Sample records for satellite dna

  1. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic

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    Manuel A. Garrido-Ramos


    Full Text Available Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS, together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  2. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic. (United States)

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A


    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea


    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  4. Human gamma-satellite DNA maintains open chromatin structure and protects a transgene from epigenetic silencing. (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Ebersole, Thomas; Kouprina, Natalay; Noskov, Vladimir N; Ohzeki, Jun-Ichirou; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Mravinac, Brankica; Sullivan, Beth A; Pavlicek, Adam; Dovat, Sinisa; Pack, Svetlana D; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Flanagan, Patrick T; Loukinov, Dmitri; Lobanenkov, Victor; Larionov, Vladimir


    The role of repetitive DNA sequences in pericentromeric regions with respect to kinetochore/heterochromatin structure and function is poorly understood. Here, we use a mouse erythroleukemia cell (MEL) system for studying how repetitive DNA assumes or is assembled into different chromatin structures. We show that human gamma-satellite DNA arrays allow a transcriptionally permissive chromatin conformation in an adjacent transgene and efficiently protect it from epigenetic silencing. These arrays contain CTCF and Ikaros binding sites. In MEL cells, this gamma-satellite DNA activity depends on binding of Ikaros proteins involved in differentiation along the hematopoietic pathway. Given our discovery of gamma-satellite DNA in pericentromeric regions of most human chromosomes and a dynamic chromatin state of gamma-satellite arrays in their natural location, we suggest that gamma-satellite DNA represents a unique region of the functional centromere with a possible role in preventing heterochromatin spreading beyond the pericentromeric region.

  5. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp..

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    Jana Čížková

    Full Text Available Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp. are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome. Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  6. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.). (United States)

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav


    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  7. Satellite DNA Sequences in Canidae and Their Chromosome Distribution in Dog and Red Fox. (United States)

    Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Fröhlich, Jan; Rubes, Jiri


    Satellite DNA is a characteristic component of mammalian centromeric heterochromatin, and a comparative analysis of its evolutionary dynamics can be used for phylogenetic studies. We analysed satellite and satellite-like DNA sequences available in NCBI for 4 species of the family Canidae (red fox, Vulpes vulpes, VVU; domestic dog, Canis familiaris, CFA; arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus, VLA; raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides, NPR) by comparative sequence analysis, which revealed 86-90% intraspecies and 76-79% interspecies similarity. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridisation in the red fox and dog showed signals of the red fox satellite probe in canine and vulpine autosomal centromeres, on VVUY, B chromosomes, and in the distal parts of VVU9q and VVU10p which were shown to contain nucleolus organiser regions. The CFA satellite probe stained autosomal centromeres only in the dog. The CFA satellite-like DNA did not show any significant sequence similarity with the satellite DNA of any species analysed and was localised to the centromeres of 9 canine chromosome pairs. No significant heterochromatin block was detected on the B chromosomes of the red fox. Our results show extensive heterogeneity of satellite sequences among Canidae and prove close evolutionary relationships between the red and arctic fox. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Uncoupling of satellite DNA and centromeric function in the genus Equus.

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    Francesca M Piras


    Full Text Available In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1 several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs, seem to be devoid of satellite DNA, and 2 satellite repeats are often present at non-centromeric termini, probably corresponding to relics of ancestral now inactive centromeres. Immuno-FISH experiments using satellite DNA and antibodies against the kinetochore protein CENP-A demonstrated that satellite-less primary constrictions are actually endowed with centromeric function. The phylogenetic reconstruction of centromere repositioning events demonstrates that the acquisition of satellite DNA occurs after the formation of the centromere during evolution and that centromeres can function over millions of years and many generations without detectable satellite DNA. The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs.

  9. Uncoupling of Satellite DNA and Centromeric Function in the Genus Equus (United States)

    Magnani, Elisa; Bertoni, Livia; Attolini, Carmen; Khoriauli, Lela; Raimondi, Elena; Giulotto, Elena


    In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1) several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs), seem to be devoid of satellite DNA, and 2) satellite repeats are often present at non-centromeric termini, probably corresponding to relics of ancestral now inactive centromeres. Immuno-FISH experiments using satellite DNA and antibodies against the kinetochore protein CENP-A demonstrated that satellite-less primary constrictions are actually endowed with centromeric function. The phylogenetic reconstruction of centromere repositioning events demonstrates that the acquisition of satellite DNA occurs after the formation of the centromere during evolution and that centromeres can function over millions of years and many generations without detectable satellite DNA. The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs. PMID:20169180

  10. Comparative study of satellite DNA in ants of the Messor genus. (United States)

    Lorite, Pedro; Carrillo, José A; Tinaut, Alberto; Palomeque, Teresa


    The satellite DNA of ants Messor barbarus and Messor bouvieri is analysed. The results are compared with the satellite DNA data from Messor structor previously reported and with new data obtained from the genome of geographically distinct M. structor population, which have shown that this satellite DNA is highly conserved within the species. The satellite DNA is organized as tandemly repeated 79 bp monomers in all species. The sampled sequences of the three species show a high similarity and all belong to the same family of satellite DNA. Sequence comparisons suggested the occurrence of highly effective homogenization mechanism acting upon the ant genomes. In accordance with this hypothesis, putative gene conversion tracts are identified when the different monomers of the same species are compared. The highest sequence conservation in all species corresponds to a single region with inverted repeats. A CENP-B-like motif was found in this region. The possibility that it may be involved in the homogenization of satellite DNA is discussed.

