazards during future eruptions and to assess the dynamics of this persistently degassing system. The model assumes a linear relationship between active lava flow area and time-averaged discharge rate (TADR) via a simple conversion factor. We calculated the conversion factor via two methods: (1) best-fitting of satellite-derived flow areas to ground-based estimates of lava flow volume, and (2) theoretically via a parameterized model that takes into account the physical properties of the lava. To apply the latter method, we sampled four lava flows and measured density, vesicularity, crystal content, and major element composition. We found the best agreement of conversion factors in the eruption with the most complete satellite coverage, and used data for these flows to define the linear relationship between area and discharge rate. The physical properties of the sampled flows were essentially identical, so that any discrepancy between the two methods of calculating conversion factors must be due to modeling errors or environmental factors unaccounted for by the parameterized model. However, our best-fitting method provides a new means to set the conversion appropriately, and to obtain self-consistent TADRs. We identified two distinct types of effusive activity at Pacaya: Type 1 activity characterized by initially

  2. Increased ERCP rate following the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, A P; Brooks, R J; Staroscik, R N; Xuan, Y; Costantino, G N; Zatz, S L

    1995-10-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been a remarkable change in the manner in which symptomatic gallstones are surgically managed. In this study we reviewed the experience of a large HMO to determine the relationship between the rate of increase of ERCP and that of cholecystectomy. All individuals enrolled in US Healthcare's HMO-PA, in the region of southeastern Pennsylvania from 1988 through 1993, were included in the analysis. Using the HMO claims database, patients who underwent an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the study period were identified. We then identified those patients who had a pre- or post- operative ERCP. Over the study period, there has been a substantial increase in cholecystectomies per 1000 members-from 1.37 in 1988 to 2.16 (p < 0.0001) in 1993. In our study population there were 1261 ERCPs performed in 979 patients with an average of 1.3 ERCPs per patient during the study period. The ERCP rate per 1000 members has increased from 0.16 to 0.56 (p < 0.0001) from 1988 to 1993, at the same time that the cholecystectomy rate was substantially increasing. The correlation for the ERCP and cholecystectomy rates from 1988 to 1993 was 0.994 (p < 0.0001). Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1989-1990, many more ERCPs are now being performed. It is necessary to determine the implications related to the rapid diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, including the effect that this technology has had on other older and stable technologies such as ERCP. Our results describe the dramatic effect that laparoscopic cholecystectomy has had on the utilization of ERCPs.

  3. Study on Cell Error Rate of a Satellite ATM System Based on CDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彤宇; 张乃通

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the cell error rate (CER) of a CDMA-based satellite ATM system is analyzed. Two fading models, i.e. the partial fading model and the total fading model are presented according to multi-path propagation fading and shadow effect. Based on the total shadow model, the relation of CER vs. the number of subscribers at various elevations under 2D-RAKE receiving and non-diversity receiving is got. The impact on cell error rate with pseudo noise (PN) code length is also considered. The result that the maximum likelihood combination of multi-path signal would not improve the system performance when multiple access interference (MAI) is small, on the contrary the performance may be even worse is abtained.

  4. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  5. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  6. Increasing hazard rate of mixtures for natural exponential families

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Lev, Shaul K

    2010-01-01

    Hazard rates play an important role in various areas, e.g., reliability theory, survival analysis, biostatistics, queueing theory and actuarial studies. Mixtures of distributions are also of a great preeminence in such areas as most populations of components are indeed heterogeneous. In this study we present a sufficient condition for mixtures of two elements\\ of the same natural exponential family (NEF) to have an increasing hazard rate. We then apply this condition to some classical NEF's having either quadratic, or cubic variance functions (VF) and others as well. A particular attention is devoted to the hyperbolic cosine NEF having a quadratic VF, the Ressel NEF having a cubic VF and to the Kummer distributions of type 2 NEF. The application of such a sufficient condition is quite intricate and cumbersome, in particular when applied to the latter three NEF's. Various lemmas and propositions are needed then to verify this condition for these NEF's.

  7. Satellite vehicle tracking aiming to increase traffic safety within the Serbian Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Milanović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to show how to affect the most important factor of traffic safety - an individual, by using some technical solutions of satellite tracking of vehicles. By using units of the Land Forces as an example, a brief analysis of traffic safety for vehicles less than 5 years old has been performed. It is noticed that the number of traffic accidents with these vehicles involved has increased, so we tried to use one software package commercially available in order to show all advantages and disadvantages which could be noticed during this kind of vehicle tracking. The conclusion is that preventive vehicle tracking can improve traffic safety, but that a techno-economic analysis has to be done as well, in order to create all the necessary conditions for the introduction of this system in the units of the Serbian Armed Forces.

  8. Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift: Obscured Star Formation, GRB Rates, Cosmic Reionization, and Missing Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit MUV ≲ ‑13 (or SFR limit around 10‑2 M⊙ yr‑1) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z⊙/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τes ≈ 0.058 remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value fesc ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 108 M⊙ pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of MUV ≲ ‑12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST, will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  9. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  10. Do rapidly retreating valley glaciers increase catchment sediment export rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stuart; Bakker, Maarten; Gabbud, Chrystelle; Micheletti, Natan; Saugy, Jean-Noël

    2016-04-01

    that was too coarse to be transported by the proglacial stream, maintaining disconnection of the upper basins. Second, the sediment capacity ratio appeared to be elevated during periods of more rapid retreat and we attribute this to the importance of a continued supply of unworked glacial till before fluvially-driven sediment sorting reduces sediment transport rates. Fluvial reworking of freshly exposed sediment may slow sediment transfer and hence export rates. Thus, the transient geomorphic response of glaciated basin to glacier recession may involve negative feedbacks that can reduce the extent to which increases in connectivity elsewhere in the basin lead to increased sediment export.

  11. Desflurane increases heart rate independent of sympathetic activity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, O; Schwarte, L A; Schindler, A W; Scheeren, T W L

    2003-12-01

    Desflurane has been shown to increase sympathetic activity and heart rate (HR) in a concentration-dependent manner. Nevertheless, desflurane, like all other volatile anaesthetics, increased HR in parallel to vagal inhibition in a previous study. Therefore, our hypothesis is that desflurane elicits tachycardia by vagal inhibition rather than by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Six dogs were studied awake and during desflurane anaesthesia (1 and 2 MAC) alone, after pretreatment with propranolol (2 mg kg(-1) followed by 1 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), or after pre-treatment with atropine (0.1 mg kg(-1) followed by 0.05 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). The effects on HR and HR variability were compared by an analysis of variance (P MAC of desflurane from about 60 (awake) to 118 +/- 2 beats min(-1) (mean +/- SEM) in controls and to 106 +/- 3 beats min(-1) in dogs pre-treated with propranolol. In contrast, pretreatment with atropine increased HR from 64 +/- 2 to 147 +/- 5 beats min(-1) (awake) and HR decreased to 120 +/- 5 beats min(-1) after adding desflurane. High-frequency power correlated inversely with HR (r2 = 0.95/0.93) during desflurane alone and in the presence of beta-adrenoceptor blockade, with no significant difference between regression lines. There was no correlation between these variables during atropine/desflurane. The increase in HR elicited by desflurane mainly results from vagal inhibition and not from sympathetic activation.

  12. Assessing modern rates of river sediment discharge to the ocean using satellite gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Longuevergne, Laurent; Steer, Philippe; Crave, Alain; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Save, Himanshu; Robin, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide rivers annually export about 19 Gigatons of sediments to the ocean that mostly accumulate in the coastal zones and on the continental shelves. This sediment discharge testifies of the intensity of continental erosion and records changes in climate, tectonics and human activity. However, natural and instrumental uncertainties inherent to the in-situ measurements of sediment discharge prevent from conclusive estimates to better understand these linkages. Here we develop a new method, using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data, to infer mass-integrative estimates of sediment discharge of large rivers to the ocean. GRACE satellite provides global gravity time series that have proven useful for quantifying mass transport, including continental water redistribution at the Earth surface (ice sheets and glaciers melting, groundwater storage variations) but has been seldom used for monitoring sediment mass transfers so far. Here we pair the analysis of regularized GRACE solutions at high spatial resolution corrected from all known contributions (hydrology, ocean, atmosphere) to a particle tracking model that predicts the location of the sediment sinks for 13 rivers with the highest sediments loads in the world. We find that the resulting GRACE-derived sediment discharges off the mouth of the Amazon, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Changjiang (Yangtze), Indus, Magdalena, Godavari and Mekong rivers are consistent with in-situ measurements. Our results suggest that the lack of time continuity and of global coverage in terrestrial sediment discharge measurements could be reduced by using GRACE, which provides global and continuous data since 2002. GRACE solutions are regularly improved and new satellite gravity missions are being prepared hence making our approach even more relevant in a near future. The accumulation of sediments over time will keep increasing the signal to noise ratio of the gravity time series, which will improve the precision of

  13. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  14. Researchers' Individual Publication Rate Has Not Increased in a Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Daniele; Larivière, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Debates over the pros and cons of a "publish or perish" philosophy have inflamed academia for at least half a century. Growing concerns, in particular, are expressed for policies that reward "quantity" at the expense of "quality," because these might prompt scientists to unduly multiply their publications by fractioning ("salami slicing"), duplicating, rushing, simplifying, or even fabricating their results. To assess the reasonableness of these concerns, we analyzed publication patterns of over 40,000 researchers that, between the years 1900 and 2013, have published two or more papers within 15 years, in any of the disciplines covered by the Web of Science. The total number of papers published by researchers during their early career period (first fifteen years) has increased in recent decades, but so has their average number of co-authors. If we take the latter factor into account, by measuring productivity fractionally or by only counting papers published as first author, we observe no increase in productivity throughout the century. Even after the 1980s, adjusted productivity has not increased for most disciplines and countries. These results are robust to methodological choices and are actually conservative with respect to the hypothesis that publication rates are growing. Therefore, the widespread belief that pressures to publish are causing the scientific literature to be flooded with salami-sliced, trivial, incomplete, duplicated, plagiarized and false results is likely to be incorrect or at least exaggerated.

  15. The Impact Rate on Solar System Satellites During the Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, Henry C. Luke; Levison, H. F.

    2012-10-01

    Nimmo and Korycansky (2012; henceforth NK12) found that if the outer Solar System underwent a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) in the Nice model, the mass striking the icy satellites at speeds up to tens of km/s would have vaporized so much ice that moons such as Mimas, Enceladus, and Miranda would have been devolatilized. NK12's possible explanations of this apparent discrepancy with observations include (1) the mass influx was a factor of 10 less than that in the Nice model; (2) the mass distribution of the impactors was top-heavy, so that luck might have saved some of the moons from suffering large, vapor-removing impacts; or (3) the inner moons formed after the LHB. NK12 calculated the mass influx onto the satellites from the lunar impact rate estimated by Gomes et al. (2005) and scaling factors calculated by Zahnle et al. (1998, 2003; also see Barr and Canup 2010). Production of vapor in hypervelocity impacts was calculated from Kraus et al. (2011). We are calculating impact rates onto the giant planets and their moons in the context of the "Nice II" model (Levison et al. 2011). We find that NK12's assumed influx is an overestimate, by an amount we are quantifying. We will discuss implications for the origin of icy satellites. We thank the NASA Lunar Science Institute (http://lunarscience.nasa.gov/) for support. Barr, A.C., Canup, R.M., Nature Geoscience 3, 164-167 (2010). Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A., Nature 435, 466-469 (2005). Kraus, R.G., Senft, L.E., Stewart, S.T., Icarus 214, 724-738 (2011). Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Tsiganis, K., Nesvorný, D., Gomes, R., Astron. J. 142, article id. 152 (2011). Nimmo, F., Korycansky, D.G., Icarus 219, 508-510 (2012). Zahnle, K., Dones, L., Levison, H.F., Icarus 136, 202-222 (1998). Zahnle, K., Schenk, P., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., Icarus 163, 263-289 (2003).

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Desertification Rates in Azerbaijan during Using Timeseries Landsat-8 Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, Emil; Mammadov, Ramiz

    2016-07-01

    The main goals of this research are the object-based landcover classification of LANDSAT-8 multi-spectral satellite images in 2014 and 2015, quantification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) rates within the land-cover classes, change detection analysis between the NDVIs derived from multi-temporal LANDSAT-8 satellite images and the quantification of those changes within the land-cover classes and detection of changes between land-cover classes. The object-based classification accuracy of the land-cover classes was validated through the standard confusion matrix which revealed 80 % of land-cover classification accuracy for both years. The analysis revealed that the area of agricultural lands increased from 30911 sq. km. in 2014 to 31999 sq. km. in 2015. The area of barelands increased from 3933 sq. km. in 2014 to 4187 sq. km. in 2015. The area of forests increased from 8211 sq. km. in 2014 to 9175 sq. km. in 2015. The area of grasslands decreased from 27176 sq. km. in 2014 to 23294 sq. km. in 2015. The area of urban areas increased from 12479 sq. km. in 2014 to 12956 sq. km. in 2015. The decrease in the area of grasslands was mainly explained by the landuse shifts of grasslands to agricultural and urban lands. The quantification of low and medium NDVI rates revealed the increase within the agricultural, urban and forest land-cover classes in 2015. However, the high NDVI rates within agricultural, urban and forest land-cover classes in 2015 revealed to be lower relative to 2014. The change detection analysis between landscover types of 2014 and 2015 allowed to determine that 7740 sq. km. of grasslands shifted to agricultural landcover type whereas 5442sq. km. of agricultural lands shifted to rangelands. This means that the spatio-temporal patters of agricultural activities occurred in Azerbaijan because some of the areas reduced agricultural activities whereas some of them changed their landuse type to agricultural. Based on the achieved results, it

  17. Increased metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in long-term juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rossing, N; Sander, E

    1975-01-01

    smaller than 0.05). The previously reported decrease in the intravascular albumin mass in long-term diabetics was thus confirmed by an average of 59.0 g/m2 surface area, compared with a normal value of 71.7 g/m2-(minus18%) (P smaller than 0.005). The albumin metabolic rate was increased, the fractional...

  18. Source mass eruption rate retrieved from satellite-based data using statistical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Guillin, Arnaud; Azzaoui, Nourddine; Eychenne, Julia; Valade, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ash clouds emitted during volcanic eruptions have long been recognized as a major hazard likely to have dramatic consequences on aircrafts, environment and people. Thus, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) around the world, whose mission is to forecast the location and concentration of ash clouds over hours to days, using volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDs). Those models use input parameters such as plume height (PH), particle size distribution (PSD), and mass eruption rate (MER), the latter being a key parameter as it directly controls the amount of ash injected into the atmosphere. The MER can be obtained rather accurately from detailed ground deposit studies, but this method does not match the operational requirements in case of a volcanic crisis. Thus, VAACs use empirical laws to determine the MER from the estimation of the plume height. In some cases, this method can be difficult to apply, either because plume height data are not available or because uncertainties related to this method are too large. We propose here an alternative method based on the utilization of satellite data to assess the MER at the source, during explosive eruptions. Satellite-based techniques allow fine ash cloud loading to be quantitatively retrieved far from the source vent. Those measurements can be carried out in a systematic and real-time fashion using geostationary satellite, in particular. We tested here the relationship likely to exist between the amount of fine ash dispersed in the atmosphere and of coarser tephra deposited on the ground. The sum of both contributions yielding an estimate of the MER. For this purpose we examined 19 eruptions (of known duration) in detail for which both (i) the amount of fine ash dispersed in the atmosphere, and (ii) the mass of tephra deposited on the ground have been estimated and published. We combined these data with contextual information that may

  19. Social marketing as a strategy to increase immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Diekema, Douglas S; Lee, Nancy R; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2009-05-01

    Today in the United States, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease are often traced to susceptible children whose parents have claimed an exemption from school or child care immunization regulations. The origins of this immunization hesitancy and resistance have roots in the decline of the threat of vaccine-preventable disease coupled with an increase in concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines, the emergence of mass media and the Internet, and the intrinsic limitations of modern medicine. Appeals to emotion have drowned out thoughtful discussion in public forums, and overall, public trust in immunizations has declined. We present an often overlooked behavior change strategy-social marketing-as a way to improve immunization rates by addressing the important roots of immunization hesitancy and effectively engaging emotions. As an example, we provide a synopsis of a social marketing campaign that is currently in development in Washington state and that is aimed at increasing timely immunizations in children from birth to age 24 months.

  20. Increasing fMRI sampling rate improves Granger causality estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Estimation of causal interactions between brain areas is necessary for elucidating large-scale functional brain networks underlying behavior and cognition. Granger causality analysis of time series data can quantitatively estimate directional information flow between brain regions. Here, we show that such estimates are significantly improved when the temporal sampling rate of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is increased 20-fold. Specifically, healthy volunteers performed a simple visuomotor task during blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast based whole-head inverse imaging (InI. Granger causality analysis based on raw InI BOLD data sampled at 100-ms resolution detected the expected causal relations, whereas when the data were downsampled to the temporal resolution of 2 s typically used in echo-planar fMRI, the causality could not be detected. An additional control analysis, in which we SINC interpolated additional data points to the downsampled time series at 0.1-s intervals, confirmed that the improvements achieved with the real InI data were not explainable by the increased time-series length alone. We therefore conclude that the high-temporal resolution of InI improves the Granger causality connectivity analysis of the human brain.

  1. FODA/IBEA satellite access scheme for MIXED traffic at variable bit and coding rates system description

    OpenAIRE

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Mihal, Vlado; Potort?, Francesco

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the FODA system working at variable coding and bit rates (FODA/IBEA-TDMA) FODA/IBEA is the natural evolution of the FODA-TDMA satellite access scheme working at 2 Mbit/s fixed rate with data 1/2 coded or uncoded. FODA-TDMA was used in the European SATINE-II experiment [8]. We remind here that the term FODA/IBEA system is comprehensive of the FODA/IBEA-TDMA (1) satellite access scheme and of the hardware prototype realised by the Marconi R.C. (U.K.). Both of them come fro...

  2. FODA/IBEA satellite access scheme for MIXED traffic at variable bit and coding rates system description

    OpenAIRE

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Mihal, Vlado; Potort?, Francesco

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the FODA system working at variable coding and bit rates (FODA/IBEA-TDMA) FODA/IBEA is the natural evolution of the FODA-TDMA satellite access scheme working at 2 Mbit/s fixed rate with data 1/2 coded or uncoded. FODA-TDMA was used in the European SATINE-II experiment [8]. We remind here that the term FODA/IBEA system is comprehensive of the FODA/IBEA-TDMA (1) satellite access scheme and of the hardware prototype realised by the Marconi R.C. (U.K.). Both of them come fro...

  3. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  4. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S Robbert; Shaw, Blanka; Patiño, Jairo; Désamoré, Aurélie; Goffinet, Bernard; Cox, Cymon J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have the opposite effect when compared to angiosperms, leading to contrasting diversification patterns between the two groups. The high prevalence of unisexuality among liverworts suggests, however, a strong selection for sexual dimorphism. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Estimating trends of urban residential irrigation extent and rate using satellite imagery in the city of Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Clarke, K. C.; Roberts, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban residential irrigation is a large component of urban water budgets in Mediterranean climate cities, and plays a significant role for managing landscape vegetation and water resources. This is particularly occurring at cities such as Los Angeles, where water availability is limited during dry summers. This study applied 10-m SPOT 5 satellite imagery and a database of monthly water use records for residential water customers in Los Angeles in order to examine the interactions between vegetation water demand and residential water consumption. Here, we identify the spatial distribution of vegetation greenness and the extent of irrigation rates through water year 2005-2007, including normal, dry, and wet extremes of annual rainfall. Additionally, the water conservation ratio, which is between rates of irrigation and vegetation water demand, is used to assess over-irrigation. Although residential outdoor water usage was found as highest in the dry year, landscape vegetation under water stress that cannot maintain greenness condition as well as in wetter years. However, the decreasing trend of over-irrigation occurred from wet to drier years, since vegetation water demand increased significantly but irrigation rates changed little, implying over-irrigation in urbanized areas. This over watering issue can be implemented by water resource management, and urban planning, especially in current severe California drought.

  6. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  7. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V; Conwell, Y

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine if the change in the suicide rate is associated with individuals' use of antidepressants as has been suggested by ecological studies. DESIGN: Decomposition of suicide rates by antidepressant treatment group. SETTING: Population......-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA......), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants). The change in the suicide rate during 1996-2000 was decomposed by treatment group. RESULTS: Only one in five older adults dying by suicide was in treatment at the time of death. Whereas the male suicide rate declined by 9.7 suicides per...

  8. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19–26 years) were assigned...... in the control group (CON). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies the training-induced increase in satellite cell number and myonuclei concentration in human skeletal muscle fibres, thereby allowing......). Furthermore, timed protein/placebo intake were administered at all training sessions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at week 0, 4, 8 (week 8 not CON) and 16 of resistance training (3 days per week). Satellite cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Muscle mean fibre (MFA) area was determined after...

  9. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster without increased larval feeding rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANASWINI SARANGI; ARCHANA NAGARAJAN; SNIGDHADIP DEY; JOY BOSE; AMITABH JOSHI

    2016-09-01

    Multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogasterin the 1980s and 1990s indicated that enhanced competitive ability evolved primarily through increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes and increased larval feeding and foraging rate, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass, and this became the widely accepted view of how adaptation to larval crowding evolves in fruitflies. We recently showed that populations of D. ananassaeand D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolved greater competitive ability without evolving higher feeding rates, primarily through acombination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass, increased pupation height and, perhaps, greater urea/ammonia tolerance. This was a very differentsuite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogasterand was closer to the expectations from the theory of K-selection. At that time, we suggested two possible reasons for the differences in the phenotypic correlates ofgreater competitive ability seen in the studies with D. melanogaster and the other two species. First, that D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta had a very different genetic architecture of traits affecting competitive ability compared to the long-term labora-tory populations of D. melanogaster used in the earlier studies, either because the populations of the former two species were relatively recently wild-caught, or by virtue of being different species. Second, that the different evolutionary trajectories in D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta versus D. melanogaster were a reflection of differences in the manner in which larval crowding was imposed in the two sets of selection experiments. The D. melanogaster studies used a higher absolute density of eggs per unit volume of food, and a substantially larger total volume of food, than the studies on D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta. Here, we

  10. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster without increased larval feeding rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Nagarajan, Archana; Dey, Snigdhadip; Bose, Joy; Joshi, Amitabh

    2016-09-01

    Multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster in the 1980s and 1990s indicated that enhanced competitive ability evolved primarily through increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes and increased larval feeding and foraging rate, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass, and this became the widely accepted view of how adaptation to larval crowding evolves in fruitflies.We recently showed that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolved greater competitive ability without evolving higher feeding rates, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass, increased pupation height and, perhaps, greater urea/ammonia tolerance. This was a very different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogaster and was closer to the expectations from the theory of K-selection. At that time, we suggested two possible reasons for the differences in the phenotypic correlates of greater competitive ability seen in the studies with D. melanogaster and the other two species. First, that D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta had a very different genetic architecture of traits affecting competitive ability compared to the long-term laboratory populations of D. melanogaster used in the earlier studies, either because the populations of the former two species were relatively recently wild-caught, or by virtue of being different species. Second, that the different evolutionary trajectories in D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta versus D. melanogaster were a reflection of differences in the manner in which larval crowding was imposed in the two sets of selection experiments. The D. melanogaster studies used a higher absolute density of eggs per unit volume of food, and a substantially larger total volume of food, than the studies on D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta. Here, we

  11. Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) for high data rate satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Wagner, Paul; Budinger, James

    1992-02-01

    An analysis and discussion of a bandwidth efficient multi-level/multi-stage block coded modulation technique called Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) is presented. LRBC uses simple multi-level component codes that provide increased error protection on increasingly unreliable modulated bits in order to maintain an overall high code rate that increases spectral efficiency. Further, soft-decision multi-stage decoding is used to make decisions on unprotected bits through corrections made on more protected bits. Using analytical expressions and tight performance bounds it is shown that LRBC can achieve increased spectral efficiency and maintain equivalent or better power efficiency compared to that of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Bit error rates (BER) vs. channel bit energy with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) are given for a set of LRB Reed-Solomon (RS) encoded 8PSK modulation formats with an ensemble rate of 8/9. All formats exhibit a spectral efficiency of 2.67 = (log2(8))(8/9) information bps/Hz. Bit by bit coded and uncoded error probabilities with soft-decision information are determined. These are traded with with code rate to determine parameters that achieve good performance. The relative simplicity of Galois field algebra vs. the Viterbi algorithm and the availability of high speed commercial Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) for block codes indicates that LRBC using block codes is a desirable method for high data rate implementations.

  12. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518......, 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182...

  13. Molecular substitution rate increases with latitude in butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Sämi; Vila, Roger; Petrović, Andjeljko

    2017-01-01

    of five lycaenid butterfly species with varied ecological adaptations, sampled across a latitudinal gradient in the Holarctic region. We found a positive correlation between latitude and substitution rate of mitochondrial DNA sequences in all species investigated. We propose that this result is the signal...

  14. Increasing Response Rates to Web-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.

    2012-01-01

    We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-based surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response rates. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…

  15. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Fade Compensation Protocol Impact on Very Small-Aperture Terminal Bit Error Rate Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christina B.; Coney, Thom A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) communications system operates at Ka band. ACTS uses an adaptive rain fade compensation protocol to reduce the impact of signal attenuation resulting from propagation effects. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis characterizing the improvement in VSAT performance provided by this protocol. The metric for performance is VSAT bit error rate (BER) availability. The acceptable availability defined by communication system design specifications is 99.5% for a BER of 5E-7 or better. VSAT BER availabilities with and without rain fade compensation are presented. A comparison shows the improvement in BER availability realized with rain fade compensation. Results are presented for an eight-month period and for 24 months spread over a three-year period. The two time periods represent two different configurations of the fade compensation protocol. Index Terms-Adaptive coding, attenuation, propagation, rain, satellite communication, satellites.

  16. Preservation of Autochthonous Shell Beds by Positive Feedback between Increased Hardpart‐Input Rates and Increased Sedimentation Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam Tomašových; Franz T. Fürsich; Markus Wilmsen

    2006-01-01

    ... is driven by a decrease in sedimentation rate. A 150‐cm‐thick, densely packed shell bed with brachiopods from the Lower Jurassic of Morocco shows lower levels of postmortem alteration than shell...

  17. Testosterone and trenbolone enanthate increase mature myostatin protein expression despite increasing skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell number in rodent muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbo, V J; Roberts, M D; Mobley, C B; Ballmann, C; Kephart, W C; Fox, C D; Santucci, V A; Conover, C F; Beggs, L A; Balaez, A; Hoerr, F J; Yarrow, J F; Borst, S E; Beck, D T

    2017-04-01

    The androgen-induced alterations in adult rodent skeletal muscle fibre cross-sectional area (fCSA), satellite cell content and myostatin (Mstn) were examined in 10-month-old Fisher 344 rats (n = 41) assigned to Sham surgery, orchiectomy (ORX), ORX + testosterone (TEST; 7.0 mg week(-1) ) or ORX + trenbolone (TREN; 1.0 mg week(-1) ). After 29 days, animals were euthanised and the levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex was harvested for analyses. LABC muscle fCSA was 102% and 94% higher in ORX + TEST and ORX + TREN compared to ORX (p TREN increased satellite cell numbers by 181% and 178% compared to ORX, respectively (p TREN compared to ORX (p TREN (p = .043), although there were no between-treatment effects regarding phosphorylated SMAD2/3. Mstn, ActrIIb and Mighty mRNAs were lower in ORX, ORX + TEST and ORX + TREN compared to SHAM (p < .05). Testosterone and trenbolone administration increased muscle fCSA and satellite cell number without increasing myonuclei number, and increased Mstn protein levels. Several genes and signalling proteins related to myostatin signalling were differentially regulated by ORX or androgen therapy.

  18. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  19. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  20. Drill-in fluid reduces formation damage, increases production rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hands, N. [Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V., Velsen (Netherlands); Kowbel, K. [Ensco International/NAM, Assen (Netherlands); Maikranz, S. [M-I LLC, Houston, TX (United States); Nouris, R. [M-I LLC, Velsen (Netherlands)

    1998-07-13

    A sodium formate drill-in fluid system reduced formation damage, resulting in better-than-expected production rates for an off-shore Dutch development well. Programmed to optimize production capacity and reservoir drainage from a Rotliegend sandstone gas discovery, the 5-7/8-in. subhorizontal production interval was drilled and completed barefoot with a unique, rheologically engineered sodium formate drill-in fluid system. The new system, consisting of a sodium formate (NaCOOH) brine as the base fluid and properly sized calcium carbonate as the formation-bridging agent, was selected on the basis of its well-documented record in reducing solids impairment and formation damage in similar sandstone structures in Germany. The system was engineered around the low-shear-rate viscosity (LSRV) concept, designed to provide exceptional rheological properties. After describing the drilling program, the paper gives results on the drilling and completion.

  1. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  2. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (P<0.001). In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001). The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004) with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  3. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  4. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi

    2006-01-01

    ). Furthermore, timed protein/placebo intake were administered at all training sessions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at week 0, 4, 8 (week 8 not CON) and 16 of resistance training (3 days per week). Satellite cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Muscle mean fibre (MFA) area was determined after...... histochemical analysis. All training regimes were found to increase the proportion of satellite cells, but significantly greater enhancements were observed with creatine supplementation at week 4 (compared to STR-CON) and at week 8 (compared to STR-PRO and STR-CON) (P... number was no longer elevated in STR-CRE, while it remained elevated in STR-PRO and STR-CON. Furthermore, creatine supplementation resulted in an increased number of myonuclei per fibre and increases of 14-17% in MFA at week 4, 8 and 16 (Pincrease in MFA only...

  5. Maximal rate of increase in heart rate during the rest-exercise transition tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maximillian J; Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate kinetics are faster in well-trained athletes at exercise onset, indicating sensitivity to training status, but whether they track performance changes due to changes in training load is unknown. Randomised, counterbalanced, cross-over. 17 cyclists completed two weeks of light and two weeks of heavy training. The day after each training period heart rate was recorded during 5 min cycling at 100 W to determine the maximal rate of heart rate increase. Participants then performed a 5 min cycle time-trial after which heart rate recovery was determined. Work during 5 min cycle time-trial decreased 3.5% (Pincreased training load (completed light training then heavy training) and, although maximal rate of heart rate increase did not change (P=0.27), within-individual changes in work were correlated with changes in maximal rate of heart rate increase (r=0.87, P=0.005). Work during 5 min cycle time-trial increased 6.5% (Prate of heart rate increase increased 28% (P=0.002) but the changes in maximal work were not related to changes in rate of heart rate increase (r=0.32, P=0.40). Heart rate recovery tended to track changes in 5 min cycle time-trial work following increases and decreases in training load (r=0.65-0.75, P=0.03-0.08). Maximal rate of heart rate increases during cycling at 100 W tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased, but not performance improvements when training loads are reduced. Maximal rate of heart rate increase may be a useful adjunct to heart rate recovery for tracking changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plane of nutrition affects growth rate, organ size and skeletal muscle satellite cell activity in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGhee, M E; Bradley, J S; McCoski, S R; Reeg, A M; Ealy, A D; Johnson, S E

    2016-11-18

    Plane of nutrition effects on body, tissue and cellular growth in the neonatal calf are poorly understood. The hypothesis that a low plane of nutrition (LPN) would limit skeletal muscle size by reducing fibre growth and muscle progenitor cell activity was tested. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to either a LPN (20% CP, 20% fat; GE=1.9 Mcal/days) or a high plane of nutrition (HPN; 27% CP, 10% fat, GE = 3.8 Mcal/days) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the impact of diet on neonatal calf growth, organ weight and skeletal muscle morphometry with time. Groups of calves (n = 4 or 5) were euthanised at 2, 4 and 8 week of age and organ and empty carcass weights were recorded. Body composition was measured by DXA. Longissimus muscle (LM) fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre/mm(2) and Pax7 were measured by immunohistology. Satellite cells were isolated at each time point and proliferation rates were measured by EdU incorporation. Calves fed a HPN had greater (p satellite cells per fibre. Proliferation rates of satellite cells isolated from HPN fed calves were greater (p satellite cell activity.

  7. Increasing the admission rate to upper secondary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoest, A.; Jensen, V.M.; Nielsen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    the effects of a school intervention that introduces structured student career guidance in lower secondary school on upper secondary school admission. Disregarding the sunk-cost of implementation, the reform was cost-neutral. In a difference-in-difference framework, we find that the reform increases admission...

  8. Monitoring athletic training status using the maximal rate of heart rate increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Clint R; Thomson, Rebecca L; Howe, Peter R C; Karavirta, Laura; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Reductions in maximal rate of heart rate increase (rHRI) correlate with performance reductions when training load is increased. This study evaluated whether rHRI tracked performance changes across a range of training states. Prospective intervention. rHRI was assessed during five min of cycling at 100W (rHRIcyc) and running at 8km/h (rHRIrun) in 13 male triathletes following two weeks of light-training (LT), two weeks of heavy-training (HT) and a two-day recovery period (RP). A five min cycling time-trial assessed performance and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Performance likely decreased following HT (Effect size±90% confidence interval=-0.18±0.09), then very likely increased following RP (0.32±0.14). rHRIcyc very likely decreased (-0.48±0.24), and rHRIrun possibly decreased (-0.33±0.48), following HT. Changes in both measures were unclear following RP. Steady-state HR was almost certainly lower (-0.81±0.31) during rHRIcyc than rHRIrun. A large correlation was found between reductions in performance and rHRIrun (r±90%; CI=0.65±0.34) from LT to HT, but was unclear for rHRIcyc. Trivial within-subject correlations were found between rHRI and performance, but the strength of relationship between rHRIrun and performance was largely associated with V˙O2peak following LT (r=-0.58±0.38). Performance reductions were most sensitively tracked by rHRIrun following HT. This may be due to rHRIrun being assessed at a higher intensity than rHRIcyc, inferred from a higher steady-state HR and supported by a stronger within-subject relationship between rHRIrun and performance in individuals with a lower V˙O2peak, in whom the same exercise intensity would represent a greater physiological stress. rHRI assessed at relatively high exercise intensities may better track performance changes. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical interventions to increase adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2016-12-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is the most robust colonoscopy quality metric and clinical studies have adopted it as the ideal method to assess the impact of technical interventions. Areas covered: We reviewed papers focusing on the impact of colonoscopy technical issues on ADR, including withdrawal time and technique, second evaluation of the right colon, patient positional changes, gastrointestinal assistant participation during colonoscopy, water-aided technique, optimization of bowel preparation and antispasmodic administration. Expert commentary: Overall, technical interventions are inexpensive, available worldwide and easy to implement. Some of them, such as the adoption of split dose regimen and slow scope withdrawal to allow a careful inspection, have been demonstrated to significantly improve ADR. Emerging data support the use of water-exchange colonoscopy. According to published studies, other technical interventions seem to provide only marginal benefit to ADR. Unfortunately, the available evidence has methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, the inclusion of expert endoscopists only and the evaluation of single technical interventions. Additionally, larger studies are needed to clarify whether these interventions might have a higher benefit on low adenoma detectors and whether the implementation of a bundle of them, instead of a single technical maneuver, might have a greater impact on ADR.

  10. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were dete

  11. Multiple-input multiple-output symbol rate signal digital predistorter for non-linear multi-carrier satellite channels

    OpenAIRE

    Zenteno, Efrain; Piazza, Roberto; M. R. Bhavani Shankar; Rönnow, Daniel; Ottersten, Björn

    2015-01-01

    A digital predistortion (DPD) scheme is presented for non-linear distortion mitigation in multi-carrier satellite communication channels. The proposed DPD has a multiple-input multiple-output architecture similar to data DPD schemes. However, it enhances the mitigation performance of data DPDs using a multi-rate processing algorithm to achieve spectrum broadening of non-linear operators. Compared to single carrier (single-input single-output) signal (waveform) DPD schemes, the proposed DPD ha...

  12. Assessing the Relative Performance of Microwave-Based Satellite Rain Rate Retrievals Using TRMM Ground Validation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2011-01-01

    Space-borne microwave sensors provide critical rain information used in several global multi-satellite rain products, which in turn are used for a variety of important studies, including landslide forecasting, flash flood warning, data assimilation, climate studies, and validation of model forecasts of precipitation. This study employs four years (2003-2006) of satellite data to assess the relative performance and skill of SSM/I (F13, F14 and F15), AMSU-B (N15, N16 and N17), AMSR-E (Aqua) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) in estimating surface rainfall based on direct instantaneous comparisons with ground-based rain estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) sites at Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ) and Melbourne, Florida (MELB). The relative performance of each of these satellite estimates is examined via comparisons with space- and time-coincident GV radar-based rain rate estimates. Because underlying surface terrain is known to affect the relative performance of the satellite algorithms, the data for MELB was further stratified into ocean, land and coast categories using a 0.25deg terrain mask. Of all the satellite estimates compared in this study, TMI and AMSR-E exhibited considerably higher correlations and skills in estimating/observing surface precipitation. While SSM/I and AMSU-B exhibited lower correlations and skills for each of the different terrain categories, the SSM/I absolute biases trended slightly lower than AMSR-E over ocean, where the observations from both emission and scattering channels were used in the retrievals. AMSU-B exhibited the least skill relative to GV in all of the relevant statistical categories, and an anomalous spike was observed in the probability distribution functions near 1.0 mm/hr. This statistical artifact appears to be related to attempts by algorithm developers to include some lighter rain rates, not easily detectable by its scatter-only frequencies. AMSU

  13. The Mangroves of the Zambezi Delta: Increase in Extent Observed via Satellite from 1994 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie C. Shapiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are recognized for their valued ecosystem services provision while having the highest carbon density among forested ecosystems. Yet they are increasingly threatened by deforestation, conversion to agriculture and development, reducing the benefits they provide for local livelihoods, coastal protection and climate change mitigation. Accordingly, accurate estimates of mangrove area and change are fundamental for developing strategies for sustainable use, conservation and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+. The Zambezi River Delta in Mozambique contains one of the largest mangrove forests in Africa, and deforestation has been reported to be substantial, however these estimates vary widely. We used Landsat imagery from 1994, 2000 and 2013, to estimate a total current mangrove area of 37,034 ha, which is a net increase of 3723 ha over 19 years. The land cover change assessment was also used to provide perspective on ecosystem carbon stocks, showing that the Zambezi Delta mangrove ecosystem acts as a large carbon sink. Our findings reinforce the importance of conducting land cover change assessments using coherent data and analytical models, coupled with field validation. Broader application of our approach could help quantify the rates of natural change from erosion and land aggradation contrasted with anthropogenic causes.

  14. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90 mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  15. Impact of increased flow rate on specific growth rate of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, Rafinesque 1810)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Widjaja, R.T.O.B.H.; Kloet, C.J.; Foss, A.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of flow rate on growth was investigated in juvenile turbot. Fish with a mean (SD) initial weight of 102 (10.4) g were reared at 6 different flow rates, equaling 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 tank volumes/h in 196 L tanks during 29 days at 18 ± 0.29 °C, a salinity of 18.0 ± 0.77¿ and a pH ranging

  16. Nighttime mesospheric hydroxyl enhancements during SEP events and accompanying geomagnetic storms: Ionization rate modeling and Aura satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Wissing, J. M.; Wang, S.; Kallenrode, M.-B.; Zank, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    We quantify the effects of combined precipitating solar protons and magnetospheric electrons on nighttime odd hydrogen density enhancements during two solar energetic particle (SEP) events accompanied by strong geomagnetic storms. We perform detailed modeling of ionization rates for 7-17 November 2004 and 20-30 August 2005 intervals with improved version 1.6 of the Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabrück model. Particle measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites are sorted and combined in 2 h intervals to create realistic particle precipitation maps that are used as the modeling input. We show that modeled atmospheric ionization rates and estimated peak odd hydrogen (primarily hydroxyl) production from 0.001 hPa to 0.1 hPa atmospheric pressure levels during these intervals are consistent with enhancements in nighttime averaged zonal odd hydrogen densities derived from newly reprocessed and improved data set of Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board Aura satellite. We show that both precipitating SEPs and magnetospheric electrons contribute to mesospheric ionization and their relative contributions change throughout the intervals. Our event-based modeling results underline the importance of the combined ionization sources for odd hydrogen chemistry in the middle atmosphere.