  11. TAREAN: a computational tool for identification and characterization of satellite DNA from unassembled short reads. (United States)

    Novák, Petr; Ávila Robledillo, Laura; Koblížková, Andrea; Vrbová, Iva; Neumann, Pavel; Macas, Jirí


    Satellite DNA is one of the major classes of repetitive DNA, characterized by tandemly arranged repeat copies that form contiguous arrays up to megabases in length. This type of genomic organization makes satellite DNA difficult to assemble, which hampers characterization of satellite sequences by computational analysis of genomic contigs. Here, we present tandem repeat analyzer (TAREAN), a novel computational pipeline that circumvents this problem by detecting satellite repeats directly from unassembled short reads. The pipeline first employs graph-based sequence clustering to identify groups of reads that represent repetitive elements. Putative satellite repeats are subsequently detected by the presence of circular structures in their cluster graphs. Consensus sequences of repeat monomers are then reconstructed from the most frequent k-mers obtained by decomposing read sequences from corresponding clusters. The pipeline performance was successfully validated by analyzing low-pass genome sequencing data from five plant species where satellite DNA was previously experimentally characterized. Moreover, novel satellite repeats were predicted for the genome of Vicia faba and three of these repeats were verified by detecting their sequences on metaphase chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. GlaI digestion of mouse γ-satellite DNA: study of primary structure and ACGT sites methylation

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    Gonchar Danila A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mouse DNA hydrolysis with restriction enzymes are coincided with calculated diagrams of genomic DNA digestion in silico, except presence of additional bright bands, which correspond to monomer and dimer of γ-satellite DNA. Only small portion of mouse γ-satellite DNA sequences are presented in databases. Methyl-directed endonuclease GlaI cleaves mouse DNA and may be useful for a detailed study of primary structure and CG dinucleotides methylation in γ-satellite DNA. Results We have constructed a physical map and produced experimental patterns of mouse γ-satellite DNA hydrolysis with unique site-specific methyl-directed endonuclease GlaI and several restriction endonucleases. Fifty two DNA fragments of γ-satellite DNA have been cloned and sequenced. We have not observed any mutations of CG dinucleotide in position 208 of monomeric γ-satellite DNA and confirmed 50% methylation of this CG dinucleoitide. A comparison of consensus sequences of arrayed γ-satellite DNA and small blocks of satellite DNA (140 monomers and less has shown a higher level of mutations and an absence of conserved CG dinucleotide in last ones. A replacement of CG dinucleotide by CA-dinucleotide in positions 178 and 17 in chromosomes 9 and 3, respectively, has been observed in blocks of monomers. Conclusion Arrayed γ-satellite DNA from mouse has at least one conservative CG-dinucleotide. Consensus sequences of this DNA and γ-satellite DNA in small blocks of monomers are differing. The last one displays a higher level of CG dinucleotides mutations and an absence of conservative CG-dinucleotide. Presence of conservative and half-methylated CG-dinucleotide supports an idea of importance of this CG dinucleotide methylation/demethylation in arrayed γ-satellite DNA functioning.

  13. Cloning, characterization and chromosomal location of a satellite DNA from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

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    Clabby, C.; Goswami, U.; Flavin, F.; Wilkins, N.P.; Houghton, J.A.; Powell, R.

    Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. 0378-1119/96/$15.00 205 GENE 09452 Cloning, characterization and chromosomal location of a satellite DNA from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (HaelII and FokI repeated DNA; tandem repetition; genomic...: 16 October 1995 SUMMARY We report the cloning and characterization of a high-copy-number, tandem-repeat satellite DNA sequence from the genome of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Cg). The monomeric unit was found to be 166 (_+ 2) bp in length...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Satellite DNA in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex

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    Madhav Jagannathan


    Full Text Available Satellite DNAs are highly repetitive sequences that account for the majority of constitutive heterochromatin in many eukaryotic genomes. It is widely recognized that sequences and locations of satellite DNAs are highly divergent even in closely related species, contributing to the hypothesis that satellite DNA differences may underlie speciation. However, due to its repetitive nature, the mapping of satellite DNAs has been mostly left out of recent genomics analyses, hampering the use of molecular genetics techniques to better understand their role in speciation and evolution. Satellite DNAs are most extensively and comprehensively mapped in Drosophila melanogaster, a species that is also an excellent model system with which to study speciation. Yet the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding satellite DNA identity and location in its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia has prevented the full utilization of D. melanogaster in studying speciation. To overcome this problem, we initiated the mapping of satellite DNAs on the genomes of the D. melanogaster species complex (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia using multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH probes. Our study confirms a striking divergence of satellite DNAs in the D. melanogaster species complex, even among the closely related species of the D. simulans clade (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia, and suggests the presence of unidentified satellite sequences in these species.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Satellite DNA in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex. (United States)

    Jagannathan, Madhav; Warsinger-Pepe, Natalie; Watase, George J; Yamashita, Yukiko M


    Satellite DNAs are highly repetitive sequences that account for the majority of constitutive heterochromatin in many eukaryotic genomes. It is widely recognized that sequences and locations of satellite DNAs are highly divergent even in closely related species, contributing to the hypothesis that satellite DNA differences may underlie speciation. However, due to its repetitive nature, the mapping of satellite DNAs has been mostly left out of recent genomics analyses, hampering the use of molecular genetics techniques to better understand their role in speciation and evolution. Satellite DNAs are most extensively and comprehensively mapped in Drosophila melanogaster, a species that is also an excellent model system with which to study speciation. Yet the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding satellite DNA identity and location in its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) has prevented the full utilization of D. melanogaster in studying speciation. To overcome this problem, we initiated the mapping of satellite DNAs on the genomes of the D. melanogaster species complex (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) using multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. Our study confirms a striking divergence of satellite DNAs in the D. melanogaster species complex, even among the closely related species of the D. simulans clade (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia), and suggests the presence of unidentified satellite sequences in these species. Copyright © 2017 Jagannathan et al.

  16. Distribution and sequence homogeneity of an abundant satellite DNA in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. (United States)

    Davis, C A; Wyatt, G R


    The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains an unusually abundant and homogeneous satellite DNA which constitutes up to 60% of its genome. The satellite DNA is shown to be present in all of the chromosomes by in situ hybridization. 18 dimers of the repeat unit were cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence is 142 nt long and lacks any internal repeat structure. Monomers of the sequence are very similar, showing on average a 2% divergence from the calculated consensus. Variant nucleotides are scattered randomly throughout the sequence although some variants are more common than others. Neighboring repeat units are no more alike than randomly chosen ones. The results suggest that some mechanism, perhaps gene conversion, is acting to maintain the homogeneity of the satellite DNA despite its abundance and distribution on all of the chromosomes. Images PMID:2762148

  17. Hairpin structures formed by alpha satellite DNA of human centromeres are cleaved by human topoisomerase IIα (United States)

    Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Thomsen, Tina; Wang, Yong; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Koch, Jørn; Andersen, Anni H.


    Although centromere function has been conserved through evolution, apparently no interspecies consensus DNA sequence exists. Instead, centromere DNA may be interconnected through the formation of certain DNA structures creating topological binding sites for centromeric proteins. DNA topoisomerase II is a protein, which is located at centromeres, and enzymatic topoisomerase II activity correlates with centromere activity in human cells. It is therefore possible that topoisomerase II recognizes and interacts with the alpha satellite DNA of human centromeres through an interaction with potential DNA structures formed solely at active centromeres. In the present study, human topoisomerase IIα-mediated cleavage at centromeric DNA sequences was examined in vitro. The investigation has revealed that the enzyme recognizes and cleaves a specific hairpin structure formed by alpha satellite DNA. The topoisomerase introduces a single-stranded break at the hairpin loop in a reaction, where DNA ligation is partly uncoupled from the cleavage reaction. A mutational analysis has revealed, which features of the hairpin are required for topoisomerease IIα-mediated cleavage. Based on this a model is discussed, where topoisomerase II interacts with two hairpins as a mediator of centromere cohesion. PMID:18824478

  18. Characterisation of a GC-rich telomeric satellite DNA in Eumeces schneideri Daudin (Reptilia, Scincidae). (United States)

    Giovannotti, M; Nisi Cerioni, P; Caputo, V; Olmo, E


    A hitherto undescribed satellite DNA family (AvaII satDNA) has been isolated and characterised in Eumeces schneideri, a squamate reptile belonging to the family Scincidae. AvaII satDNA is characterised by a monomer length of 208 bp, a GC content of 59% and exhibits a certain degree of CpG methylation. FISH experiments with AvaII satDNA probe produced bright signals (i) at the end of the short arms of all subtelocentric chromosomes except for pair 14, in which the signal was at the end of the long arms, (ii) at the ends of both arms of the small metacentric chromosomes 12, and (iii) in a terminal position on the acrocentric chromosomes 11 and 13. AvaII satDNA repeats were not found in the metacentric pair 3, whereas only a weak interstitial signal occurred in the metacentric pairs 1 and 2. C-banding showed that this satellite represents most of the constitutive heterochromatin in the genome of this skink, and chromomycin A(3) staining produced a clear signal overlapping with the satellite, except for NOR-associated heterochromatin. In addition, quantitative dot blot analysis showed that these repetitive sequences constitute about 3% of the genomic DNA of this lizard. AvaII satDNA sequence analysis revealed the occurrence of short guanine residue stretches for which a function in structural stability of these sequences and a role in recombination with telomeric sequences can be hypothesised. Fibre FISH experiments showed that on some chromatin fibres telomeric sequences and AvaII satellite DNA repeats are intermingled or overlapping. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Population variation in the A chromosome distribution of satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. (United States)

    Cabrero, J; Perfectti, F; Gómez, R; Camacho, J P M; López-León, M D


    The double FISH analysis of two repetitive DNAs (a satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA) in 12 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans collected at the south (Granada and Málaga provinces) and south-east (Albacete and Murcia provinces) of the Iberian Peninsula has shown their wide-spread presence throughout the whole genome as well as extensive variation among populations. Both DNAs are found in most A chromosomes. Regularly, both DNAs occurred in the S11 and X chromosomes, rDNA in the S10 and satDNA in the L2 and M3. No correlation was found between the number of satDNA and rDNA clusters in the A genomes of the 12 populations analysed, and both figures were independent of the presence of B chromosomes. The genomic distribution of both DNAs showed no association with the geographical localization of the populations analysed. Finally, we provide evidence that the supernumerary chromosome segment proximally located on the S11 chromosome is, in most cases, the result of satDNA amplification but, in some cases, it might also derive from amplification of both satDNA and rDNA.