  17. Merapi 2010 eruption-Chronology and extrusion rates monitored with satellite radar and used in eruption forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Schneider, David J.; Griswold, Julia P.; Keeler, Ronald H.; Burton, William C.; Noyles, Christopher; Newhall, Christopher G.; Ratdomopurbo, Antonius

    2013-07-01

    Despite dense cloud cover, satellite-borne commercial Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) enabled frequent monitoring of Merapi volcano's 2010 eruption. Near-real-time interpretation of images derived from the amplitude of the SAR signals and timely delivery of these interpretations to those responsible for warnings, allowed satellite remote sensing for the first time to play an equal role with in situ seismic, geodetic and gas monitoring in guiding life-saving decisions during a major volcanic crisis. Our remotely sensed data provide an observational chronology for the main phase of the 2010 eruption, which lasted 12 days (26 October-7 November, 2010). Unlike the prolonged low-rate and relatively low explosivity dome-forming and collapse eruptions of recent decades at Merapi, the eruption began with an explosive eruption that produced a new summit crater on 26 October and was accompanied by an ash column and pyroclastic flows that extended 8 km down the flanks. This initial explosive event was followed by smaller explosive eruptions on 29 October-1 November, then by a period of rapid dome growth on 1-4 November, which produced a summit lava dome with a volume of ~ 5 × 106 m3. A paroxysmal VEI 4 magmatic eruption (with ash column to 17 km altitude) destroyed this dome, greatly enlarged the new summit crater and produced extensive pyroclastic flows (to ~ 16 km radial distance in the Gendol drainage) and surges during the night of 4-5 November. The paroxysmal eruption was followed by a period of jetting of gas and tephra and by a second short period (12 h) of rapid dome growth on 6 November. The eruption ended with low-level ash and steam emissions that buried the 6 November dome with tephra and continued at low levels until seismicity decreased to background levels by about 23 November. Our near-real-time commercial SAR documented the explosive events on 26 October and 4-5 November and high rates of dome growth (> 25 m3 s- 1). An event tree analysis for the previous

  18. Prediction Method for Rain Rate and Rain Propagation Attenuation for K-Band Satellite Communications Links in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baso Maruddani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction method using hidden Markov model (HMM for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation for K-band satellite communication link at tropical area. As is well known, the K-band frequency is susceptible of being affected by atmospheric condition, especially in rainy condition. The wavelength of K-band frequency which approaches to the size of rain droplet causes the signal strength is easily attenuated and absorbed by the rain droplet. In order to keep the quality of system performance for K-band satellite communication link, therefore a special attention has to be paid for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation. Thus, a prediction method for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation based on HMM is developed to process the measurement data. The measured and predicted data are then compared with the ITU-R recommendation. From the result, it is shown that the measured and predicted data show similarity with the model of ITU-R P.837-5 recommendation for rain rate and the model of ITU-R P.618-10 recommendation for rain propagation attenuation. Meanwhile, statistical data for measured and predicted data such as fade duration and interfade duration have insignificant discrepancy with the model of ITU-R P.1623-1 recommendation.

  19. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Puya G; Pedersen, Brian A; Taylor, Jared F; Khattab, Omar S; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Yumay; Jacobsen, Steven E; Wang, Ping H

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp) and end (115 bp) of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer.

  20. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp and end (115 bp of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer.

  1. Burst Format Design for Optimum Joint Estimation of Doppler-Shift and Doppler-Rate in Packet Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giugno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimizing the burst format of packet transmission to perform enhanced-accuracy estimation of Doppler-shift and Doppler-rate of the carrier of the received signal, due to relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. Two novel burst formats that minimize the Doppler-shift and the Doppler-rate Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs for the joint estimation of carrier phase/Doppler-shift and of the Doppler-rate are derived, and a data-aided (DA estimation algorithm suitable for each optimal burst format is presented. Performance of the newly derived estimators is evaluated by analysis and by simulation, showing that such algorithms attain their relevant CRBs with very low complexity, so that they can be directly embedded into new-generation digital modems for satellite communications at low SNR.

  2. Nexus of Health and Development: Modelling Crude Birth Rate and Maternal Mortality Ratio Using Nighttime Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Roychowdhury

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health and development are intricately related. Although India has made significant progress in the last few decades in the health sector and overall growth in GDP, there are still large regional differences in both health and development. The main objective of this paper is to develop techniques for the prediction of health indicators for all the districts of India and examine the correlations between health and development. The level of electrification and district domestic product (DDP are considered as two fundamental indicators of development in this research. These data, along with health metrics and the information from two nighttime satellite images, were used to propose the models. These successfully predicted the health indicators with less than a 7%–10% error. The chosen health metrics, such as crude birth rate (CBR and maternal mortality rate (MMR, were mapped for the whole country at the district level. These metrics showed very strong correlation with development indicators (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.92 to 0.99 at the 99% confidence interval. This is the first attempt to use Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS (satellite imagery in a socio-economic study. This paper endorses the observation that areas with a higher DDP and level of electrification have overall better health conditions.

  3. Using Adaptive Automation to Increase Operator Performance and Decrease Stress in a Satellite Operations Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, David C.

    2014-01-01

    As advancements in automation continue to alter the systemic behavior of computer systems in a wide variety of industrial applications, human-machine interactions are increasingly becoming supervisory in nature, with less hands-on human involvement. This maturing of the human role within the human-computer relationship is relegating operations…

  4. 78 FR 31842 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription Services and Satellite Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... musical works. The benchmark testimony of SoundExchange is of even lesser value. The proposed rate of 15... from other aspects of its business. The appropriate business to analyze for purposes of this...

  5. Entrainment rate diurnal cycle in marine stratiform clouds estimated from geostationary satellite retrievals and a meteorological forecast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painemal, David; Xu, Kuan-Man; Palikonda, Rabindra; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    The mean diurnal cycle of cloud entrainment rate (we) over the northeast Pacific region is for the first time computed by combining, in a mixed-layer model framework, the hourly composited GOES-15 satellite-based cloud top height (HT) tendency, advection, and large-scale vertical velocity (w) during May to September 2013, with horizontal winds and w taken from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The tendency term dominates the magnitude and phase of the we diurnal cycle, with a secondary role of w, and a modest advective contribution. The peak and minimum in we occur between 20:00-22:00 LT and 9:00-11:00 LT, respectively, in close agreement with the diurnal cycle of turbulence driven by cloud top longwave cooling. Uncertainties in HT and ECMWF fields are assessed with in situ observations and three meteorological reanalysis data sets. This study provides the basis for constructing nearly global climatologies of we by combining a suite of well-calibrated geostationary satellites.

  6. Forecasting increasing rate of power consumption based on immune genetic algorithm combined with neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑霞

    2008-01-01

    Considering the factors affecting the increasing rate of power consumption, the BP neural network structure and the neural network forecasting model of the increasing rate of power consumption were established. Immune genetic algorithm was applied to optimizing the weight from input layer to hidden layer, from hidden layer to output layer, and the threshold value of neuron nodes in hidden and output layers. Finally, training the related data of the increasing rate of power consumption from 1980 to 2000 in China, a nonlinear network model between the increasing rate of power consumption and influencing factors was obtained. The model was adopted to forecasting the increasing rate of power consumption from 2001 to 2005, and the average absolute error ratio of forecasting results is 13.521 8%. Compared with the ordinary neural network optimized by genetic algorithm, the results show that this method has better forecasting accuracy and stability for forecasting the increasing rate of power consumption.

  7. Did the widespread haze pollution over China increase during the last decade? A satellite view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Wang, Zifeng; Wang, Jun; Tao, Jinhua; Wang, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Widespread haze layers usually cover China like low clouds, exerting marked influence on air quality and regional climate. With recent Collection 6 MODIS Deep Blue aerosol data in 2000-2015, we analyzed the trends of regional haze pollution and the corresponding influence of atmospheric circulation in China. Satellite observations show that regional haze pollution is mainly concentrated in northern and central China. The annual frequency of regional haze in northern China nearly doubles between 2000 and 2006, increasing from 30-50 to 80-90 days. Though there is a marked decrease in annual frequency during 2007-2009 due to both reduction of anthropogenic emissions and changes of meteorological conditions, regional pollution increases slowly but steadily after 2009, and maintains at a high level of 70-90 days except for the sudden decrease in 2015. Generally, there is a large increase in the number of regional-scale haze events during the last decade. Seasonal frequency of regional haze exhibits distinct spatial and temporal variations. The increasing winter haze events reach a peak in 2014, but decrease strongly in 2015 due partly to synoptic conditions that are favorable for dispersion. Trends of summer regional haze pollution are more sensitive to changes of atmospheric circulation. Our results indicate that the frequency of regional haze events is associated not only with the strength of atmospheric circulation, but also with its direction and position, as well as variations in anthropogenic emissions.

  8. 75 FR 53198 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... the amount of inflation as measured by the change in the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers... inflation as measured by the change in the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers All Items for... rate, adjusted for the amount of inflation as measured by the change in the Consumer Price Index for...

  9. 78 FR 23053 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription Services and Satellite Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... rates, argues Music Choice, would not affect the record companies' bottom-line because PSS royalties are... the only remaining, non-settling participants at the time of hearing: SoundExchange, Music Choice, and... this proceeding contend that this approach is erroneous or must be abandoned. In this proceeding,...

  10. Increased ratio of electron transport to net assimilation rate supports elevated isoprenoid emission rate in eucalypts under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-10-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r(2) > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r(2) > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission.

  11. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  12. BDS Precise Point Positioning for Seismic Displacements Monitoring: Benefit from the High-Rate Satellite Clock Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Geng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the requirement of high-rate high-precision applications, 1 Hz BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS satellite clock corrections are generated based on precise orbit products, and the quality of the generated clock products is assessed by comparing with those from the other analysis centers. The comparisons show that the root mean square (RMS of clock errors of geostationary Earth orbits (GEO is about 0.63 ns, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbits (IGSO and medium Earth orbits (MEO are about 0.2–0.3 ns and 0.1 ns, respectively. Then, the 1 Hz clock products are used for BDS precise point positioning (PPP to retrieve seismic displacements of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. The derived seismic displacements from BDS PPP are consistent with those from the Global Positioning System (GPS PPP, with RMS of 0.29, 0.38, and 1.08 cm in east, north, and vertical components, respectively. In addition, the BDS PPP solutions with different clock intervals of 1 s, 5 s, 30 s, and 300 s are processed and compared with each other. The results demonstrate that PPP with 300 s clock intervals is the worst and that with 1 s clock interval is the best. For the scenario of 5 s clock intervals, the precision of PPP solutions is almost the same to 1 s results. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates, we suggest that 5 s clock interval is competent for high-rate BDS solutions.

  13. BDS Precise Point Positioning for Seismic Displacements Monitoring: Benefit from the High-Rate Satellite Clock Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Su, Xing; Fang, Rongxin; Xie, Xin; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-12-20

    In order to satisfy the requirement of high-rate high-precision applications, 1 Hz BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) satellite clock corrections are generated based on precise orbit products, and the quality of the generated clock products is assessed by comparing with those from the other analysis centers. The comparisons show that the root mean square (RMS) of clock errors of geostationary Earth orbits (GEO) is about 0.63 ns, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbits (IGSO) and medium Earth orbits (MEO) are about 0.2-0.3 ns and 0.1 ns, respectively. Then, the 1 Hz clock products are used for BDS precise point positioning (PPP) to retrieve seismic displacements of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. The derived seismic displacements from BDS PPP are consistent with those from the Global Positioning System (GPS) PPP, with RMS of 0.29, 0.38, and 1.08 cm in east, north, and vertical components, respectively. In addition, the BDS PPP solutions with different clock intervals of 1 s, 5 s, 30 s, and 300 s are processed and compared with each other. The results demonstrate that PPP with 300 s clock intervals is the worst and that with 1 s clock interval is the best. For the scenario of 5 s clock intervals, the precision of PPP solutions is almost the same to 1 s results. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates, we suggest that 5 s clock interval is competent for high-rate BDS solutions.

  14. Dual-rate MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic transceiver for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Donald C., Jr.; Rankin, Stephen L.; Marshall, Paul W.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1994-06-01

    A dual rate 1773 fiber optic transceiver chip for space applications is presented. The transceiver will work with either 1 Mbps, or 20 Mbps Manchester data. The receiver features first bit capture with no preamble for 1 Mbps data, and clock recovery for 20 Mbps data. Single event effects in the photo diode are considered in the receiver design. A transmitter switch is included on the chip for driving an LED. The chip will be fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process.

  15. Global Increase in UV Irradiance during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Zonal average ultraviolet irradiance (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted irradiances. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted irradiances. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV irradiance levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.

  16. Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of natricine snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown heart rates to decrease from embryo to hatchling stage in turtles, remain steady in skinks, and increase in birds. However, no snake species has been studied in this regard. I recorded heart rate evolution trajectories from embryo to juvenile stage in 78 eggs from two species of European Natricine snakes. Unexpectedly, snakes behaved more like birds than turtles or lizards: heart rates increased after hatching in both N. maura and N. natrix, respectively by 43.92 ± 22.84% and 35.92 ± 24.52%. Heart rate shift was not related to an abrupt elevation of metabolism per se (snakes that increased their heart rates the most sharply grew the least after birth), but rather due to a number of smaller eggs that experienced lower than normal heart rates throughout the incubation and recovered a normal heart rate post-birth. This finding is discussed in the light of hatching synchrony benefits. PMID:24287712

  17. Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of Natricine snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien

    2013-11-29

    Experimental studies have shown heart rates to decrease from embryo to hatchling stage in turtles, remain steady in skinks, and increase in birds. However, no snake species has been studied in this regard. I recorded heart rate evolution trajectories from embryo to juvenile stage in 78 eggs from two species of European Natricine snakes. Unexpectedly, snakes behaved more like birds than turtles or lizards: heart rates increased after hatching in both N. maura and N. natrix, respectively by 43.92 ± 22.84% and 35.92 ± 24.52%. Heart rate shift was not related to an abrupt elevation of metabolism per se (snakes that increased their heart rates the most sharply grew the least after birth), but rather due to a number of smaller eggs that experienced lower than normal heart rates throughout the incubation and recovered a normal heart rate post-birth. This finding is discussed in the light of hatching synchrony benefits.

  18. Does an increased cesarean section rate improve neonatal outcome in term pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupari, Marja; Talola, Nina; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tihtonen, Kati

    2016-07-01

    To clarify whether an increased cesarean section rate improves the short-term neonatal outcome in singleton term pregnancies with cephalic presentation. A retrospective study of institutional data on the mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. The study included two cohorts: 1998-1999 (n = 7437) and 2004-2005 (n = 8505), since the institutional cesarean section rate increased sharply between these cohorts and has remained stable after the latter study period. The caesarean section rate almost doubled from 6.8 to 11.3 % (p cesarean section rate from a low to a moderate does not improve the short-term neonatal outcome in term singleton pregnancies. On the contrary neonatal intensive care unit admissions increased with increasing caesarean section rate. Furthermore it is possible to achieve good neonatal outcome with a low cesarean section rate.

  19. Does global warning increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the...

  20. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...

  1. 75 FR 55942 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... increases the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2010... avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling...

  2. A closer look at the increase in suicide rates in South Korea from 1986–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Heeran

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide rates have recently been decreasing on average among OECD countries, but increasing trends have been detected in South Korea, particularly since the 1997 economic crisis. There have been no detailed analyses about the changes of the suicide rates over time periods in Korea. We examined trends in both absolute and proportional suicide rates over the time period of economic development, crisis, and recovery (1986 – 2005 as well as in birth cohorts from 1924 to 1978. Methods We used data on total mortality and suicide rates from 1986 to 2005 published online by the Korean National Statistical Office (NSO and extracted data for individuals under 80 years old. The analyses of the trends for 1 the sex-age-specific total mortality rate, 2 the sex-age-specific suicide rate, and 3 the sex-age-specific proportional suicide rate in 1986–2005 were conducted. To demonstrate the birth cohort effect on the proportional suicide rate, the synthetic birth cohort from 1924 to 1978 from the successive cross-sectional data was constructed. Results Age standardized suicide rates in South Korea increased by 98% in men (from 15.3 to 30.3 per 100,000 and by 124% in women (from 5.8 to 13.0 per 100,000. In both genders, the proportional increase in suicide rates was more prominent among the younger group aged under 45, despite the absolute increase being attributed to the older group. There were distinct cohort effects underlying increasing suicide rates particularly among younger age groups. Conclusion Increasing suicide rates in Korea was composed of a greater absolute increase in the older group and a greater proportional increase in the younger group.

  3. Peak Satellite-to-Earth Data Rates Derived From Measurements of a 20 Gbps Bread-Board Modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, David G.; Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Sun, Jun Y.; Winn, James S.; Laraway, Stephen A.; McIntire, William K.; Metz, John L.; Smith, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    A prototype data link using a Ka-band space qualified, high efficiency 200 W TWT amplifier and a bread-board modem emulator were created to explore the feasibility of very high speed communications in satellite-to-earth applications. Experiments were conducted using a DVB-S2-like waveform with modifications to support up to 20 Gbps through the addition of 128-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Limited by the bandwidth of the amplifier, a constant peak symbol rate of 3.2 Giga-symbols/sec was selected and the modulation order was varied to explore what peak data rate might be supported by an RF link through this amplifier. Using 128-QAM, an implementation loss of 3 dB was observed at 20 Gbps, and the loss decreased as data rate or bandwidth were reduced. Building on this measured data, realistic link budget calculations were completed. Low-Earth orbit (LEO) missions based on this TWTA with reasonable hardware assumptions and antenna sizing are found to be bandwidth-limited, rather than power-limited, making the spectral efficiency of 9/10-rate encoded 128-QAM very attractive. Assuming a bandwidth allocation of 1 GHz, these computations indicate that low-Earth orbit vehicles could achieve data rates up to 5 Gbps-an order of magnitude beyond the current state-of-practice, yet still within the processing power of a current FPGA-based software-defined modem. The measured performance results and a description of the experimental setup are presented to support these conclusions.

  4. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion: Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Increased Heart Rate in Shenxianshengmai-treated Bradycardia Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou-Ying Liu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Long-term SXSM stimulates sympathetic transmission by increasing the expression of acetylcholinesterase and reduces the expression of nicotinic receptor to increase heart rate. SXSM also restored the calcium handling genes and altered genes involved in signaling. In addition, SXSM improves the ATP supply of ventricular myocardium by increasing proteins involved in TCA cycle and oxidation-respiratory chain.

  6. Effect of acute exercise-induced fatigue on maximal rate of heart rate increase during submaximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Different mathematical models were used to evaluate if the maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) was related to reductions in exercise performance resulting from acute fatigue. Fourteen triathletes completed testing before and after a 2-h run. rHRI was assessed during 5 min of 100-W cycling and a sigmoidal (rHRIsig) and exponential (rHRIexp) model were applied. Exercise performance was assessed using a 5-min cycling time-trial. The run elicited reductions in time-trial performance (1.34 ± 0.19 to 1.25 ± 0.18 kJ · kg(-1), P increased pre-exercise HR (73.0 ± 8.4 to 90.5 ± 11.4 beats · min(-1), P exercise and steady-state HR. rHRIsig was reduced following acute exercise-induced fatigue, and correlated with difference in performance.

  7. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  8. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available on the sulphate reduction rates. The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction. In all...

  9. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P; Sørensen, H; Bonne, T C; Zaar, M; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Nordsborg, N B; Secher, N H; Lundby, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate response to exercise, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate, but not combined, inhibition...

  10. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of [Beta]-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C Siebenmann; P Rasmussen; H Sørensen; T C Bonne; M Zaar; N J Aachmann-Andersen; N B Nordsborg; N H Secher; C Lundby

    2015-01-01

      Hypoxia increases the heart rate response to exercise, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate, but not combined, inhibition...

  11. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such

  12. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; John C. Byrne; Lori D. Daniels; Jerry F. Franklin; Peter Z. Fule; Mark E. Harmon; Andrew J. Larson; Jeremy M. Smith; Alan H. Taylor; Thomas T. Veblen

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29...

  13. Increasing College-Going Rate, Parent Involvement, and Community Participation in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of leaders of grant-supported projects aimed at increasing the college-going rate of high school students in rural Appalachian counties in Mississippi to determine which factors they felt most influenced the college-going rate, parental participation in school activities, and community participation. Analysis of…

  14. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  15. Adaptation to larval crowding in Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila nasuta nasuta : increased larval competitive ability without increased larval feeding rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARCHANA NAGARAJAN; SHARMILA BHARATHI NATARAJAN; MOHAN JAYARAM; ANANDA THAMMANNA; SUDARSHAN CHARI; JOY BOSE; SHREYAS V. JOIS; AMITABH JOSHI

    2016-06-01

    The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evo-lution studies onDrosophila melanogaster , was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larvalfeeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion tobiomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classicalK -selection theory, notably the expectation that selec-tion at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpretedthrough the lens of α -selection. We show here that populations ofD. ananassaeandD. n. nasutasubjected to extreme larvalcrowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination ofreduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion tobiomass and increased pupation height, with a relatively small role of increased urea/ammonia tolerance, if at all. This is avery different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection inD .melanogaster ,andseemstobeclosertotheexpectations from the canonical theory ofK -selection. We also discuss possible reasons for these differences in results acrossthe three species. Overall, the results reinforce the view that our understanding of the evolution of competitive ability in fruit-flies needs to be more nuanced than before, with an appreciation that there may be multiple evolutionary routes through whichhigher competitive ability can be attained.

  16. Multiple major increases and decreases in mitochondrial substitution rates in the plant family Geraniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirk Andrew J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions are, in general, exceptionally low in plant mitochondrial genomes, several times lower than in chloroplast genomes, 10–20 times lower than in plant nuclear genomes, and 50–100 times lower than in many animal mitochondrial genomes. Several cases of moderate variation in mitochondrial substitution rates have been reported in plants, but these mostly involve correlated changes in chloroplast and/or nuclear substitution rates and are therefore thought to reflect whole-organism forces rather than ones impinging directly on the mitochondrial mutation rate. Only a single case of extensive, mitochondrial-specific rate changes has been described, in the angiosperm genus Plantago. Results We explored a second potential case of highly accelerated mitochondrial sequence evolution in plants. This case was first suggested by relatively poor hybridization of mitochondrial gene probes to DNA of Pelargonium hortorum (the common geranium. We found that all eight mitochondrial genes sequenced from P. hortorum are exceptionally divergent, whereas chloroplast and nuclear divergence is unexceptional in P. hortorum. Two mitochondrial genes were sequenced from a broad range of taxa of variable relatedness to P. hortorum, and absolute rates of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions were calculated on each branch of a phylogenetic tree of these taxa. We infer one major, ~10-fold increase in the mitochondrial synonymous substitution rate at the base of the Pelargonium family Geraniaceae, and a subsequent ~10-fold rate increase early in the evolution of Pelargonium. We also infer several moderate to major rate decreases following these initial rate increases, such that the mitochondrial substitution rate has returned to normally low levels in many members of the Geraniaceae. Finally, we find unusually little RNA editing of Geraniaceae mitochondrial genes, suggesting high levels of retroprocessing in their

  17. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  18. Improving snow process modeling with satellite-based estimation of near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Litao; Shrestha, Maheswor; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chen, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24% among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snowpack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  19. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reporting period subject to the ceiling if there is a significant increase in the average hourly wage for... wage survey data collected for the cost reporting period subject to the ceiling is at least 8.0 percent... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital...

  20. The Paradox of Increasing Both Enrollment and Graduation Rates: Acknowledging Elephants in the Ivory Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvenon, Sean W.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The argument is made that increasing enrollments and graduation rates cannot occur while maintaining academic standards. Several U.S. universities are attempting to increase their enrollments to counter the financial difficulties created by a reduction in state support. These same universities are also under growing pressure from their state…

  1. Increasing homework completion and accuracy rates with parental participation for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina GILIC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder often experience difficulty completing homework assignments independently more than students without disabilities. This study examined the use of a daily report card while adding a parent teacher component on the homework completion and accuracy rates of two second grade boys diagnosed with Autism. Parental participation for graphing and reviewing the student data involved the home environment. Researchers found that the use of the daily report card for homework completion and accuracy increased student success with the added parent teacher communication component. The parent teacher intervention increased both students’ homework completion by 65% and 38% respectively and accuracy rates by 123% and 30% respectively compared, to baseline sessions. Data showed that the addition of a parent teacher graphing component can be effective with a daily report card to increase parental involvement, while also helping increase homework completion and accuracy rates in students with Autism.

  2. Maximal oxygen consumption increases with temperature in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) through increased heart rate and arteriovenous extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claësson, Débora; Wang, Tobias; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Global warming results in increasing water temperature, which may represent a threat to aquatic ectotherms. The rising temperature affects ecology through physiology, by exerting a direct limiting effect on the individual. The mechanism controlling individual thermal tolerance is still elusive, but some evidence shows that the heart plays a central role, and that insufficient transport of oxygen to the respiring tissues may determine the thermal tolerance of animals. In this study, the influence of the heart in thermal limitation was investigated by measurements of aerobic scope in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) together with measurements of cardiac output during rest and activity. Aerobic capacity was not limited by an acutely increased temperature in the European eel. Oxygen demand was met by an increase in heart rate and arteriovenous extraction. These findings suggest that thermal tolerance during exposure to acute temperature changes is not defined by oxygen transport capacity in the eel, and other mechanisms may play a central role in limiting thermal tolerance in these fish.

  3. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  4. Use of surface drifters to increase resolution and accuracy of oceanic geostrophic circulation mapped from satellite only (altimetry and gravimetry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulet, Sandrine; Rio, Marie-Hélène; Etienne, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    Strong improvements have been made in our knowledge of the surface ocean geostrophic circulation thanks to satellite observations. For instance, the use of the latest GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) geoid model with altimetry data gives good estimate of the mean oceanic circulation at spatial scales down to 125 km. However, surface drifters are essential to resolve smaller scales, it is thus mandatory to carefully process drifter data and then to combine these different data sources. In this framework, the global 1/4° CNES-CLS13 Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) and associated mean geostrophic currents have been computed (Rio et al, 2014). First a satellite only MDT was computed from altimetric and gravimetric data. Then, an important work was to pre-process drifter data to extract only the geostrophic component in order to be consistent with physical content of satellite only MDT. This step include estimate and remove of Ekman current and wind slippage. Finally drifters and satellite only MDT were combined. Similar approaches are used regionally to go further toward higher resolution, for instance in the Agulhas current or along the Brazilian coast. Also, a case study in the Gulf of Mexico intends to use drifters in the same way to improve weekly geostrophic current estimate.

  5. Leptin decreases heart rate associated with increased ventricular repolarization via its receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Huang, Jianying; Hileman, Stan; Martin, Karen H; Hull, Robert; Davis, Mary; Yu, Han-Gang

    2015-11-15

    Leptin has been proposed to modulate cardiac electrical properties via β-adrenergic receptor activation. The presence of leptin receptors and adipocytes in myocardium raised a question as to whether leptin can directly modulate cardiac electrical properties such as heart rate and QT interval via its receptor. In this work, the role of local direct actions of leptin on heart rate and ventricular repolarization was investigated. We identified the protein expression of leptin receptors at cell surface of sinus node, atrial, and ventricular myocytes isolated from rat heart. Leptin at low doses (0.1-30 μg/kg) decreased resting heart rate; at high doses (150-300 μg/kg), leptin induced a biphasic effect (decrease and then increase) on heart rate. In the presence of high-dose propranolol (30 mg/kg), high-dose leptin only reduced heart rate and sometimes caused sinus pauses and ventricular tachycardia. The leptin-induced inhibition of resting heart rate was fully reversed by leptin antagonist. Leptin also increased heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), and leptin antagonist did not. In isolated ventricular myocytes, leptin (0.03-0.3 μg/ml) reversibly increased the action potential duration. These results supported our hypothesis that in addition to indirect pathway via sympathetic tone, leptin can directly decrease heart rate and increase QT interval via its receptor independent of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. During inhibition of β-adrenergic receptor activity, high concentration of leptin in myocardium can cause deep bradycardia, prolonged QT interval, and ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. Retinal rod GTPase turnover rate increases with concentration: a key to the control of visual excitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dratz, E A; Lewis, J W; Schaechter, L E; Parker, K R; Kliger, D S

    1987-07-31

    Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins mediate cellular responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors and light. Activated GTP binding proteins are shut off by GTPase mediated hydrolysis of GTP. Photoreceptor GTPase rates are reported to be 10-50 times too slow to account for electrophysiological recovery time after light stimulus. Recovery rates of other parts of the system, however, appear fast enough. We present evidence that the GTPase rate increases markedly with photoreceptor membrane concentration implying the existence of a diffusible factor controlling the GTPase. When extrapolated to physiological concentrations, the GTPase turnover rate is fast enough (0.25-1.5 sec) to account for the recovery rate of the light stimulated signal of the photoreceptor cells.

  7. Acute resistance exercise reduces heart rate complexity and increases QTc interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, K S; Sosnoff, J J; Jae, S Y; Gates, G J; Fernhall, B

    2008-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise (RE) has been shown to reduce cardiac vagal control. Whether this would in turn affect QTc interval (an index of ventricular depolarization/repolarization) or heart rate complexity is not known. Heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate complexity (SampEn), and QT interval (rate corrected using Bazett, Fridericia, Hodges, and Framingham) were measured before and 5 min after an acute RE bout in twelve healthy young men. Normalized high frequency power of HRV (an index of cardiac parasympathetic modulation; HF (nu)), and SampEn were reduced following RE (p heart rate complexity and increased QTc length. Thus, during recovery from acute RE, there is prolongation of depolarization and repolarization of the ventricles concomitant with reduced cardiac irregularity, and this may be related to a reduction in cardiac vagal control.

  8. Greater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Creamer, Courtney; Baisden, W. Troy; Farrell, Mark; Fallon, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Devising agricultural management schemes that enhance food security and soil carbon levels is a high priority for many nations. However, the coupling between agricultural productivity, soil carbon stocks and organic matter turnover rates is still unclear. Archived soil samples from four decades of a long-term crop rotation trial were analyzed for soil organic matter (SOM) cycling-relevant properties: C and N content, bulk composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, amino sugar content, short-term C bioavailability assays, and long-term C turnover rates by modeling the incorporation of the bomb spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil. After > 40 years under consistent management, topsoil carbon stocks ranged from 14 to 33 Mg C ha-1 and were linearly related to the mean productivity of each treatment. Measurements of SOM composition demonstrated increasing amounts of plant- and microbially derived SOM along the productivity gradient. Under two modeling scenarios, radiocarbon data indicated overall SOM turnover time decreased from 40 to 13 years with increasing productivity - twice the rate of decline predicted from simple steady-state models or static three-pool decay rates of measured C pool distributions. Similarly, the half-life of synthetic root exudates decreased from 30.4 to 21.5 h with increasing productivity, indicating accelerated microbial activity. These findings suggest that there is a direct feedback between accelerated biological activity, carbon cycling rates and rates of carbon stabilization with important implications for how SOM dynamics are represented in models.

  9. Increasing trend in the rate of infectious disease hospitalisations among Alaska Native people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Holman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the epidemiology of infectious disease (ID hospitalisations among Alaska Native (AN people. Methods. Hospitalisations with a first-listed ID diagnosis for American Indians and ANs residing in Alaska during 2001–2009 were selected from the Indian Health Service direct and contract health service inpatient data. ID hospitalisations to describe the general US population were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Annual and average annual (2007–2009 hospitalization rates were calculated. Results. During 2007–2009, IDs accounted for 20% of hospitalisations among AN people. The 2007–2009 average annual age-adjusted ID hospitalisation rate (2126/100,000 persons was higher than that for the general US population (1679/100,000; 95% CI 1639–1720. The ID hospitalisation rate for AN people increased from 2001 to 2009 (17%, p<0.001. Although the rate during 2001–2009 declined for AN infants (<1 year of age; p=0.03, they had the highest 2007–2009 average annual rate (15106/100,000, which was 3 times the rate for general US infants (5215/100,000; 95% CI 4783–5647. The annual rates for the age groups 1–4, 5–19, 40–49, 50–59 and 70–79 years increased (p<0.05. The highest 2007–2009 age-adjusted average annual ID hospitalisation rates were in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK (3492/100,000 and Kotzebue (3433/100,000 regions; infant rates were 30422/100,000 and 26698/100,000 in these regions, respectively. During 2007–2009, lower respiratory tract infections accounted for 39% of all ID hospitalisations and approximately 50% of ID hospitalisations in YK, Kotzebue and Norton Sound, and 74% of infant ID hospitalisations. Conclusions. The ID hospitalisation rate increased for AN people overall. The rate for AN people remained higher than that for the general US population, particularly in infants and in the YK and Kotzebue regions. Prevention measures to reduce ID morbidity among AN people should be increased in high

  10. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare;

    2014-01-01

    ear ventilation tube insertion performed in Denmark in the period were identified. A possible change in incidence rate over time was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 502,569 uni- or bilateral...... in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5...

  11. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  12. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  13. Increased resting heart rate following radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen

    2005-01-01

    the procedure. RESULTS: Following PV isolation, the mean HR significantly increased from 58 +/- 10 bpm at baseline to 67 +/- 12 bpm at one month, 71 +/- 13 bpm at three months, 69 +/- 12 bpm at six months, 69 +/- 13 at nine months, and 70 +/- 13 at 12 months follow-up. The ablation success significantly...... correlated with the increase in HR at one month follow-up. In three patients the mean HR increased > 25 bpm resulting in symptoms necessitating therapy with rate-controlling drugs. CONCLUSION: PV isolation in patients with AF may result in increased HR, which positively correlated with the ablation success...

  14. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households. CONCLUSIONS: This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  15. Increasing health examination survey participation rates by SMS reminders and flexible examination times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Aistrich, Anna; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Declining participation rates are an increasing problem in population surveys. Different kinds of methods have been used to ensure participation rates as high as possible. Monetary incentives and reminders have been found to be effective ways to increase participation rates, but these are rather expensive to implement in large population surveys. There is a need for cheaper ways to motivate survey invitees to participate. The Kuusamo Health Examination Survey was conducted in May-June 2011. A random sample of 250 people was selected for the survey. Mobile phone numbers, when available, were obtained for people within the sample. For a random sample of 50% of survey invitees with a mobile phone number, a short message service (SMS) reminder was sent prior to their appointment. All survey participants were asked to fill in a feedback questionnaire. Participation rate was 58% for men and 74% for women. Mobile phone numbers were available for 66% of the sample. Among those receiving an SMS reminder about their appointment, participation rates were up to 25 percentage points higher than among the group not receiving a reminder. In the feedback questionnaire, 9% of the survey participants reported that they would not have participated without the SMS reminder they received. Participants preferred morning hours and Monday-Tuesday as time and day options for the examinations. SMS reminder about the appointment time was an effective way to increase participation rate, especially among the youngest age groups also, providing flexible office hours for the examination clinic may increase participation rate. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. A closer look at the Neogene erosion and accumulation rate increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbring, J.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2008-12-01

    Glacial erosion and Quaternary cold-stage warm-stage climate cycling have been cited as mechanisms to explain observations of increased Neogene marine sedimentation rates. Quantification of long-term glacial erosion rates from cosmogenic radionuclides from large areas mostly covered by cold-based ice during the Quaternary show very low erosion rates over several glacial cycles. In addition, isotope ratio proxies of dissolved metals in seawater, measured in chemical ocean sediments, lack clear evidence for an increase in terrigenous denudation. In particular, the stable isotope 9Be, derived from continental erosion, shows no change in its ratio to meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, derived from rain over the past 10 My. Radiogenic Pb and Nd isotopes, mainly show a change in the style of denudation from more chemical to more physical processes in the Quaternary. These data are at odds with a suggested increase in marine sedimentation rates during the late Cenozoic. In order to resolve this contradiction we have scrutinized these sedimentation rate calculations from ocean cores to identify whether they might show only apparent increases in the Neogene sections. Potential explanations are that in some cases, measured sediment thicknesses for different time intervals lack corrections for sediment compaction. Compaction of the lower portions of the cores drastically increases the apparent thickness of the more recent (Quaternary) sediment. In addition, sedimentation rates often only appear higher for recent sections in cores due to an artifact of an averaging timescale that decreases up-core. Such an averaging time scale decrease arises from better chronological resolution in recent times (Sadler et al., 1999). Cannibalization of older sediment might add to this effect. Together, these data question a clear, global-scale Quaternary climate-erosion connection that would be unique in Earth's history.

  17. Changes in transcriptional orientation are associated with increases in evolutionary rates of enterobacterial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung Chao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in transcriptional orientation (“CTOs” occur frequently in prokaryotic genomes. Such changes usually result from genomic inversions, which may cause a conflict between the directions of replication and transcription and an increase in mutation rate. However, CTOs do not always lead to the replication-transcription confrontation. Furthermore, CTOs may cause deleterious disruptions of operon structure and/or gene regulations. The currently existing CTOs may indicate relaxation of selection pressure. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate whether CTOs have an independent effect on the evolutionary rates of the affected genes, and whether these genes are subject to any type of selection pressure in prokaryotes. Methods Three closely related enterbacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were selected for comparisons of synonymous (dS and nonsynonymous (dN substitution rate between the genes that have experienced changes in transcriptional orientation (changed-orientation genes, “COGs” and those that do not (same-orientation genes, “SOGs”. The dN/dS ratio was also derived to evaluate the selection pressure on the analyzed genes. Confounding factors in the estimation of evolutionary rates, such as gene essentiality, gene expression level, replication-transcription confrontation, and decreased dS at gene terminals were controlled in the COG-SOG comparisons. Results We demonstrate that COGs have significantly higher dN and dS than SOGs when a series of confounding factors are controlled. However, the dN/dS ratios are similar between the two gene groups, suggesting that the increase in dS can sufficiently explain the increase in dN in COGs. Therefore, the increases in evolutionary rates in COGs may be mainly mutation-driven. Conclusions Here we show that CTOs can increase the evolutionary rates of the affected genes. This effect is independent of the

  18. Increased traffic accident rates associated with shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jove; Irving, Jennifer; Tang, Xiaoqin; Sellers, Stephen; Crisp, Joshua; Horwitz, Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Krupnick, Alan; Carey, David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between shale gas drilling and motor vehicle accident rates in Pennsylvania. Using publicly available data on all reported vehicle crashes in Pennsylvania, we compared accident rates in counties with and without shale gas drilling, in periods with and without intermittent drilling (using data from 2005 to 2012). Counties with drilling were matched to non-drilling counties with similar population and traffic in the pre-drilling period. Heavily drilled counties in the north experienced 15-23% higher vehicle crash rates in 2010-2012 and 61-65% higher heavy truck crash rates in 2011-2012 than control counties. We estimated 5-23% increases in crash rates when comparing months with drilling and months without, but did not find significant effects on fatalities and major injury crashes. Heavily drilled counties in the southwest showed 45-47% higher rates of fatal and major injury crashes in 2012 than control counties, but monthly comparisons of drilling activity showed no significant differences associated with drilling. Vehicle accidents have measurably increased in conjunction with shale gas drilling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m(2) after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The role of sales of new motorcycles in a recent increase in motorcycle mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulozzi, Leonard J

    2005-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has reported that mortality rates from crashes among motorcycle riders in the United States increased from 21.0 per 100 million motorcycle miles traveled in 1997 to 38.4 per 100 million motorcycle miles traveled in 2003. At the same time, annual domestic sales of new, on-road motorcycles increased from 247,000 in 1997 to 648,000 in 2003. This study used data from the NHTSA Fatality Analysis Reporting System and annual sales figures for on-road motorcycles to determine if newer motorcycles were more likely to be involved in fatal crashes and if fatal crashes involving newer motorcycles could account for the mortality increase after 1997. Mortality rates were 7.9, 8.1, 5.4, and 2.9 per 10,000 motorcycles sold for motorcycles increase in the number of deaths associated with motorcycles less than four years old between 1997 and 2003 accounted for 78.1% of the total increase in motorcyclist deaths over this time period. Two possible explanations for the association between high sales volumes and mortality rates are: (a) increased exposure from more extensive use of motorcycles when they are new; and (b) inexperience with motorcycle riding or with specific motorcycles. This study suggests that the deaths of growing numbers of motorcyclists are a consequence of the financial success of the motorcycle industry.

  1. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  2. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling Brian K; Hammond Kelley G; Fisher-Wellman Kelsey H; Bloomer Richard J; Weber Adrianna A; Cole Bradford J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Correction to Richard J Bloomer, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman, Kelley G Hammond, Brian K Schilling, Adrianna A Weber and Bradford J Cole: Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6: 4

  3. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Richard J Bloomer, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman, Kelley G Hammond, Brian K Schilling, Adrianna A Weber and Bradford J Cole: Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6: 4

  4. 75 FR 31275 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rates AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: This rule... about $509,919 from the sales of peaches and nectarines. The nectarine and peach marketing orders...

  5. Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommelen, J.; Groen, B.; Hamer, H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. Objective To ass

  6. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding plans with increased female reproductive rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    1990-01-01

    IntroductionNicholas and Smith (1983) proposed Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) nucleus breeding schemes to increase reponse rates in dairy cattle breeding. Predicted genetic gains were up to twice as high as those of conventional progeny testing schemes. In the MOET nucleus bree

  7. The responses of I beta cells to increases in the rate of lung inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, P L; Davies, R O; Pack, A I

    1981-08-31

    The activity of inspiratory cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) was recorded extracellularly in paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats either during chloralose-urethane anesthesia or following midcollicular decerebration. Twenty-three of the 68 inspiratory cells recorded in the region of the NTS were classified as I beta cells on the basis of their response to withholding lung inflation. The dynamic sensitivity of I beta cells was determined by studying their response to increases in the rate of lung inflation at constant peak volume. The I beta cells in this study showed 3 distinct patterns of response to increases in the rate of inflation. Five cells showed no change in firing pattern (fixed firing pattern). Ten cells showed an increase in the rate of rise of cell activity but no change in peak frequency (low dynamic sensitivity). Eight cells showed increases in both the rate of rise of cell activity and peak frequency (high dynamic sensitivity). It was concluded that I beta cells are not a functionally homogeneous population, at least in terms of their dynamic sensitivity. Cells showing fixed firing patterns have the characteristics of off-switch neurons. Cells with low levels of dynamic sensitivity may receive afferents from pulmonary stretch receptors. Cells showing a high degree of dynamic sensitivity may receive afferents from rapidly adapting receptors. The fact that I beta cells are not a functionally homogeneous population may explain the many divergent observations reported from studies of these cells.

  8. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Rasmussen, Peter; Sørensen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate (HR) response to exercise but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate but not combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exerci...

  9. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding plans with increased female reproductive rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Introduction

    Nicholas and Smith (1983) proposed Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) nucleus breeding schemes to increase reponse rates in dairy cattle breeding. Predicted genetic gains were up to twice as high as those of conventional progeny testing schemes. In

  10. 78 FR 62961 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  11. 78 FR 63128 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter...

  12. 78 FR 1715 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  13. Increased rate change over time of a sphincter-saving procedure for lower rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-jian; WANG Jian-ping; WANG Lei; HE Xiao-sheng; ZOU Yi-feng; LIAN Lei; ZHANG Long-juan; LAN Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Total mesorectal excision(TME)has increased the rate of sphincter-preservation(SP)for more patients with low-lying rectal cancer.Here,we analyze the change of sphincter preserving rates in lower rectal cancer and their related factors.Methods We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 316 patients with lower rectal cancers,1 to 5 cm from the anorectal line,who had surgical resections from August 1994 to November 2005.The 12-year span was divided into 2 periods:period Ⅰ(August 1994-December 1998)and period Ⅱ(January 1999-November 2005),based on the date (January 1999)when standard total mesorectal excision(TME)was introduced.The patients were divided jnto two groups based on the operation:abdominoperineal resection(APR)or SP surgery.SP rates,leakage and other clinicopathological characteristics were compared between the two time periods and between the two different groups.Results The SP rate increased significantly over the 12 years,from 44.9% in period Ⅰ to 76.2% in period Ⅱ(P=0.000).The factors significantly influencing SP included the distance of the tumor from the anorectal line,gender,time period,circumference of intramural spread and histological differentiation (P<0.05).Significant differences were detected between the two time periods in gender,blood transfusion volume and Dukes'stage(P<0.05).The leakage rate was 2.7% in period Ⅰ and 1.3% in period Ⅱ (P>0.05).Conclusions Over the 12-year period of the study the SP rate in rectal cancers 1-5 cm from the anorectal line has increased significantly while the blood transfusion volume has decreased due to the introduction of TME.However,TME had no effect on operating time and leakage rates.

  14. Mexico’s conditional cash transfer programme increases cesarean section rates among the rural poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background: Caesarean section rates are increasing in Mexico and Latin America. This study evaluates the impact of a large-scale, conditional cash transfer programme in Mexico on caesarean section rates. The programme provides cash transfers to participating low income, rural households in Mexico conditional on accepting health care and nutrition supplements. Methods: The primary analyses uses retrospective reports from 979 women in poor rural communities participating in an effectiveness study and randomly assigned to incorporation into the programme in 1998 or 1999 across seven Mexican states. Using multivariate and instrumental variable analyses, we estimate the impact of the programme on caesarean sections and predict the adjusted mean rates by clinical setting. Programme participation is measured by beneficiary status, programme months and cash transfers. Results: More than two-thirds of poor rural women delivered in a health facility. Beneficiary status is associated with a 5.1 percentage point increase in caesarean rates; this impact increases to 7.5 percentage points for beneficiaries enrolled in the programme for ≥6 months before delivery. Beneficiaries had significantly higher caesarean delivery rates in social security facilities (24.0 compared with 5.6% among non-beneficiaries) and in other government facilities (19.3 compared with 9.5%). Conclusion: The Oportunidades conditional cash transfer programme is associated with higher caesarean section rates in social security and government health facilities. This effect appears to be driven by the increases in disposable income from the cash transfer. These findings are relevant to other countries implementing conditional cash transfer programmes and health care requirements. PMID:19933778

  15. Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme increases cesarean section rates among the rural poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L

    2010-08-01

    Caesarean section rates are increasing in Mexico and Latin America. This study evaluates the impact of a large-scale, conditional cash transfer programme in Mexico on caesarean section rates. The programme provides cash transfers to participating low income, rural households in Mexico conditional on accepting health care and nutrition supplements. The primary analyses uses retrospective reports from 979 women in poor rural communities participating in an effectiveness study and randomly assigned to incorporation into the programme in 1998 or 1999 across seven Mexican states. Using multivariate and instrumental variable analyses, we estimate the impact of the programme on caesarean sections and predict the adjusted mean rates by clinical setting. Programme participation is measured by beneficiary status, programme months and cash transfers. More than two-thirds of poor rural women delivered in a health facility. Beneficiary status is associated with a 5.1 percentage point increase in caesarean rates; this impact increases to 7.5 percentage points for beneficiaries enrolled in the programme for >or=6 months before delivery. Beneficiaries had significantly higher caesarean delivery rates in social security facilities (24.0 compared with 5.6% among non-beneficiaries) and in other government facilities (19.3 compared with 9.5%). The Oportunidades conditional cash transfer programme is associated with higher caesarean section rates in social security and government health facilities. This effect appears to be driven by the increases in disposable income from the cash transfer. These findings are relevant to other countries implementing conditional cash transfer programmes and health care requirements.

  16. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  17. Anion-induced increases in the rate of colchicine binding to tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B; Wolff, J

    1976-06-01

    The rate of binding of colchicine to tubulin to tubulin is enhanced by certain anions. Among the inorganic anions tested, only sulfate was effective. The organic anions include mostly dicarboxylic acids, among which tartrate was the most effective. This effect occurs onlt at low concentrations of colchicine (less than 0.6 X 10(-5) M). The rate increase dor sulfate and L-(+)-tartrate is ca. 2.5-fold at 1.0 mM and plateaus at a limiting value of ca. 4-fold at 100mM. The overall dissociation rate of the colchicine from the complex, which includes both the true rate of dissociation and the rate of irreversible denaturation of tubulin, is not influenced by 1.0 mM tartrate. The affinity constants for colchicine determined from the rate constants are 8.7 X 10(6) and 2.1 X 10(7) M-1 in the absence and the presence of 1.0 mM L-(+)-tartrate. The limiting value is 3.2 X 10(7) M-1. The affinity constant calculated from steady-state measurements is 3.2 X 10(6) M-1 with or without anions. The binding of other ligands like podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and 1 -anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate to tubulin is not affected by tartrate. No major conformational changes resulting from anion treatment could be detected by circular dichroism or intrinsic fluorescence. However, the ability of tubulin to polymerize is inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate at concentrations that increase the rate of colchicine binding. We conclude that anions must have a local effect at or near the binding site which enhances the binding rate of colchicine and which may be related to inhibition of polymerization.

  18. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  19. Cost-Sharing Rates Increase During Deep Recession: Preliminary Data From Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Gouvalas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Measures taken over the past four years in Greece to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure have led to significant price reductions for medicines, but have also changed patient cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs. This study attempts to capture the resulting increase in patients’ out-of-pocket (OOP expenses for prescription drugs during the 2011-2014 period. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective review of financial data derived from 39 883 prescriptions, dispensed at three randomly chosen pharmacies located in Lamia, central Greece. Results The study recorded an average contribution rate per prescription as follows: 11.28% for 2011 (95% CI: 10.76-11.80, 14.10% for 2012, 19.97% for 2013, and 29.08% for 2014. Correspondingly, the mean patient charge per prescription for 2011 was €6.58 (95% CI: 6.22-6.94, €8.28 for 2012, €8.35 for 2013, and €10.87 for 2014. During the 2011-2014 period, mean percentage rate of patient contribution increased by 157.75%, while average patient charge per prescription in current prices increased by 65.22%. The use of a newly introduced internal reference price (IRP system increased the level of prescription charge at a rate of 2.41% for 2012 (100% surcharge on patients, 26.24% for 2013 (49.95% on patients and 50.04% on the appropriate health insurance funds, and 47.72% for 2014 (85.06% on patients and 14.94% on funds. Conclusion Increased cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs can reduce public pharmaceutical expenditure, but international experience shows that rising OOP expenses can compromise patients’ ability to pay, particularly when it comes to chronic diseases and vulnerable populations. Various suggestions could be effective in refining the costsharing approach by giving greater consideration to chronic patients, and to the poor and elderly.

  20. Cost-Sharing Rates Increase During Deep Recession: Preliminary Data From Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvalas, Athanasios; Igoumenidis, Michael; Theodorou, Mamas; Athanasakis, Kostas

    2016-05-28

    Measures taken over the past four years in Greece to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure have led to significant price reductions for medicines, but have also changed patient cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs. This study attempts to capture the resulting increase in patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses for prescription drugs during the 2011-2014 period. The authors conducted a retrospective review of financial data derived from 39 883 prescriptions, dispensed at three randomly chosen pharmacies located in Lamia, central Greece. The study recorded an average contribution rate per prescription as follows: 11.28% for 2011 (95% CI: 10.76-11.80), 14.10% for 2012, 19.97% for 2013, and 29.08% for 2014. Correspondingly, the mean patient charge per prescription for 2011 was €6.58 (95% CI: 6.22-6.94), €8.28 for 2012, €8.35 for 2013, and €10.87 for 2014. During the 2011-2014 period, mean percentage rate of patient contribution increased by 157.75%, while average patient charge per prescription in current prices increased by 65.22%. The use of a newly introduced internal reference price (IRP) system increased the level of prescription charge at a rate of 2.41% for 2012 (100% surcharge on patients), 26.24% for 2013 (49.95% on patients and 50.04% on the appropriate health insurance funds), and 47.72% for 2014 (85.06% on patients and 14.94% on funds). Increased cost-sharing rates for prescription drugs can reduce public pharmaceutical expenditure, but international experience shows that rising OOP expenses can compromise patients' ability to pay, particularly when it comes to chronic diseases and vulnerable populations. Various suggestions could be effective in refining the cost-sharing approach by giving greater consideration to chronic patients, and to the poor and elderly.

  1. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  2. Increasing the detection rate of congenital heart disease during routine obstetric screening using cine loop sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ted E; Jones, Judy; Rosenberg, Herschel; Thomson, Andrea; Ghandehari, Hournaz; Rosta, Neil; Jozkow, Kim; Stromer, Malka; Swan, Hans

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate an increase in the detection rate of fetal cardiac defects using 2 cine loop sweeps. Image reviewers examined a series of 93 cases randomly sorted, including 79 studies with normal findings and 14 studies with abnormal findings. All of the images were assessed by 5 standard criteria. Cases were classified as normal, abnormal, or indeterminate. Reviewers using the conventional approach reviewed 3 still images: the 4-chamber, left ventricular outflow tract, and right ventricular outflow tract views. Reviewers using the cine loop sweeps viewed 2 grayscale sweeps through the fetal heart in real time. The image sequences were reviewed independently by 2 experts, 3 nonexperts, and 2 sonographers blinded to each others' results. The cine loop sweeps had an increased detection rate of 38% for the nonexperts and 36% for the experts compared with the conventional approach. The cine loop sweeps allowed identification of all cardiac defects by at least 2 of the 7 reviewers; the percentage of cases with false-positive findings was 3.9%. With the conventional approach, 2 defects went undetected by all reviewers, and 4 defects were found by only 1 reviewer; the percentage of cases with false-positive findings was 5.4%. The use of cine loop sweeps has the potential to increase the detection of fetal cardiac defects without increasing the rate of false-positive findings or increasing the interpretation and decision-making times.

  3. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Li; Bao-Qing Pei; Jin-Cai Yang; Yong Hai; De-Yu Li; Shu-Qin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown.It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury.Thus far,the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear.Methods:Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes:Flexion,extension,rotation,and lateral bending,with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system.The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure.Results:The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded.The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion,compared with intact conditions.While the magnitude of pressures increased,there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion.No pressures were detected during flexion.The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending.Conclusions:One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading.This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion.More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  4. Pronounced increase in breathing rate in the "hair dryer model" of experimental febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Tolner, Else A; Marshall, Pepin; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Kaila, Kai

    2008-05-01

    In a study using a heated chamber for induction of experimental febrile seizures (eFS) in rat pups, ictal activity was shown to be precipitated by a respiratory alkalosis (Schuchmann et al., 2006). In sharp contrast to this, in a recent review Dubé et al., (2007) suggest that the respiratory alkalosis is model specific, and that no increase in respiratory rate is observed in the widely used "hair dryer model" of eFS. The data in the present work, based on well-established techniques for measuring respiratory rates in rat pups, show a pronounced increase in the "hair dryer model" with values that are slightly higher than those recorded in the heated chamber model. Hence, a temperature-evoked increase in respiration is a common feature of these two models of eFS.

  5. Chocolate bar as an incentive did not increase response rate among physiotherapists: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahm Kristin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a small incentive, a bar of dark chocolate, on response rate in a study of physiotherapy performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Findings Norwegian physiotherapists from private practice were randomised in blocks to an intervention group (n = 1027 receiving a bar of dark chocolate together with a data-collection form, and a control group (n = 1027 that received the data-collection form only. The physiotherapists were asked to prospectively complete the data-collection form by reporting treatments provided to one patient with knee osteoarthritis through 12 treatment sessions. The outcome measure was response rate of completed forms. Out of the 510 physiotherapists that responded, 280 had completed the data-collection form by the end of the study period. There was no difference between the chocolate and no-chocolate group in response rate of those who sent in completed forms. In the chocolate group, 142 (13.8% returned completed forms compared to 138 (13.4% in the control group, ARR = 0.4 (95% CI: -3.44 to 2.6. Conclusion A bar of dark chocolate did not increase response rate in a prospective study of physiotherapy performance. Stronger incentives than chocolate seem to be necessary to increase the response rate among professionals who are asked to report about their practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials register: ISRCTN02397855

  6. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender. PMID:27258292

  7. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervyn Manuel Hernández-Alvarado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i the method of suicide; (ii age group and (iii gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender.

  8. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Pedi-cap color change precedes a significant increase in heart rate during neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Doug; Rich, Wade; Leone, Tina; Garey, Donna; Finer, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Heart rate is the most important indicator of infant well-being during neonatal resuscitation. The Nellcor Pedi-Cap turns gold when exposed to exhaled gas with CO₂>15 mmHg. The aim of this study was to determine if Pedi-Cap gold color change during neonatal resuscitation precedes an increase in heart rate in babies with bradycardia receiving mask ventilation. This was a single-center retrospective review of video recordings and physiologic data of newborns with bradycardia receiving mask positive pressure ventilation during neonatal resuscitation. Subjects were included if the baby's HRCap gold color change compared to the HR after Pedi-Cap gold color change. Forty-one newborns during the study period had HRCap. The median heart rate 10s prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change was 75 BPM (IQR 62-85) and increased to 136 BPM (IQR 113-158) 30 s after gold color change (pCap gold color change to 52 ± 17% 30s after gold color change (p=0.001). Colorimetric CO₂ detection during mask positive pressure ventilation in neonatal resuscitation precedes a significant increase in heart rate and SpO₂. The Pedi-Cap can be easily applied during resuscitation, requires no electricity, provides immediate feedback and may be a useful, simple tool early in resuscitation and may be especially useful in resource limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jemielita

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of p<0.00096 was considered statistically significant. Cardiology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with number of wells per zip code (p<0.00096 and wells per km2 (p<0.00096 while neurology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with wells per km2 (p<0.00096. Furthermore, evidence also supported an association between well density and inpatient prevalence rates for the medical categories of dermatology, neurology, oncology, and urology. These data suggest that UGOD wells, which dramatically increased in the past decade, were associated with increased inpatient prevalence rates within specific medical categories in Pennsylvania. Further studies are necessary to address healthcare costs of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses.

  11. Potentiation increases peak twitch torque by enhancing rates of torque development and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscles (study 1). Additionally, potentiated quadriceps muscles torque was measured every min after a further 10 maximal voluntary contractions repeated every min (study 2). Electrical stimulation repeated several times without previous maximal voluntary contraction showed similar peak twitch torque. Peak twitch torque 4 s after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction increased by 45±13% (study 1) and by 56±10% (study 2), the rate of torque development by 53±13% and 82±29%, and the rate of relaxation by 50±17% and 59±22%, respectively, but potentiation was lost already two min after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction. There was a tendency for peak twitch torque to increase for the first five repeated maximal voluntary contractions, suggesting increased potentiation with additional maximal voluntary contractions. Correlations for peak twitch torque vs the rate of torque development and for the rate of relaxation were r(2)= 0.94 and r(2)=0.97. The correlation between peak twitch torque, the rate of torque development and the rate of relaxation suggests that potentiation is due to instantaneous changes in skeletal muscle contractility and relaxation.

  12. Apparent late Quaternary fault slip rate increase in the southwestern Lower Rhine Graben, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Friedrich, Anke M.; Kubler, Simon; Salamon, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In regions of low strain, long earthquake recurrence intervals (104–106  yrs) and erosive processes limit preservation of Quaternary markers suitable for distinguishing whether faults slip at uniform or secularly varying rates. The Lower Rhine graben in the border region of Germany, The Netherlands, and Belgium provides a unique opportunity to explore Quaternary slip‐rate variations in a region of low strain using the basal (2.29±0.29  Ma) and surface (700±80  ka) contacts of the regionally extensive main terrace (“Hauptterrasse”), deposited by the Rhine and Maas Rivers. These surfaces are vertically offset 3–140 m and 0–68 m, respectively, across individual fault strands within a distributed network of northwest‐trending, slow‐slipping (earth digital terrain models, which we synthesize with existing constraints on the offset basal contact of this fluvial deposit (n=91 collocated sites with displacement constraints). We find that >80% of the sites record an apparent increase in slip rate for the more recent interval from 700 ka to present, which corresponds to a period of increased uplift of the nearby Rhenish Massif and regional volcanism. However, the apparent increase in slip rate could result, in part, from erosion of the footwall surface below the main terrace, leading to an apparent displacement that is smaller than the total vertical offset since the start of the Quaternary. Prior work focused on characterization of these faults as seismic sources in the Lower Rhine graben has preferentially relied on the average fault‐slip rate constrained using the base of the main terrace. We suggest that average fault‐slip rates calculated using the ∼700  ka main terrace surface are subjected to fewer uncertainties and sample a time interval that is more relevant for seismic‐hazard analysis.

  13. Desensitization of functional µ-opioid receptors increases agonist off-rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John T

    2014-07-01

    Desensitization of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) develops over 5-15 minutes after the application of some, but not all, opioid agonists and lasts for tens of minutes after agonist removal. The decrease in function is receptor selective (homologous) and could result from 1) a reduction in receptor number or 2) a decrease in receptor coupling. The present investigation used photolysis of two caged opioid ligands to examine the kinetics of MOR-induced potassium conductance before and after MOR desensitization. Photolysis of a caged antagonist, carboxynitroveratryl-naloxone (caged naloxone), blocked the current induced by a series of agonists, and the time constant of decline was significantly decreased after desensitization. The increase in the rate of current decay was not observed after partial blockade of receptors with the irreversible antagonist, β-chlornaltrexamine (β-CNA). The time constant of current decay after desensitization was never more rapid than 1 second, suggesting an increased agonist off-rate rather than an increase in the rate of channel closure downstream of the receptor. The rate of G protein-coupled K(+) channel (GIRK) current activation was examined using photolysis of a caged agonist, carboxynitrobenzyl-tyrosine-[Leu(5)]-enkephalin. After acute desensitization or partial irreversible block of MORs with β-CNA, there was an increase in the time it took to reach a peak current. The decrease in the rate of agonist-induced GIRK conductance was receptor selective and dependent on receptor number. The results indicate that opioid receptor desensitization reduced the number of functional receptor and that the remaining active receptors have a reduced agonist affinity.

  14. Methods for increasing the rate of anammox attachment in a sidestream deammonification MBBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Stephanie; McLee, Patrick; Schuler, Andrew J; Bott, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Deammonification (partial nitritation-anammox) is a proven process for the treatment of high-nitrogen waste streams, but long startup time is a known drawback of this technology. In a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), startup time could potentially be decreased by increasing the attachment rate of anammox bacteria (AMX) on virgin plastic media. Previous studies have shown that bacterial adhesion rates can be increased by surface modification or by the development of a preliminary biofilm. This is the first study on increasing AMX attachment rates in a deammonification MBBR using these methods. Experimental media consisted of three different wet-chemical surface treatments, and also media transferred from a full-scale mainstream fully nitrifying integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor. Following startup of a full-scale deammonification reactor, the experimental media were placed in the full-scale reactor and removed for activity rate measurements and biomass testing after 1 and 2 months. The media transferred from the IFAS process exhibited a rapid increase in AMX activity rates (1.1 g/m(2)/day NH(4)(+) removal and 1.4 g/m(2)/day NO(2)(-) removal) as compared to the control (0.2 g/m(2)/day NH(4)(+) removal and 0.1 g/m(2)/day NO(2)(-) removal) after 1 month. Two out of three of the surface modifications resulted in significantly higher AMX activity than the control at 1 and 2 months. No nitrite oxidizing bacteria activity was detected in either the surface modified media or IFAS media batch tests. The results indicate that startup time of a deammonification MBBR could potentially be decreased through surface modification of the plastic media or through the transfer of media from a mature IFAS process.

  15. Influenza vaccination among veterans with spinal cord injury: Part 2. Increasing vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Frances M; Goldstein, Barry; Evans, Charlesnika T; Legro, Marcia W; LaVela, Sherri; Smith, Bridget; Miskevics, Scott; Hammond, Margaret C

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Influenza vaccination is effective in reducing the likelihood of contracting influenza and of subsequent respiratory complications, hospitalizations, and deaths. Historically, vaccination rates for veterans with SCI treated in Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities have been low. The objective of this study was to increase vaccination rates in this population using a multipronged strategy. A quasi-experimental design involving 2,284 veterans treated at 8 VA SCI Centers was used. Patients at 4 centers received reminder letters and educational materials tailored to SCI. Provider education included mailed reminders and posters in SCI clinical areas. Clinical champions were identified at each site. Four other centers, matched to the study sites in program size and prior vaccination rates, served as comparison sites providing usual care. Vaccination rates were assessed using mailed surveys with telephone follow-up. The influenza vaccination rate was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparison group (60.5% vs 54.3%; P = 0.01 ). Vaccine recipients were older than nonrecipients (mean age 60.8 vs 53.1 years; P low-cost mailed reminders and educational materials resulted in significantly higher vaccination rates. Further efforts to reach targeted subgroups of nonrecipients, such as patients who are younger or from an ethnic minority, are warranted.

  16. Increasing national mastectomy rates for the treatment of early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Usama; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Koshy, Matthew; Buras, Robert; Chumsri, Saranya; Tkaczuk, Katherine H; Cheston, Sally B; Regine, William F; Feigenberg, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    To study national trends in the mastectomy rate for treatment of early stage breast cancer. We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, including 256,081 women diagnosed with T1-2 N0-3 M0 breast cancer from 2000 to 2008. We evaluated therapeutic mastectomy rates by the year of diagnosis and performed a multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine predictors of mastectomy as the treatment choice. The proportion of women treated with mastectomy decreased from 40.1 to 35.6 % between 2000 and 2005. Subsequently, the mastectomy rate increased to 38.4 % in 2008 (p mastectomy rates between 2005 and 2008 were moderated by age (p mastectomy. Additionally, multivariate analysis confirmed that women diagnosed in 2008 were more likely to undergo mastectomy than women diagnosed in 2005 (odds ratio 1.17, 95 % confidence interval 1.13 to 1.21, p mastectomy rates, with the mastectomy rate reaching a nadir in 2005 and subsequently rising. Further follow-up to confirm this trend and investigation to determine the underlying cause of this trend and its effect on outcomes may be warranted.

  17. Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a common pathology with increasing incidence, and is associated with increased mortality and healthcare costs. Several treatment options for obesity are currently available ranging from behavioral modifications to pharmaceutical agents. Many popular dietary supplements claim to enhance weight loss by acting as metabolic stimulators, however direct tests of their effect on metabolism have not been performed. Purpose This work identified the effects popular dietary supplements on metabolic rate and mitochondrial biosynthesis in human skeletal muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with popular dietary supplements at varied doses for 24 hours. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α, an important stimulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis, was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was measured using flow cytometry confirmed with confocal microscopy. Glycolytic metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR. Total relative metabolism was quantified using WST-1 end point assay. Results Treatment of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells with dietary supplements OxyElite Pro (OEP or Cellucore HD (CHD induced PGC-1α leading to significantly increased mitochondrial content. Glycolytic and oxidative capacities were also significantly increased following treatment with OEP or CHD. Conclusion This is the first work to identify metabolic adaptations in muscle cells following treatment with popular dietary supplements including enhanced mitochondrial biosynthesis, and glycolytic, oxidative and total metabolism.

  18. Investigating why recycling gravity harvested algae increases harvestability and productivity in high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-15

    It has previously been shown that recycling gravity harvested algae promotes Pediastrum boryanum dominance and improves harvestability and biomass production in pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating domestic wastewater. In order to confirm the reproducibility of these findings and investigate the mechanisms responsible, this study utilized twelve 20 L outdoor HRAP mesocosms operated with and without algal recycling. It then compared the recycling of separated solid and liquid components of the harvested biomass against un-separated biomass. The work confirmed that algal recycling promoted P. boryanum dominance, improved 1 h-settleability by >20% and increased biomass productivity by >25% compared with controls that had no recycling. With regard to the improved harvestability, of particular interest was that recycling the liquid fraction alone caused a similar improvement in settleability as recycling the solid fraction. This may be due to the presence of extracellular polymeric substances in the liquid fraction. While there are many possible mechanisms that could account for the increased productivity with algal recycling, all but two were systematically eliminated: (i) the mean cell residence time was extended thereby increasing the algal concentration and more fully utilizing the incident sunlight and, (ii) the relative proportions of algal growth stages (which have different specific growth rates) was changed, resulting in a net increase in the overall growth rate of the culture.

  19. Increased rate of force development of elbow flexors by antagonist conditioning contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Takashi; Yoshioka, Koichi; Ito, Susumu; Kusakabe, Tatsumi

    2009-08-01

    The effects of isometric antagonist conditioning contraction (ACC) at various durations and intensities on the contractile force, electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, and their rates of rise of elbow flexor muscles were examined in healthy participants. In particular, we focused on the change in the maximum rate of initial force development of agonists (dFagonist/dt(max)), which was evaluated by subtracting antagonist force decaying from apparent initial force development. While the ACC caused no statistically significant effect on the average force during elbow flexion, dFagonist/dt(max) was significantly increased by the ACC of short durations (1-2s) and large intensities. Similarly, the ACC did not affect the root mean square EMG amplitude of biceps brachii during elbow flexion, but significantly increased the maximum rate of rise of the absolute EMG amplitude (dE/dt(max)). These results suggested that facilitating effects of the ACC could be observed in the initial phase of agonist action in healthy participants, and ACC of shorter durations might be more effective. The increased dE/dt(max) suggested that increased neural activities might contribute to the antagonist conditioned facilitation of force development.

  20. Increased cesarean section rate in Central Saudi Arabia: a change in practice or different maternal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kadri HM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Sultana A Al-Anazi,1 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, 2College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Cesarean section (CS rate has shown creepy increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. Two groups of women were included (G1 and G2. G1 had delivered by CS during the year 2002 (CS rate 12%, and G2 had delivered by CS during the year 2009 (CS rate 20%. We compared the included women’s characteristics, neonates, CS indications, and complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 program. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated to report precision of categorical data results. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.Results: A total of 198 women were included in G1 and 200 in G2. Both groups had comparable maternal and fetal characteristics; however, absence of antenatal care has resulted in 70% increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.008, OR =0.30, CI 0.12–0.76. Previous vaginal surgeries have contributed to tenfold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.006, OR =10.37, CI 1.32–81.78. G2 had eight times increased CS deliveries than G1 due to intrauterine growth restriction, P=0.02, OR =8.21, CI 1.02–66.25, and 80% increased risk of CS was based on maternal demand, P=0.02, OR =0.20, CI 0.02–1.71. Decision taken by less-experienced staff was associated with 2.5-fold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.002, OR =2.62, CI 1.39–4.93. There was a significant increase in CS deliveries under regional analgesia and shorter duration of hospital stay for G2, P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. G2 women had 2.75-fold increase in neonatal intensive care unit admission, P=0.03, OR =2.75, CI 1.06–7.15.Conclusion: CS delivery rate

  1. On collisional capture rates of irregular satellites around the gas-giant planets and the minimum mass of the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, F. Elliott; Hansen, Bradley M. S.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the probability that an inelastic collision of planetesimals within the Hill sphere of the Jovian planets could explain the presence and orbits of observed irregular satellites. Capture of satellites via this mechanism is highly dependent on not only the mass of the protoplanetary disc, but also the shape of the planetesimal size distribution. We performed 2000 simulations for integrated time intervals ˜2 Myr and found that, given the currently accepted value for the minimum mass solar nebula and planetesimal number density based upon the Nesvorný et al. and Charnoz & Morbidelli size distribution dN˜D-3.5dD, the collision rates for the different Jovian planets range between ˜0.6 and ≳170 Myr-1 for objects with radii 1 km ≤r≤ 10 km. Additionally, we found that the probability that these collisions remove enough orbital energy to yield a bound orbit was ≲10-5 and had very little dependence on the relative size of the planetesimals. Of these collisions, the collision energy between two objects was ≳103 times the gravitational binding energy for objects with radii ˜100 km. We find that capturing irregular satellites via collisions between unbound objects can only account for ˜0.1 per cent of the observed population, hence this cannot be the sole method of producing irregular satellites.

  2. 77 FR 6949 - Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Rates for Non-U.S. Government Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... customers via commercial fiber optic cables and/or commercial communications satellites. In the event one of... general by application of principles of priority to user service requirements. Services shall be provided... service actually occurred. (2) The time scheduled by the user project shall include the slew time, set...

  3. High-Intensity Inspiratory Protocol Increases Heart Rate Variability in Myocardial Revascularization Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cristina Rossi Caruso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate heart rate variability during an inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at three different load levels [30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure], in patients who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Nineteen late postoperative myocardial revascularization patients participating in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program were studied. Maximal inspiratory pressure maneuvers were performed. An inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure was applied for four minutes each, in random order. Heart rate and RR intervals were recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed by time (RMSSD-the mean of the standard deviations for all R-R intervals, and RMSM-root-mean square differences of successive R-R intervals and frequency domains indices (high and low frequency in normalized units. ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to compare heart rate variability indices and Student t-test was used to compare the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values. Results: Heart rate increased during performance of maximal respiratory pressures maneuvers, and the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure mean values were significantly lower than predicted values (P <0.05. RMSSD increased significantly at 80% in relation to rest and 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure and RMSM decreased at 30% and 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to rest (P <0.05. Additionally, there was significant and progressive decrease in low frequency and increase in high frequency at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to the resting condition. Conclusion: These results suggest that respiratory muscle training at high intensities can promote greater parasympathetic activity and it may confer important benefits during a rehabilitation program in post-coronary artery bypass grafting.

  4. Increase in the prescription rate of antidepressants after the Sewol Ferry disaster in Ansan, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Man; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon; Lee, Mikyung; Lee, Sang-Min; Ko, Young-Hoon; Paik, Jong-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Previous pharmaco-epidemiological studies have reported increases in the prescription of psychotropic medications after a disaster, reflecting post-disaster changes in psychiatric conditions and mental health service utilization. We investigated changes in the prescription of psychotropic medications in the Danwon district of Ansan city (Ansan Danwon) compared to a control community before and after the Sewol Ferry disaster on April 16, 2014. Data was collected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. We analyzed the prescription rates of psychotropic medications including antidepressants, anxiolytics, and sedatives/hypnotics, and investigated whether the time-series pattern of monthly prescriptions per 100,000 people was different in Ansan Danwon compared to that in Cheonan city after the Sewol Ferry disaster through difference-in-differences regression analysis. Ansan Danwon showed a significantly greater increase (5.6%) in the prescription rate of antidepressants compared to Cheonan city following the Sewol Ferry disaster. There were no significant differences in changes in the prescription rates of anxiolytics or sedatives/hypnotics. In the secondary analysis, a significantly greater increase in the prescription rate of antipsychotics was observed in Ansan Danwon compared to a control community after the disaster. We could not exclude the possibility that other events influenced changes in the prescription rates of psychotropic medications during the study period. Pharmaco-epidemiological studies on psychotropic medication prescription after a disaster provide important information about population-level mental health. Our results suggest that the Sewol Ferry disaster exerted a harmful effect on the mental health status of the affected community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection. Our cohort included 283 caregivers of children aged 6-12 months who were participating in an anemia program in rural China. Using text messages to collect data on anemia medication adherence, we conducted a delayed randomized controlled trial to test multiple interventions (an additional four reminders; a ¥5.0 (US$0.79) credit reward for replying; and a feedback text message). After a 6-week pilot study with week 7 as the baseline measurement, we randomly allocated all participants into two groups: group 1 (n = 142) and group 2 (n = 141). During weeks 8-11, we introduced the interventions to group 1, and in weeks 12-15 the intervention was introduced to both groups. We compared the response rates between groups and explored factors affecting the response rate. During weeks 8-11, the response rates in group 1 increased and were significantly higher than in group 2 (p0.05) and slightly decreased in group 1. Younger participants or participants who had children with lower hemoglobin concentration were more likely to reply (p = 0.02). Sending four reminders on the second day contributed to only 286 (11.7%) extra text messages. Our study showed that multiple interventions were effective in increasing response rate of text messaging data collection in rural China. Larger multi-site studies are needed to find the most effective way of using these interventions to allow usage of text messaging data collection for health research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.comFor numbered affiliations see end of article.

  6. Elevated plasma homocysteine is associated with increased brain atrophy rates in older subjects with mild hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sunil K; Firbank, Michael J; Saxby, Brian K; Stansby, Gerard; Hansrani, Monica; O'Brien, John T; Ford, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    We determined using serial MR imaging whether raised plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased brain atrophy, white matter lesion (WML) progression or incidence of silent brain infarcts (SBIs) in older hypertensive subjects. Brain atrophy rates (0.58 ± 0.48% per year, mean ± SD) were significantly correlated with homocysteine (β = 0.46, p = 0.001 homocysteine; β = 0.44, p = 0.007 homocysteine/folate/B12 models) but not with folate or B12 levels. Progression of WML (0.08 ± 0.16%) was not associated with homocysteine level (B = 0.01, p = 0.29). New SBIs were uncommon. In older hypertensive individuals, plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased rates of whole-brain atrophy but not WML progression.

  7. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and IgG in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Jensen, H A; Westrup, M

    1977-01-01

    subjects suffering from essential hypertension. The average mean arterial blood pressure of these subjects 193/119 mmHg; four subjects had grade I-III funduscopic changes. Transcapillary escape rates of albumin (TERalb) and IgG (TERIgG) were found significantly increased in the hypertensive subjects......G (P less than 0.001). The TERIgG/TERalb ratio was about the same in the hypertensives and the normals. Confirming a previous observation, we found an increase in the daily urinary albumin excretion rate from a normal average of 9.1 (range, 2.4-20.4)mg/24 h to 96 (range, 5.6-565) mg/24 h, P less than 0...

  8. Particle In-Flight Velocity and Dispersion Measurements at Increasing Particle Feed Rates in Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.; Yin, S.; Lupoi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Cold spray (CS) is attracting interest of research and industry due to its rapid, solid-state particle deposition process and respective advantages over conventional deposition technologies. The acceleration of the particles is critical to the efficiency of CS, and previous investigations rarely consider the particle feed rate. However, because higher particle loadings are typically used in the process, the effect of this cannot be assumed negligible. This study therefore investigates the particle velocities in the supersonic jet of an advanced CS system at low- and high pressure levels and varying particle feed rates using particle image velocimetry. The particle dispersion and velocity evolution along the jet axis were investigated for several feedstock materials. It was found that the average particle velocity noticeably decreases with increasing particulate loading in all cases. The velocity distribution and particle dispersion were also observed to be influenced by the feed rate. Effects are driven by both mass loading and volume fraction, depending on the feedstock's particle velocity parameter. Increased particle feed rates hence affect the magnitude and distribution of impact velocity and consequently the efficiency of CS. In particular, numerical models neglecting this interconnection are required to be further improved, based on these experimental studies.