  20. Sequence-specific physical properties of African green monkey alpha-satellite DNA contribute to centromeric heterochromatin formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussiek, M.; Hoischen, Christian; Diekmann, Stephan; Bennink, Martin L.


    Satellite DNA, a major component of eukaryotic centromeric heterochromatin, is potentially associated with the processes ensuring the faithful segregation of the genetic material during cell division. Structural properties of alpha-satellite DNA (AS) from African green monkey (AGM) were studied.

  1. A neocentromere on human chromosome 3 without detectable alpha-satellite DNA forms morphologically normal kinetochores

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    Wandall, A; Tranebjaerg, L; Tommerup, Niels


    A neocentromere at 3q26 was observed in a father and his daughter on a chromosome 3 with deleted centromeric region. No alpha-satellite DNA was detectable at the 3q26 neocentromere, but it was weakly positive with anticentromere (CREST) antibodies. Electron microscopy showed that the neocentromere...

  2. Evaluation of intra- and interspecific divergence of satellite DNA sequences by nucleotide frequency calculation and pairwise sequence comparison

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    Kato Mikio


    Full Text Available Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite DNA sequences in four fishes from the genus Diplodus by calculating the nucleotide frequency of the sequence array and the phylogenetic distances between member sequences. Calculation of nucleotide frequency and pairwise sequence comparison enabled us to characterize the divergence among member sequences in this satellite DNA family. The results suggest that the evolutionary rate of satellite DNA in D. bellottii is about two-fold greater than the average of the other three fishes, and that the sequence homogenization event occurred in D. puntazzo more recently than in the others. The procedures described here are effective to characterize mode of evolution of satellite DNA.

  3. Factors influencing the yield of satellite DNA in extractions from Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster adults and embryos. (United States)

    Rae, P M; Barnett, T R; Babbitt, D G


    The application of different DNA extraction methods to identical batches of Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster flies or embryos has revealed that the ionic strength of a homogenization medium is of critical importance if chloroform extractions are performed. The low yield of satellite DNA after homogenization in low salt buffers is less severe if EDTA is included in the buffer. Phenol extraction procedures result in no such differential behavior of satellite and main band DNA, but under certain circumstances a particular satellite fraction of Drosophila virilis DNA may be lost.

  4. Locational diversity of alpha satellite DNA and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates genera of small apes.

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    Sudarath Baicharoen

    Full Text Available Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes.

  5. Satellite DNA Modulates Gene Expression in the Beetle Tribolium castaneum after Heat Stress.

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    Isidoro Feliciello


    Full Text Available Non-coding repetitive DNAs have been proposed to perform a gene regulatory role, however for tandemly repeated satellite DNA no such role was defined until now. Here we provide the first evidence for a role of satellite DNA in the modulation of gene expression under specific environmental conditions. The major satellite DNA TCAST1 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum is preferentially located within pericentromeric heterochromatin but is also dispersed as single repeats or short arrays in the vicinity of protein-coding genes within euchromatin. Our results show enhanced suppression of activity of TCAST1-associated genes and slower recovery of their activity after long-term heat stress relative to the same genes without associated TCAST1 satellite DNA elements. The level of gene suppression is not influenced by the distance of TCAST1 elements from the associated genes up to 40 kb from the genes' transcription start sites, but it does depend on the copy number of TCAST1 repeats within an element, being stronger for the higher number of copies. The enhanced gene suppression correlates with the enrichment of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2/3 at dispersed TCAST1 elements and their flanking regions as well as with increased expression of TCAST1 satellite DNA. The results reveal transient, RNAi based heterochromatin formation at dispersed TCAST1 repeats and their proximal regions as a mechanism responsible for enhanced silencing of TCAST1-associated genes. Differences in the pattern of distribution of TCAST1 elements contribute to gene expression diversity among T. castaneum strains after long-term heat stress and might have an impact on adaptation to different environmental conditions.