  9. Increased suicide rate before and during the war in southwestern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnar, Alan; Stemberg, Valter; Zamolo, Gordana; Stifter, Sanja

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of war, with special regard for the intensity of changes in the suicide rate in wartime in the southwestern region of Croatia. The investigated region has an area of 7,993 km2 with a population of 322,964. Most of the population lives in the city of Rijeka, the regional center. During the 10-year period from 1986-1995, a total of 4,172 deaths were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rijeka. Official reports based on forensic autopsies performed on the corpses note 602 cases of suicide, which have been confirmed by police investigation and forensic examination. As the investigated 10-year period encompasses two distinctly specific intervals-the peacetime 1986-1990 interval and wartime 1991-1995-the differences in respective quantitative and qualitative features of suicides during these two intervals were analyzed. A total of 262 suicides were committed in peacetime at the rate of 16.22/100,000 inhabitants, as opposed to 340 suicides in wartime at a rate of 19.61/100,000 inhabitants. This increase in the wartime suicide rate was primarily due to the 83% increase in the number of suicide victims <40 years of age. The number of suicides by firearms in wartime was almost fourfold the number in peacetime. Wartime conditions had a direct impact on the change of quantitative and qualitative features of suicides.

  10. Entanglement can increase asymptotic rates of zero-error classical communication over classical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Debbie; Matthews, William; Ozols, Maris; Roy, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    It is known that the number of different classical messages which can be communicated with a single use of a classical channel with zero probability of decoding error can sometimes be increased by using entanglement shared between sender and receiver. It has been an open question to determine whether entanglement can ever offer an advantage in terms of the zero-error communication rates achievable in the limit of many channel uses. In this paper we show, by explicit examples, that entanglement can indeed increase asymptotic zero-error capacity. Interestingly, in our examples the quantum protocols are based on the root systems of the exceptional Lie groups E7 and E8.

  11. On the stream-accretion disk interaction - Response to increased mass transfer rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dgani, Ruth; Livio, Mario; Soker, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent interaction between the stream of mass from the inner Lagrangian point and the accretion disk, resulting from an increasing mass transfer rate is calculated. The calculation is fully three-dimensional, using a pseudoparticle description of the hydrodynamics. It is demonstrated that the results of such calculations, when combined with specific observations, have the potential of both determining essential parameters, such as the viscosity parameter alpha, and can distinguish between different models of dwarf nova eruptions.

  12. SEARCH COST REDUCTION INCREASES VARIATION IN HOTELS OCCUPANCY RATE: A THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Succurro; Federico Boffa

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how direct online booking affects the variation in hotel bed-places occupancy rate between peak and off-peak periods, thereby contributing to three strands of literature, respectively the determinants of seasonality, the tourist information acquisition process and the impact of the internet on tourism. The empirical analysis, covering 18 countries over the 1997-2007 period, investigates the impact of an increase in the use of the internet by consumers on the seasonal varia...

  13. Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P family hypertension group had higher anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase.

  14. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  15. Propofol-Based Sedation Does Not Increase Rate of Complication during Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Amornyotin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate and compare the complication rate of sedation with or without propofol regimen for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG in a hospital in Thailand. Subjects and Methods. A total of 198 patients underwent PEG procedures by using intravenous sedation (IVS from Siriraj Hospital, Thailand from August 2006 to January 2009. The primary outcome variable was the overall complication rate. The secondary outcome variables were sedation and procedure related complications, and mortality rate. Results. After matching ASA physical status and indications of procedure, there were 92 PEG procedures in propofol based sedation group (A and 20 PEG procedures in non-propofol based sedation group (B. All sedation was given by residents or anesthetic nurses directly supervised by staff anesthesiologist in the endoscopy room. There were no significant differences in patients' characteristics, sedation time, indication, complications, anesthetic personnel and mortality rate between the two groups. All complications were easily treated, with no adverse sequelae. Mean dose of fentanyl and midazolam in group A was significantly lower than in group B. Conclusion. Propofol-based sedation does not increase rate of complication during PEG procedure. Additionally, IVS of PEG procedure is relatively safe and effective when performed by physicians in training. Serious complications are none.

  16. Role of cardiotocography in high risk pregnancy and its correlation with increase cesarean section rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: FHR monitoring plays the most important role in management of labouring patient when incidence of fetal hypoxia and progressive asphyxia increases. Now a day’s cardiotocography (CTG become a popular method for monitoring of fetal wellbeing and it is assisting the obstetrician in making the decision on the mode of delivery to improve perinatal outcome. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of cardiotocography on perinatal outcome and its correlation with caesarean section rate. Methods: In this prospective observational study 201 gravid women with high risk pregnancy in first stage of labour were taken. Result was assessed in the form of Apgar score at five minute, NICU admission, perinatal mortality and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis is done by using Chi square test and p<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Perinatal morbidity in the form of NICU admission is higher in nonreactive group as compare to reactive group (75.7% v/s 22.8%. Cesarean section rate for fetal distress were higher in nonreactive group (87.8% in comparison to reactive group (20.5%. So this study suggest that there is significant difference in mode of delivery with increasing chances of caesarean section in cases belong to non-reactive traces (p<0.001. Conclusions: Admission test is non-invasive and the best screening test to evaluate the fetal health and to predict the perinatal outcome but it also associated with increase caesarean section rate.

  17. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates.

  18. GROWTH RATE OF HUMAN FETAL LUNG WITH INCREASE IN GESTATIO NAL AGE: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study was designed to find out a relationship between growth rate of lung of the human fetuses at different gestational weeks and that of lung weight/body weight ratio with increase in gestational weeks. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This morphological study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal, Manipur with the permission of the Medical Superintendent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried ou t on 63 ( S ixty three fetuses of different gestational ages ranging from 11 th to 36 th gestational weeks obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal. The gross morphological parameter s such as weights of fetuses and lungs were noted. The mean  SD values of the fetuses and lung weights were measured. The data were statistically and graphically analyzed. RESULTS: The growth rate of left and right lungs showed a minimal value of about 1. 80 gm upto 13 th gestational week and thereafter showed a gradual increase from 13 th to 20 th week and then showed a moderately steep rise and was found to be almost similar upto 24 th week showing an average weight of about 18 gm. From 24 th week, the growth rate of right lung was found slightly faster than that of left lung upto the 36 th gestational week. The differential rate of the lung weight/body weight ratios was observed as follows: a steep fall from 11 th to 12 th week, then a gradual increase from 12 th to 14 th week, then a moderately steep fall from 14 th to 16 th week and then a gradual fall upto 20 th week, a gradual increase from 20 th to 24 th week, then a gradual fall from 24 th to 31 st week and then remained almost constant upto 36 th week. CONCLUSION: T he present study revealed that the growth rate of both the lungs increased gradually upto 20 th week and then a moderate steep rise from 20 th to 24 th week. A significant and

  19. Music Therapy May Increase Breastfeeding Rates Among Mothers of Premature Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J L A Cunha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of music therapy on breastfeeding rates among mothers of premature newborns. METHOD: In an open randomized controlled trial, mothers of premature neonates weighting ≤1750g were submitted to music therapy sessions three times a week for 60 minutes. The primary endpoint was breastfeeding rate (exclusive, predominant or continuous at the moment of infant discharge and at the first follow-up visit (7-15 days after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 94 mothers (48 in the music therapy group and 46 in the comparison group were studied. Breastfeeding was more frequent in the music therapy group at the moment of the infant hospital discharge (RR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.99-1.51; P = .06; NNT = 6.3 and at the first follow-up visit (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-1.57; P = .03; NNT = 5.6. Breastfeeding rates were higher in the intervention group at day 30 and day 60 after discharge, but these results were not statistically significant (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.73-5.6 and RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.95-1.71 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Music therapy increased breastfeeding rates in premature newborns at discharge, as well as 7-15 days later. This approach could be useful for increasing breastfeeding rates among premature newborns. [Editors note: The article presented here is republished from Jornal de Pediatria, 2011, 87(3, 206-212, doi: 10.2223/JPED.2086, with the kind permission from the publisher and the authors.

  20. Recession contributes to slowest annual rate of increase in health spending in five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Lassman, David; Whittle, Lekha; Catlin, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, US health care spending grew 4.0 percent--a historically low rate of annual increase--to $2.5 trillion, or $8,086 per person. Despite the slower growth, the share of the gross domestic product devoted to health spending increased to 17.6 percent in 2009 from 16.6 percent in 2008. The growth rate of health spending continued to outpace the growth of the overall economy, which experienced its largest drop since 1938. The recession contributed to slower growth in private health insurance spending and out-of-pocket spending by consumers, as well as a reduction in capital investments by health care providers. The recession also placed increased burdens on households, businesses, and governments, which meant that fewer financial resources were available to pay for health care. Declining federal revenues and strong growth in federal health spending increased the health spending share of total federal revenue from 37.6 percent in 2008 to 54.2 percent in 2009.

  1. Increased non-Gaussianity of heart rate variability predicts cardiac mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro eHayano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Gaussianity index (λ is a new index of heart rate variability (HRV that characterizes increased probability of the large heart rate deviations from its trend. A previous study has reported that increased λ is an independent mortality predictor among patients with chronic heart failure. The present study examined predictive value of λ in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Among 670 post-AMI patients, we performed 24-hr Holter monitoring to assess λ and other HRV predictors, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval, very-low frequency power, scaling exponent α1 of detrended fluctuation analysis, deceleration capacity, and heart rate turbulence (HRT. At baseline, λ was not correlated substantially with other HRV indices (|r| <0.4 with either indices and was decreased in patients taking β-blockers (P = 0.04. During a median follow up period of 25 months, 45 (6.7% patients died (32 cardiac and 13 non-cardiac and 39 recurrent nonfatal AMI occurred among survivors. While all of these HRV indices but λ were significant predictors of both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths, increased λ predicted exclusively cardiac death (RR [95% CI], 1.6 [1.3-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P <0.0001. The predictive power of increased λ was significant even after adjustments for clinical risk factors, such as age, diabetes, left ventricular function, renal function, prior AMI, heart failure, and stroke, Killip class, and treatment ([95% CI], 1.4 [1.1-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P = 0.01. The prognostic power of increased λ for cardiac death was also independent of all other HRV indices and the combination of increased λ and abnormal HRT provided the best predictive model for cardiac death. Neither λ nor other HRV indices was an independent predictor of AMI recurrence. Among post-AMI patients, increased λ is associated exclusively with increased cardiac mortality risk and its predictive power is independent of clinical risk factors and

  2. EGF increases expression and activity of PAs in preimplantation rat embryos and their implantation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. As in-vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in-vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may be involved. In the present work we studied the effect of EGF on PAs activity, quantity and embryo implantation. Methods Zygotes were flushed from rat oviducts on day one of pregnancy and grown in-vitro in R1ECM supplemented with EGF (10 ng/ml and were grown up to the blastocyst stage. The control groups were grown in the same medium without EGF. The distribution and quantity of the PAs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry followed by measurement of PAs activity using the chromogenic assay. Implantation rate was studied using the embryo donation model. Results PAs distribution in the embryos was the same in EGF treated and untreated embryos. Both PAs were localized in the blastocysts' trophectoderm, supporting the assumption that PAs play a role in the implantation process in rats. EGF increased the quantity of uPA at all stages studied but the 8-cell stage as compared with controls. The tissue type PA (tPA content was unaffected except the 8-cell stage, which was increased. The activity of uPA increased gradually towards the blastocyst stage and more so due to the presence of EGF. The activity of tPA did not vary with the advancing developmental stages although it was also increased by EGF. The presence of EGF during the preimplantation development doubled the rate of implantation of the treated group as compared with controls.

  3. Dominant Frequency Increase Rate Predicts Transition from Paroxysmal to Long-Term Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Raphael P.; Kaur, Kuljeet; Hwang, Elliot; Ramirez, Rafael J.; Willis, B. Cicero; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Ennis, Steven R.; Takemoto, Yoshio; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Zarzoso, Manuel; O’Connell, Ryan P.; Musa, Hassan; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Avula, Uma Mahesh R.; Swartz, Michael F.; Bhushal, Sandesh; Deo, Makarand; Pandit, Sandeep V.; Berenfeld, Omer; Jalife, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transition from paroxysmal to persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). In an ovine model of long-standing persistent AF (LS-PAF) we tested the hypothesis that the rate of electrical and/or structural remodeling, assessed by dominant frequency (DF) changes, determines the time at which AF becomes persistent. Methods and Results Self-sustained AF was induced by atrial tachypacing. Seven sheep were sacrificed 11.5±2.3 days after the transition to persistent AF and without reversal to sinus rhythm (SR); 7 sheep were sacrificed after 341.3±16.7 days of LS-PAF. Seven sham-operated animals were in SR for 1 year. DF was monitored continuously in each group. RT-PCR, western blotting, patch-clamping and histological analyses were used to determine changes in functional ion channel expression and structural remodeling. Atrial dilatation, mitral valve regurgitation, myocyte hypertrophy, and atrial fibrosis occurred progressively and became statistically significant after the transition to persistent AF, with no evidence for left ventricular dysfunction. DF increased progressively during the paroxysmal-to-persistent AF transition and stabilized when AF became persistent. Importantly, the rate of DF increase (dDF/dt) correlated strongly with the time to persistent AF. Significant action potential duration (APD) abbreviation, secondary to functional ion channel protein expression changes (CaV1.2, NaV1.5 and KV4.2 decrease; Kir2.3 increase), was already present at the transition and persisted for one-year follow up. Conclusions In the sheep model of LS-PAF, the rate of DF increase predicts the time at which AF stabilizes and becomes persistent, reflecting changes in APD and densities of sodium, L-type calcium and inward rectifier currents. PMID:24463369

  4. Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Jens F; Sunde, Niels A; Bergholt, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation......Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation...

  5. Human actuarial aging increases faster when background death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R; Blevins, James K

    2012-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams' classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams' hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs' aging rate measure, ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz-Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging.

  6. An EPQ Model with Increasing Demand and Demand Dependent Production Rate under Trade Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan QIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an EPQ model with the increasing demand and demand dependent production rate involving the trade credit financing policy, which is seldom reported in the literatures. The model considers the manufacturer was offered by the supplier a delayed payment time. It is assumed that the demand is a linear increasing function of the time and the production rate is proportional to the demand. That is, the production rate is also a linear function of time. This study attempts to offer a best policy for the replenishment cycle and the order quantity for the manufacturer to maximum its profit per cycle. First, the inventory model is developed under the above situation. Second, some useful theoretical results have been derived to characterize the optimal solutions for the inventory system. The Algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal solutions of the manufacturer. Finally, the numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the theorems, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameters of the inventory system is performed. Some important management insights are obtained based on the analysis.

  7. Faster Heart Rate Recovery With Increased RPE: Paradoxical Responses After an 87-km Ultramarathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Theresa N; Platt, Cathrin E; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between heart rate recovery (HRR) and an acute training "overload" by comparing HRR responses before and after an ultramarathon road race. Ten runners completed a standardized laboratory protocol ∼7 days before and between 2 and 4 days after participating in the 87-km Comrades Marathon. The protocol included muscle pain ratings, a 5-bound test, and 20 minutes of treadmill exercise at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 15 minutes of recovery. Respiratory gases and heart rate measurements were used to calculate steady-state exercise responses, HRR, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and participants also provided a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. The RPE was significantly increased (13 ± 2 vs. 11 ± 1) (p EPOC. Although previous studies have shown that faster HRR reflected an "adapted" state with enhanced training status, the current findings suggest that this may not always be the case. It follows that changes in HRR should be considered in the context of other factors, such as recent training load and RPE during submaximal exercise.

  8. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  9. Evaluation of an integrated adherence program aimed to increase Medicare Part D star rating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, R Scott; Tirado, Breanne; Patel, Bimal V; Rein, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) Plan Quality and Performance Program, or Star Ratings Program, allows Medicare beneficiaries to compare quality of care among available Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans and stand-alone prescription drug plans (PDPs). Health plans have increased intervention efforts and applied existing care management infrastructure as an approach to improving member medication adherence and subsequent Part D star rating performance. Independent Care Health Plan (iCare), an MA-PD plan; MedImpact Healthcare Systems, Inc. (MedImpact), a pharmacy benefits manager; and US MED, a mail order pharmacy, partnered to engage and enroll iCare's dual-eligible special needs population in an intervention designed to improve patient medication adherence and health plan performance for 3 Part D patient safety outcome measures: Medication Adherence for Oral Diabetes Medications (ODM), Medication Adherence for Hypertension (HTN), and Medication Adherence for Cholesterol (CHOL). To (a) assess the effectiveness of a coordinated member-directed medication adherence intervention and (b) determine the overall impact of the intervention on adherence rates and CMS Part D star rating adherence measures.  Administrative pharmacy claims and health plan eligibility data from MedImpact's databases were used to identify members using 3 target medication classes. Adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered (PDC) for all members. Those members considered at high risk for nonadherence were prioritized for care management services. Risk factors were based on members' use of more than 1 target medication class, newly started therapy, and suboptimal adherence (PDC  less than  80%) in the most recent 6-month period. Data files listing member adherence rates and contact information were formatted and loaded monthly into iCare's care management system, which triggered an alert for care coordinators to counsel members on the importance

  10. The legality of unilateral increase of interest rate in banking loan contracts under Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis spread in 2008 through the world and reached Serbia, rendered the repayment of banking loans indexed in foreign currencies, mostly in CHF at the time, even more difficult. The growing number of non-performing loans inevitably led to an increase in number of the court proceedings in which the debtors made attempts to have the loan contracts declared null and void. In these proceedings, the courts needed to take a stand on some typical clauses in loan contracts and on some banking practices that the debtors considered to be contrary to the principle of good faith, which, before the crisis, was hardly ever given judicial epilogue. In the majority of cases, two types of clauses proved to be unlawful: a clause establishing a right of the bank to subsequently, i.e. after the formation of the contract, and unilaterally, i.e. without a specific consent of the debtor, change (regularly increase the interest rate for the remainder of the credit period; and a clause establishing the right of the bank to apply different exchange rates, i.e. the buying rate to the disbursement of the loan, and the selling rate to the value of credit installments. These clauses certainly existed even before the crisis, but the difficulties in performing the loans caused by the crisis was the social propelling force that brought these cases within the sight of the judiciary. In this paper the author analyzes the reaction of courts, and subsequently that of the legislator, to the clause in loan contracts entitling the bank to unilaterally increase the variable interest rate after the formation of contract. The application of this clause was usually conditioned on significant changes in international financial markets or changes in the costs of the sources of financing, while in some cases the conditions of the application of the clause were simply changes in the business policy of the bank or the need to operate with profit. In any case, these are

  11. Maintaining Distinctiveness at Increased Speaking Rates: A Comparison between Congenitally Blind and Sighted Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Lucie; Côté, Dominique; Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The effects of increased speaking rates on vowels have been well documented in sighted adults. It has been reported that in fast speech, vowels are less widely spaced acoustically than in their citation form. Vowel space compression has also been reported in congenitally blind speakers. The objective of the study was to investigate the interaction of vision and speaking rate in adult speakers. Contrast distances between vowels were examined in conversational and fast speech produced by 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted French-Canadian adults. Acoustic analyses were carried out. Compared with the sighted speakers, in the fast speaking condition, the blind speakers produced more vowels with contrast along the height, place of articulation, and rounding features located within the auditory target regions typical of French vowels. Blind speakers relied more heavily than sighted speakers on auditory properties of vowels to maintain perceptual distinctiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  13. Screening of seeds prepared from retrograded potato starch to increase retrogradation rate of maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xijun; Liu, Lizeng; Guo, Junjie; Li, Lin; Wu, Changyan

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, retrograded potato starches treated by oxalic, hydrochloric and citric acids and/with amylase respectively, as seed crystals, are added into maize starch paste to increase maize starch retrogradation rate. The results show that addition of seed accelerates maize starch retrogradation greatly. Seed prepared from retrograded potato starch treated by oxalic acid increases maize starch retrogradation rate most, from 1.5% to 49%. The results of IR spectra of retrograded maize starch derived from different seeds show that double helix, not hydrogen bond, probably forms at stage of seed growth during retrogradation. The results of IR spectra, X-ray and SEM indicate that treatment of retrograded potato starch with oxalic acid leads to formation of more hydrogen bonds and an increase of seed crystal planes, which markedly promotes the growth of the seed. Retrogradation of maize starch by seeding method surely includes a stage of crystal growth through double helix in a way different from normal maize starch retrogradation.

  14. Increasing rates in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospitalised patients, Spain 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, A; Vaque-Rafart, J; Calbo-Torrecillas, F; Gestal-Otero, J J; López-Fernández, F; Trilla-Garcia, A; Canton, R

    2008-07-31

    Limited information is available on the burden and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Spain. The present report communicates the secular trends in prevalence of CDI among hospitalised patients in Spain from 1999 through 2007. Data were obtained through the EPINE study (Estudio de prevalencia de las infecciones nosocomiales en los hospitales españoles), a point prevalence study series of nosocomial infections among patients admitted to hospital in Spain. A total of 378 cases with CDI were identified. Median age was 74 years. Prevalence rates of CDI increased from 3.9 to 12.2 cases per 10,000 hospitalised patients and showed a significantly increasing secular trend from 1999 through 2007 (prevalence rate ratio per each year increment 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 - 1.14). Percentage of hospitalised patients receiving antimicrobials increased linearly from 36.0% in 1999 to 40.7% in 2007 (p <0.001) and was strongly correlated to CDI prevalence (R square = 0.73; regression coefficient =1.194, 95% CI= 1.192 - 1.196).

  15. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P; Sørensen, H; Bonne, T C; Zaar, M; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Nordsborg, N B; Secher, N H; Lundby, C

    2015-06-15

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate response to exercise, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate, but not combined, inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (fraction of inspired O2 = 12%) after intravenous administration of 1) no drugs (Cont), 2) propranolol (Prop), 3) glycopyrrolate (Glyc), or 4) Prop + Glyc. HR increased with exercise in all drug conditions (P 0.4) but larger during Prop (3.4 ± 1.6 l/min, P = 0.004). Our results demonstrate that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia during exercise partially relies on vagal withdrawal. Conversely, sympathoexcitation either does not contribute or increases heart rate through mechanisms other than β-adrenergic transmission. A potential candidate is α-adrenergic transmission, which could also explain why a tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Increasing nitrogen rates in rice and its effect on plant nutrient composition and nitrogen apparent recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hirzel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the essential foods of the human diet; advances in agronomic crop management can improve productivity and profitability as well as reduce adverse environmental impacts. Nitrogen rates in Chile are generally based on crop yield without considering other agronomic factors. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing N rates on plant nutrient composition and N apparent recovery in rice cultivated in five different locations in Chile. The five sites located in central Chile belong to one of the following soil orders: Inceptisol, Alfisol, and Vertisol; they were cropped in field conditions with 'Zafiro-INIA' rice fertilized with 0, 80, and 160 kg N ha-1. Whole-plant total DM, macronutrient composition, and N apparent recovery efficiency (NARE were determined at grain harvest. Results indicate that all evaluated parameters, with the exception of K concentration, were affected by the soil used. Nitrogen rates only affected total DM production and P, K, and Mg concentrations in plants. Phosphorus and K response decreased when N was added to some soils, which is associated with its chemical properties. Magnesium concentration exhibited an erratic effect, but it was not affected by the N rate in most soils. Nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency was not affected by the N rate and accounted for approximately 49% and 41% for 80 and 160 kg N ha-1, respectively. Macronutrient composition was 5.1-7.7 g N, 1.3-1.8 g P, 5.4-10.8 g K, 1.68-2.57 g Ca, and 0.81-1.45 g Mg kg-1 of total DM.

  17. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori D. Bothwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical montane wet forests where the warming trend may be amplified compared to tropical wet forests at lower elevations. We quantified leaf litter decomposition rates along a highly constrained 5.2 °C mean annual temperature (MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil moisture, and disturbance history are all nearly constant across this gradient, allowing us to isolate the effect of rising MAT on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release. Leaf litter decomposition rates were a positive linear function of MAT, causing the residence time of leaf litter on the forest floor to decline by ∼31 days for each 1 °C increase in MAT. Our estimate of the Q10 temperature coefficient for leaf litter decomposition was 2.17, within the commonly reported range for heterotrophic organic matter decomposition (1.5–2.5 across a broad range of ecosystems. The percentage of leaf litter nitrogen (N remaining after six months declined linearly with increasing MAT from ∼88% of initial N at the coolest site to ∼74% at the warmest site. The lack of net N immobilization during all three litter collection periods at all MAT plots indicates that N was not limiting to leaf litter decomposition, regardless of temperature. These results suggest that leaf litter decay in tropical montane wet forests may be more sensitive to rising MAT than in tropical lowland wet forests, and that increased rates of N release from decomposing litter could delay or prevent progressive N limitation to net primary productivity with climate warming.

  18. Increasing Rates of Imaging in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Patients: Implications for Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, S Harrison; Han, Jing L; Petraglia Iii, Frank W; Gramer, Robert; Yang, Siyun; Pagadala, Promila; Parente, Beth; Xie, Jichun; Petrella, Jeffrey R; Lad, Shivanand P

    2017-09-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) has a high incidence following spinal surgery, is notoriously refractory to treatment, and results in high health care utilization. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-accepted modality for pain relief in this population; however, until recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was prohibited due to risk of heat conduction through the device. We examined trends in imaging use over the past decade in patients with FBSS to determine its impact on health care utilization and implications for patients receiving SCS. Retrospective. Inpatient and outpatient sample. We identified patients from 2000 to 2012 using the Truven MarketScan database. Annual imaging rates (episodes per 1000 patient months) were determined for MRI, computed tomography (CT) scan, x-ray, and ultrasound. A multivariate Poisson regression model was used to determine imaging trends over time, and to compare imaging in SCS and non-SCS populations. A total of 311,730 patients with FBSS were identified, of which 5.17% underwent SCS implantation (n = 16,118). The median (IQR) age was 58.0 (49.0 - 67.0) years. Significant increases in imaging rate ratios were found in all years for each of the modalities. Increases were seen in the use of CT scans (rate ratio [RR] = 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79 - 3.29; P imaging procedures overall (P pain symptomatology. Miscoding cannot be precluded, as this sample is taken from a large nationwide database. We found a significant trend for increased use of advanced imaging modalities between the years 2000 and 2012 in FBSS patients. Those patients treated with SCS were 50% less likely to receive an MRI (as expected, given prior incompatibility of neuromodulation devices), yet 32% and 27% more likely to receive CT and x-ray, respectively. Despite the decrease in the use of MRI in those patients treated with SCS, their overall imaging rate increased by 19% compared to patients without SCS. This underscores the utility of MR

  19. Increasing the photon collection rate from a single NV center with a silver mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Kumar, Shailesh; Tawfieq, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of realizing quantum optical networks, a large variety of different approaches have been studied to achieve a single photon source on-demand. The common goal for these approaches is to harvest all the emission from a quantum emitter into a single spatial optical mode while...... maintaining a high signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, we use a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond as a quantum emitter operating at ambient conditions and we demonstrate an increased photon count rate up to a factor of 1.76 by placing a silver mirror fabricated on the end facet of an optical fiber...

  20. Intraventricular filling under increasing left ventricular wall stiffness and heart rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaee, Milad; Lai, Hong Kuan; Schovanec, Joseph; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nagueh, Sherif

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in over 50% of heart failure patients. HFNEF patients show increased left ventricle (LV) wall stiffness and clinical diagnosis is difficult using ejection fraction (EF) measurements. We hypothesized that filling vortex circulation strength would decrease with increasing LV stiffness irrespective of heart rate (HR). 2D PIV and hemodynamic measurements were acquired on LV physical models of varying wall stiffness under resting and exercise HRs. The LV models were comparatively tested in an in vitro flow circuit consisting of a two-element Windkessel model driven by a piston pump. The stiffer LV models were tested in comparison with the least stiff baseline model without changing pump amplitude, circuit compliance and resistance. Increasing stiffness at resting HR resulted in diminishing cardiac output without lowering EF below 50% as in HFNEF. Increasing HR to 110 bpm in addition to stiffness resulted in lowering EF to less than 50%. The circulation strength of the intraventricular filling vortex diminished with increasing stiffness and HR. The results suggest that filling vortex circulation strength could be potentially used as a surrogate measure of LV stiffness. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  1. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  2. Diagnosis of PLMD from increased pulse rate variability on overnight oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Uma M; Higgins, Sean E; Kosky, Christopher A; Delacy, Simone; Williams, Adrian J

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken in a group of patients with periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) to assess whether the presence of increased pulse rate variability (PRV) without desaturation on overnight oximetry was suggestive of the occurrence of periodic limb movements (PLMs). Seventy sleepy patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of PLMD and 25 controls with obstructive sleep apnea were included in this retrospective study. All patients had undergone initial domiciliary oximetry and subsequent polysomnography (PSG). The oximetry tracings were independently interpreted by five sleep unit personnel for the presence of increased PRV. Further, the association between increased PRV and PLMs was evaluated in the summary graph of the PSG. Fifty seven (81.4%) patients had definite evidence of increased PRV without episodes of desaturation on initial oximetry, which was later confirmed to be due to PLMs on PSG. 13 (18.6%) patients had no PRV on oximetry and PSG but had PLMD. The inter-interpreter concurrence in suspecting a diagnosis of PLMD based on oximetry alone was more than 80% in 64 (91%) patients. The presence of isolated increased PRV on overnight oximetry is a valuable tool in suspecting nonsleep apnea disorders like PLMD.

  3. Increase in rate of force development with skin cooling during isometric knee extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Ryota; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Tadano, Chigaya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Yona, Masae; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Muro, Masuo

    2014-12-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) plays an important role when performing rapid and forceful movements. Cold-induced afferent input with transient skin cooling (SC) can modulate neural drive. However, the relationship between RFD and SC is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SC increases RFD during isometric knee extension. Fifteen young healthy men (25 ± 8 yrs old) contracted their quadriceps muscle as fast and forcefully as possible with or without SC. Skin cooling was administered to the front of the thigh. Torque and electromyographic activity were measured simultaneously. Peak torque was not affected by SC. Skin cooling induced a significant increase in RFD at the phase 0-30 and 0-50 ms. The root mean square of the electromyography of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis at the phases 0-30-50-100 ms increased significantly or tended to increase with SC. These results suggest that SC may increase neural drive and improve RFD in the very early phases of contraction.

  4. DNA transposon activity is associated with increased mutation rates in genes of rice and other grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F X; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Rounsley, Steve; Chen, Mingsheng; Zuccolo, Andrea; Panaud, Olivier; Wing, Rod A; Roffler, Stefan

    2016-09-07

    DNA (class 2) transposons are mobile genetic elements which move within their 'host' genome through excising and re-inserting elsewhere. Although the rice genome contains tens of thousands of such elements, their actual role in evolution is still unclear. Analysing over 650 transposon polymorphisms in the rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, we find that DNA repair following transposon excisions is associated with an increased number of mutations in the sequences neighbouring the transposon. Indeed, the 3,000 bp flanking the excised transposons can contain over 10 times more mutations than the genome-wide average. Since DNA transposons preferably insert near genes, this is correlated with increases in mutation rates in coding sequences and regulatory regions. Most importantly, we find this phenomenon also in maize, wheat and barley. Thus, these findings suggest that DNA transposon activity is a major evolutionary force in grasses which provide the basis of most food consumed by humankind.

  5. [Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukalev, A V; Vinogradova, I A; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Anisimov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of different light regimes (constant light--LL; constant darkness--DD; standard light regime--LD, 12 hours light 12 hours darkness; natural lightening of the North-West of Russia--NL) on the dynamics of life's morbidity rate, spontaneous tumorigenesis and frequency of some kinds of non-tumor pathology revealed at the post-mortem examination of male rats was studied. It was found out that the maintenance of animals at LL and NL conditions led to the increase of the number of infectious diseases, substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors and the increase of non-tumor diseases in comparison with the animals kept at LD (standard light) regime. Light deprivation (DD) led to substantial reduction of development of new growth, of non-tumor and infectious diseases in comparison with the similar parameters in standard light regime.

  6. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  7. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  8. Impact of Increased Football Field Width on Player High-Speed Collision Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob R; Khalsa, Siri S; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-07-01

    High-acceleration head impact is a known risk for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on studies using helmet accelerometry. In football, offensive and defensive players are at higher risk of mTBI due to increased speed of play. Other collision sport studies suggest that increased playing surface size may contribute to reductions in high-speed collisions. We hypothesized that wider football fields lead to a decreased rate of high-speed collisions. Computer football game simulation was developed using MATLAB. Four wide receivers were matched against 7 defensive players. Each offensive player was randomized to one of 5 typical routes on each play. The ball was thrown 3 seconds into play; ball flight time was 2 seconds. Defensive players were delayed 0.5 second before reacting to ball release. A high-speed collision was defined as the receiver converging with a defensive player within 0.5 second of catching the ball. The simulation counted high-speed collisions for 1 team/season (65 plays/game for 16 games/season = 1040 plays/season) averaged during 10 seasons, and was validated against existing data using standard field width (53.3 yards). Field width was increased in 1-yard intervals up to 58.3 yards. Using standard field width, 188 ± 4 high-speed collisions were seen per team per season (18% of plays). When field width increased by 3 yards, high-speed collision rate decreased to 135 ± 3 per team per season (28% decrease; P football field width can lead to substantial decline in high-speed collisions, with potential for reducing instances of mTBI in football players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf) 60-40

  10. Influence of increased heart rate and aortic pressure on resting indices of functional coronary stenosis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadonte, Lorena; Verhoeff, Bart-Jan; Piek, Jan J; VanBavel, Ed; Spaan, Jos A E; Siebes, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Baseline assessment of functional stenosis severity has been proposed as a practical alternative to hyperemic indices. However, intact autoregulation mechanisms may affect intracoronary hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in aortic pressure (Pa) and heart rate (HR) on baseline coronary hemodynamics and functional stenosis assessment. In 15 patients (55 ± 3% diameter stenosis) Pa, intracoronary pressure (Pd) and flow velocity were obtained at control, and during atrial pacing at 120 bpm, increased Pa (+30 mmHg) with intravenous phenylephrine (PE), and elevated Pa while pacing at sinus heart rate (PE + sHR). We derived rate pressure product (RPP = systolic Pa × HR), baseline microvascular resistance (BMR = Pd/velocity), and stenosis resistance [BSR = (Pa - Pd)/velocity] as well as whole-cycle Pd/Pa. Tachycardia (120 ± 1 bpm) raised RPP by 74% vs. Accordingly, BMR decreased by 27% (p stenosis severity, causing Pd/Pa and BSR of borderline lesions to cross the diagnostic threshold. In conclusion, coronary microvascular adaptation to physiological conditions affecting metabolic demand at rest influences intracoronary hemodynamics, which may lead to altered basal stenosis indices used for clinical decision-making.

  11. Propofol-based sedation does not increase rate of perforation during colonoscopic procedur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Amornyotin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sedation-related colonoscopic perforation (CP has been under much debate. Our aim was to assess and compare the CP rate during colonoscopy by using sedation with or without propofol adjuvant. All patients who underwent colonoscopic procedure at the WGO Endoscopy Training Center, Siriraj Hospital, Thailand from March 2005 to October 2007 by using the intravenous sedation (IVS technique were analyzed. The primary outcome was the CP rate; the secondary outcomes were sedation-related complications and death during and immediately after the procedure. There were 6140 colonos-copies and 1532 flexible sigmoidoscopies during the study period, of which 6122 colonoscopic procedures were performed by using IVS. All of these procedures were categorized into two groups: group A, the IVS technique was propofol-based sedation and group B, the IVS technique was non-propofol-based sedation. After matching the indications of procedure, there were 2022 colonoscopies in group A and 512 colonoscopies in group B. Colonoscopic procedures were performed by staff endoscopists (10.8% or residents and fellows (89.2%. The characteristics of patients and sedative agents used in perforated patients in both groups were not significantly different. In group A, five patients (0.25% suffered from perforation and two of them died. In group B, one patient (0.20% had CP; the difference was not significant (P=0.829. Our data showed that colonoscopy under propofol-based sedation did not increase the perforation rate. Serious complications are uncommon.

  12. Preconditioning crush increases the survival rate of motor neurons after spinal root avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Yizhi Zuo; Jianwen He

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, heat shock protein 27 was persistently upregulated in ventral motor neurons following nerve root avulsion or crush. Here, we examined whether the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 would increase the survival rate of motor neurons. Rats were divided into two groups:an avulsion-only group (avulsion of the L4 lumbar nerve root only) and a crush-avulsion group (the L4 lumbar nerve root was crushed 1 week prior to the avulsion). Immunofluores-cent staining revealed that the survival rate of motor neurons was significantly greater in the crush-avulsion group than in the avulsion-only group, and this difference remained for at least 5 weeks after avulsion. The higher neuronal survival rate may be explained by the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression in motor neurons in the crush-avulsion group. Further-more, preconditioning crush greatly attenuated the expression of nitric oxide synthase in the motor neurons. Our ifndings indicate that the neuroprotective action of preconditioning crush is mediated through the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression and the attenuation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase upregulation following avulsion.

  13. Effectiveness of Counseling Provided by Primary Care Doctors and Nurses in Increasing Glaucoma Screening Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Rezner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An effective screening that can prevent glaucoma-related blindness largely depends on successful recruitment. This study was to assess the effectiveness of one-on-one counseling carried out by primary care doctors and nurses to increase glaucoma screening rates. Material and Methods. The study, carried out in an urban primary care center, involved 308 persons aged 35–87 years who were assigned to a doctor’s, nurse’s, or control group (N=109, 110, and 89, resp.. Interventions by doctors and nurses included a brief one-on-one counseling session, while only a screening history was taken from controls. The number of people in each group with a positive screening status was assessed by telephone interview three months after the visit. Results. The percentage of persons in the nurse’s counseling group who claimed being subjected to screening was more than four times higher than in the control group (20.9% versus 4.5%, P=0.002. The doctor’s interventions resulted in almost a tripled screening rate as compared to the control group (12.8% versus 4.5%, P=0.052. There was no significant difference between screening rates in doctor’s and nurse’s groups (P= 0.212. Conclusions. In the studied population, counseling provided by nurses proved to be an efficacious method to encourage patients to undergo glaucoma screening.

  14. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  15. Increased rate of acceleration on Pine Island Glacier strongly coupled to changes in gravitational driving stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. T. Scott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, has been undergoing several related changes for at least two decades; these include acceleration, thinning and grounding line retreat. During the first major ground-based study between 2006 and 2008, GPS receivers were used to monitor ice flow from 55 km to 171 km inland, along the central flowline. At four sites both acceleration and thinning rates over the last two years exceeded rates observed at any other time over the last two decades. At the downstream site acceleration was 6.4% over 2007 and thinning was 3.5±0.5 ma−1. Acceleration and thinning have spread rapidly inland with the acceleration 171 km inland at 4.1% over 2007, greater than any measured annual flow increase along the whole glacier prior to 2006. Increases in surface slope, and hence gravitational driving stress, correlate well with the acceleration and no sustained change in longitudinal stress gradient is needed to explain the force balance. There is no indication that the glacier is approaching a new steady state.

  16. A New Method for Pseudo-increasing Frame Rates of Echocardiography Images Using Manifold Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifani, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh

    2011-05-01

    Increasing frame rate is a challenging issue for better interpretation of medical images and diagnosis based on tracking the small transient motions of myocardium and valves in real time visualization. In this paper, manifold learning algorithm is applied to extract the nonlinear embedded information about echocardiography images from the consecutive images in two dimensional manifold spaces. In this method, we presume that the dimensionality of echocardiography images obtained from a patient is artificially high and the images can be described as functions of only a few underlying parameters such as periodic motion due to heartbeat. By this approach, each image is projected as a point on the reconstructed manifold; hence, the relationship between images in the new domain can be obtained according to periodicity of the heart cycle. To have a better tracking of the echocardiography, images during the fast motions of heart we have rearranged the similar frames of consecutive heart cycles in a sequence. This provides a full view slow motion of heart movement through increasing the frame rate to three times the traditional ultrasound systems.

  17. The big squeeze : multi-phase pumping technology aims to increase recovery rates from aging fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2008-04-15

    New technologies developed to assist with offshore oil and gas activities were discussed. The BP King multi-phase pumping project in the Gulf of Mexico is now expecting to enhance production by 20 per cent and extend the life of its field by 5 years through the use of multibooster pumps installed in 2007. The subsea boosting technology has reduced back pressure on the wells and increased oil recovery rates. Multi-phase pumping increased the distance over which the wellstream could be transported. The pump consisted of 4 main components: (1) a motor barrel; (2) a motor cartridge; (3) a pump barrel; and (4) a twin screw pump cartridge. The twin screw product has the ability to pump oil and gas streams with a range of gas void fractions. The pump is self-priming and runs at a relatively low rate. Changes to the pitch and diameter of the screw are used to control the volume of flow and the pressure. The project is also using a long-distance, high voltage distribution system to control multiple pumps at different speeds. The power umbilical system was developed to provide delivery lines for hydraulic fluids, and the umbilical cords also house a fibre-optic communications system to ensure high speed pump response. 3 figs.

  18. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  19. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Sara M; Tylianakis, Jason M; Nelson, Ximena J

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard), with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  20. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  1. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  2. Increased Rate of Adenoma Detection Associates With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michal F; Wieszczy, Paulina; Rupinski, Maciej; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Didkowska, Joanna; Kraszewska, Ewa; Kobiela, Jaroslaw; Franczyk, Robert; Rupinska, Maria; Kocot, Bartlomiej; Chaber-Ciopinska, Anna; Pachlewski, Jacek; Polkowski, Marcin; Regula, Jaroslaw

    2017-07-01

    The quality of endoscopists' colonoscopy performance is measured by adenoma detection rate (ADR). Although ADR is associated inversely with interval colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer death, the effects of an increasing ADR have not been shown. We investigated whether increasing ADRs from individual endoscopists is associated with reduced risks of interval colorectal cancer and subsequent death. We performed a prospective cohort study of individuals who underwent a screening colonoscopy within the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Poland, from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2008. We collected data from 146,860 colonoscopies performed by 294 endoscopists, with each endoscopist having participated at least twice in annual editions of primary colonoscopy screening. We used annual feedback and quality benchmark indicators to improve colonoscopy performance. We used ADR quintiles in the whole data set to categorize the annual ADRs for each endoscopist. An increased ADR was defined as an increase by at least 1 quintile category, or the maintenance of the highest category in subsequent screening years. Multivariate frailty models were used to evaluate the effects of increased ADR on the risk of interval colorectal cancer and death. Throughout the enrollment period, 219 endoscopists (74.5%) increased their annual ADR category. During 895,916 person-years of follow-up evaluation through the National Cancer Registry, we identified 168 interval colorectal cancers and 44 interval cancer deaths. An increased ADR was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for interval colorectal cancer of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.88; P = .006), and for cancer death of 0.50 (95% CI, 0.27-0.95; P = .035). Compared with no increase in ADR, reaching or maintaining the highest quintile ADR category (such as an ADR > 24.56%) decreased the adjusted hazard ratios for interval colorectal cancer to 0.27 (95% CI, 0.12-0.63; P = .003), and 0.18 (95% CI, 0

  3. Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effect of increasing the coinsurance rate on outpatient utilization of healthcare services in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Jang, Sung-In; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-20

    The Korean healthcare system is composed of costly and inefficient structures that fail to adequately divide the functions and roles of medical care organizations. To resolve this matter, the government reformed the cost-sharing policy in November of 2011 for the management of outpatients visiting general or tertiary hospitals with comparatively mild diseases. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of increasing the coinsurance rate of prescription drug costs for 52 mild diseases at general or tertiary hospitals on outpatient healthcare service utilization. The present study used health insurance claim data collected from 2010 to 2013. The study population consisted of 505,691 outpatients and was defined as those aged 20-64 years who had visited medical care organizations for the treatment of 52 diseases both before and after the program began. To examine the effect of the cost-sharing policy on outpatient healthcare service utilization (percentage of general or tertiary hospital utilization, number of outpatient visits, and outpatient medical costs), a segmented regression analysis was performed. After the policy to increase the coinsurance rate on prescription drug costs was implemented, the number of outpatient visits at general or tertiary hospitals decreased (β = -0.0114, p utilization of general or tertiary hospitals has transferred to that of clinics or hospitals due to the increased cost-sharing policy of prescription drug costs. This result indicates the cost-sharing policy, intended to change patient behaviors for healthcare service utilization, has had limited effects on rebuilding the healthcare system and the function of medical care organizations.

  5. Increased rates of large-magnitude explosive eruptions in Japan in the late Neogene and Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Wallace, L. M.; Engwell, S. L.; Scourse, E. M.; Barnard, N. H.; Kandlbauer, J.; Brown, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    Tephra layers in marine sediment cores from scientific ocean drilling largely record high-magnitude silicic explosive eruptions in the Japan arc for up to the last 20 million years. Analysis of the thickness variation with distance of 180 tephra layers from a global data set suggests that the majority of the visible tephra layers used in this study are the products of caldera-forming eruptions with magnitude (M) > 6, considering their distances at the respective drilling sites to their likely volcanic sources. Frequency of visible tephra layers in cores indicates a marked increase in rates of large magnitude explosive eruptions at ˜8 Ma, 6-4 Ma, and further increase after ˜2 Ma. These changes are attributed to major changes in tectonic plate interactions. Lower rates of large magnitude explosive volcanism in the Miocene are related to a strike-slip-dominated boundary (and temporary cessation or deceleration of subduction) between the Philippine Sea Plate and southwest Japan, combined with the possibility that much of the arc in northern Japan was submerged beneath sea level partly due to previous tectonic extension of northern Honshu related to formation of the Sea of Japan. Changes in plate motions and subduction dynamics during the ˜8 Ma to present period led to (1) increased arc-normal subduction in southwest Japan (and resumption of arc volcanism) and (2) shift from extension to compression of the upper plate in northeast Japan, leading to uplift, crustal thickening and favorable conditions for accumulation of the large volumes of silicic magma needed for explosive caldera-forming eruptions.

  6. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atrial systole enhances intraventricular filling flow propagation during increasing heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Okafor, Ikechukwu; Kumar, Gautam; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2016-01-01

    Diastolic fluid dynamics in the left ventricle (LV) has been examined in multiple clinical studies for understanding cardiac function in healthy humans and developing diagnostic measures in disease conditions. The question of how intraventricular filling vortex flow pattern is affected by increasing heart rate (HR) is still unanswered. Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown a correlation between increasing HR and diminished E/A ratio of transmitral peak velocities during early filling (E-wave) to atrial systole (A-wave). We hypothesize that with increasing HR under constant E/A ratio, E-wave contribution to intraventricular vortex propagation is diminished. A physiologic in vitro flow phantom consisting of a LV physical model was used for this study. HR was varied across 70, 100 and 120 beats per minute (bpm) with E/A of 1.1–1.2. Intraventricular flow patterns were characterized using 2D particle image velocimetry measured across three parallel longitudinal (apical-basal) planes in the LV. A pair of counter-rotating vortices was observed during E-wave across all HRs. With increasing HR, diminished vortex propagation occurred during E-wave and atrial systole was found to amplify secondary vorticity production. The diastolic time point where peak vortex circulation occurred was delayed with increasing HR, with peak circulation for 120 bpm occurring as late as 90% into diastole near the end of A-wave. The role of atrial systole is elevated for higher HR due to the limited time available for filling. Our baseline findings and analysis approach can be applied to studies of clinical conditions where impaired exercise tolerance is observed. PMID:26895781

  8. An increase in rates of obstetric haemorrhage in a setting of high HIV seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Shabalala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstetric haemorrhage (OH is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide, although, indirectly, HIV is also a leading cause of maternal mortality in some settings with a high HIV seroprevalence. Objective. To determine the possible association between increasing rates of OH and HIV or its treatment. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women with OH at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, over a 3-year period (2009 - 2011, during which the drug regimen for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission was evolving from single-dose nevirapine to antenatal zidovudine combined with intrapartum nevirapine (also referred to as dual therapy, and finally to a combination or highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART or HAART. Cases of OH (including abruptio placentae, placenta praevia, unspecified antepartum haemorrhage (APH, and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH were identified from maternity delivery records, and the relevant data extracted. Results. We analysed the records of 448 women diagnosed with OH. Even though the incidence of OH was low, the study found an increasing number of cases during the 3-year period. PPH – not APH – was associated with HIV seropositivity (odds ratio 1.84, 95% confi­dence interval 1.14 - 2.95. cART was not associated with an increased risk of haemorrhage. Conclusion. HIV was associated with a high risk of PPH, and its possible association with HIV treatment needs further research.

  9. Increased Efferent Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Defective Intrinsic Heart Rate Regulation in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaung, H P Aye; Baldi, J Chris; Wang, Heng-Yu; Hughes, Gillian; Cook, Rosalind F; Bussey, Carol T; Sheard, Phil W; Bahn, Andrew; Jones, Peter P; Schwenke, Daryl O; Lamberts, Regis R

    2015-08-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) coupled with dysregulated β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) signaling is postulated as a major driving force for cardiac dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, cardiac SNA has never been assessed directly in diabetes. Our aim was to measure the sympathetic input to and the β-AR responsiveness of the heart in the type 2 diabetic heart. In vivo recording of SNA of the left efferent cardiac sympathetic branch of the stellate ganglion in Zucker diabetic fatty rats revealed an elevated resting cardiac SNA and doubled firing rate compared with nondiabetic rats. Ex vivo, in isolated denervated hearts, the intrinsic heart rate was markedly reduced. Contractile and relaxation responses to β-AR stimulation with dobutamine were compromised in externally paced diabetic hearts, but not in diabetic hearts allowed to regulate their own heart rate. Protein levels of left ventricular β1-AR and Gs (guanine nucleotide binding protein stimulatory) were reduced, whereas left ventricular and right atrial β2-AR and Gi (guanine nucleotide binding protein inhibitory regulatory) levels were increased. The elevated resting cardiac SNA in type 2 diabetes, combined with the reduced cardiac β-AR responsiveness, suggests that the maintenance of normal cardiovascular function requires elevated cardiac sympathetic input to compensate for changes in the intrinsic properties of the diabetic heart. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Estimating Finite Rate of Population Increase for Sharks Based on Vital Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ming Liu

    Full Text Available The vital parameter data for 62 stocks, covering 38 species, collected from the literature, including parameters of age, growth, and reproduction, were log-transformed and analyzed using multivariate analyses. Three groups were identified and empirical equations were developed for each to describe the relationships between the predicted finite rates of population increase (λ' and the vital parameters, maximum age (Tmax, age at maturity (Tm, annual fecundity (f/Rc, size at birth (Lb, size at maturity (Lm, and asymptotic length (L∞. Group (1 included species with slow growth rates (0.034 yr(-1 < k < 0.103 yr(-1 and extended longevity (26 yr < Tmax < 81 yr, e.g., shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, etc.; Group (2 included species with fast growth rates (0.103 yr(-1 < k < 0.358 yr(-1 and short longevity (9 yr < Tmax < 26 yr, e.g., starspotted smoothhound Mustelus manazo, gray smoothhound M. californicus, etc.; Group (3 included late maturing species (Lm/L∞ ≧ 0.75 with moderate longevity (Tmax < 29 yr, e.g., pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus, sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus. The empirical equation for all data pooled was also developed. The λ' values estimated by these empirical equations showed good agreement with those calculated using conventional demographic analysis. The predictability was further validated by an independent data set of three species. The empirical equations developed in this study not only reduce the uncertainties in estimation but also account for the difference in life history among groups. This method therefore provides an efficient and effective approach to the implementation of precautionary shark management measures.

  11. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  12. Barriers to increasing hospital birth rates in rural Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Barclay, Lesley; Kildea, Sue; Hao, Min; Belton, Suzanne

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the reasons for continued high rates of home births in rural Shanxi Province, northern China, despite a national programme designed to encourage hospital deliveries. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 home-birthing women in five rural counties and drew on hospital audit data, observations and interviews with local health workers from a larger study. Multiple barriers were identified, including economic and geographic factors and poor quality of maternity care. Women's main reasons for not having institutional births were financial difficulties (n=26); poor quality of antenatal care (n=13); transport problems (n=11); dissatisfaction with hospital care expressed as fear of being in hospital (n=10); convenience of being at home and continuity of care provided by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) (n=10); and belief that the birth would be normal (n=6). These barriers must all be overcome to improve access to and acceptability of hospital birth. To ensure that the national policy of improving the hospital birth rate is implemented effectively, the government needs to improve the quality of antenatal and delivery care, increase financial subsidies to reduce out-of-pocket payments, remove transport barriers, and where hospital birth is not available in remote areas, consider allowing skilled attendance at home on an outreach basis and integrate TBAs into the health system.

  13. Using Roadside Billboard Posters to Increase Admission Rates to Problem Gambling Services: Reflections on Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Kimberly A; Wellington, William J

    2015-07-01

    Based on the stimulus-response model of advertising, this study sought to increase admission rates to a local problem gambling service (PGS) in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, by adding a series of locally based 10 foot by 20 foot roadside billboard posters to PGS's existing communications tools for a 24-week period. Using proof of performance reports, a pre-post survey of new callers to PGS, a website visit counter, and a media awareness survey, the findings showed that at least some individuals were influenced by billboard exposure, but admission rates continued to decline during the billboard campaign period. While one possible explanation for the communications failure was that the whole PGS communications campaign was below the minimal threshold for communications perception, another possible explanation is that the stimulus-response model of advertising used may not have been appropriate for such advertising that targets behavior change. Reflections on using an information-processing model instead of a stimulus-response model, and considerations of a two-step flow of communication, are provided. Recommendations are made regarding matching communications messages to stages of behavior change, use of online promotion, and strategies for future research. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Increased performance of secondary clarifiers using dynamic distribution of minimum return sludge rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard-Jensen, A; Andreasen, P; Husum, F; Nygaard, M; Kaltoft, J; Landgren, L; Møller, F; Brodersen, E

    2009-01-01

    Most wastewater treatment plants have several secondary clarifiers or even more sets of clarifiers including several secondary clarifiers, and in practice it is a well known problem that equal distribution of the load to the single clarifier (or set of clarifiers) is very difficult-not to say impossible-to obtain. If the problem is neglected, quite a big percentage of the total clarifier capacity-measured as the max. allowed hydraulic load-can be lost. Further, return sludge rates are seldom controlled by any other means than as a (typically too high) percentage of the inlet to the wastewater treatment plant-giving a varying and too low suspended solids concentration in the return sludge, which again can lead to an unnecessary use of polymer in the pre-dewatering of the surplus sludge taken from the return sludge. A control of the return sludge rate divided into two parts - control of the total return sludge flow and control of how the total flow shall be distributed between the secondary clarifiers - is able to solve the mentioned problems. Finally, as shall be demonstrated on full scale wastewater treatment plants, a considerable increase of the hydraulic capacity of the treatment plants can be obtained.

  15. The impact of rate reduction and increased vocal intensity on coarticulation in dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris

    2003-04-01

    The dysarthrias are a group of speech disorders resulting from impairment to nervous system structures important for the motor execution of speech. Although numerous studies have examined how dysarthria impacts articulatory movements or changes in vocal tract shape, few studies of dysarthria consider that articulatory events and their acoustic consequences overlap or are coarticulated in connected speech. The impact of rate, loudness, and clarity on coarticulatory patterns in dysarthria also are poorly understood, although these prosodic manipulations frequently are employed as therapy strategies to improve intelligibility in dysarthria and also are known to affect coarticulatory patterns for at least some neurologically healthy speakers. The current study examined the effects of slowed rate and increased vocal intensity on anticipatory coarticulation for speakers with dysarthria secondary to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), as inferred from the acoustic signal. Healthy speakers were studied for comparison purposes. Three repetitions of twelve target words embedded in the carrier phrase ``It's a -- again'' were produced in habitual, loud, and slow speaking conditions. F2 frequencies and first moment coefficients were used to infer coarticulation. Both group and individual speaker trends will be examined in the data analyses.

  16. Iron deficiency increases growth and nitrogen-fixation rates of phosphorus-deficient marine cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nathan S; Fu, Feixue; Sedwick, Peter N; Hutchins, David A

    2015-01-01

    Marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria have large impacts on global biogeochemistry as they fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and fertilize oligotrophic ocean waters with new nitrogen. Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important limiting nutrients for marine biological N2 fixation, and their availabilities vary between major ocean basins and regions. A long-standing question concerns the ability of two globally dominant N2-fixing cyanobacteria, unicellular Crocosphaera and filamentous Trichodesmium, to maintain relatively high N2-fixation rates in these regimes where both Fe and P are typically scarce. We show that under P-deficient conditions, cultures of these two cyanobacteria are able to grow and fix N2 faster when Fe deficient than when Fe replete. In addition, growth affinities relative to P increase while minimum concentrations of P that support growth decrease at low Fe concentrations. In Crocosphaera, this effect is accompanied by a reduction in cell sizes and elemental quotas. Relatively high growth rates of these two biogeochemically critical cyanobacteria in low-P, low-Fe environments such as those that characterize much of the oligotrophic ocean challenge the common assumption that low Fe levels can have only negative effects on marine primary producers. The closely interdependent influence of Fe and P on N2-fixing cyanobacteria suggests that even subtle shifts in their supply ratio in the past, present and future oceans could have large consequences for global carbon and nitrogen cycles.

  17. Experimental design strategy: weak reinforcement leads to increased hit rates and enhanced chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Mateusz; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Glick, Meir; Lounkine, Eugen

    2015-05-26

    High Throughput Screening (HTS) is a common approach in life sciences to discover chemical matter that modulates a biological target or phenotype. However, low assay throughput, reagents cost, or a flowchart that can deal with only a limited number of hits may impair screening large numbers of compounds. In this case, a subset of compounds is assayed, and in silico models are utilized to aid in iterative screening design, usually to expand around the found hits and enrich subsequent rounds for relevant chemical matter. However, this may lead to an overly narrow focus, and the diversity of compounds sampled in subsequent iterations may suffer. Active learning has been recently successfully applied in drug discovery with the goal of sampling diverse chemical space to improve model performance. Here we introduce a robust and straightforward iterative screening protocol based on naı̈ve Bayes models. Instead of following up on the compounds with the highest scores in the in silico model, we pursue compounds with very low but positive values. This includes unique chemotypes of weakly active compounds that enhance the applicability domain of the model and increase the cumulative hit rates. We show in a retrospective application to 81 Novartis assays that this protocol leads to consistently higher compound and scaffold hit rates compared to a standard expansion around hits or an active learning approach. We recommend using the weak reinforcement strategy introduced herein for iterative screening workflows.

  18. Increasing BCI communication rates with dynamic stopping towards more practical use: an ALS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainsah, B. O.; Collins, L. M.; Colwell, K. A.; Sellers, E. W.; Ryan, D. B.; Caves, K.; Throckmorton, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a brain-computer interface (BCI) that can possibly restore communication abilities to individuals with severe neuromuscular disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), by exploiting elicited brain signals in electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, accurate spelling with BCIs is slow due to the need to average data over multiple trials to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the elicited brain signals. Probabilistic approaches to dynamically control data collection have shown improved performance in non-disabled populations; however, validation of these approaches in a target BCI user population has not occurred. Approach. We have developed a data-driven algorithm for the P300 speller based on Bayesian inference that improves spelling time by adaptively selecting the number of trials based on the acute SNR of a user’s EEG data. We further enhanced the algorithm by incorporating information about the user’s language. In this current study, we test and validate the algorithms online in a target BCI user population, by comparing the performance of the dynamic stopping (DS) (or early stopping) algorithms against the current state-of-the-art method, static data collection, where the amount of data collected is fixed prior to online operation. Main results. Results from online testing of the DS algorithms in participants with ALS demonstrate a significant increase in communication rate as measured in bits/min (100-300%), and theoretical bit rate (100-550%), while maintaining selection accuracy. Participants also overwhelmingly preferred the DS algorithms. Significance. We have developed a viable BCI algorithm that has been tested in a target BCI population which has the potential for translation to improve BCI speller performance towards more practical use for communication.

  19. Tunneled dialysis catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption is not associated with increased rate of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.

  20. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  1. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  2. Importance of compensatory heart rate increase during myocardial ischemia to preserve appropriate oxygen kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sadamitsu; Adachi, Hitoshi; Murata, Makoto; Tomono, Junichi; Oshima, Shigeru; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2017-09-01

    Myocardial ischemia induces cardiac dysfunction, resulting in insufficient oxygen supply to peripheral tissues and mismatched energy production during exercise. To relieve the insufficient oxygen supply, heart rate (HR) response is augmented; however, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (BB) restrict HR response. Although BB are essential drugs for angina pectoris, the effect of BB on exercise tolerance in patients with angina has not been studied. The aim of this study was to clarify the importance of HR augmentation to preserve exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris. Forty-two subjects who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) to detect myocardial ischemia were enrolled. CPX was performed until exhaustion or onset of significant myocardial ischemia using a ramp protocol. Subjects were assigned to three groups (Group A: with ST depression during CPX with significant coronary stenosis and taking BB; Group B: with ST depression and not taking BB; Group C: without ST depression and not taking BB). HR response to exercise was evaluated during the following two periods: below and above ischemic threshold (IT). In Group C, it was evaluated during the first 2min and the last 2min of a ramp exercise. No significant differences were observed among the three groups with regard to patients' basic characteristics. Below IT, there were no differences in oxygen pulse/watt (O2 pulse increasing rate), HR/watt (ΔHR/ΔWR), and ΔV˙O2/ΔWR. Above IT, O2 pulse increasing rate was greater in Group A than in Group B. ΔHR/ΔWR was smaller in Group A than in Group B. ΔV˙O2/ΔWR became smaller in Group A than in Group B. There was no difference in anaerobic threshold, and peak V˙O2 was smaller in Group A than in Group B. Restriction of HR response by a BB is shown to be one of the important factors in diminished exercise tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i

    2017-01-01

    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  4. Does Antiplatelet Therapy during Bridging Thrombolysis Increase Rates of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Stroke Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeg-Morvay, Anne; Mordasini, Pasquale; Slezak, Agnieszka; Liesirova, Kai; Meisterernst, Julia; Schroth, Gerhard; Arnold, Marcel; Jung, Simon; Mattle, Heinrich P; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) after bridging thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is a devastating complication. We aimed to assess whether the additional administration of aspirin during endovascular intervention increases bleeding rates. We retrospectively compared bleeding complications and outcome in stroke patients who received bridging thrombolysis with (tPA+ASA) and without (tPA-ASA) aspirin during endovascular intervention between November 2008 and March 2014. Furthermore, we analyzed bleeding complications and outcome in antiplatelet naïve patients with those with prior or acute antiplatelet therapy. Baseline characteristics, previous medication, and dosage of rtPA did not differ between 50 tPA+ASA (39 aspirin naïve, 11 preloaded) and 181 tPA-ASA patients (p>0.05). tPA+ASA patients had more often internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion (p0.1). There were no differences in bleeding complications and mortality among 112 bridging patients with antiplatelet therapy (62 preloaded, 39 acute administration, 11 both) and 117 antiplatelet naïve patients. In a logistic regression analysis, aspirin administration during endovascular procedure was not a predictor of sICH. Antiplatelet therapy before or during bridging thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke did not increase the risk of bleeding complications and had no impact on outcome. This finding has to be confirmed in larger studies.

  5. Loading rate increases during barefoot running in habitually shod runners: Individual responses to an unfamiliar condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Coetzee, Devon R; van Pletsen, Leanri; Tucker, Ross

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of barefoot running on initial loading rate (LR), lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics, and neuromuscular control in habitually shod runners with an emphasis on the individual response to this unfamiliar condition. Kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from 51 habitually shod runners during overground running in a barefoot and shod condition. Joint kinetics and stiffness were calculated with inverse dynamics. Inter-individual initial LR variability was explored by separating individuals by a barefoot/shod ratio to determine acute responders/non-responders. Mean initial LR was 54.1% greater in the barefoot when compared to the shod condition. Differences between acute responders/non-responders were found at peak and initial contact sagittal ankle angle and at initial ground contact. Correlations were found between barefoot sagittal ankle angle at initial ground contact and barefoot initial LR. A large variability in biomechanical responses to an acute exposure to barefoot running was found. A large intra-individual variability was found in initial LR but not ankle plantar-dorsiflexion between footwear conditions. A majority of habitually shod runners do not exhibit previously reported benefits in terms of reduced initial LRs when barefoot. Lastly, runners who increased LR when barefoot reduced LRs when wearing shoes to levels similar seen in habitually barefoot runners who do adopt a forefoot-landing pattern, despite increased dorsiflexion.

  6. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  7. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. BHK cell lines with increased rates of gene amplification are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giulotto, E.; Bertoni, L.; Attolini, C.; Rainaldi, G.; Anglana, M. (Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia Adriano Buzzati-Traverso, Pavia (Italy))

    1991-04-15

    Four cell lines (MP1, -4, -5, -7), isolated from baby hamster kidney cells after simultaneous selection with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate and methotrexate, have previously been shown to amplify their DNA at an increased rate. We now show that all four lines are hypersensitive to killing by UV light and mitomycin C. At high doses of UV light or mitomycin C, the MP lines survived less than 10% or less than 5% as well as parental cells, respectively. After UV irradiation, inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis was greater in MP than in parental cells, and recovery was slower or absent. A 2- to 3.5-fold increase in the frequency of UV-induced sister chromatid exchange was also seen in the four cell lines. In MP5, unscheduled DNA replication after treatment with UV light was only approximately 70% as great as in parental cells and the other MP lines. In MP4 and MP7 cells S phase was elongated. Although their individual properties confirm that the four cell lines are independent, their common properties suggest a relationship between tolerance of DNA damage and gene amplification.

  9. A One-Layer Satellite Surface Energy Balance for Estimating Evapotranspiration Rates and Crop Water Stress Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily evapotranspiration fluxes over the semi-arid Catania Plain area (Eastern Sicily, Italy were evaluated using remotely sensed data from Landsat Thematic Mapper TM5 images. A one-source parameterization of the surface sensible heat flux exchange using satellite surface temperature has been used. The transfer of sensible and latent heat is described by aerodynamic resistance and surface resistance. Required model inputs are brightness, temperature, fractional vegetation cover or leaf area index, albedo, crop height, roughness lengths, net radiation, air temperature, air humidity and wind speed. The aerodynamic resistance (rah is formulated on the basis of the Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory and the surface resistance (rs is evaluated from the energy balance equation. The instantaneous surface flux values were converted into evaporative fraction (EF over the heterogeneous land surface to derive daily evapotranspiration values. Remote sensing-based assessments of crop water stress (CWSI were also made in order to identify local irrigation requirements. Evapotranspiration data and crop coefficient values obtained from the approach were compared with: (i data from the semi-empirical approach “Kc reflectance-based”, which integrates satellite data in the visible and NIR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with ground-based measurements and (ii surface energy flux measurements collected from a micrometeorological tower located in the experiment area. The expected variability associated with ET flux measurements suggests that the approach-derived surface fluxes were in acceptable agreement with the observations.

  10. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  11. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective: We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods: Total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66 and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44 groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results: Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008. Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001. In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02 predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009 and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02 predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  12. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  13. Increased rates of intensive care unit admission in patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, T; Sviri, S; Rmeileh, A A; Nubani, A; Abutbul, A; Hoss, S; van Heerden, P V; Bayya, A E; Hidalgo-Grass, C; Moses, A E; Nir-Paz, R

    2016-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of respiratory disease. In the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting M. pneumoniae is not considered a common pathogen. In 2010-13 an epidemic of M. pneumoniae-associated infections was reported and we observed an increase of M. pneumoniae patients admitted to ICU. We analysed the cohort of all M. pneumoniae-positive patients' admissions during 2007 to 2012 at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre (a 1100-bed tertiary medical centre). Mycoplasma pneumoniae diagnosis was made routinely using PCR on throat swabs and other respiratory samples. Clinical parameters were retrospectively extracted. We identified 416 M. pneumoniae-infected patients; of which 68 (16.3%) were admitted to ICU. Of these, 48% (173/416) were paediatric patients with ICU admission rate of 4.6% (8/173). In the 19- to 65-year age group ICU admission rate rose to 18% (32/171), and to 38.8% (28/72) for patients older than 65 years. The mean APACHE II score on ICU admission was 20, with a median ICU stay of 7 days, and median hospital stay of 11.5 days. Of the ICU-admitted patients, 54.4% (37/68) were mechanically ventilated upon ICU admission. In 38.2% (26/68), additional pathogens were identified mostly later as secondary pathogens. A concomitant cardiac manifestation occurred in up to 36.8% (25/68) of patients. The in-hospital mortality was 29.4% (20/68) and correlated with APACHE II score. Contrary to previous reports, a substantial proportion (16.3%) of our M. pneumoniae-infected patients required ICU admission, especially in the adult population, with significant morbidity and mortality.

  14. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX rainbow trout "Mal" population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Valdivia

    Full Text Available Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY. However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal. As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C, and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold at the highest temperature treatment (18°C. Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C. However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  15. Immunotherapy improves immune homeostasis and increases survival rate of septic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shun-wei; CHEN Juan; OUYANG Bin; YANG Chun-hua; CHEN Min-ying; GUAN Xiang-dong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of immunotherapy on septic patients with Ulinastatin plus Thymosin-α1. Methods: Seventy postoperative septic patients were divided into two groups at random: the immunotherapy group (n=36) and the conventional therapy group (n=34). Patients in the immunotherapy group received intravenous Ulinastatin of 200 000 U, 3 times per day for 3 days, Ulinastatin of 100 000 U, 3 times per day for 4 days, and subcutaneous injection of Thymosin-α1 of 1.6 mg, twice per day for 3 days, then once per day for 4 days. While conventional therapies such as antibiotics and fluid resuscitation were undertaken in both groups. The expression levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- 10 (IL-10), IgG, C3, T lymphocyte subsets, CD14+ monocyte human leukocyte antigen (locus) DR (HLA-DR) and patients' 28-day survival rate of the two groups were observed and evaluated. Results: The survival rate was significantly higher in the immunotherapy group (63.9%; 23/36) compared with the conventional therapy group (41.2%; 14/34). The serum TNF-α levels [(1.38±0.50) ng/ml in the immunotherapy group vs (1.88±0.53) ng/ml in the conventional group, P<0.05] and the serum IL- 10 levels [(217.52±15.71) ng/ml vs (101.53±16.57) ng/ml, P<0.05] were significantly different between the two groups. The serum IgG levels in the immunotherapy group [(17.65±6.81) g/L] were significantly higher than in the conventional group [(11.94±5.32) g/L]. There were also significant differences in the expression levels of CD4+ T lymphocyte (35%±13% in the immunotherapy group vs 21%±7% in the conventional group, P<0.05) and CD14+ monocyte HLA-DR (50%±5% in the former vs 35%±4% in the latter, P<0.05). Conclusions: Immunotherapy with Ulinastatin plus Thymosin-α1 can enhance the inflammatory response, improve the immune homeostasis, and increase the survival rate of septic patients.

  16. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side...... increases heart rate by as much (2.4%) as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%). This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines....

  17. Stress level in wild harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) during satellite tagging measured by respiration, heart rate and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Teilmann, J.; Geertsen, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    analysed from blood samples. Differences in heart rates, respiration rates and cortisol levels before and during the tagging events were investigated. An overall significant decrease Of 31.5% in respiration rate was found during the tagging event period, while mature porpoises respired significantly more...... and lowering it into the water seem to stabilize a stressed animal. Therefore, general precaution and individual judgement based on experience is essential when handling wild harbour porpoises....

  18. Ascorbate availability affects tumor implantation-take rate and increases tumor rejection in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet Cm; Dachs, Gabi U

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumors, HIF1 upregulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival, tumor growth, and adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment. HIF1 stabilization and activity are suppressed by prolyl and asparagine hydroxylases, which require oxygen as a substrate and ascorbate as a cofactor. This has led us to hypothesize that intracellular ascorbate availability could modify the hypoxic HIF1 response and influence tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of variable intracellular ascorbate levels on HIF1 induction in cancer cells in vitro, and on tumor-take rate and growth in the Gulo(-/-) mouse. These mice depend on dietary ascorbate, and were supplemented with 3,300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L ascorbate in their drinking water, resulting in saturating, medium, or low plasma and tissue ascorbate levels, respectively. In Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LL/2) in culture, optimal ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF1 accumulation under physiological but not pathological hypoxia. LL/2, B16-F10 melanoma, or CMT-93 colorectal cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into Gulo(-/-) mice at a range of cell inocula. Establishment of B16-F10 tumors in mice supplemented with 3,300 mg/L ascorbate required an increased number of cancer cells to initiate tumor growth compared with the number of cells required in mice on suboptimal ascorbate intake. Elevated ascorbate intake was also associated with decreased tumor ascorbate levels and a reduction in HIF1α expression and transcriptional activity. Following initial growth, all CMT-93 tumors regressed spontaneously, but mice supplemented with 33 mg/L ascorbate had lower plasma ascorbate levels and grew larger tumors than optimally supplemented mice. The data from this study indicate that improved ascorbate intake is consistent with increased intracellular ascorbate levels, reduced HIF1 activity and reduced tumor initiation and growth, and this may be advantageous in the management of cancer.

  19. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, PHeart Association, Inc.

  20. Preoperative Hip Injections Increase the Rate of Periprosthetic Infection After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, William W; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Mayman, David J; Lyman, Stephen; Jerabek, Seth A

    2016-09-01

    Intraarticular injections are both diagnostic and therapeutic for patients with osteoarthritis. A potential risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) may occur from direct inoculation and/or immune suppression by corticosteroids. Large population-level databases were used to evaluate hip injection on the 1-year rate of PJI in patients undergoing primary THA. State-level ambulatory surgery and inpatient databases for Florida and California (2005-2012) were used to identify primary THA patients with 1-year preoperative and postoperative windows to evaluate possible injections or PJI, respectively. Patients were grouped as no injection or as THA performed 6-12 months, 3-6 months, or 0-3 months after injection. Risk adjustment was performed with multivariable regression. A total of 173,958 patients were included; 5421 (3.1%) underwent THA after an injection: 1395 (1.1%) of patients after 6-12 months, 1863 patients after 3-6 months, and 2163 (1.2%) after 0-3 months. In the 0-3 month group, PJI was significantly increased at 3 months (1.58%, P = .015), 6 months (1.76%, P = .022), and 1 year (2.04%, P = .031) compared with the noninjection control group (1.04%, 1.21%, and 1.47%, respectively). There were no differences in the 3- to 6-month and 6- to 12-month injection groups. There is an increased risk of PJI when THA is performed within 3 months of hip injection. We recommend that patients and their surgeons consider delaying elective THA until 3 months after an injection to avoid this elevated risk of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased exchange rate of histone H1 on chromatin by exogenous myogenin expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING; GONG; JU; HUA; NI; HONG; TI; JIA

    2002-01-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism of chromatin remodeling involved in the regulation of transcriptionalactivation of specific genes by a myogenic regulatory factor Myogenin, we used NIH3T3 fibroblasts with astably integrated H1.1-GFP fusion protein to monitor histone H1 movement directly by fluorescence recov-ery after photobleaching (FRAP) in living cells. The observation from FRAP experiments with myogenintransfected fibroblasts showed that the exchange rate of histone H1 in chromatin was obviously increased,indicating that forced expression of exogenous Myogenin can induce chromatin remodeling. The hyper-acetylation of histones H3 and H4 from myogenin transfected fibroblasts was detected by triton-acid-urea(TAU)/SDS (2-D) electrophoresis and Western blot with specific antibodies against acetylated N-termini ofhistones H3 and H4. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the nAChR α-subunit gene was expressed in the trans-fected fibroblasts. These results suggest that the expression of exogenous Myogenin can induce chromatinremodeling and activate the transcription of Myogenin-targeted gene in non-muscle cells.

  2. Using a lay cancer screening navigator to increase colorectal cancer screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gerald; Perkins, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Preventive care is often not performed during the ambulatory office visit due to the acute nature of the visit. One possible strategy is the use of a lay cancer screening navigator using the lay health worker model. A training program for the lay cancer screening navigator and a patient registry for colorectal cancer screening was developed. The RE-AIM framework was used to evaluate the intervention. Descriptive statistics were generated for patient demographics. Reach: The lay cancer screening navigator contacted 91.9% of eligible patients. Effectiveness: At baseline, 28.6% of patients were current on their colorectal cancer screening, 40.5% at 6 months, and 42.2% at 12 months. Adoption: Patients contacted all reported being receptive to the intervention. Of the 368 fecal immunochemical test kits mailed, 151 were returned (41.0%), and 26 (17.2%) were positive. Maintenance: The percentage of patients who were current between 6 months and at 12 months were not significantly different. This study demonstrates that the use of a lay cancer screening navigator to increase the rate of colorectal cancer screening is a viable strategy. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Barbell deadlift training increases the rate of torque development and vertical jump performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Shields, JoCarol E; Luera, Micheal J; Munayer, Ibrahim K; Mota, Jacob A; Carrillo, Elias C; Olinghouse, Kendra D

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of barbell deadlift training on rapid torque characteristics of the knee extensors and flexors. A secondary aim was to analyze the relationships between training-induced changes in rapid torque and vertical jump performance. Fifty-four subjects (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 20) or training group (n = 34). Subjects in the training group performed supervised deadlift training twice per week for 10 weeks. All subjects performed isometric strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors and vertical jumps before and after the intervention. Torque-time curves were used to calculate rate of torque development (RTD) values at peak and at 50 and 200 milliseconds from torque onset. Barbell deadlift training induced significant pre- to post-increases of 18.8-49.0% for all rapid torque variables (p knee flexors (r = 0.30-0.37, p torque capacities in both the knee extensors and flexors. Changes in rapid torque were associated with improvements in vertical jump height, suggesting a transfer of adaptations from deadlift training to an explosive, performance-based task. Professionals may use these findings when attempting to design effective, time-efficient resistance training programs to improve explosive strength capacities in novices.

  4. A second defibrillator chest patch electrode will increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A J; Swartz, J F; Rodak, D J; Moore, H J; Hannan, R L; Tracy, C M; Fletcher, R D

    1996-09-01

    Nonthoracotomy defibrillator systems can be implanted with a lower morbidity and mortality, compared to epicardial systems. However, implantation may be unsuccessful in up to 15% of patients, using a monophasic waveform. It was the purpose of this study to prospectively examine the efficacy of a second chest patch electrode in a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system. Fourteen patients (mean age 62 +/- 11 years, ejection fraction = 0.29 +/- 0.12) with elevated defibrillation thresholds, defined as > or = 24 J, were studied. The initial lead system consisted of a right ventricular electrode (cathode), a left innominate vein, and subscapular chest patch electrode (anodes). If the initial defibrillation threshold was > or = 24 J, a second chest patch electrode was added. This was placed subcutaneously in the anterior chest (8 cases), or submuscularly in the subscapular space (6 cases). This resulted in a decrease in the system impedance at the defibrillation threshold, from 72.3 +/- 13.3 omega to 52.2 +/- 8.6 omega. Additionally, the defibrillation threshold decreased from > or = 24 J, with a single patch, to 16.6 +/- 2.8 J with two patches. These changes were associated with successful implantation of a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system in all cases. In conclusion, the addition of a second chest patch electrode (using a subscapular approach) will result in lower defibrillation thresholds in patients with high defibrillation thresholds, and will subsequently increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

  5. 5 CFR 530.322 - Setting pay when a special rate schedule is newly established or increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Recruitment and Retention Setting An Employee's Rate of Pay § 530.322 Setting pay when a special rate schedule is newly established or increased. (a) General rule. When an employee holds a position that becomes... agency must set the employee's special rate at the step (or relative position in range for a GM employee...