  6. Properties of CENP-B and its target sequence in a satellite DNA

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    Masumoto, H.; Yoda, K.; Ikeno, M.; Kitagawa, K.; Muro, Y.; Okazaki, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    The centromere plays an essential role in the proper segregation of eukaryotic chromosomes at mitosis and meiosis. The centromere is the multifunctional domain of chromosome responsible for sister chromatid association at the inner site and for microtubule attachment at the outer surface. It also acts as a mechanochemical motor for chromosome movement. These multiple centromere functions must, in some way, be directed by a cis-acting DNA sequence located in the centromere region. Indeed, specific centromere DNA sequences (CEN-DNA) were identified in two yeast species. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CEN-DNA consists of roughly 125 bp sequence composed of three conserved elements. In contrast, the centromere sequence of S. pombe is quite different from S. cerevisiae in length and sequence organization. The molecular bases for understanding the structure and function of the centromere/kinetochore domain have not been elucidated in higher eukaryotes. In mammalian cells, satellite DNA`s are localized in the centromeric heterochromatin or heterochromatic arm. In all human chromosomes, the alpha satellite or alphoid DNA family, a highly repetitive DNA composed of about 170 bp fundamental monomer repeating units, is found at the primary constriction. Its function, however, has not been established.

  7. New satellite DNA in Lacerta s. str. lizards (Sauria: Lacertidae): evolutionary pathways and phylogenetic impact. (United States)

    Ciobanu, Doina; Grechko, Vernata V; Darevsky, Ilya S; Kramerov, Dmitri A


    A new tandemly repeated (satellite) DNA family namely Agi160, from Lacerta agilis and Lacerta strigata (Lacerta sensu stricto (s. str.), Linnaeus 1758) have been cloned and sequenced. Agi160 is found in the above two species, as well as two other representatives of the same genus, L. viridis and L. media. DNA hybridization did not reveal it in Darevskia, Podarcis, Zootoca, Eremias, Ophisops, and Gallotia - the other genera of the family Lacertidae. The results suggest that Agi160 is a Lacerta s. str. specific family of tandem DNA repeats. However, a comparison between sequences of Agi160 and CLsat repeat units revealed 60 bp regions 62-74% identical. The latter is a satellite DNA family typical for Darevskia (syn. "L. saxicola complex") (Grechko et al., Molecular-genetic classification and phylogenetic relatedness of some species of Lacertidae lizards by taxonoprint data. Mol Biol 32:172-183, 1988.). Both Agi160 and CLsat tandem repeats share several common features (e.g., the same AT content and distribution of multiple short A-T runs, internal structure of repeated units, the presence of conservative regions). These data are indicative of their common origin and a possibly strong selective pressure upon conserving both satellites. A comparative analysis of structure, organization, and abundance of these two families of satDNA reveals evolutionary pathways that led to their formation and divergence. The data are consistent with the hypotheses of the concerted evolution of satellite DNA families. The possibility of use of Agi160 as a phylogenetic tool, defining relationships within Lacerta s. str., as well as within the whole family of Lacertidae is discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. RNA Pol II promotes transcription of centromeric satellite DNA in beetles.

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    Zeljka Pezer

    Full Text Available Transcripts of centromeric satellite DNAs are known to play a role in heterochromatin formation as well as in establishment of the kinetochore. However, little is known about basic mechanisms of satellite DNA expression within constitutive heterochromatin and its regulation. Here we present comprehensive analysis of transcription of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, PRAT from beetle Palorus ratzeburgii (Coleoptera. This satellite is characterized by preservation and extreme sequence conservation among evolutionarily distant insect species. PRAT is expressed in all three developmental stages: larvae, pupae and adults at similar level. Transcripts are abundant comprising 0.033% of total RNA and are heterogeneous in size ranging from 0.5 kb up to more than 5 kb. Transcription proceeds from both strands but with 10 fold different expression intensity and transcripts are not processed into siRNAs. Most of the transcripts (80% are not polyadenylated and remain in the nucleus while a small portion is exported to the cytoplasm. Multiple, irregularly distributed transcription initiation sites as well as termination sites have been mapped within the PRAT sequence using primer extension and RLM-RACE. The presence of cap structure as well as poly(A tails in a portion of the transcripts indicate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription and a putative polymerase II promoter site overlaps the most conserved part of the PRAT sequence. The treatment of larvae with alpha-amanitin decreases the level of PRAT transcripts at concentrations that selectively inhibit pol II activity. In conclusion, stable, RNA polymerase II dependant transcripts of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, not regulated by RNAi, have been identified and characterized. This study offers a basic understanding of expression of highly abundant heterochromatic DNA which in beetle species constitutes up to 50% of the genome.

  9. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets? (United States)

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella


    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  10. Amplification of satellite III DNA in an unusually large chromosome 14p+ variant. (United States)

    Earle, E; Dale, S; Choo, K H


    A phenotypically normal male (WSm) was found to have an unusually large short arm of chromosome 14. Increase in the size of this variant chromosome [Wsm-var(14)] was estimated to be approximately 30% that of a normal chromosome 14 by G-banding using trypsin and staining with Leishman. The extra chromosomal material was positive in CBG staining (C-banding using BaOH and staining with Giemsa), suggesting the presence of repetitive DNA. In situ hybridisation using repetitive probes demonstrated this material to be strongly positive for satellite III DNA, and negative for Y-specific heterochromatic DNA. Hybridisation with an alpha DNA probe specific for human acrocentric chromosomes indicated the retention of the centromere, and the absence of alpha DNA in the extra chromosomal material. We propose the origin of the extra chromosomal material in WSm-var(14) to be a result of amplification of contiguous satellite III DNA that is normally present in the short arm of chromosome 14. This variant chromosome does not appear to be associated with the abnormal phenotype in WSm's daughter who is mentally retarded and carries a t(1;?)(q41;?) translocation of chromosome 1.