  6. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    .5%. Improvement of meal presentation at a hospital setting can increase food intake, reduce waste food substantially and reduce readmission rate to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Increase of Power Rates Has a Big Impact on Aluminum Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> An important cause for the recent adjustment ofpower rates in China is to contain the growth ofhigh-energy-consumption industries by impos-ing differentiated power rates.Therefore,as thefirst of six high-energy-consumption industries,the primary aluminum industry has receivedspecial attention.Based on the complicatedplan on adjustment of power rates currentlyavailable,it is expected that approximately800,000 tons of self-baking pot production ca-

  8. ESTIMATION OF THE CRITICAL RATE OF TEMPERATURE INCREASE OF THERMAL EXPLOSION OF NITROCELLULOSE USING NON-ISOTHERMAL DSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rorng-zu Hu; Peng-jiang Guo; Sheng-li Gao; Hai Zhang; Zhi-ming Xia; Bin-ke Ning; Yan Fang; Qi-zhen Shi; Rong Liu

    2003-01-01

    A method of estimating the critical rate of temperature increase of thermal explosion for the first order autocatalytic decomposition reaction system using non-isothermal DSC is presented. Information is obtained on the increasing rate of temperature in nitrocellulose containing 13.54% of nitrogen when the first order autocatalytic decomposition converts into thermal explosion.

  9. Low pesticide rates may hasten the evolution of resistance by increasing mutation frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    At very low pesticide rates, a certain low proportion of pests may receive a sublethal dose, are highly stressed by the pesticide and yet survive. Stress is a general enhancer of mutation rates. Thus, the survivors are likely to have more than normal mutations, which might include mutations leading to pesticide resistance, both for multifactorial (polygenic, gene amplification, sequential allelic mutations) and for major gene resistance. Management strategies should consider how to eliminate the subpopulation of pests with the high mutation rates, but the best strategy is probably to avoid too low application rates of pesticides from the outset.

  10. Heart rate variability and increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penčić-Popović Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To our knowledge there are no data about the relationship between elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 and altered cardiac autonomic function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between heart rate variability (HRV and slightly increased risk for DM2. Methods. We evaluated 69 subjects (50.0 ± 14.4 years; 30 male without DM2, coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC: group I (n = 39 included subjects with 12 > FINDRISC ≥ 7; group II (n = 30 subjects with FINDRISC < 7. HRV was derived from 24-h electrocardiogram. We used time domain variables and frequency domain analysis performed over the entire 24-h period, during the day (06-22 h and overnight (22-06 h. Results. Standard deviation of the average normal RR intervals was significantly lower in the group with increased risk for DM2 compared to the group II (127.1 ± 26.6 ms vs 149.6 ± 57.6 ms; p = 0.035. Other time domain measures were similar in both groups. The group I demonstrated significantly reduced frequency domain measures, total power - TP (7.2 ± 0.3 ln/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.029, and low frequency - LF (5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.6 ln/ms2; p = 0.006, over entire 24 h, as well as TP (7.1 ± 0.3 ln/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.004, very low frequency (6.2 ± 0.2 ln/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.2 ln/ms2; p = 0.030, LF (5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 6.2 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.000 and high frequency (5.7 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2; p = 0.011 during the daytime compared to the group II. Nocturnal frequency domain analysis was similar between the groups. The low diurnal frequency was independently related to elevated risk for diabetes mellitus (beta = -0,331; p = 0.006. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest that even slightly elevated risk for developing diabetes mellitus may be related to impaired HRV.

  11. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner’s supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni2+-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni2+ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation, and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient-deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. PMID:21309872

  12. Isometric handgrip training lowers blood pressure and increases heart rate complexity in medicated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, P J; Levy, A S; McGowan, C L; McCartney, N; MacDonald, M J

    2013-10-01

    Hypertension is characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP) and autonomic dysfunction, both thought to be improved with exercise training. Isometric handgrip (IHG) training may represent a beneficial, time-effective exercise therapy. We investigated the effects of IHG training on BP and traditional and nonlinear measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Pre- and post-measurements of BP and HRV were determined in 23 medicated hypertensive participants (mean ± SEM, 66 ± 2 years) following either 8 weeks of IHG training (n = 13) or control (n = 10). IHG exercise consisted of four unilateral 2-min isometric contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, each separated by 4 min of rest. IHG training was performed 3 days/week for 8 weeks. IHG training decreased systolic BP (125 ± 3 mmHg to 120 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05) and mean BP (90 ± 2 mmHg to 87 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05), while sample entropy was increased (1.07 ± 0.1 to 1.35 ± 0.1, P < 0.05) and the fractal scaling distance score was decreased (0.34 ± 0.1 to 0.19 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in traditional spectral or time-domain measures of HRV or control participants. IHG training improves nonlinear HRV, but not traditional HRV, while reducing systolic and mean BP. These results may highlight the benefits of IHG training for patients with primary hypertension.

  13. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-06-01

    Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner's supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni²⁺-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni²⁺ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. © 2011 The Authors

  14. Acid suppression increases rates of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal injury in the presence of duodenal reflux.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.

  15. Classroom Test Report: Compressed Speech Tapes--An Effective Teaching Tool for Increasing Rate and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jerry

    Compressed speech tapes--recordings of a voice reading a selection at the normal rate of approximately 150 words per minute that are speeded up to as much as 400 words a minute--can be used successfully with students to provide practice in improving reading rate and comprehension. In a field test conducted with 23 high school juniors and seniors…

  16. Decreased nighttime heart rate variability is associated with increased stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binici, Zeynep; Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Køber, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of stroke in healthy individuals is challenging and there is a diurnal variation of stroke onset. We hypothesized that heart rate variability with a focus on nighttime heart rate variability will predict the risk of stroke in apparently healthy middle-age and elderly subjects....

  17. Increased rate of Cori cycle in obese subjects with NIDDM and effect of weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, J K; Wolfe, R R; Mott, D M; Lillioja, S; Howard, B V; Bogardus, C

    1988-02-01

    To determine the contribution of the rate of glucose recycling via the Cori cycle (glucose----3-carbon compounds----glucose) to the higher rate of endogenous glucose production (EGPR) in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we studied eight obese, weight-stabilized diabetic Pima Indians before [93.1 +/- 5.4 kg, 38 +/- 2% body fat, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 254 +/- 11 mg/dl] and after (87.7 +/- 4.7 kg, 36 +/- 2% body fat, FPG 153 +/- 17 mg/dl) a 5-wk weight-loss diet and eight obese Indians (95.0 +/- 4.2 kg, 36 +/- 2% body fat, FPG 97 +/- 1 mg/dl) with normal glucose tolerance. EGPR and glucose recycling rate were measured during a 4-h primed continuous tracer infusion of [1-13C]glucose, and the rate of reincorporation of 1-13C of glucose into C2-6 positions in glucose was quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Substrate utilization rates were measured by simultaneous indirect calorimetry. EGPR (corrected for measured rate of recycling) decreased in the diabetic subjects from 3.80 to 2.74 mg.min-1.kg-1 fat-free mass (FFM) (P less than .01) after weight loss, approaching the rate observed in nondiabetic subjects (2.09 mg.min-1.kg-1 FFM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  19. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Preoperative hair removal with clippers does not increase infection rate in clean surgical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M M; MacCallum, J; McQuarrie, D G

    1986-02-01

    For a one year period, hair was removed from the operative site with clippers rather than by shaving with a razor or by application of depilatories. The study involved comparison of clean (Class I) wound infection rates in 2,580 patients after clipping was instituted compared with 17,424 patients studied in seven preceding years. There was no significant change in the wound infection rate (1 per cent) when compared with the three years immediately preceding. There was no change in the identified distribution of the infecting organism. Failure to show a clear reduction in wound infection rate was probably related to the low historic base line rate. There were definite benefits achieved by avoiding cancellation of elective operations, by using operating room personnel more efficiently and by expediating the surgical schedule.

  1. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging ...

  2. Beneficial Effects of Population Bottlenecks in an RNA Virus Evolving at Increased Error Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Cases-González, Clara E.; Arribas, María; Domingo, Esteban; Lázaro, Ester

    2008-01-01

    RNA viruses replicate their genomes with a very high error rate and constitute highly heterogeneous mutant distributions similar to the molecular quasispecies introduced to explain the evolution of prebiotic replicators. The genetic information included in a quasispecies can only be faithfully transmitted below a critical error rate. When the error threshold is crossed, the population structure disorganizes, and it is substituted by a randomly distributed mutant spectrum. For viral quasispeci...

  3. Music Therapy May Increase Breastfeeding Rates Among Mothers of Premature Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio J L A Cunha; Albelino S Carvalhaes; Barbosa,Arnaldo P; Martha N. S Vianna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of music therapy on breastfeeding rates among mothers of premature newborns. METHOD: In an open randomized controlled trial, mothers of premature neonates weighting ≤1750g were submitted to music therapy sessions three times a week for 60 minutes. The primary endpoint was breastfeeding rate (exclusive, predominant or continuous) at the moment of infant discharge and at the first follow-up visit (7-15 days after discharge). RESULTS: A total of 94 mothers (48 in the music...

  4. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Hicks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06–1.78, p = 0.02. A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center, subject characteristics (race and sex, and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  5. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K.; Cameron, Cate M.; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Australia’s coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995–2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of “low”, “medium”, “high”, and “intense” activity compared to a period of “very low” activity, adjusting for covariates. “All-cause” hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for “Blood/immune” conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for “Circulatory” conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows. PMID:28524113

  6. Two challenges for U.S. irrigation due to climate change: increasing irrigated area in wet states and increasing irrigation rates in dry states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I McDonald

    Full Text Available Agricultural irrigation practices will likely be affected by climate change. In this paper, we use a statistical model relating observed water use by U.S. producers to the moisture deficit, and then use this statistical model to project climate changes impact on both the fraction of agricultural land irrigated and the irrigation rate (m³ ha⁻¹. Data on water withdrawals for US states (1985-2005 show that both quantities are highly positively correlated with moisture deficit (precipitation--PET. If current trends hold, climate change would increase agricultural demand for irrigation in 2090 by 4.5-21.9 million ha (B1 scenario demand: 4.5-8.7 million ha, A2 scenario demand: 9.1-21.9 million ha. Much of this new irrigated area would occur in states that currently have a wet climate and a small fraction of their agricultural land currently irrigated, posing a challenge to policymakers in states with less experience with strict regulation of agriculture water use. Moreover, most of this expansion will occur in states where current agricultural production has relatively low market value per hectare, which may make installation of irrigation uneconomical without significant changes in crops or practices by producers. Without significant increases in irrigation efficiency, climate change would also increase the average irrigation rate from 7,963 to 8,400-10,415 m³ ha⁻¹ (B1 rate: 8,400-9,145 m³ ha⁻¹, A2 rate: 9,380-10,415 m³ ha⁻¹. The irrigation rate will increase the most in states that already have dry climates and large irrigation rates, posing a challenge for water supply systems in these states. Accounting for both the increase in irrigated area and irrigation rate, total withdrawals might increase by 47.7-283.4 billion m³ (B1 withdrawal: 47.7-106.0 billion m³, A2 withdrawal: 117.4-283.4 billion m³. Increases in irrigation water-use efficiency, particularly by reducing the prevalence of surface irrigation, could eliminate the

  7. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of artificial insemination (AI technology in Indonesia is still low, especially on small ruminants. At experimental station condition, it was reported that the success rate of intrauterine AI was high (78.9% lambing percentage, while intracervix AI technique was still low (47.6% lambing percentage. Various things that could affect the success rate of AI program are discussed in this paper. Efforts to improve the success of artificial insemination in small ruminants (goats and sheep can be done through the selection of productive female with good reproductive cycle, accurate dose of hormonal synchronization, followed by proper estrous detection and semen placement at the right time. Each stage is still open for more detailed study in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  9. Unravelling the (arte)fact of increased pacemaker rate with the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantini, Giuseppe; Mojoli, Marco; Purita, Paola; Napodano, Massimo; D'Onofrio, Augusto; Frigo, Annachiara; Covolo, Elisa; Facchin, Michela; Isabella, Giambattista; Gerosa, Gino; Iliceto, Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Early data on the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve (S3-THV) have shown low rates of paravalvular leaks and vascular complications but relatively high 30-day permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) rates. No direct comparisons on clinical outcomes including PPMI rates are available for the S3-THV and the Edwards SAPIEN XT (XT-THV). We aimed to compare the 30-day PPMI rates in patients treated with the two prostheses and to assess the interplay among valve type, depth of implantation and PPMI rate. Two hundred and nine patients treated by TAVI were considered. The S3-THV was associated with higher PPMI rates compared to the XT-THV, both overall and in subgroups matched for several predictors of PPMI. However, in the S3-THV group, 30-day PPMI was strictly associated with deep valve implantation, and PPMI risk of high-implanted S3-THVs was similar to that of the overall XT-THV matched group. No cases of significant paravalvular leak were observed in the S3-THV group. The S3-THV was associated with a higher incidence of PPMI compared to the XT-THV. In the S3-THV group, pacemaker implantation was strictly associated with deep valve implantation. An implantation technique involving higher initial placement of the central marker (from 0 to 3 mm above the base of the aortic cusps) and, as a consequence, higher final valve depth might help in preventing post-TAVI PPMI with the S3-THV, without affecting the risk of paravalvular leak.

  10. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  11. Minisatellite mutation rates increase with extra-pair paternity among birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuervo José J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amos 1 suggested recently that a previously reported positive relationship between minisatellite mutation rates and extra-pair paternity among species of birds 2 was confounded by transcription errors and selective inclusion of studies. Here we attempted to replicate the results reported by Amos 1, but also tested for the relationship by expanding the data base by including studies published after our original paper. Results We were able to replicate the positive association between mutation rate and extra-pair paternity in birds, even after controlling statistically for the confounding effecs of mean number of bands scored, using 133 species, compared to 81 species in our first report 2. We suggest that Amos 1 failed to reach a similar conclusion due to four different potential causes of bias. First, Amos 1 missed 15 studies from the literature that we were able to include. Second, he used estimates of mutation rates that were based on both within- and extra-pair offspring, although the latter will cause bias in estimates. Third, he made a number of transcription errors from the original publications for extra-pair paternity, mutation rates, number of novel bands, and mean number of bands scored per individual. Fourth, he included Vireo olivaceus although the mutation rate estimate was based on one single offspring! Conclusion There was a positive association between mutation rates and extra-pair paternity in birds, accounting for an intermediate effect size that explained 5–11% of the variance; estimates that are bound to be conservative due to many different causes of noise in the data. This result was robust to statistical control for potentially confounding variables, highlighting that it is important to base comparative studies on all available evidence, and that it is crucial to critically transcribe data while simultaneously checking published estimates for their correctness.

  12. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1986-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate, intravascular mass and outflux of albumin were measured in 75 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The groups were defined as: group 1: normal urinary albumin excretion, less than 30 mg/24 h (n = 21); group 2: microalbuminuria, 30-300 mg/24 h (n = 36); group...... vascular leakage of albumin is an early event in the development of diabetic nephropathy, with the leakage of albumin being fully developed in the microalbuminuric patient. In contrast, long-term diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion have a normal transcapillary escape rate of albumin....

  13. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next cutt

  14. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  15. Increased rates of wound complications with locking plates in distal fibular fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); M.R.D. Vries; M. van der Elst (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: There is a growing use of locking compression plates in fracture surgery. The current study was undertaken to investigate the wound complication rates of locking versus non-locking plates in distal fibular fractures. Patients and methods: During a 6-year study period all co

  16. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2011 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.01 to $0... fiscal period begins January 1 and ends December 31. The assessment rate would remain in effect... 12866. This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under...

  17. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  18. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  19. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  20. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1986-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate, intravascular mass and outflux of albumin were measured in 75 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The groups were defined as: group 1: normal urinary albumin excretion, less than 30 mg/24 h (n = 21); group 2: microalbuminuria, 30-300 mg/24 h (n = 36); group...

  1. Humid storage conditions increase the dissolution rate of diazepam from solid dispersions prepared by melt agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Torstenson, Anette Seo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling mode and storage conditions on the dissolution rate of a solid dispersion prepared by melt agglomeration. The aim has been to relate this effect to the solid state properties of the agglomerates. The cooling mode had an effect on t...

  2. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of [beta]-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.(Report)(Author abstract)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aachmann-Andersen, N.J; Rasmussen, P; Secher, N.H; Zaar, M; Lundby, C; Sorensen, H; Nordsborg, N.B; Bonne, T.C; Siebenmann, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate response to exercise, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate, but not combined, inhibition...

  3. Influence of emission threshold and current increase rate on microwave starting time in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Song, Zhimin; Teng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Explosive emission cathodes (EECs) are widely used in high power microwave generators. This paper researches the influence of the emission threshold and the current increase rate of annular EECs on the microwave starting time of a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) when the current amplitude is not affected. The results show that a moderate delay in explosive emission, as long as it's not too long and the current increase rate keeps fast enough, won't bring about a corresponding delay in the starting time of microwave, but inversely, may suppress the mode competition and thus expedite the starting process slightly. The current increase rate, however, has more prominent influence on the starting time of the RBWO. A slower current increase rate will delay the time when the beam current reaches the starting current and lead to a longer starting time.

  4. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  5. Increasing the Rate of Return of Resident Rotation Evaluations by Their Attending Physicians in an In-Patient Psychiatric Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nurun; Thompson, Britta; Averill, Patricia; Searle, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrist's evaluations of residents are the primary means of determining whether the residents are ready to be promoted. However, the return rate for evaluations is quite low. The purpose of this study was to increase the return rates. Methods: Feedback from two surveys and open discussion was utilized to develop and implement a…

  6. The Effect of Incentives and Other Instructor-Driven Strategies to Increase Online Student Evaluation Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, James; Anson, Robert; Belcheir, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Course evaluations (often termed student evaluations of teaching or SETs) are pervasive in higher education. As SETs increasingly shift from pencil-and-paper to online, concerns grow over the lower response rates that typically accompany online SETs. This study of online SET response rates examined data from 678 faculty respondents and student…

  7. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ..., 2012. The second, third, fourth, and fifth tranches will be reserved for organic sugar and other... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups...

  8. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4%) as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%). This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  9. Protease increases fermentation rate and ethanol yield in dry-grind ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of acid protease and urea addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The fermentations were also tested with and without the addition of urea to determine if protease altered the nitrogen requirements of the yeast. Results show that the addition of the protease had a statistically significant effect on the fermentation rate and yield. Fermentation rates and yields were improved with the addition of the protease over the corresponding controls without protease. Protease addition either with or with added urea resulted in a higher final ethanol yield than without the protease addition. Urea addition levels >1200 ppm of supplemental nitrogen inhibited ethanol production. The economic effects of the protease addition were evaluated by using process engineering and economic models developed at the Eastern Regional Research Center. The decrease in overall processing costs from protease addition was as high as $0.01/L (4 ¢/gal) of denatured ethanol produced.

  10. New Kidney Allocation System Associated With Increased Rates Of Transplants Among Black And Hispanic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Taylor A; Hockenberry, Jason M; Plantinga, Laura; Basu, Mohua; Pastan, Stephan; Mohan, Sumit; Howard, David H; Patzer, Rachel E

    2017-06-01

    Before the 2014 implementation of a new kidney allocation system by the United Network for Organ Sharing, white patients were more likely than black or Hispanic patients to receive a kidney transplant. To determine the effect of the new allocation system on these disparities, we examined data for 179,071 transplant waiting list events in the period June 2013-September 2016, and we calculated monthly transplantation rates (34,133 patients actually received transplants). Implementation of the new system was associated with a narrowing of the disparities in the average monthly transplantation rates by 0.29 percentage point for blacks compared to whites and by 0.24 percentage point for Hispanics compared to whites, which resulted in both disparities becoming nonsignificant after implementation of the new system. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Transfer of human frozen-thawed embryos with further cleavage during culture increases pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat V Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the pregnancy rate following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos with or without overnight culture after thawing. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET cycles performed between January 2006 and December 2008. Materials and Methods: Out of 518 thaw cycles, 504 resulted in embryo transfers (ETs. Of the total FET cycles, 415 were performed after an overnight culture of embryos (group A; and in 89 cycles, ET was performed within 2 hours of embryo thawing (group B. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: We observed that with FET, women ≤30 years of age had a significantly higher (P=0.003 pregnancy rate (PR=28.9% as compared to women >30 years of age (17.5%. A significantly higher (P<0.001FNx08 pregnancy rate was also observed in women receiving 3 frozen-thawed embryos (29% as compared to those who received less than 3 embryos (10.7%. The difference in PR between group A (PR=24.3% and group B (PR=20.3% was not statistically significant. However, within group A, ET with cleaved embryos showed significantly ( P≤0.01 higher pregnancy rate compared to the uncleaved embryos, depending on the number of cleaved embryos transferred. Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed between FETs made with transfer of embryos with overnight culture and those without culture. However, within the cultured group, transfer of embryos cleaved during overnight culture gave significantly higher PR than transfers without any cleavage.

  12. Increased Miscarriage Rate in Female Farmers Working in Saffron Fields: A Possible Effect of Saffron Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ajam

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Exposure to saffron may increase the risk of miscarriage. Hence, it is suggested that pregnant women avoid contact with considerable amounts of saffron especially for female farmers working in saffron fields.

  13. Ozone-induced acute pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Prevention of increased rates of collagen synthesis by methylprednisolone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesterberg, T.W.; Last, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The net rate of collagen synthesis by lung minces prepared from rats exposed for 7 days to ozone was increased in a dose-dependent manner severalfold above the net rate obtained with lung minces prepared from rats that had breathed only filtered air. Concurrent administration of methylprednisolone during the exposure to ozone prevented the increase in rate of collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner for each level of ozone tested. These results could be correlted with lower levels of inflammatory edema measured in the same steroid-treated rats as decreased wet weights of their right apical lung lobes.

  14. Fossil skulls reveal that blood flow rate to the brain increased faster than brain volume during human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S.; Bosiocic, Vanya; Snelling, Edward P.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of human cognition has been inferred from anthropological discoveries and estimates of brain size from fossil skulls. A more direct measure of cognition would be cerebral metabolic rate, which is proportional to cerebral blood flow rate (perfusion). The hominin cerebrum is supplied almost exclusively by the internal carotid arteries. The sizes of the foramina that transmitted these vessels in life can be measured in hominin fossil skulls and used to calculate cerebral perfusion rate. Perfusion in 11 species of hominin ancestors, from Australopithecus to archaic Homo sapiens, increases disproportionately when scaled against brain volume (the allometric exponent is 1.41). The high exponent indicates an increase in the metabolic intensity of cerebral tissue in later Homo species, rather than remaining constant (1.0) as expected by a linear increase in neuron number, or decreasing according to Kleiber's Law (0.75). During 3 Myr of hominin evolution, cerebral tissue perfusion increased 1.7-fold, which, when multiplied by a 3.5-fold increase in brain size, indicates a 6.0-fold increase in total cerebral blood flow rate. This is probably associated with increased interneuron connectivity, synaptic activity and cognitive function, which all ultimately depend on cerebral metabolic rate.

  15. Climatically controlled increase in Quaternary erosion rates: An exploration of real and perceived biases from thermochronology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Peter; Schildgen, Taylor

    2017-04-01

    The potential increase of erosion rates over the last few million years in response to climate change and Quaternary glaciations remains controversial. Such an increase was initially inferred from the sedimentary record, but several authors have argued that this record is biased due to unresolved erosional hiatuses, and therefore the inferred increase in sedimentation rates is an artefact. More recently, the discussion has focused on erosional records from the source areas themselves; in particular records extracted from low-temperature thermochronology data. A global compilation of such data appears to show increasing erosion rates toward the present, but it has been argued that this increase may also be an artefact, for similar reasons that affect the sedimentary record. Here we assess real and perceived biases in the thermochronological record that might affect the inference of temporal variations in erosion rates from such data. We argue that it is unlikely that erosional hiatuses affect thermochronology data because the temporal and spatial scales at which such hiatuses might occur are significantly smaller than those that are resolved by the data. Instead, we explore the potential bias introduced by the erosional response time of thermochronological systems (defined as the time required to exhume rocks that are fully reset for the thermochronological system considered, i.e. to attain exhumational steady state). These response times are typically longer than the timescale of Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles, implying that thermochronological systems are insensitive to such variations. For thermochronological data to record an overall increase in erosion rates, the increase must occur over longer time periods, independent of superimposed shorter-term variations. However, because the erosional response times depend strongly on the final exhumation rate, it is much easier to detect increases in erosion rates with thermochronological data than to detect

  16. Laparoscopic ultrasound imaging in colorectal cancer resection may increase the detection rate of small liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Signe Bremholm; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2016-01-01

    Up to 20% of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) will have liver metastases at the time of the diagnosis, and some of these metastases may be missed during preoperative evaluation. While intraoperative ultrasound is considered the gold standard for liver evaluation during primary open CRC...... surgery, laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) is not performed routinely during laparoscopic CRC surgery. Based on the available literature LUS had a higher detection rate for especially small liver metastases compared to preoperative imaging modalities, but better prospective trials are needed....

  17. System refinement for content based satellite image retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NourElDin Laban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a large increase in satellite generated data especially in the form of images. Hence intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by dozens of earth observing satellites, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. Content based satellite image retrieval (CBSIR approaches have mainly been driven so far by approaches dealing with traditional images. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that refines image retrieval process using the unique properties to satellite images. Our approach uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tiling sizes. Accordingly the system uses these multilevel features within a multilevel retrieval system that refines the retrieval process. Our multilevel refinement approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional one yielding enhanced precision and recall rates.

  18. Decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica under increased O2 transfer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguedo, M; Gomes, N; Garcia, E Escamilla; Waché, Y; Mota, M; Teixeira, J A; Belo, I

    2005-10-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica converts methyl ricinoleate to gamma-decalactone, a high-value fruity aroma compound. The highest amount of 3-hydroxy-gamma-decalactone produced by the yeast (263 mg l(-1)) occurred by increasing the k(L)a up to 120 h(-1) at atmospheric pressure; above it, its concentration decreased, suggesting a predominance of the activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Cultures were grown under high-pressure, i.e., under increased O(2) solubility, but, although growth was accelerated, gamma-decalactone production decreased. However, by applying 0.5 MPa during growth and biotransformation gave increased concentrations of dec-2-en-4-olide and dec-3-en-4-olide (70 mg l(-1)).

  19. Excessive heart rate increase during mild mental stress in preparation for exercise predicts sudden death in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouven, Xavier; Schwartz, Peter J; Escolano, Sylvie; Straczek, Céline; Tafflet, Muriel; Desnos, Michel; Empana, Jean Philippe; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study involves the early identification, among apparently healthy individuals, of those at high risk for sudden cardiac death. We tested the hypothesis that individuals who respond to mild mental stress in preparation for exercise test with the largest heart rate increases might be at highest risk. Data from 7746 civil servants participating in the Paris Prospective Study I, followed-up for 23 years, allowed to compare heart rate changes between rest and mild mental stress (preparation prior to an exercise test) between subjects who suffered sudden cardiac death (n = 81), non-sudden (n = 129) coronary death, or death from any cause (n = 1306). The mean heart rate increase during mild mental stress was 8.9 +/- 10.8 b.p.m. Risk of sudden cardiac death increased progressively with heart rate increase during mental stress and the relative risk of the third vs. the first tertile was 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.86) after adjustment for confounders. This relationship was not observed for non-sudden coronary death. An important heart rate increase produced by a mild mental stress predicts long-term risk for sudden cardiac death. Heart rate changes before an exercise test may provide a simple tool for risk stratification.

  20. Purging deleterious mutations under self fertilization: paradoxical recovery in fitness with increasing mutation rate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi T Morran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of deleterious mutations can drastically reduce population mean fitness. Self-fertilization is thought to be an effective means of purging deleterious mutations. However, widespread linkage disequilibrium generated and maintained by self-fertilization is predicted to reduce the efficacy of purging when mutations are present at multiple loci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the ability of self-fertilizing populations to purge deleterious mutations at multiple loci by exposing obligately self-fertilizing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans to a range of elevated mutation rates and found that mutations accumulated, as evidenced by a reduction in mean fitness, in each population. Therefore, purging in obligate selfing populations is overwhelmed by an increase in mutation rate. Surprisingly, we also found that obligate and predominantly self-fertilizing populations exposed to very high mutation rates exhibited consistently greater fitness than those subject to lesser increases in mutation rate, which contradicts the assumption that increases in mutation rate are negatively correlated with fitness. The high levels of genetic linkage inherent in self-fertilization could drive this fitness increase. CONCLUSIONS: Compensatory mutations can be more frequent under high mutation rates and may alleviate a portion of the fitness lost due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations through epistatic interactions with deleterious mutations. The prolonged maintenance of tightly linked compensatory and deleterious mutations facilitated by self-fertilization may be responsible for the fitness increase as linkage disequilibrium between the compensatory and deleterious mutations preserves their epistatic interaction.

  1. Gravimetric geodesy and sea surface topography studies by means of satellite-to-satellite tracking and satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A satellite-to-satellite tracking experiment is planned between ATS-F and GEOS-C with a range accuracy of 2-meters and a range rate accuracy of 0.035 centimeters per second for a 10-second integration time. This experiment is planned for 1974. It is anticipated that it will improve the spatial resolution of the satellite geoid by half an order of magnitude to about 6 degrees. Longer integration times should also permit a modest increase in the acceleration resolution. Satellite altimeter data will also be obtained by means of GEOS-C. An overall accuracy of 5-meters in altitude is the goal. The altimeter, per se, is expected to have an instrumental precision of about 2 meters, and an additional capability to observe with a precision of about 0.2 meters for limited periods.

  2. Choosing Surgery: Identifying Factors Leading to Increased General Surgery Matriculation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, David T; Freeman, Matthew D; Korndorffer, James R; Meade, Peter C; Jaffe, Bernard M; Slakey, Douglas P

    2017-03-01

    Tulane graduates have, over the past six years, chosen general surgical residency at a rate above the national average (mean 9.6% vs 6.6%). With much of the recent career choice research focusing on disincentives and declining general surgery applicants, we sought to identify factors that positively influenced our students' decision to pursue general surgery. A 50-question survey was developed and distributed to graduates who matched into a general surgery between the years 2006 and 2014. The survey evaluated demographics, exposure to surgery, and factors affecting interest in a surgical career. We achieved a 54 per cent (61/112) response rate. Only 43 per cent considered a surgical career before medical school matriculation. Fifty-nine per cent had strongly considered a career other than surgery. Sixty-two per cent chose to pursue surgery during or immediately after their surgery clerkship. The most important factors cited for choosing general surgery were perceived career enjoyment of residents and faculty, resident/faculty relationship, and mentorship. Surgery residents and faculty were viewed as role models by 72 and 77 per cent of responders, respectively. This study demonstrated almost half of those choosing a surgical career did so as a direct result of the core rotation experience. We believe that structuring the medical student education experience to optimize the interaction of students, residents, and faculty produces a positive environment encouraging students to choose a general surgery career.

  3. Impact of Increased Academic Intensity on Transfer Rates: An Application of Matching Estimators to Student-Unit Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of increased academic intensity on transfer rates from community colleges to 4-year institutions has been estimated only from observational data, with the possibility of selection bias. This study uses matching estimators to overcome possible selection bias and estimate the causal impact of increased academic intensity on transfer…

  4. 75 FR 70571 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... budgeted increases in salaries, operating expenses, and promotion programs, and to build their operating... acre. The 2009-10 producer price published by NASS was $1,450 per ton, or $0.725 per pound. Thus,...

  5. Overexpression of the RieskeFeS Protein Increases Electron Transport Rates and Biomass Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Andrew J; McAusland, Lorna; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing the Rieske FeS protein (PetC), a component of the cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f) complex. Increasing the levels of this protein resulted in concomitant increases in the levels of cyt f (PetA) and cyt b6 (PetB), core proteins of the cyt b6f complex. Interestingly, an increase in the levels of proteins in both the photosystem I (PSI) and PSII complexes also was seen in the Rieske FeS overexpression plants. Although the mechanisms leading to these changes remain to be identified, the transgenic plants presented here provide novel tools to explore this. Importantly, overexpression of the Rieske FeS protein resulted in substantial and significant impacts on the quantum efficiency of PSI and PSII, electron transport, biomass, and seed yield in Arabidopsis plants. These results demonstrate the potential for manipulating electron transport processes to increase crop productivity. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.

  6. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  7. A mechanistic account of increasing seasonal variations in the rate of ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gorgues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional circulation model that includes a representation of anthropogenic carbon as a passive tracer is forced with climatological surface fluxes. This simulation is then used to compute offline the anthropogenic ΔpCO2 (defined as the difference between the atmospheric CO2 and its seawater partial pressure trends over three decades between the years 1970 and 2000. It is shown that the mean increasing trends in ΔpCO2 reflects an increase of the seasonal amplitude of ΔpCO2. In particular, the ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is decreasing (negative trends in ΔpCO2 in boreal (austral summer in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere in the subtropical gyres between 20° N(S and 40° N(S. In our simulation, the increased amplitude of the seasonal trends of the ΔpCO2 is mainly explained by the seasonal sea surface temperature (SST acting on the anthropogenic increase of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. It is also shown that the seasonality of the anthropogenic DIC has very little effect on the decadal trends. This study underscores the need for surface CO2 measurements that resolve the seasonal cycle throughout much of the extratropical oceans.

  8. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...... and subsequent intermittent-flow respirometry, suggesting that this procedural treatment may stress animals...

  9. Designing the next phase domestic satellites - A step to communication satellites as intelligent network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majus, J.

    1982-09-01

    Applications of satellite systems for telecommunication networks are discussed in terms of harmonizing the satellite capabilities with ground-based equipment, and design for the satellites are discussed. Modern network services are becoming increasingly digitized and use optic fiber switching and information transfer. Spaceborne nodes can be used for telephony, television, packet switching, leased lines, and teletex, with reserved sectors for point-to-point communications. Space systems are capable of 100% coverage, while terrestrial systems frequently have utilization rates near 5%, implying that demand-oriented satellite expansion of local systems is the suitable methodology. Technological requirements are explored, including exclusive use of digital processing, flexible flow rates, signal transmission times, and short time availability.

  10. Decreased sperm DNA fragmentation after surgical varicocelectomy is associated with increased pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Marij; Romijn, Johannes C; Wildhagen, Mark F; Veldhoven, Joke L M; Weber, Robertus F A; Dohle, Gert R

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated changes in sperm chromatin structure in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele, and the impact on the pregnancy rate. Included in the study were 49 men with at least a 1-year history of infertility, a palpable varicocele and oligospermia. World Health Organization semen analysis and sperm DNA damage expressed as the DNA fragmentation index using the sperm chromatin structure assay were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. Pregnancy (spontaneous and after assisted reproductive technique) was recorded 2 years after surgery. Mean sperm count, sperm concentration and sperm progressive motility improved significantly after varicocelectomy from 18.3 × 10(6) to 44.4 × 10(6), 4.8 × 10(6)/ml to 14.3 × 10(6)/ml and 16.7% to 26.6%, respectively (p DNA fragmentation index decreased significantly after surgery from 35.2% to 30.2% (p = 0.019). When the definition of greater than 50% improvement in sperm concentration after varicocelectomy was applied, 31 of 49 patients (63%) responded to varicocelectomy. After varicocelectomy 37% of the couples conceived spontaneously and 24% achieved pregnancy with assisted reproductive technique. The mean postoperative DNA fragmentation index was significantly higher in couples who did not conceive spontaneously or with assisted reproductive technique (p = 0.033). After varicocelectomy sperm parameters significantly improved and sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased. Low DNA fragmentation index values are associated with a higher pregnancy rate (spontaneous and with assisted reproductive technique). We suggest that varicocelectomy should be considered in infertile men with palpable varicocele, abnormal semen analysis and no major female factors. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of simulated increased gravity on the rate of aging of rats - Implications for the rate of living theory of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, A. C.; Ballard, R. C.; Blunden, M.; Miquel, J.; Lindseth, K. A.; Fleming, J.; Philpott, D. E.; Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    It was found that the rate of aging of 17 month old rats which had been exposed to 3.14 times normal gravity in an animal centrifuge for 8 months was larger than that of the controls as determined by the apparently elevated lipofuscin content in heart and kidney, reduced numbers and increased size of mitochondria of heart tissue, and inferior liver mitochondria respiration. Steady-state food intake per day per kg body weight, which is presumably proportional to rate of living or specific basal metabolic expenditure, was found to be about 18 percent higher than in the controls after an initial 2 month adaptation period. Although half of the centrifuged animals lived only a little shorter than the controls (average about 343 vs. 364 days on the average, statistically nonsignificant), the remaining half (longest survivors) lived on the centrifuge an average of 520 days (range 483-572) compared to an average of 574 days (range 502-615) for the controls, computed from the onset of centrifugation, or 11 percent shorter. These findings indicate that a moderate increase of the level of basal metabolism of young adult rats adapted to hypergravity compared to controls in normal gravity is accompanied by a roughly similar increase in the rate of organ aging and reduction of survival, in agreement with Pearl's (1928) rate of living theory of aging, previously experimentally demonstrated only in poikilotherms.

  12. Slip-rate increase at Parkfield in 1993 detected by high-precision EDM and borehole tensor strainmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.; Gwyther, R.L.; Hart, R.H.G.; Gladwin, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    On two of the instrument networks at Parkfield, California, the two-color Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) network and Borehole Tensor Strainmeter (BTSM) network, we have detected a rate change starting in 1993 that has persisted at least 5 years. These and other instruments capable of measuring crustal deformation were installed at Parkfield in anticipation of a moderate, M6, earthquake on the San Andreas fault. Many of these instruments have been in operation since the mid 1980s and have established an excellent baseline to judge changes in rate of deformation and the coherence of such changes between instruments. The onset of the observed rate change corresponds in time to two other changes at Parkfield. From late 1992 through late 1994, the Parkfield region had an increase in number of M4 to M5 earthquakes relative to the preceding 6 years. The deformation-rate change also coincides with the end of a 7-year period of sub-normal rainfall. Both the spatial coherence of the rate change and hydrological modeling suggest a tectonic explanation for the rate change. From these observations, we infer that the rate of slip increased over the period 1993-1998.On two of the instrument networks at Parkfield, California, the two-color Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) network and Borehole Tensor Strainmeter (BTSM) network, we have detected a rate change starting in 1993 that has persisted at least 5 years. These and other instruments capable of measuring crustal deformation were installed at Parkfield in anticipation of a moderate, M6, earthquake on the San Andreas fault. Many of these instruments have been in operation since the mid 1980s and have established an excellent baseline to judge changes in rate of deformation and the coherence of such changes between instruments. The onset of the observed rate change corresponds in time to two other changes at Parkfield. From late 1992 through late 1994, the Parkfield region had an increase in number of M4 to M5 earthquakes

  13. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  14. The Clinical and Socio-Economic Relevance of Increased IPMN Detection Rates and Management Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Christoph; Beyer, Georg; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Increased usage of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has led to a large increase in identified pancreatic cysts of up to 25% in population-based studies. The clinical and economic relevance of identifying so many cystic lesions has not been established. Compared to other organs such as liver or kidney, dysontogenetic pancreatic cysts are rare. Pancreatic cysts comprise a variety of benign, premalignant or malignant lesions; however, precise diagnosis before resection has an accuracy of only 80%. The focus of recent research was the malignant potential of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) with the aim of establishing clinical pathways addressing risk of malignancy, age and comorbidity, treatment-related morbidity and mortality as well as cost-effectiveness of treatment and surveillance. The focus of this review is to analyze the clinical and socio-economic relevance as well as the cost-benefit relation for IPMNs. For analysis, the following MESH terms were used to identify original articles, reviews, and guidelines in PubMed: ('intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm' OR 'pancreatic cysts') and (incidence OR relevance OR socio-economic OR economic OR cost-effectiveness OR cost-benefit). The retrieved publications were reviewed with a focus on clinical and socio-economic relevance in relation to the increasing incidence of IPMN. Addressing the increasing prevalence of pancreatic cystic lesions, recent consensus guidelines suggested criteria for risk stratification according to 'worrisome features' and 'high-risk stigmata'. Recent prospective cohort studies evaluated whether these can be applied in clinical practice. Evaluation of three different clinical scenarios with regard to costs and quality-adjusted life years suggested a better effectiveness of surveillance after initial risk stratification by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with cyst fluid analysis compared with immediate resection or follow-up without

  15. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Inputs from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Increase Responses of Planktonic Metabolic Rates to Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Conley, Daniel J; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Lindh, Markus V; Pinhassi, Jarone; Kritzberg, Emma S

    2015-10-06

    Increased anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems in the last century are threatening their biodiversity and functioning. Global warming and increases in nutrient loadings are two major stressors affecting these systems. Global warming is expected to increase both atmospheric and water temperatures and increase precipitation and terrestrial runoff, further increasing organic matter and nutrient inputs to coastal areas. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations frequently exceed those of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in aquatic systems. Many components of the DON pool have been shown to supply nitrogen nutrition to phytoplankton and bacteria. Predictions of how global warming and eutrophication will affect metabolic rates and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the future are needed to elucidate their impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we experimentally determine the effects of simultaneous DON additions and warming on planktonic community metabolism in the Baltic Sea, the largest coastal area suffering from eutrophication-driven hypoxia. Both bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic rates changed in relation to temperature. DON additions from wastewater treatment plant effluents significantly increased the activation energies for community respiration and gross primary production. Activation energies for community respiration were higher than those for gross primary production. Results support the prediction that warming of the Baltic Sea will enhance planktonic respiration rates faster than it will for planktonic primary production. Higher increases in respiration rates than in production may lead to the depletion of the oxygen pool, further aggravating hypoxia in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  17. Radial growth rate increases in naturally occurring ponderosa pine trees: a late-20th century CO2 fertilization effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Peter T; Knapp, Paul A

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if gradually increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, as opposed to 'step' increases commonly employed in controlled studies, have a positive impact on radial growth rates of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in natural environments, and to determine the spatial extent and variability of this growth enhancement. We developed a series of tree-ring chronologies from minimally disturbed sites across a spectrum of environmental conditions. A series of difference of means tests were used to compare radial growth post-1950, when the impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 are best expressed, with that pre-1950. Spearman's correlation was used to relate site stress to growth-rate changes. Significant increases in radial growth rates occurred post-1950, especially during drought years, with the greatest increases generally found at the most water-limited sites. Site harshness is positively related to enhanced radial growth rates. Atmospheric CO2 fertilization is probably operative, having a positive effect on radial growth rates of ponderosa pine through increasing water-use efficiency. A CO2-driven growth enhancement may affect ponderosa pine growing under both natural and controlled conditions.

  18. Major Depressive Symptoms Increase 3-Year Mortality Rate in Patients with Mild Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Depression and dementia are commonly concurrent and are both associated with increased mortality among older people. However, little is known about whether home-dwelling patients newly diagnosed with mild dementia coexisting with depressive symptoms have excess mortality. We conducted a post hoc...... them, 12 were with MD-S at baseline. Multivariable analysis adjusting for the potential confounders (age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, education, BMI, household status, MMSE, CCI, QoL-AD, NPIQ, ADSC-ADL, medication, and RCT allocation) showed that patients with MD-S had a 2.5-fold higher...

  19. Empathic nonverbal behavior increases ratings of both warmth and competence in a medical context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Diego A.; Kelley, John M.; Heberlein, Andrea S.; Baer, Lee; Riess, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In medicine, it is critical that clinicians demonstrate both empathy (perceived as warmth) and competence. Perceptions of these qualities are often intuitive and are based on nonverbal behavior. Emphasizing both warmth and competence may prove problematic, however, because there is evidence that they are inversely related in other settings. We hypothesize that perceptions of physician competence will instead be positively correlated with perceptions of physician warmth and empathy, potentially due to changing conceptions of the physician’s role. We test this hypothesis in an analog medical context using a large online sample, manipulating physician nonverbal behaviors suggested to communicate empathy (e.g. eye contact) and competence (the physician’s white coat). Participants rated physicians displaying empathic nonverbal behavior as more empathic, warm, and more competent than physicians displaying unempathic nonverbal behavior, adjusting for mood. We found no warmth/competence tradeoff and, additionally, no significant effects of the white coat. Further, compared with male participants, female participants perceived physicians displaying unempathic nonverbal behavior as less empathic. Given the significant consequences of clinician empathy, it is important for clinicians to learn how nonverbal behavior contributes to perceptions of warmth, and use it as another tool to improve their patients’ emotional and physical health. PMID:28505180

  20. Elective induction of labour increases caesarean section rate in low risk multiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Y; Michiels, I; Martens, G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the risk of secondary caesarean section in induced versus spontaneous labour in the second delivery of low risk women who had a vaginal delivery in their first pregnancy. The data were retrospective cohort from an existing regional database, comparing term (between 37 and 42 gestational weeks) second deliveries in cephalic position in women who had previously given vaginal birth. Diabetes, hypertension and multiple pregnancy were excluded as were those with a birth weight less than 2500 g or more than 4500 g. The difference was not significant when induction was performed after 41 weeks. The results showed a total number of 29693 deliveries were included, 21243 in spontaneous labour and 8450 after induction of labour. In the spontaneous group 312 (1.5%) underwent secondary caesarean section, as compared to 237 (2.8%) in the induced group, p elective induction of labour in low risk women who have previously given vaginal birth is associated with an almost doubled rate of secondary caesarean section if performed before 41 weeks.

  1. The Environments of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Star Formation Rates increase with Density

    CERN Document Server

    Tekola, Abiy G; Berlind, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the environments and star formation relationships of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRG) in comparison to other types of local and distant z~1 galaxies. The infrared (IR) galaxies are drawn from the IRAS sample. The density of the environment is quantified using 6dF and Point Source Catalogue redshift survey (PSCz) galaxies in a cylinder of 2 Mpc radius and 10 Mpc length. Our most important result shows the existence of a dramatic density difference between local LIRGs and local non-LIRG IR galaxies. LIRGs live in denser environments than non-LIRG IR galaxies implying that L_IR = 10^11 L_sun marks an important transition point among IR-selected local galaxies. We also find that there is a strong correlation between the densities around LIRGs and their L_IR luminosity. On the other hand, the IR-activity of non-LIRG IR galaxies does not show any dependence on environment. Moreover, it is noted that the star formation rate and density around LIRGs are correlated. This trend in local LIRGs i...

  2. Structure-based engineering increased the catalytic turnover rate of a novel phenazine prenyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Zocher

    Full Text Available Prenyltransferases (PTs catalyze the regioselective transfer of prenyl moieties onto aromatic substrates in biosynthetic pathways of microbial secondary metabolites. Therefore, these enzymes contribute to the chemical diversity of natural products. Prenylation is frequently essential for the pharmacological properties of these metabolites, including their antibiotic and antitumor activities. Recently, the first phenazine PTs, termed EpzP and PpzP, were isolated and biochemically characterized. The two enzymes play a central role in the biosynthesis of endophenazines by catalyzing the regiospecific prenylation of 5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylic acid (dhPCA in the secondary metabolism of two different Streptomyces strains. Here we report crystal structures of EpzP in its unliganded state as well as bound to S-thiolodiphosphate (SPP, thus defining the first three-dimensional structures for any phenazine PT. A model of a ternary complex resulted from in silico modeling of dhPCA and site-directed mutagenesis. The structural analysis provides detailed insight into the likely mechanism of phenazine prenylation. The catalytic mechanism suggested by the structure identifies amino acids that are required for catalysis. Inspection of the structures and the model of the ternary complex furthermore allowed us to rationally engineer EpzP variants with up to 14-fold higher catalytic reaction rate compared to the wild-type enzyme. This study therefore provides a solid foundation for additional enzyme modifications that should result in efficient, tailor-made biocatalysts for phenazines production.

  3. Stochastic Rating of Storage Systems in Isolated Networks with Increasing Wave Energy Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Tedeschi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The future success of wave energy in the renewable energy mix depends on the technical advancements of the specific components and systems, on the grid access availability and, ultimately, on the economical profitability of the investment. Small and remote islands represent an ideal framework for wave energy exploitation, due both to resource availability and to the current high cost of electricity that mostly relies on diesel generation. Energy storage can be the enabling technology to match the intermittent power generation from waves to the energy needs of the local community. In this paper real data from La Palma, in the Canary Islands, are used as a basis for the considered test case. As a first step the study quantifies the expected power production from Wave Energy Converter (WEC arrays, based on data from the Lifesaver point absorber developed by Fred. Olsen. Then, a stochastic optimization approach is applied to evaluate the convenience of energy storage introduction for reducing the final cost of energy and to define the corresponding optimal rating of the storage devices.

  4. Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, S

    1999-05-20

    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the lines of sight of their optics must be aligned for the duration of the communication. The satellite pointing and tracking systems perform the alignment. The satellite pointing systems vibrate because of tracking noise and mechanical impacts (such as thruster operation, the antenna pointing mechanism, the solar array driver, navigation noise, tracking noise). These vibrations increase the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. An expression is derived for adaptive transmitter power that compensates for vibration effects in heterodyne laser satellite links. This compensation makes it possible to keep the link BER performance constant for changes in vibration amplitudes. The motivation for constant BER is derived from the requirement for future satellite communication networks with high quality of service. A practical situation of a two-low-Earth-orbit satellite communication link is given. From the results of the example it is seen that the required power for a given BER increases almost exponentially for linear increase in vibration amplitude.

  5. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  6. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  7. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  8. Heat transfer intensification by increasing vapor flow rate in flat heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinceana, Silviu; Mihai, Ioan; Beniuga, Marius; Suciu, Cornel

    2015-02-01

    Flat heat pipes have various technical applications, one of the most important being the cooling of electronic components[9]. Their continuous development is due to the fact that these devices permit heat transfer without external energetic contribution. The practical exploitation of flat heat pipes however is limited by the fact that dissipated power can only reach a few hundred watts. The present paper aims to advance a new method for the intensification of convective heat transfer. A centrifugal mini impeller, driven by a turntable which incorporates four permanent magnets was designed. These magnets are put in motion by another rotor, which in its turn includes two permanent magnets and is driven by a mini electrical motor. Rotation of the centrifugal blades generates speed and pressure increase of the cooling agent brought to vapor state within the flat micro heat pipe. It's well known that the liquid suffers biphasic transformations during heat transfer inside the heat pipe. Over the hotspot (the heat source being the electronic component) generated at one end of the heat pipe, convective heat transfer occurs, leading to sudden vaporization of the liquid. Pressures generated by newly formed vapors push them towards the opposite end of the flat heat pipe, where a finned mini heat sink is usually placed. The mini-heat exchanger is air-cooled, thus creating a cold spot, where vapors condensate. The proposed method contributes to vapor flow intensification by increasing their transport speed and thus leading to more intense cooling of the heat pipe.

  9. Boulders increase resistance to clear-cut logging but not subsequent recolonization rates of boreal bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalholz, Martin; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2011-12-01

    The extent to which a plant assemblage might recolonize a disturbed system is in general related to the availability of propagule sources and sites with appropriate conditions for establishment. Both these factors might be sensitive to aspects of spatial heterogeneity. Microtopographic variation may enhance initial resistance by reducing the impact of the disturbance and facilitating establishment of incoming propagules by providing shaded "safe-sites". This study explores the influence of microtopographic heterogeneity (caused by variation in surface boulder cover) on the recolonization of closed-canopy forest floor bryophytes using a chronosequence of 75 spruce-dominated forests in south-central Sweden (2-163 years after clear-cutting). We found that high boulder cover did increase survival and subsequent persistence in young forests at both investigated scales (i.e. 1,000 and 100 m(2)), although this pattern became less evident on the smaller spatial scale. Species accumulation in boulder-poor subplots was not different when surrounded by boulder-rich compared with boulder-poor subplots suggesting short-distance recolonization from boulder-created refugia to be of little importance during recolonization. To conclude, it seems that boulders increase initial resistance to clear-cutting for this bryophyte guild, but that the subsequent recolonization process is more likely to depend on external propagule sources and factors affecting establishment such as the microclimate in the developing stand.

  10. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardini, Tonino; Sicari, Rosa; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Picano, Eugenio

    2011-11-21

    The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP). We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years) referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1); 14 patients (Group 2) showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  11. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C.; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C) and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax) at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716). Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA) between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation. PMID:28143947

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Deed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716. Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation.

  14. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, John F; DeJarnette, J M; Geary, Thomas W; Kennedy, Chelsey E; Suarez, Susan S; Sutovsky, Miriam; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant sperm phenotypes coincide with the expression of unique sperm surface determinants that can be probed by objective, biomarker-based semen analysis and targeted as ligands for semen purification. This study evaluated a nanoparticle-based magnetic purification method that removes defective spermatozoa (∼30% of sample) from bull semen and improves sperm sample viability and fertilizing ability in vitro and in vivo. Two types of nanoparticles were developed: a particle coated with antibody against ubiquitin, which is present on the surface of defective spermatozoa, and a particle coated with the lectin peanut agglutinin, which binds to glycans exposed by acrosomal damage. In a 2 yr artificial insemination field trial with 798 cows, a conception rate of 64.5% ± 3.7% was achieved with a 10 × 10(6) sperm dose of peanut agglutinin-nanopurified spermatozoa, comparable to a control nonpurified full dose of 20 × 10(6) spermatozoa per dose (63.3% ± 3.2%) and significantly higher than a 10 × 10(6) sperm dose of nonpurified control semen (53.7% ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). A total of 466 healthy calves were delivered, and no negative side effects were observed in the inseminated animals or offspring. Because the method is inexpensive and can be fully integrated in current protocols for semen cryopreservation, it is feasible for use in the artificial insemination industry to improve fertility with reduced sperm dosage inseminations. Spermatology will benefit from nanopurification methodology by gaining new tools for the identification of candidate biomarkers of sperm quality such as binder of sperm protein 5 (BSP5), described in the present study.

  15. Rate of elimination of Wolbachia pipientis by doxycycline in vitro increases following drug withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, Benjamin L; Rodgers, Lisa; Trees, Alexander J

    2006-03-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is an obligate intracellular bacterium within the family Anaplasmataceae that infects many terrestrial arthropods and arthropod-transmitted nematodes (filariae). Several filarial species are major human pathogens, and antibiotics with activity against Wolbachia offer a promising new therapeutic approach, since the adult worms are relatively refractory to conventional anthelmintics but depend on Wolbachia for reproduction and viability. In a natural filarial parasite of cattle, Onchocerca ochengi, intermittent chemotherapy is adulticidal whereas the equivalent dose administered as a continuous treatment is not. To investigate this further and to aid the design of efficacious regimens for human therapy, we used Wolbachia-infected Aedes albopictus mosquito cells in vitro. Here, we describe for the first time the accelerated depletion of bacteria after antibiotic withdrawal relative to the rate of elimination in the continuous presence of the drug. Mosquito cells were incubated with doxycycline while changes in 16S (bacterial) and 18S (host) rRNA and rRNA genes were determined by quantitative PCR assays. In cultures treated for 7 or 14 days followed by 7 days of drug withdrawal, the Wolbachia-to-Aedes rRNA ratio declined by approximately 6 log, whereas immediately after 14 or 21 days of continuous treatment, the reduction was only approximately 4 log (P < 0.05). However, low levels of 16S rRNA remained after 21 days of treatment, irrespective of whether doxycycline was withdrawn. Application of similar methodology to related intracellular bacteria may reveal that this posttreatment effect is not restricted to Wolbachia and could have wider implications for the design of intermittent regimens for antibiotic chemotherapy.

  16. No increase in colonization rate of boreal bryophytes close to propagule sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the process of recolonization, and which temporal and spatial scale it operates on, is central to our understanding of species distributions, metapopulation dynamics, regional extinction risks, and ecosystem resilience. In this study the recolonization pattern of boreal forest bryophytes was investigated in stands that had been clear-cut approximately 50 years ago. Species known to be sensitive to clear-cutting were inventoried in 23 mature forest stands and in adjacent young stands at 10, 20, 40, and 80 m from the former forest-clear-cut edge. Based on previous studies showing that bryophytes tend to be dispersal limited at local population levels, it was hypothesized that the recolonizaton of many bryophyte species should be higher closer to the mature forest edge. It was also hypothesized that some species would show full recovery, while for others the young stands would still be inhospitable. All these patterns were found for individual species, but the main pattern was, however, quite different. Most species had started to recolonize the young stands (i.e., little or much, depending on species), but without any tendency of a higher colonization rate close to the mature stands. Possible explanations for the limited signs of positive influence of local propagule sources might be microsite limitation or that the local propagule availability displays a rapid decline from its sources and is masked by a higher regional propagule rain. For organisms with light propagules able to build up a regional background level, the role of mature forest stands in the recolonization process of the matrix may rather be to contribute to the regional background level of spores in the landscape than to affect the adjacent stands directly.

  17. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  18. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ΦX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  19. Methods to increase the rate of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chwastek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of food preservation such as freezing, freeze drying (lyophilization, vacuum drying, convection drying are often supplemented by new technologies that enable obtaining of high quality products. Osmotic dehydration is more and more often used during processing of fruits and vegetables. This method allows maintaining good organoleptic and functional properties in the finished product. Obtaining the desired degree of dehydration or saturation of the material with an osmoactive substance often requires  elongation of time or use of high temperatures. In recent years much attention was devoted to techniques aimed at increasing the mass transfer between the dehydrated material and the hypertonic solution. The work reviews the literature focused on methods of streamlining the process of osmotic dehydration which include the use of: ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, vacuum osmotic dehydration and pulsed electric field.

  20. Designing Flexible GUI to Increase the Acceptance Rate of Product Data Management Systems in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2011-01-01

    Product Data Management (PDM) desktop and web based systems maintain the organizational technical and managerial data to increase the quality of products by improving the processes of development, business process flows, change management, product structure management, project tracking and resource planning. Though PDM is heavily benefiting industry but PDM community is facing a very serious unresolved issue in PDM system development with flexible and user friendly graphical user interface for efficient human machine communication. PDM systems offer different services and functionalities at a time but the graphical user interfaces of most of the PDM systems are not designed in a way that a user (especially a new user) can easily learn and use them. Targeting this issue, a thorough research was conducted in field of Human Computer Interaction; resultant data provides the information about graphical user interface development using rich internet applications. The accomplished goal of this research was to suppor...

  1. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  2. Increasing the admission rate to secondary school: The case of primary school student career guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Anders; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj

    Although several studies investigate the effects of school resources on student performance, these studies tend to focus more on intervention effect sizes than on their cost-effectiveness. Exploiting policy-induced variation in Denmark and using high-quality administrative data, we investigate...... the effects of a school intervention that introduces structured student career guidance in lower secondary school on upper secondary school admission. Disregarding the sunk-cost of implementation, the reform was cost-neutral. In a difference-in-difference framework we find that the reform increases admission...... to upper secondary school between 4.0-6.3 percentage points for immigrants, but shows at best small improvements for the native students....

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION MORBIDITY RATE DUE TO INCREASED ENERGY DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perticas Diana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development as general acceptance is that form of ensuring the bio-socio-economic needs of the present generation without affecting the existence and development opportunities for the generations to come. Secondary, the concept refers to the protection of the environment that is at present greatly affected by externalities of the socio-economic activity of previous and present generations. As it is shown in this paper the negative effects of the environmental pollution records higher and higher values in a short period of time of which we analyze their impact on population health, focusing on the situation of Romania. I started the analysis from the assumptions that the health of an organism is a normal physical and physiological state, being the opposite of the concept disease. The most common diseases are: hereditary, infectious, internal, infantile, autoimmune, allergic, socio-professional, tumorous, degenerative diseases etc. Of these infant, allergic, tumorous and autoimmune diseases are mainly generated by environmental pollution. Extremely special, regarding the incidence of harmful environmental factors, are the socio-professional diseases or of civilization that are represented by those diseases that are more common in industrialized countries than in the so called third world. In respect to air pollution-generated illnesses with products resulting from burning fossil fuels are highlighted respiratory diseases, immunological diseases, benign and malignant neoplasm of the airways and also dermatitis. Most activities follow sooner or later to increase welfare. Economic growth, environmental protection as well as fulfilling social needs of individuals are only a few elements that lead to the increase of population welfare. If we accept the above mentioned things, then it means that promoting the realisation of sustainable development based on clean and renewable resources and the rationally using the conventional ones is an

  4. Antarctic ice-mass balance 2003 to 2012: regional reanalysis of GRACE satellite gravimetry measurements with improved estimate of glacial-isostatic adjustment based on GPS uplift rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasgen, I.; Konrad, H.; Ivins, E.R.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Bamber, J.L.; Martinec, Z.; Klemann, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present regional-scale mass balances for 25 drainage basins of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) from satellite observations of the Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for time period January 2003 to September 2012. Satellite gravimetry estimates of the AIS mass balance are strongly influenced by

  5. Antarctic ice-mass balance 2003 to 2012: regional reanalysis of GRACE satellite gravimetry measurements with improved estimate of glacial-isostatic adjustment based on GPS uplift rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasgen, I.; Konrad, H.; Ivins, E.R.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Bamber, J.L.; Martinec, Z.; Klemann, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present regional-scale mass balances for 25 drainage basins of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) from satellite observations of the Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for time period January 2003 to September 2012. Satellite gravimetry estimates of the AIS mass balance are strongly influenced by

  6. Alcohol additives to gasoline: an economic way for extending supplies of fuels and for increasing octane ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1979-08-01

    Methods for increasing the octane rating of unleaded gasoline, including the use of fermentation alcohols, are discussed. It is postulated that the public has been misinformed by DOE and the oil companies about the benefits and commercialization of ethanol for fuel use. Ethanol increases the octane rating by 2 points. It takes 5% more crude oil to produce the same octane rating as regular gas plus alcohol. There is also evidence that performance as measured in miles/gallon also increases with gasohol. The total utility factor using ethanol as an octane booster additive is 3.75 or 1 Btu ethanol replaces 3.75 Btu gasoline. This value multiplied by 0.5 factor (suggested by gasohol opponents as the value for energy balance in ethanol production worst-case analysis) there is still a utility factor of 1.87. The author makes recommendations concerning the economics of the situation.

  7. Quantitative assessment of an increase of myocardial {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI accumulation during exercise. Usefulness of response rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Fujiwara, Satomi; Atsumi, Hiroyuki; Akutsu, Toru; Komatani, Akio; Yamaguchi, Koichi [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-07-01

    The increase of myocardial {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI accumulation during exercise was evaluated quantitatively, and the feasibility of response rate as a noninvasive marker of coronary stenosis was tested. Myocardial perfusion imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI during exercise and at rest was performed in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. A dose of 296 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was injected intravenously at maximal treadmill exercise, and myocardial image was obtained 90 min later (1st image). Then, 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was administered at rest, and myocardial image was repeated (2nd image). These images were corrected for a decay and injected dose, and the 1st image was subtracted from the 2nd image to obtain the rest image. An increase of myocardial accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI during exercise was defined as (exercise image-rest image) x 100/rest image (response rate). A response rate of a patient with normal coronary artery was 102%, whereas a response rate in the area of severe coronary stenosis was 21% in a patients with angina pectoris. After successful PTCA to a stenosed coronary artery, a response rate increased to 75% in this patient. Coronary perfusion reserve during exercise can be assessed noninvasively by {sup 99M}Tc-MIBI. Response rate of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI provides additional information to conventional perfusion imaging and may be a new marker of severity of coronary artery disease. (author)

  8. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  9. Increasing body mass index predicts increasing difficulty, failure rate, and time to discovery of failure of epidural anesthesia in laboring patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Ayse O; Riess, Matthias L; Ellinas, Elizabeth H

    2017-02-01

    Obese parturients both greatly benefit from neuraxial techniques, and may represent a technical challenge to obstetric anesthesiologists. Several studies address the topic of obesity and neuraxial analgesia in general, but few offer well described definitions or rates of "difficulty" and "failure" of labor epidural analgesia. Providing those definitions, we hypothesized that increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative outcomes in both categories and increased time needed for epidural placement. Single center retrospective chart review. Labor and Delivery Unit of an inner city academic teaching hospital. 2485 parturients, ASA status 2 to 4, receiving labor epidural analgesia for anticipated vaginal delivery. None. We reviewed quality assurance and anesthesia records over a 12-month period. "Failure" was defined as either inadequate analgesia or a positive test dose, requiring replacement, and/or when the anesthesia record stated they failed. "Difficulty" was defined as six or more needle redirections or a note indicating difficulty in the anesthesia record. Overall epidural failure and difficulty rates were 4.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Patients with a BMI of 30kg/m(2) or higher had a higher chance of both failure and difficulty with two and almost three fold increases, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that failure was best predicted by BMI and less provider training while difficulty was best predicted by BMI. Additionally, increased BMI was associated with increased time of discovery of epidural catheter failure. Obesity is associated with increasing technical difficulty and failure of neuraxial analgesia for labor. Practitioners should consider allotting extra time for obese parturients in order to manage potential problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased ventilation in runners during running as compared to walking at similar metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M J; Dunn, C J; Pittman, C L; Kerr, W C; Adair, N E

    1996-01-01

    At similar levels of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2), runners have been shown to have a greater minute ventilation (VE) during running as compared to walking. The mechanism responsible for these differences has yet to be identified. To determine if these differences are a result of differences in acid-base status, potassium (K+), norepinephrine and/or epinephrine levels, seven well-trained runners completed walk and run tests at similar VO2 and VCO2 levels. The occurrence of entrainment of the breathing and stride frequencies during both walking and running was also determined. VE was significantly greater during the run as compared to the walk, 73.7 (2.2) versus 68.6 (2.0) l.min-1, respectively, despite the similarity in VO2 and VCO2 levels. Alveolar ventilation was not significantly different between the run and the walk, 60.4 (4.7) versus 59.6 (4.4) l.min-1, respectively. Dead space ventilation was found to be significantly greater during running as compared to walking, 13.3 (3.2) versus 9.0 (4.7) l.min-1, respectively. The increases in VE were due to increases in breathing frequency and decreases in tidal volume during the run as compared to the walk. Arterial partial pressures of CO2 (PaCO2) were not significantly different when comparing walking and running to rest values nor when comparing walking and running. Arterial pH was significantly lower during walking as compared to rest and running. Bicarbonate levels were significantly lower during walking as compared to rest. Lactate was significantly greater during walking as compared to rest and to running. K+ levels were significantly higher during walking and running as compared to rest. Epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were not significantly different between running and walking. During the walk, six of the seven subjects entrained their breathing frequency to the stride frequency, and during the run three of the seven subjects demonstrated entrainment. Results from this

  11. Inhaled histamine increases the rate of absorption of sodium cromoglycate from the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R; Fowler, C; Simpson, S; Renwick, A G; Holgate, S T

    1992-01-01

    Since many factors may alter lung epithelial permeability (LEP) to water soluble molecules, the effect of histamine on the absorption and clearance of inhaled sodium cromoglycate was examined in seven mildly asthmatic patients with hyperresponsive airways and eight normal subjects. The subjects underwent histamine challenge to determine the provocative concentration of histamine required to reduce the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by 20% (PC20) from baseline. On two further visits they inhaled either saline placebo or histamine and 5 min later inhaled an aerosol containing sodium cromoglycate. Measurements of FEV1 were made and blood samples taken for analysis of plasma sodium cromoglycate concentration at intervals for 3 h. In the asthmatic group histamine inhalation led to a 24 +/- 4% reduction in FEV1 but had no effect on the normal subjects. When compared with inhaled saline, histamine increased the initial pulmonary absorption of SCG without influencing the total amount of drug absorbed in both asthmatics and normals. These observations suggest that the pharmacokinetics of inhaled sodium cromoglycate may be altered significantly by inflammatory mediators present at the site of drug absorption from the airways. PMID:1576060

  12. Rates of oxygen uptake increase independently of changes in heart rate in late stages of development and at hatching in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (fH), heart mass (Mh) and body mass (Mb) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean fH and VO2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while fH was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while fH was reduced by half resulting in a further 3.6 fold increase in oxygen pulse. There was an overall negative correlation between mean fH and VO2 when data from hatchlings was included. Thus, predicting metabolic rate as VO2 from measurements of fH is not possible in embryonic reptiles. Convective transport of oxygen to supply metabolism during embryonic incubation was more reliably indicated as an index of cardiac output (COi) derived from the product of fH and Mh. However, a thorough analysis of factors determining rates of oxygen supply during development and eclosion in reptiles will require cannulation of blood vessels that proved impossible in the present study, to determine oxygen carrying capacity by the blood and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V diff), plus patterns of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous increases in specific growth rate and specific lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris through UV-induced reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in algae-based bio-oil production is to simultaneously enhance specific growth rates and specific lipid content. We have demonstrated simultaneous increases in both the above in Chlorella vulgaris through reactive species (RS) induced under ultraviolet (UV) A and UVB light treatments. We postulated that the changes in photosystem (PS) stoichiometry and antenna size were responsible for the increases in specific growth rate. UVB treatment excited PSII, which resulted in a twofold to sevenfold increase in PSII/PSI ratio compared to control. An excited PSII caused a 2.7-fold increase in the specific levels of superoxide and a twofold increase in the specific levels of hydroxyl radicals. We have established that the increased specific intracellular RS (si-RS) levels increased the PSII antenna size by a significant 10-fold as compared to control. In addition, the 8.2-fold increase in specific lipid content was directly related to the si-RS levels. We have also demonstrated that the RS induced under UVA treatment led to a 3.2-fold increase in the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio. Based on the findings, we have proposed and demonstrated a UV-based strategy, which achieved an 8.8-fold increase in volumetric lipid productivity.

  14. Chronic non-cholestatic liver disease is not associated with an increased fracture rate in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Lebensztejn, Dariusz M; Skiba, Elzbieta; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E; Abramowicz, Pawel; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, Janina; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2011-05-01

    Chronic liver disease in adults is a risk factor of osteoporosis, but little is known about risk of fractures in children with non-cholestatic liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate associations among the severity of liver fibrosis, bone mass and low-energy fractures in children. History of fractures, anthropometry, and bone mass and size were examined in 39 Caucasian children (25 boys, 14 girls) aged 7.1-18 years (mean 11.9 ± 3.1) with chronic hepatitis B and liver fibrosis evidenced by liver biopsy. Severity of liver fibrosis was based on histological classification according to the method of Batts and Ludwig (mild, 1-2 scores; advanced, 3 scores) and Ishak (1-3 and 4-5 scores, respectively). Bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and body composition were determined in the total body and lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Seven subjects (4 girls, 3 boys; 18% of the sample) had low BMD in the total body and lumbar spine region (Z-scores below -2.0). No associations were found among BMC, BMD, bone size and the severity of liver fibrosis. Nine boys (36% of all boys) and one girl reported repeated fractures (forearm, wrist, tibia, ankle, humerus), showing trends similar to the prevalence in general population. Fractures were neither associated with lower BMD/BMC nor with scores of liver fibrosis. Deficits in BMD in children with chronic hepatitis B are not associated with the severity of liver fibrosis. This study suggests that non-cholestatic liver disease does not increase the risk of low-energy fractures during growth. From the practical perspective, however, children with chronic liver disease should be screened for history and clinical risk factors for fractures rather than referred to bone density testing.

  15. Heparins crossover in percutaneous coronary interventions: a real issue with increasing rate of transradial procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Rigattieri, Stefano; Calcagno, Simone; Mancone, Massimo; Pendenza, Gianluca; Cera, Maria; Danza, Aurora Ilaria; Di Russo, Cristian; Bruno, Pasqualina; Fedele, Silvio; Pugliese, Francesco Rocco; Sardella, Gennaro

    2015-07-01

    Current guidelines give a class III recommendation to the intraprocedural use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) in patients pretreated with enoxaparin. The aim of our study was to evaluate bleeding complications in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) performed using intraprocedural crossover of heparin therapy. We retrospectively evaluated all PCIs performed at two Italian hospitals since January 2011 to December 2013. After a propensity-matched analysis, patients were divided into two groups (with a ratio 1 : 2) according to intraprocedural crossover of heparins (from enoxaparin to UFH) (Group 1) or intraprocedural UFH alone (Group 2). The primary end-point was a haemoglobin drop of at least 3 g/dl within 48 h after the procedure. During the 3 years analysed, 3224 patients underwent PCI, and after the propensity analysis, 309 patients were considered eligible for our study: 104 patients in Group 1 (69 ± 12 years, 78% men) and 205 patients in Group 2 (69 ± 13 years, 80% men, P = NS). There were no significant differences between the two groups for BMI, periprocedural use of antiplatelet therapy, baseline haemoglobin haematocrit or platelets levels. The primary end-point did not differ between the two groups (2.9% in Group 1 and 3.4% in Group 2, P = 0.550). Also, nadir of haematocrit or haemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Finally, in hospital, major adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events did not differ between the two groups (1.9% in Group 1 and 3.9% in Group 2, P = 0.50). In this retrospective analysis of a large PCI database, the 'heparins crossover' during PCI was not associated with increased bleeding risk.

  16. Does Amniocentesis Increase the Rates of Fetal Loss and Poor Pregnancy Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk of fetal loss and poor pregnancy outcomes associated with amniocentesis procedures on patients in our clinic in the last 5 years. Material and Method: This retrospective study was conducted by examining the hospital records and genetic centre records of 387 patients who underwent amniocentesis at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinic of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Medical Faculty between January 2011 and July 2015. A control group was formed of 250 low-risk patients who attended the clinic and did not have amniocentesis applied. Results:Throughout the study period there were 688 patients with an indication for amniocentesis. Of these, amniocentesis was applied to 387 patients and 43.8% refused the amniocentesis. The most common amniocentesis indication was the scanning test for Downs syndrome (57.6% followed by older maternal age (22.5%. Of the patients who underwent amniocentesis, chromosomal abnormality was determined in 24 (6.2%, the most common of which was Downs syndrome (54%. Fetal loss following amniocentesis was seen in 2 patients (0.5%. When the total poor pregnancy outcomes were examined, a poor outcome was determined in 8 of the amniocentesis group and in 5 of the control group and the difference beween the 2 groups was not statistically significant (p=0.263. Discussion: Amniocentesis is an invasive prenatal test in frequent current use. No increase in pregnancy complications was observed associated with the procedure. Before the application of amniocentesis, the patient must be given detailed information about the procedure and the outcomes.

  17. Using re-randomization to increase the recruitment rate in clinical trials - an assessment of three clinical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Brennan C

    2016-12-13

    Patient recruitment in clinical trials is often challenging, and as a result, many trials are stopped early due to insufficient recruitment. The re-randomization design allows patients to be re-enrolled and re-randomized for each new treatment episode that they experience. Because it allows multiple enrollments for each patient, this design has been proposed as a way to increase the recruitment rate in clinical trials. However, it is unknown to what extent recruitment could be increased in practice. We modelled the expected recruitment rate for parallel-group and re-randomization trials in different settings based on estimates from real trials and datasets. We considered three clinical areas: in vitro fertilization, severe asthma exacerbations, and acute sickle cell pain crises. We compared the two designs in terms of the expected time to complete recruitment, and the sample size recruited over a fixed recruitment period. Across the different scenarios we considered, we estimated that re-randomization could reduce the expected time to complete recruitment by between 4 and 22 months (relative reductions of 19% and 45%), or increase the sample size recruited over a fixed recruitment period by between 29% and 171%. Re-randomization can increase recruitment most for trials with a short follow-up period, a long trial recruitment duration, and patients with high rates of treatment episodes. Re-randomization has the potential to increase the recruitment rate in certain settings, and could lead to quicker and more efficient trials in these scenarios.

  18. Increasing the rate of heating: a potential therapeutic approach for achieving synergistic tumour killing in combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    A synergistic cancer cell killing effect of sub-lethal hyperthermia and chemotherapy has been reported extensively. In this study, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted in order to investigate the role of heating rate in achieving a synergistic effect. The mode of cell death, induction of thermal tolerance and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated MDR following two different rates of heating were studied. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. A rapid rate hyperthermia was achieved by near infrared laser (NIR) excited indocyanine green (ICG) dye (absorption maximum at 808 nm, ideal for tissue penetration). A slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. The potentiating effect of hyperthermia to chemotherapy can be maximised by increasing the rate of heating. When delivered at the same thermal dose, a rapid increase in temperature from 37°C to 43°C caused more cell membrane damage than gradually heating the cells from 37°C to 43°C and thus allowed for more intracellular accumulation of DOX. Meanwhile, the rapid rate laser-ICG hyperthermia at 43°C caused cell necrosis whereas the slow rate incubator hyperthermia at 43°C induced mild apoptosis. At 43°C a positive correlation between thermal tolerance and the length of hyperthermia exposure is identified. This study shows that by increasing the rate of heating, less thermal dose is needed in order to overcome P-gp mediated MDR.

  19. Inducing rat brain CYP2D with nicotine increases the rate of codeine tolerance; predicting the rate of tolerance from acute analgesic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Douglas M; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2017-08-21

    Repeated opioid administration produces analgesic tolerance, which may lead to dose escalation. Brain CYP2D metabolizes codeine to morphine, a bioactivation step required for codeine analgesia. Higher brain, but not liver, CYP2D is found in smokers and nicotine induces rat brain, but not liver, CYP2D expression and activity. Nicotine induction of rat brain CYP2D increases acute codeine conversion to morphine, and analgesia, however the role of brain CYP2D on the effects of repeated codeine exposure and tolerance is unknown. Rats were pretreated with nicotine (brain CYP2D inducer; 1mg/kg subcutaneously) or vehicle (saline; 1ml/kg subcutaneously). Codeine (40-60mg/kg oral-gavage) or morphine (20-30mg/kg oral-gavage) was administered daily and analgesia was assessed daily using the tail-flick reflex assay. Nicotine (versus saline) pretreatment increased acute codeine analgesia (1.32-fold change in AUC0-60min; p0.8), or the rate of morphine tolerance (8.1%/day versus 7.6%; p>0.9). The rate of both codeine and morphine tolerance (loss in peak analgesia from day 1 to day 4) correlated with initial analgesic response on day 1 (R=0.97, p<001). Increasing brain CYP2D altered initial analgesia and subsequent rate of tolerance. Variation in an individual's initial response to analgesic (e.g. high initial dose, smoking) may affect the rate of tolerance, and thereby the risk for dose escalation and/or opioid dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wildfowl: dispersal ranges and rates determined from large-scale satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Migratory birds are major candidates for long-distance dispersal of zoonotic pathogens. In recent years, wildfowl have been suspected of contributing to the rapid geographic spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. Experimental infection studies reveal that some wild ducks, geese and swans shed this virus asymptomatically and hence have the potential to spread it as they move. 2. We evaluate the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 viruses by wildfowl through an analysis of the movement range and movement rate of birds monitored by satellite telemetry in relation to the apparent asymptomatic infection duration (AID) measured in experimental studies. We analysed the first large-scale data set of wildfowl movements, including 228 birds from 19 species monitored by satellite telemetry in 2006–2009, over HPAI H5N1 affected regions of Asia, Europe and Africa. 3. Our results indicate that individual migratory wildfowl have the potential to disperse HPAI H5N1 over extensive distances, being able to perform movements of up to 2900 km within timeframes compatible with the duration of asymptomatic infection. 4. However, the likelihood of such virus dispersal over long distances by individual wildfowl is low: we estimate that for an individual migratory bird there are, on average, only 5–15 days per year when infection could result in the dispersal of HPAI H5N1 virus over 500 km. 5. Staging at stopover sites during migration is typically longer than the period of infection and viral shedding, preventing birds from dispersing a virus over several consecutive but interrupted long-distance movements. Intercontinental virus dispersion would therefore probably require relay transmission between a series of successively infected migratory birds. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results provide a detailed quantitative assessment of the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 virus by selected migratory birds. Such dispersive potential rests on the

  1. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  2. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  3. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  4. 75 FR 29684 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... assessable tart cherries. The Board locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling...