  11. A homologous subfamily of satellite III DNA on human chromosomes 14 and 22.


    Choo, K H; Earle, E; McQuillan, C.


    We describe a new subfamily of human satellite III DNA that is represented on two different acrocentric chromosomes. This DNA is composed of a tandemly repeated array of diverged 5-base-pair monomer units of the sequence GGAAT or GGAGT. These monomers are organised into a 1.37-kilobase higher-order structure that is itself tandemly reiterated. Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing specific human chromosomes, this higher-order structure is demonstrated on chromosomes 14 and 22, but ...

  12. Hybridization of banteng (Bos javanicus) and zebu (Bos indicus) revealed by mitochondrial DNA, satellite DNA, AFLP and microsatellites. (United States)

    Nijman, I J; Otsen, M; Verkaar, E L C; de Ruijter, C; Hanekamp, E; Ochieng, J W; Shamshad, S; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O; Barwegen, M W; Sulawati, T; Lenstra, J A


    Hybridization between wild and domestic bovine species occurs worldwide either spontaneously or by organized crossing. We have analysed hybridization of banteng (Bos javanicus) and zebu (Bos indicus) in south-east Asian cattle using mitochondrial DNA (PCR-RFLP and sequencing), AFLP, satellite fragment length polymorphisms (SFLP or PCR-RFLP of satellite DNA) and microsatellite genotyping. The Indonesian Madura zebu breed is reputed to be of hybrid zebu-banteng origin, but this has never been documented and Bali cattle are considered to be a domesticated form of banteng. The banteng mitochondrial type was found in all animals sampled on the isle of Bali, Indonesia, but only in 35% of the animals from a Malaysian Bali-cattle population. The Madura animals also carried mitochondrial DNA of either zebu and banteng origin. In both populations, zebu introgression was confirmed by AFLP and SFLP. Microsatellite analysis of the Malaysian Bali population revealed for 12 out of 15 loci screened, Bali-cattle-specific alleles, several of which were also found in wild banteng animals. The tools we have described are suitable for the detection of species in introgression studies, which are essential for the genetic description of local breeds and the preservation of their economic and cultural value.

  13. A new family of satellite DNA sequences as a major component of centromeric heterochromatin in owls (Strigiformes). (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi


    We isolated a new family of satellite DNA sequences from HaeIII- and EcoRI-digested genomic DNA of the Blakiston's fish owl ( Ketupa blakistoni). The repetitive sequences were organized in tandem arrays of the 174 bp element, and localized to the centromeric regions of all macrochromosomes, including the Z and W chromosomes, and microchromosomes. This hybridization pattern was consistent with the distribution of C-band-positive centromeric heterochromatin, and the satellite DNA sequences occupied 10% of the total genome as a major component of centromeric heterochromatin. The sequences were homogenized between macro- and microchromosomes in this species, and therefore intraspecific divergence of the nucleotide sequences was low. The 174 bp element cross-hybridized to the genomic DNA of six other Strigidae species, but not to that of the Tytonidae, suggesting that the satellite DNA sequences are conserved in the same family but fairly divergent between the different families in the Strigiformes. Secondly, the centromeric satellite DNAs were cloned from eight Strigidae species, and the nucleotide sequences of 41 monomer fragments were compared within and between species. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the nucleotide sequences were highly correlated with both the taxonomy based on morphological traits and the phylogenetic tree constructed by DNA-DNA hybridization. These results suggest that the satellite DNA sequence has evolved by concerted evolution in the Strigidae and that it is a good taxonomic and phylogenetic marker to examine genetic diversity between Strigiformes species.

  14. Diversity and distribution of alpha satellite DNA in the genome of an Old World monkey: Cercopithecus solatus. (United States)

    Cacheux, Lauriane; Ponger, Loïc; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Richard, Florence Anne; Escudé, Christophe


    Alpha satellite is the major repeated DNA element of primate centromeres. Evolution of these tandemly repeated sequences has led to the existence of numerous families of monomers exhibiting specific organizational patterns. The limited amount of information available in non-human primates is a restriction to the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of alpha satellite DNA. We carried out the targeted high-throughput sequencing of alpha satellite monomers and dimers from the Cercopithecus solatus genome, an Old World monkey from the Cercopithecini tribe. Computational approaches were used to infer the existence of sequence families and to study how these families are organized with respect to each other. While previous studies had suggested that alpha satellites in Old World monkeys were poorly diversified, our analysis provides evidence for the existence of at least four distinct families of sequences within the studied species and of higher order organizational patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using oligonucleotide probes that are able to target each family in a specific way showed that the different families had distinct distributions on chromosomes and were not homogeneously distributed between chromosomes. Our new approach provides an unprecedented and comprehensive view of the diversity and organization of alpha satellites in a species outside the hominoid group. We consider these data with respect to previously known alpha satellite families and to potential mechanisms for satellite DNA evolution. Applying this approach to other species will open new perspectives regarding the integration of satellite DNA into comparative genomic and cytogenetic studies.