  5. 78 FR 1763 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 906 Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has...

  6. Strauch's technique for epigastric free flaps in rats revisited: a simple and effective method to increase patency rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Elaine Kawano; Sacks, Justin Michael; Aksu, Ali Emre; Unadkat, Jignesh; Song, Dennis Yong; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Feili-Hariri, Maryam; Lee, W P Andrew

    2007-08-01

    Described by Strauch and Murray in 1967, the rodent epigastric free flap remains a versatile tool for microsurgery research and training. We report herein three sequential phases of our quest to improve efficiency and effectiveness of the original technique, making it more accessible to more microsurgeons. Ninety-six allotransplants were performed. Surgical technique, complication rates, clinical findings, and histopathologic correlation of each phase are reported. In phase I, two experienced microsurgeons employed the original technique and succeeded in 77% of the procedures. In phase II, two junior microsurgeons achieved a patency rate of 16.6% using the same technique, as opposed to 100% in phase III, utilizing the not-yet-described simplified flow-thru technique. Although patency rate using the original method varies from 9 to 78% (according to other reports), this technical modification can increase even the less experienced microsurgeons' success rates, perpetuating the use of Strauch's epigastric flap in experimental microsurgery.

  7. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  8. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  9. Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yen-Liang

    2015-01-26

    To increase the traffic rate in phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC), a multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) modulation is first proposed and demonstrated. In the measurement, we do not utilize optical blue filter to increase modulation bandwidth of phosphor-LED in the VLC system. In this proposed scheme, different bands of OFDM signals are applied to different LED chips in a LED lamp, this can avoid the power fading and nonlinearity issue by applying the same OFDM signal to all the LED chips in a LED lamp. Here, the maximum increase percentages of traffic rates are 41.1%, 17.8% and 17.8% under received illuminations of 200, 500 and 1000 Lux, respectively, when the proposed three-band OFDM modulation is used in the VLC system. In addition, the analysis and verification by experiments are also performed.

  10. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Towle

    Full Text Available Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA. Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C, enriched pCO2 (800 ppm, or both (30°C/800 ppm as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content.

  11. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Erica K; Enochs, Ian C; Langdon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C), enriched pCO2 (800 ppm), or both (30°C/800 ppm) as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm) for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content.

  12. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  13. Do great tits (Parus major) suppress basal metabolic rate in response to increased perceived predation danger? A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathot, Kimberley J; Abbey-Lee, Robin N; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have shown that individuals with higher metabolic rates (MRs) feed at higher rates and are more willing to forage in the presence of predators. This increases the acquisition of resources, which in turn, may help to sustain a higher MR. Elevated predation danger may be expected to result in reduced MRs, either as a means of allowing for reduced feeding and risk-taking, or as a consequence of adaptively reducing intake rates via reduced feeding and/or risk-taking. We tested this prediction in free-living great tits (Parus major) using a playback experiment to manipulate perceived predation danger. There was evidence that changes in body mass and BMR differed as a function of treatment. In predator treatment plots, great tits tended to reduce their body mass, a commonly observed response in birds to increased predation danger. In contrast, birds from control treatment plots showed no overall changes in body mass. There was also evidence that great tits from control treatment plots increased their basal metabolic rate (BMR) over the course of the experiment, presumably due to decreasing ambient temperatures over the study period. However, there was no evidence for changes in BMR for birds from predator treatment plots. Although the directions of these results are consistent with the predicted directions of effects, the effects sizes and confidence intervals yield inconclusive support for the hypothesis that great tits would adaptively suppress BMR in response to increased perceived predation risk. The effect size observed in the present study was small (~1%) and would not be expected to result in substantive reductions in feeding rate and/or risk-taking. Whether or not ecological conditions that generate greater energetic stress (e.g. lower food availability, lower ambient temperatures) could produce an effect that produces biologically meaningful reductions in feeding activity and/or risk-taking remains an open question.

  14. Recruiting participants for interventions to prevent the onset of depressive disorders: Possibile ways to increase participation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straten Annemieke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although indicated prevention of depression is available for about 80% of the Dutch population at little or no cost, only a small proportion of those with subthreshold depression make use of these services. Methods A narrative review is conducted of the Dutch preventive services in mental health care, also addressing the problem of low participation rates. We describe possible causes of these low participation rates, which may be related to the participants themselves, the service system, and the communication to the public, and we put forward possible solutions to this problem. Results There are three main groups of reasons why the participation rates are low: reasons within the participants (e.g., not considering themselves as being at risk; thinking the interventions are not effective; or being unwilling to participate because of the stigma associated with depression; reasons within the health care system; and reasons associated with the communication about the preventive services. Possible solutions to increasing the participation rate include organizing mass media campaigns, developing internet-based preventive interventions, adapting preventive interventions to the needs of specific subpopulations, positioning the services in primary care, integrating the interventions in community-wide interventions, and systematically screening high-risk groups for potential participants. Discussion Prevention could play an important role in public mental health in reducing the enormous burden of depression. However, before this can be realized more research is needed to explore why participation rates are low and how these rates can be improved.

  15. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  16. Increasing concentrations of CO and O{sub 3} - rising deforestation rates and increasing tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, W.J.H. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, San Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Increasing carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations have been observed in the lower troposphere of the Brazilian Amazon region in recent years (1989-1995). Carbon monoxide and ozone have been measured in the region continuously; from observations at a single site and many sporadic field missions, there is a clear indication that the chemical activity in the troposphere is growing, with increasing concentrations especially during the dry season. On the other hand, the most recent deforestation assessment by the Brazilian Government, performed by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) using Landsat data, shows yearly rates rising from the 11,130 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} minimum of the 1990/91 survey, to 13,786 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the 1991/92 period, and 14,896 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the period 1992/94. It is argued that the increase in deforestation/biomass burning activities in `Amazonia` have produced larger carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  17. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  18. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal power control and rain fade software test plan, version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The Power Control and Rain Fade Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software automatically controls the LET uplink power to compensate for signal fades. Besides power augmentation, the C&PM Software system is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, control of the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload, and data display. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 is a programmer's guide to the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Power Control and Rain Fade Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Power Control and Rain Fade Test Plan provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software using a predetermined signal fade event. The Test Plan also provides a means to demonstrate the capability of the software.

  19. Increased plasma clearance rate of thyroxine despite decreased 5'-monodeiodination: study with a peroxisome proliferator in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, C.A.; Seydoux, J.; Giacobino, J.P.; Girardier, L.; Burger, A.G.

    1988-03-01

    In euthyroid rats a 17-day treatment with nafenopin, a hypolipidemic agent and peroxisome proliferator, decreased serum total and free T4 concentrations to 32 +/- 5% and 62 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 10), respectively, with no change in serum T3 and TSH concentrations. In methimazole-treated rats infused with 3 nmol T4/day/100 g BW, the nafenopin inhibitory effect was not significantly different from that in euthyroid rats. Nafenopin treatment had the following effects on peripheral T4 and T3 metabolism in euthyroid rats. The plasma clearance rate of T4 (PCR), which was measured by Alzet minipump infusion of tracer, was increased 2-fold (1.58 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.06 ml/h.100 g BW; P less than 0.001; n = 5), while the PCR of T3 was decreased (37.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 53.8 +/- 1.8; P less than 0.001; n = 5). The fecal clearance rate of radioactivity derived from T4 was increased 2-fold (1.93 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.07 ml/h.100 g BW), whereas the urinary clearance rate was not significantly modified. The 5'-deiodinase (5'D) activity, measured by deiodination of labeled rT3, was strongly inhibited in liver and kidney, not modified in brown fat and anterior pituitary, and increased in cerebral cortex. In methimazole-treated rats substituted with isopropyl-diiodothyronine only hepatic 5'D activity was decreased. It is concluded that the decrease in serum total and free T4, without alteration in serum T3 and TSH concentrations, resulting from nafenopin treatment is mainly due to changes in peripheral T4 and T3 metabolism, since it is also observed in T4-substituted animals. The increased PCR of T4 cannot be explained by an increase in deiodination activity, since the major 5'D pathways are inhibited after nafenopin treatment, and the urinary clearance rate is not modified. It can partly be explained by an increase in the fecal clearance rate of T4, which could be due to an increase in glucoronoconjugation.

  20. Does Preputial Reconstruction Increase Complication Rate Of Hypospadias Repair? 20-Year Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eCastagnetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We performed a systematic review of the literature on preputial reconstruction (PR during hypospadias repair to determine the cumulative risk of preputial skin complications and the influence of PR on urethroplasty complications, namely fistula formation and overall reoperation rate of the repair.Material and Methods: A systematic search of the literature published after 06/1995 was performed in 06/2015 using the keyword hypospadias. Only studies on the outcome of PR in children, defined as dehiscence of the reconstructed prepuce or secondary phimosis needing circumcision, were selected. A meta-analysis of studies comparing PR vs. circumcision was performed for the outcomes hypospadias fistula formation and reoperation rate.Results: Twenty studies were identified. Nineteen reported the outcome of PR in 2115 patients. Overall, 95% (2016/2115 of patients undergoing PR had distal hypospadias. The cumulative rate of PR complications was 7.7% (163/2115 patients, including 5.7% (121/2115 patients preputial dehiscences and 1.5% (35/2117 reported patients secondary phimoses needing circumcision. A meta-analysis of 7 studies comparing patients undergoing PR vs. circumcision, showed no increased risk of urethral fistula formation associated with PR, Odds Ratio (Mantel-Haenszel, Fixed effect, 95% CI, 1.25 (0.80-1.97. Likewise, two studies comparing the overall reoperation rate did not show an increased risk of reoperation associated with PR, Odds Ratio (Mantel-Haenszel, Random effect, 95% CI, 1.27 (0.45-3.58. Conclusions: Preputial reconstruction carries an 8% risk of specific complications (dehiscence of reconstructed prepuce or secondary phimosis needing circumcision, but does not seem to increase the risk of urethroplasty complications, and the overall reoperation rate of hypospadias repair.

  1. Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Trombini, Mimosa; Graiani, Gallia; Madeddu, Denise; Quaini, Federico; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-04-10

    In humans, there is a documented association between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Putative underlying mechanisms may include an impairment of the autonomic nervous system control of cardiac function. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize cardiac autonomic modulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias in genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level. To reach this goal, electrocardiographic recordings were performed in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n=10) and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n=10) rats at rest, during stressful stimuli and under autonomic pharmacological manipulations, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. During resting conditions, HAB rats displayed a reduced heart rate variability, mostly in terms of lower parasympathetic (vagal) modulation compared to LAB rats. In HAB rats, this relatively low cardiac vagal control was associated with smaller heart rate responsiveness to acute stressors compared to LAB counterparts. In addition, beta-adrenergic pharmacological stimulation induced a larger incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in HABs compared to LABs. At sacrifice, a moderate increase in heart-body weight ratio was observed in HAB rats. We conclude that high levels of anxiety-related behavior in rats are associated with signs of i) impaired autonomic modulation of heart rate (low vagally-mediated heart rate variability), ii) poor adaptive heart rate responsiveness to stressful stimuli, iii) increased arrhythmia susceptibility, and iv) cardiac hypertrophy. These results highlight the utility of the HAB/LAB model for investigating the mechanistic basis of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease.

  2. Courtship Song Does Not Increase the Rate of Adaptation to a Thermally Stressful Environment in a Drosophila melanogaster Laboratory Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Larry G.; Holland, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Courtship song in D. melanogaster contributes substantially to male mating success through female selection. We used experimental evolution to test whether this display trait is maintained through adaptive female selection because it indicates heritable male quality for thermal stress tolerance. We used non-displaying, outbred populations of D. melanogaster (nub1) mutants and measured their rate of adaptation to a new, thermally stressful environment, relative to wild-type control populations that retained courtship song. This design retains sexually selected conflict in both treatments. Thermal stress should select across genomes for newly beneficial alleles, increasing the available genetic and phenotypic variation and, therefore, the magnitude of female benefit derived from courtship song. Following introduction to the thermally stressful environment, net reproductive rate decreased 50% over four generations, and then increased 19% over the following 16 generations. There were no differences between the treatments. Possible explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25365209

  3. Courtship song does not increase the rate of adaptation to a thermally stressful environment in a Drosophila melanogaster laboratory population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry G Cabral

    Full Text Available Courtship song in D. melanogaster contributes substantially to male mating success through female selection. We used experimental evolution to test whether this display trait is maintained through adaptive female selection because it indicates heritable male quality for thermal stress tolerance. We used non-displaying, outbred populations of D. melanogaster (nub1 mutants and measured their rate of adaptation to a new, thermally stressful environment, relative to wild-type control populations that retained courtship song. This design retains sexually selected conflict in both treatments. Thermal stress should select across genomes for newly beneficial alleles, increasing the available genetic and phenotypic variation and, therefore, the magnitude of female benefit derived from courtship song. Following introduction to the thermally stressful environment, net reproductive rate decreased 50% over four generations, and then increased 19% over the following 16 generations. There were no differences between the treatments. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  4. [Changes in blood pressure and heart rate by an increase in serum estradiol in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczy, Rita; Paluch, Katarzyna; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Milewicz, Tomasz; Janeczko, Jarosław; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood pressure and heart rate in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) in preparation for assisted reproduction techniques. Material and method: The comparison of blood pressure and heart rate measurements obtained from 5 women (age 35.3 +/- 9.4 years) was performed. The data were collected during the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) using Holcard sphygmomanometer CR-07 Aspel S.A. at the beginning and in the last day of short protocol of COH with the use of triptorelin (Decapeptyl 0.1 mg/day--Ferring GmbH) and the total supply of Gonalu F 225 U/day--Merck Serono) and Menotropiny 75j FSH + LH 75 U/day (Merional Imed/lBSA). During COH the increase in the serum estradiol level was detected (54.03 +/- 9.4 pg/ml at baseline vs. 1128.7 +/- 208.6 pg/ml after COH, p heart rate (HR) was measured (in overall ABPM statistics: baseline HR 68.5 +/- 12.8/min vs. 73.6 +/- 13.7/ min after COH, pheart rate and reduction in mean arterial pressure measured by oscillometric method. However, short-term increase in serum estradiol during COH is not associated with significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women preparing for the in vitro procedure.

  5. Astragalus Extract Mixture HT042 Increases Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate by Upregulating Circulatory IGF-1 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a standardized ingredient of health functional food approved by Korean FDA with a claim of “height growth of children.” HT042 stimulates bone growth rate and increases local IGF-1 expression in growth plate of rats which can be considered as direct stimulation of GH and its paracrine/autocrine actions. However, it remains unclear whether HT042 stimulates circulatory IGF-1 which also plays a major role to stimulate bone growth. To determine the effects on circulatory IGF-1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 expressions and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5 were evaluated in the liver after 10 days of HT042 administration. HT042 upregulated liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, IGF-1 protein expression, and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5. HT042 also increased bone growth rate and proliferative zonal height in growth plate. In conclusion, HT042 stimulates bone growth rate via increment of proliferative rate by upregulation of liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA followed by IGF-1 protein expression through phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5, which can be regarded as normal functioning of GH-dependent endocrine pathway.

  6. Food supplements increase adult tarsus length, but not growth rate, in an island population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    OpenAIRE

    Cleasby, I. R.; Burke, T.; Schroeder, J.; Nakagawa, S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Variation in food supply during early development can influence growth rate and body size in many species. However, whilst the detrimental effects of food restriction have often been studied in natural populations, how young individuals respond to an artificial increase in food supply is rarely investigated. Here, we investigated both the short-term and long-term effects of providing house sparrow chicks with food supplements during a key period of growth and development a...

  7. Flexibility of RMB exchange rate to increase%人民币汇率弹性将逐渐增加

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China has established a market-oriented mechanism on RMB exchange rate, and the flexibility of RMB exchange will increase step by step with changes taking place in market supply and demand, Yi Gang, assistant to the givernor of the People's Bank of China, the central bank said recently.He stressed, however, that RMB would, in general, remain basically stable at a rational and balanced level.

  8. Preliminary marked increase in the national organ donation rate in Israel following implementation of a new organ transplantation law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, J; Ashkenazi, T; Stoler, A; Cohen, J; Beyar, R

    2013-03-01

    Israel's organ donation rate has always been among the lowest in Western countries. In 2008 two new laws relevant to organ transplantation were introduced. The Brain-Respiratory Death Law defines the precise circumstances and mechanisms to determine brain death. The Organ Transplantation Law bans reimbursing transplant tourism involving organ trade, grants prioritization in organ allocation to candidates who are registered donors and removes disincentives for living donation by providing modest insurance reimbursement and social supportive services. The preliminary impact of the gradual introduction and implementation of these laws has been witnessed in 2011. Compared to previous years, in 2011 there was a significant increase in the number of deceased organ donors directly related to an increase in organ donation rate (from 7.8 to 11.4 donors per million population), in parallel to a significant increase in the number of new registered donors. In addition the number of kidney transplantations from living donors significantly increased in parallel to a significant decrease in the number of kidney transplantations performed abroad (from 155 in 2006 to 35 in 2011). The new laws have significantly increased both deceased and living organ donation while sharply decreasing transplant tourism. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. The presence of a sponsoring embryo in a batch of poor quality thawed embryos significantly increases pregnancy and implantation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, A; Kol, S; Wayner, V; Vertman, D; Manor, D; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate quantitatively the effect of one good-quality (sponsoring) embryo in a batch of low-quality thawed embryos on the implantation and pregnancy rates (PR). Retrospective analysis of data. Tertiary care center IVF clinic affiliated with a university medical school. Between March 1988 and April 1995, 392 IVF patients underwent a total of 440 thawing and ET cycles of 1,436 multicellular embryos. Implantation, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates. In the absence of sponsoring embryos in the thawed batch of embryos, a PR of 9.8% with an implantation rate of 3.1% was achieved. In the presence of a single sponsoring embryo, the PR nearly doubled (18.2%), with a significantly higher implantation rate of 7.0%. Only singleton pregnancies were achieved in the absence of sponsoring embryos compared with 21.7% multiple pregnancies in the single sponsoring embryo group. The presence of a sponsoring embryo in a batch of poor quality thawed embryos is an important factor that significantly increased pregnancy and implantation rates. The optimal strategy for planning batches of multicellular frozen embryos is to include at least one sponsoring embryo in each batch when possible. We speculate that the sponsoring embryo may favorably influence the chances of low-quality embryos to undergo successful implantation.

  10. High-intensity interval training increases intrinsic rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in rat red and white skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Yoshida, Yuko; Kitaoka, Yu; Hatta, Hideo; Bonen, Arend

    2013-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can increase mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle. However, it is unclear whether HIIT alters the intrinsic capacity of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, or whether such changes are associated with changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36, a regulator of fatty acid oxidation, or with reciprocal changes in the nuclear receptor coactivator (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α)) and the corepressor (receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140)). We examined whether HIIT alters fatty acid oxidation rates in the isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria of red and white skeletal muscle and (or) induces changes in muscle PGC-1α and RIP140 proteins and mitochondrial FAT/CD36 protein content. Rats were divided into untrained or HIIT-trained groups. HIIT animals performed 10 bouts of 1-min high-intensity treadmill running (30-55 m·min(-1)), separated by 2 min of rest, for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. As expected, after the training period, HIIT increased mitochondrial enzymes (citrate synthase, COXIV, and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) in red and white muscle, indicating that muscle mitochondrial volume had increased. HIIT also increased the rates of palmitate oxidation in mitochondria of red (37% for SS and 19% for IMF) and white (36% for SS and 12% for IMF) muscle. No changes occurred in SS and IMF mitochondrial FAT/CD36 proteins, despite increasing FAT/CD36 at the whole-muscle level (27% for red and 22% for white). Concurrently, muscle PGC-1α protein was increased in red (22%) and white (16%) muscle, but RIP140 was not altered. These results indicate that increases in SS and IMF mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation induced by HIIT are accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α, but not RIP140 or FAT/CD36.

  11. The effect of increased classroom ventilation rate indicated by reduced CO2 concentration on the performance of schoolwork by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S; Jensen, K L; Pedersen, A L S; Rasmussen, H S

    2016-06-01

    The article reports on an experiment which investigated the effect of increased classroom ventilation rate on the performance of children aged 10-12 years. The experiment was executed at two different schools (two classrooms at each school) as a double-blind 2 × 2 crossover intervention where four different performance tests were used as surrogates for short-term concentration and logical thinking. Only complete pairs of test responses were included in the within-subject comparisons of performance, and data were not corrected for learning and fatigue effects. Analysis of the total sample suggested the number of correct answers was improved significantly in four of four performance test, addition (6.3%), number comparison (4.8%), grammatical reasoning (3.2%), and reading and comprehension (7.4%), when the outdoor air supply rate was increased from an average of 1.7 (1.4-2.0) to 6.6 l/s per person. The increased outdoor air supply rate did not have any significant effect on the number of errors in any of the performance tests. Results from questionnaires regarding pupil perception of the indoor environment, reported Sick Building Syndrome symptoms, and motivation suggested that the study classroom air was perceived more still and pupil were experiencing less pain in the eyes in the recirculation condition compared to the fresh air condition.

  12. Microarray analysis of responsible genes in increased growth rate in the subline of HL60 (HL60RG) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yang; Kogi, Mieko; Rajaguru, Palanisamy; Ren, Jin; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2012-03-01

    HL60RG, a subline of human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells, has a increased growth rate than their parental cells. To gain information of the mechanisms involved in the increased growth rate of HL60RG, we performed a multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), standard cytogenetics analysis (G-banding) and genome scan using 10K SNP mapping array on both cell types. Characteristic genomic alterations in HL60RG cells were identified including uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 1, and hemizygous deletion in 10p and 11p. However, no such defects were observed in HL60 cells. Changes in gene expression in HL60RG cells were determined using expression arrays (Affymetrix GeneChip, HU133A). Candidate genes associated with the rapid growth of HL60RG cells were identified. Two tumor necrosis factor receptors, TNFRSF1B (type II tumor necrosis factor-α receptor) and TNFRSF8 (also known as a tumor marker CD30), which are adjacently located on chromosome 1 showed opposing changes in gene expression in HL60RG cells-over-expression of TNFRSF8 and repression of TNFRSF1B. Differences in the DNA methylation status in the transcriptional regulatory regions of both genes between HL60 and HL60RG was detected by a methylation-specific PCR assay. In conclusion, alterations in chromosome and gene expression in HL60RG may be associated with increased growth rate.

  13. How many mailouts? Could attempts to increase the response rate in the Iraq war cohort study be counterproductive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low response and reporting errors are major concerns for survey epidemiologists. However, while nonresponse is commonly investigated, the effects of misclassification are often ignored, possibly because they are hard to quantify. We investigate both sources of bias in a recent study of the effects of deployment to the 2003 Iraq war on the health of UK military personnel, and attempt to determine whether improving response rates by multiple mailouts was associated with increased misclassification error and hence increased bias in the results. Methods Data for 17,162 UK military personnel were used to determine factors related to response and inverse probability weights were used to assess nonresponse bias. The percentages of inconsistent and missing answers to health questions from the 10,234 responders were used as measures of misclassification in a simulation of the 'true' relative risks that would have been observed if misclassification had not been present. Simulated and observed relative risks of multiple physical symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD were compared across response waves (number of contact attempts. Results Age, rank, gender, ethnic group, enlistment type (regular/reservist and contact address (military or civilian, but not fitness, were significantly related to response. Weighting for nonresponse had little effect on the relative risks. Of the respondents, 88% had responded by wave 2. Missing answers (total 3% increased significantly (p Conclusion Bias due to nonresponse appears to be small in this study, and increasing the response rates had little effect on the results. Although misclassification is difficult to assess, the results suggest that bias due to reporting errors could be greater than bias caused by nonresponse. Resources might be better spent on improving and validating the data, rather than on increasing the response rate.

  14. Explosive Resistance Training Increases Rate of Force Development in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Gait Function in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend S; Lorentzen, Jakob; Krarup, Kasper B; Bandholm, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B

    2016-10-01

    Kirk, H, Geertsen, SS, Lorentzen, J, Krarup, KB, Bandholm, T, and Nielsen, JB. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2749-2760, 2016-Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated whether 12 weeks of explosive and progressive heavy-resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function, and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP. Thirty-five adults (age: 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were nonrandomly assigned to a PRT or nontraining control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls, and back extension 3 days per week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12 to 6 repetition maximums. RFDdf, 3-dimensional gait analysis, functional performance, and ankle joint passive and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness were evaluated before and after. RFDdf increased significantly after PRT compared to CON. PRT also caused a significant increase in toe lift late in swing and a significantly more dorsiflexed ankle joint at ground contact and during stance. The increased toe-lift amplitude was correlated to the increased RFDdf (r = 0.73). No other between-group differences were observed. These findings suggest that explosive PRT may increase RFDdf and facilitate larger range of movement in the ankle joint during gait. Explosive PRT should be tested in clinical practice as part of a long-term training program for adults with CP.

  15. Disproportional plastome-wide increase of substitution rates and relaxed purifying selection in genes of carnivorous Lentibulariaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Susann; Schäferhoff, Bastian; dePamphilis, Claude W; Müller, Kai F

    2014-03-01

    Carnivorous Lentibulariaceae exhibit the most sophisticated implementation of the carnivorous syndrome in plants. Their unusual lifestyle coincides with distinct genomic peculiarities such as the smallest angiosperm nuclear genomes and extremely high nucleotide substitution rates across all genomic compartments. Here, we report the complete plastid genomes from each of the three genera Pinguicula, Utricularia, and Genlisea, and investigate plastome-wide changes in their molecular evolution as the carnivorous syndrome unfolds. We observe a size reduction by up to 9% mostly due to the independent loss of genes for the plastid NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and altered proportions of plastid repeat DNA, as well as a significant plastome-wide increase of substitution rates and microstructural changes. Protein-coding genes across all gene classes show a disproportional elevation of nonsynonymous substitutions, particularly in Utricularia and Genlisea. Significant relaxation of purifying selection relative to noncarnivores occurs in the plastid-encoded fraction of the photosynthesis ATP synthase complex, the photosystem I, and in several other photosynthesis and metabolic genes. Shifts in selective regimes also affect housekeeping genes including the plastid-encoded polymerase, for which evidence for relaxed purifying selection was found once during the transition to carnivory, and a second time during the diversification of the family. Lentibulariaceae significantly exhibit enhanced rates of nucleotide substitution in most of the 130 noncoding regions. Various factors may underlie the observed patterns of relaxation of purifying selection and substitution rate increases, such as reduced net photosynthesis rates, alternative paths of nutrient uptake (including organic carbon), and impaired DNA repair mechanisms.

  16. Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids increase the rate of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Rumberger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prolonged treatment with butyrate (5 mM increased the rate of lipolysis approximately 2–3-fold. Aminobutyric acid and acetate had little or no effect on lipolysis, however propionate stimulated lipolysis, suggesting that butyrate and propionate act through their shared activity as histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors. Consistent with this, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 µM also stimulated lipolysis to a similar extent as did butyrate. Western blot data suggested that neither mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation nor perilipin down-regulation are necessary for SCFA-induced lipolysis. Stimulation of lipolysis with butyrate and trichostatin A was glucose-dependent. Changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation mediated by glucose were independent of changes in rates of lipolysis. The glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate prevented both butyrate- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-(TNF-α mediated increases in rates of lipolysis indicating glucose metabolism is required. However, unlike TNF-α– , butyrate-stimulated lipolysis was not associated with increased lactate release or inhibited by activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH with dichloroacetate. These data demonstrate an important relationship between lipolytic activity and reported HDAC inhibitory activity of butyrate, other short-chain fatty acids and trichostatin A. Given that HDAC inhibitors are presently being evaluated for the treatment of diabetes and other disorders, more work will be essential to determine if these effects on lipolysis are due to inhibition of HDAC.

  17. Military Payloads Hosted on Commercial Satellites: How Can the Space and Missile Systems Center Increase the Number of Commercially Hosted Military Payload Contract Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    payloads: “A hosted payload allows users , such as the government, to add transponders or other equipment to a commercial satellite already scheduled for...decision, those cases are typically closed within a week.29 The empowerment of the commercial owner-operator’s program managers and embedding his or her...determine how to get the data to the end user .”65 This structure allows the commercial owner-operator to select the most efficient solution to meet the CHMP

  18. Reduction of 13 kD prolamins increases recombinant protein yield and recovery rate in rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2012-11-01

    RNA silencing inducible sequence (RSIS) causes post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of 5' or 3' flanking sequence-containing genes by inhibiting proper transcriptional termination. Exploiting this nature, 13 kD Pro-less, in which major seed storage protein (SSP) 13 kD prolamins are reduced, has been generated. In 13 kD Pro-less, other SSPs, such as glutelins, are increased as a compensation effect to maintain amino acid pool. 7Crp is the seven-linked epitope peptide derived from major cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2. When 7Crp is expressed in 13 kD Pro-less endosperm, accumulation level of 7Crp increased. Furthermore, recovery rate of 7Crp without reducing reagent increased. These findings indicate that 13 kD Pro-less endosperm provides a good production platform for recombinant proteins.

  19. Cosmetic Surgical Repair of Contaminated Wounds Versus Traditional Loose Approximation: Does It Increase the Rate of Wound Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yavari

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:The cosmetic result of the surgical scar has long been considered by surgeons as an important factor for patient satisfaction.On the other hand,there has been an old teaching that perfect closure of contaminated wounds increases the rate of infection. We decided to look into this matter and see if this is a fact or a myth. Methods: In this prospective randomized study conducted on 200 patients with suppurative or gangrenous appendicitis,we closed the wounds with a cosmetic subcuticular suture of 4/0 nylon in 100 patients and in the other 100 patients the wound was approximated loosely with a few stitches of 3/0 nylon in vertical mattress fashion during a 14-month period.Results:There was no significant difference in the rate of wound infection between these two groups.Conclusions:This study shows that perfect closure of the wound with subcuticular closure,which gives a very good cosmetic result in comparison with traditional loose closure, does not increase the rate of wound infection.

  20. Laser Communication Experiments with Artemis Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Kuzkov, Volodymyr

    2013-10-01

    In November 2001, the European Space Agency (ESA) established the world-first inter-satellite laser communication link between the geostationary ARTEMIS satellite and the low Earth orbiting (LEO) SPOT-4 Earth observation satellite, demonstrating data rates of 50 Mbps. In 2006, the Japanese Space Agency launched the KIRARI (OICETS) LEO satellite with a compatible laser communication terminal and bidirectional laser communication links (50 Mbps and 2 Mbps) were successfully realized between KIRARI and ARTEMIS. ESA is now developing the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) system, which will use laser communication technology to transmit data between the Sentinel 1 and 2 satellites in LEO to two geostationary satellites (EDRS-A and EDRS-C) at data rates of 1.8 Gbps. As the data handling capabilities of state-of-the-art telecommunication satellites in GEO increase so is the demand for the feeder-link bandwidth to be transmitted from ground. This is why there is an increasing interest in developing high bandwidth ground-to-space laser communication systems working through atmosphere. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system for its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope, located in Kyiv, Ukraine. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA. MAO developed a highly accurate computerized tracking system for AZT-2 telescope and a compact laser communication package called LACES (Laser Atmosphere and Communication Experiments with Satellites). The LACES instrument includes a camera of the pointing and tracking subsystems, a receiver module, a laser transmitter module, a tip/tilt atmospheric turbulence compensation subsystem, a bit error rate tester module and other optical and electronic components. The principal subsystems are mounted on a platform, which is located at the Cassegrain focus of the AZT-2 telescope. All systems were tested with the laser communication payload on-board ARTEMIS and

  1. Despite increased use and sales of statins in India, per capita prescription rates remain far below high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Niteesh K; Dugani, Sagar; Shrank, William H; Polinski, Jennifer M; Stark, Christina E; Gupta, Rajeev; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Brill, Gregory; Jha, Prabhat

    2014-02-01

    Statin use has increased substantially in North America and Europe, with resultant reductions in cardiovascular mortality. However, little is known about statin use in lower-income countries. India is of interest because of its burden of cardiovascular disease, the unique nature of its prescription drug market, and the growing globalization of drug sales. We conducted an observational study using IMS Health data for the period February 2006-January 2010. During the period, monthly statin prescriptions increased from 45.8 to 84.1 per 1,000 patients with coronary heart disease-an increase of 0.80 prescriptions per month. The proportion of the Indian population receiving a defined daily statin dose increased from 3.35 percent to 7.78 percent. Nevertheless, only a fraction of those eligible for a statin appeared to receive the therapy, even though there were 259 distinct statin products available to Indian consumers in January 2010. Low rates of statin use in India may reflect problems with access to health care, affordability, underdiagnosis, and cultural beliefs. Because of the growing burden of cardiovascular disease in lower-income countries such as India, there is an urgent need to increase statin use and ensure access to safe products whose use is based on evidence. Policies are needed to expand insurance, increase medications' affordability, educate physicians and patients, and improve regulatory oversight.

  2. Medication of /-tetrahydropalmatine significantly ameliorates opiate craving and increases the abstinence rate in heroin users: a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng YANG; Yong-cong SHAO; Shi-jiang LI; Jian-lin QI; Mei-jie ZHANG; Wei HAO; Guo-zhang JIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease with constant relapse requiring long-term treatment. New pharmacological strategies focus on the development of an effective antirelapse drug. This study examines the effects of levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) on reducing heroin craving and increasing the absti-nence rate among heroin-dependent patients. Methods: In total, 120 heroin-de-pendent patients participated in the randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled study using l-THP treatment. The participants remained in a ward during a 4-week period of l-THP treatment, followed by 4 weeks of observation after treatment. The patients were followed for 3 months after discharge. Out-come measures are the measured severity of the protracted abstinence withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) and the abstinence rate. Results: Four weeks of l-THP treat-ment significantly ameliorated the severity of PAWS, specifically, somatic syndrome, mood states, insomnia, and drug craving, in comparison to the placebo group. Based on the 3 month follow-up observation, participants who survived the initial 2 weeks of I-THP medication and remained in the trial program had a significantly higher abstinence rate of 47.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33%-67%) than the 15.2% in the placebo group (95% CI: 7%-25%), according to a log-rank test (P<0.0005). Conclusion: l-THP significantly ameliorated PAWS, espe-cially reducing drug craving. Furthermore, it increased the abstinence rate among heroin users. These results support the potential use of l-THP for the treatment of heroin addiction.

  3. NK3 receptors mediate an increase in firing rate of midbrain dopamine neurons of the rat and the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkman, Taco R; McCreary, Andrew C; Kruse, Chris G; Wadman, Wytse J

    2011-08-01

    This in vitro study investigates and compares the effects of NK3 receptor ligands on the firing rate of rat and guinea pig midbrain dopamine neurons. The findings are discussed in the light of choosing suitable animal models for investigating pharmacological properties of NK3 receptor antagonists, which have been proposed to possess therapeutic activity in neuropsychiatric diseases like e.g. schizophrenia. In vitro midbrain slice preparations of both species were used to record (extracellularly) the firing rates of dopamine neurons located in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Furthermore, the effect of the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole on guinea pig SN and VTA dopamine neurons was investigated. The efficacy of quinpirole in inhibiting guinea pig dopamine neuron firing activity was much less as compared to that of rat dopamine neurons, suggesting a lower dopamine D2 autoreceptor density on the guinea pig neurons. The NK3 receptor agonist senktide induced in subpopulations of rat SN (55%) and VTA (79%) and guinea pig SN (50%) and VTA (21%) dopamine neurons an increase in firing rate. In responsive neurons this effect was concentration-dependent with EC₅₀ values of 3-5 nM (for both species). The selective NK3 receptor antagonist osanetant (100 nM) was able to partly block the senktide-induced increase in firing rates of dopamine neurons and shifted the concentration-response relation curves for senktide to the right (pA₂ values were ~7.5). The fractional block of the senktide responses by osanetant appeared to be larger in guinea pig dopamine neurons, indicating that osanetant is a more potent blocker of NK3 receptor-mediated responses with noncompetitive properties in the guinea pig.

  4. Intranasal oxytocin increases facial expressivity, but not ratings of trustworthiness, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, J D; Chuang, B; Fussell, C; Scherer, S; Biagianti, B; Fulford, D; Mathalon, D H; Vinogradov, S

    2017-05-01

    Blunted facial affect is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia. Additionally, assessing the trustworthiness of faces is a social cognitive ability that is impaired in schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacological agents are ineffective at improving either of these symptoms, despite their clinical significance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally to healthy individuals and shows promise in decreasing negative symptoms and enhancing social cognition in schizophrenia. Although two small studies have investigated oxytocin's effects on ratings of facial trustworthiness in schizophrenia, its effects on facial expressivity have not been investigated in any population. We investigated the effects of oxytocin on facial emotional expressivity while participants performed a facial trustworthiness rating task in 33 individuals with schizophrenia and 35 age-matched healthy controls using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Participants rated the trustworthiness of presented faces interspersed with emotionally evocative photographs while being video-recorded. Participants' facial expressivity in these videos was quantified by blind raters using a well-validated manualized approach (i.e. the Facial Expression Coding System; FACES). While oxytocin administration did not affect ratings of facial trustworthiness, it significantly increased facial expressivity in individuals with schizophrenia (Z = -2.33, p = 0.02) and at trend level in healthy controls (Z = -1.87, p = 0.06). These results demonstrate that oxytocin administration can increase facial expressivity in response to emotional stimuli and suggest that oxytocin may have the potential to serve as a treatment for blunted facial affect in schizophrenia.

  5. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) appears questionable.

  6. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Randelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  7. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) appears questionable.

  8. Investigation of increasing organic loading rate in the co-digestion of energy crops and cow manure mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Elena; Rosso, Maurizio; Riggio, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    The increase of the organic loading rate from 4.45 to 7.78 g-VS/l-d in a one stage, pilot biogas plant was investigated. The experiment was conducted using a co-digestion of cow manure and crop silage mix. The test was divided in three subsequent phases with different feeding ratios. The benefits of optimizing the proportion of crops and loading rate in co-digestion were shown by the fact that during feeding with 70% VS of crop in the feedstock, up to 109% higher specific methane yield was obtained than during the start up phase (only manure). It was also found that further increasing the proportion of crop silage up (to 80%) led to a process breakdown with a decrease of methane proportion down to 48%. On the basis of the present results, it could be possible to obtain an electricity production equal to 15 kwh per 1 t/d. At the end of the monitoring biogas yield was equal to 237 and 249l-CH(4)/kg-VS in the first two phases, and to 61.6l-CH(4)/kg-VS in the third one that led to a process breakdown. The result of this study show, that most agricultural biogas plant have a great potential for a significant capacity increase and technology improvement.

  9. Monitoring p21 mRNA expression in living cell based on molecular beacon fluorescence increasing rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG HongXing; YANG XiaoHai; WANG KeMin; TAN WeiHong; LIU Bin; HE LiFang; WANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    Studying the expression level of mRNA in living cells will offer tremendous opportunities for ad-vancement in cell biology research, disease diagnostics, and drug discovery. In this paper, a molecular beacon (MB) specific for the important tumor suppressor gene p21 has been designed and synthesized. The fluorescence signal was detected in real-time after the MB entered the cytoplasm of nasopharyn-geal carcinoma cells. After injecting the p21MB into nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell and p33-trans-fected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell, the consistent increase of fluorescent signal intensity was de-tected in both cell lines, and maximum fluorescence intensity achieved in about 15 min. In about 4 min following microinjection, the fluorescence increasing rate was significantly different between these two cell lines, which indicate the different p21 mRNA expression levels. The results obtained in the real-time detection were also validated by RT-PCR. Analysis of the initial fluorescence increasing rate can effi-ciently reduce the side effect of enzyme and improve the accuracy in living cell mRNA detection.

  10. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  11. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the