  15. Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome. (United States)

    Erliandri, Indri; Fu, Haiqing; Nakano, Megumi; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Miga, Karen H; Liskovykh, Mikhail; Earnshaw, William C; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kouprina, Natalay; Aladjem, Mirit I; Larionov, Vladimir


    In human chromosomes, centromeric regions comprise megabase-size arrays of 171 bp alpha-satellite DNA monomers. The large distances spanned by these arrays preclude their replication from external sites and imply that the repetitive monomers contain replication origins. However, replication within these arrays has not previously been profiled and the role of alpha-satellite DNA in initiation of DNA replication has not yet been demonstrated. Here, replication of alpha-satellite DNA in endogenous human centromeric regions and in de novo formed Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) was analyzed. We showed that alpha-satellite monomers could function as origins of DNA replication and that replication of alphoid arrays organized into centrochromatin occurred earlier than those organized into heterochromatin. The distribution of inter-origin distances within centromeric alphoid arrays was comparable to the distribution of inter-origin distances on randomly selected non-centromeric chromosomal regions. Depletion of CENP-B, a kinetochore protein that binds directly to a 17 bp CENP-B box motif common to alpha-satellite DNA, resulted in enrichment of alpha-satellite sequences for proteins of the ORC complex, suggesting that CENP-B may have a role in regulating the replication of centromeric regions. Mapping of replication initiation sites in the HAC revealed that replication preferentially initiated in transcriptionally active regions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. [Frequency of various mini- and micro-satellite sequences in DNA of human chromosome 13]. (United States)

    Ryskov, A P; Kupriianova, N S; Kapanadze, B I; Nechvolodov, K K; Pozmogova, G E; Prosniak, M I; Iankovskiĭ, N K


    The frequency of specific mini- and micro-satellites known also as short tandem repeated sequences (STR) in the human 13 chromosome was estimated by hybridization of STR core oligonucleotides to recombinant cosmid clones transferred to a grid from a human 13 chromosome specific cosmid library ICRF Lawrist 4 C108 (DN L4/HS 13). Oligonucleotides: M13 and Jeffreys minisatellite core sequences and micro-satellite core sequences (TCC)5, (CAC)5, and (GACA)4 were [gamma-32P] end labeled and hybridized to membrane filters carrying good ordered cosmid clones. It was shown that great number of all these mini- and micro-satellite copies (besides of Jeffreys minisatellite) are spread independently along the 13th chromosome. It was also estimated that two or more (GACA)n blocks present in the same cosmid (i.e. on the stretch of 40-50 kb) forming similar groups of clustered micro-satellites. The interesting peculiarity has been recorded that some (GACA)n+ cosmids are also hybridizable to conservative 28SrDNA 3'-fragment that indicates that (GACA)n localization in the nucleoli area. As the result of it we began the creation of a new highly polymorphic markers collections for these chromosome.

  17. A homologous subfamily of satellite III DNA on human chromosomes 14 and 22. (United States)

    Choo, K H; Earle, E; McQuillan, C


    We describe a new subfamily of human satellite III DNA that is represented on two different acrocentric chromosomes. This DNA is composed of a tandemly repeated array of diverged 5-base-pair monomer units of the sequence GGAAT or GGAGT. These monomers are organised into a 1.37-kilobase higher-order structure that is itself tandemly reiterated. Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing specific human chromosomes, this higher-order structure is demonstrated on chromosomes 14 and 22, but not on the remaining acrocentric chromosomes. In situ hybridisation studies have localised the sequence to the proximal p-arm region of these chromosomes. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) reveals that 70-110 copies of the higher-order structure are tandemly organised on a chromosome into a major domain which appears to be flanked on both sides by non-tandemly repeated genomic DNA. In addition, some of the satellite III sequences are interspersed over a number of other PFGE fragments. This study provides fundamental knowledge on the structure and evolution of the acrocentric chromosomes, and should extend our understanding of the complex process of interchromosomal interaction which may be responsible for Robertsonian translocation and meiotic nondisjunction involving these chromosomes.

  18. FA-SAT Is an Old Satellite DNA Frozen in Several Bilateria Genomes (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniela; Mendes-da-Silva, Ana; Meles, Susana; Adega, Filomena


    Abstract In recent years, a growing body of evidence has recognized the tandem repeat sequences, and specifically satellite DNA, as a functional class of sequences in the genomic “dark matter.” Using an original, complementary, and thus an eclectic experimental design, we show that the cat archetypal satellite DNA sequence, FA-SAT, is “frozen” conservatively in several Bilateria genomes. We found different genomic FA-SAT architectures, and the interspersion pattern was conserved. In Carnivora genomes, the FA-SAT-related sequences are also amplified, with the predominance of a specific FA-SAT variant, at the heterochromatic regions. We inspected the cat genome project to locate FA-SAT array flanking regions and revealed an intensive intermingling with transposable elements. Our results also show that FA-SAT-related sequences are transcribed and that the most abundant FA-SAT variant is not always the most transcribed. We thus conclude that the DNA sequences of FA-SAT and their transcripts are “frozen” in these genomes. Future work is needed to disclose any putative function that these sequences may play in these genomes.

  19. Characterization of RUSI, a telomere-associated satellite DNA, in the genus Rumex (Polygonaceae). (United States)

    Navajas-Pérez, R; Schwarzacher, T; Ruiz Rejón, M; Garrido-Ramos, M A


    A satellite-DNA family (RUSI) has been isolated and characterized in Rumexinduratus Boiss and Reuter (Polygonaceae), an Iberian endemic polygamous sorrel. The RUSI repeats are 170 bp in length and approximately 68% AT-rich containing different variants of degenerate telomere motifs--(TT)(n)AN(GG)(n) -, a typical feature of subtelomeric DNA repeats adjacent to telomeres, which have been referred to as telomere-associated sequences or TASs. In fact, fluorescent in situhybridization showed that this satellite DNA is located in subtelomeric positions of most of the chromosomes of R. induratus, with some centromeric loci. PCR and Southern-blot hybridization assays for sequence conservation in the genus Rumex, indicated that the RUSI sequences are restricted to the genomes of R. induratus and R. scutatus, both species of the section Scutati, suggesting that they are recently evolved. Sequence variation within the two species is high (mean value of sequence differences between repeats of 15% for R. induratus and 7.5% for R. scutatus) and the degree of sequence differentiation between species is low with no species-specific variants, postulated to be due to slowed rates of spreading of sequence variants by molecular homogenizing mechanisms. Characteristics of RUSI sequences are discussed in the light of their chromosomal location and analyzed for their evolutionary and phylogenetic implications. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) - Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites. (United States)

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús


    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed.

  1. Characterization of non-coding DNA satellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae - definition of a distinct class of begomovirus-associated satellites

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    Gloria eLozano


    Full Text Available Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas. Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus–satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus, with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed.

  2. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH

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    Jaime Gosálvez


    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL, 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL, and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  3. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH) (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime


    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1. PMID:23429197

  4. Evolutionary Story of a Satellite DNA from Phodopus sungorus (Rodentia, Cricetidae) (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Meštrović, Nevenka; Plohl, Miroslav; Chaves, Raquel


    With the goal to contribute for the understanding of satellite DNA evolution and its genomic involvement, in this work it was isolated and characterized the first satellite DNA (PSUcentSat) from Phodopus sungorus (Cricetidae). Physical mapping of this sequence in P. sungorus showed large PSUcentSat arrays located at the heterochromatic (peri)centromeric region of five autosomal pairs and Y-chromosome. The presence of orthologous PSUcentSat sequences in the genomes of other Cricetidae and Muridae rodents was also verified, presenting however, an interspersed chromosomal distribution. This distribution pattern suggests a PSUcentSat-scattered location in an ancestor of Muridae/Cricetidae families, that assumed afterwards, in the descendant genome of P. sungorus a restricted localization to few chromosomes in the (peri)centromeric region. We believe that after the divergence of the studied species, PSUcentSat was most probably highly amplified in the (peri)centromeric region of some chromosome pairs of this hamster by recombinational mechanisms. The bouquet chromosome configuration (prophase I) possibly displays an important role in this selective amplification, providing physical proximity of centromeric regions between chromosomes with similar size and/or morphology. This seems particularly evident for the acrocentric chromosomes of P. sungorus (including the Y-chromosome), all presenting large PSUcentSat arrays at the (peri)centromeric region. The conservation of this sequence in the studied genomes and its (peri)centromeric amplification in P. sungorus strongly suggests functional significance, possibly displaying this satellite family different functions in the different genomes. The verification of PSUcentSat transcriptional activity in normal proliferative cells suggests that its transcription is not stage-limited, as described for some other satellites. PMID:25336681

  5. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae

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    Karyna Rosario


    Full Text Available Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae, which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA, Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain. Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640–750 nucleotides satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (<1 kilobase, non-coding begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity.

  6. Centromeric alpha satellite DNA amplification and translocation in an unusually large chromosome 14p+ variant. (United States)

    Dale, S; Earle, E; Voullaire, L; Rogers, J; Choo, K H


    We report cytogenetic and molecular studies on a family that carries, in the father, an unusually large chromosome 14p+ variant [WSi-var(14)(p+)] and, in one of his children, a translocation [DSi-der(14)] involving the variant chromosome. Increase in the size of WSi-var(14)(p+) was estimated to be approximately 35% that of a normal chromosome 14. Presence of extra chromosomal material in this variant chromosome was demonstrated by G-banding using trypsin and staining with Leishman, G-banding using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Giemsa, and R-banding using BrdU and Giemsa. This material was positive using C-banding with BaOH and staining with Giemsa and negative in DAPI/distamycin staining, suggesting that it contained repetitive DNA but probably not of the types found in the heterochromatic regions of chromosomes 1, 9, 15, 16, and Y. Staining of the nucleolus organiser region (NOR) with AgNO3 indicated the retention of the NOR in WSi-var(14)(p+) but not in DSi-der(14). In situ hybridisation of metaphase cells with an alpha satellite DNA probe specific for human acrocentric chromosomes demonstrated a significantly increased amount of centromeric alpha sequences in WSi-var(14)(p+). Most or all of the extra alpha sequences were retained in DSi-der(14), indicating translocation near the very distal end of the enlarged region. The extra alpha satellite DNA material may have originated through amplification of some centromeric segments. The possible role of the amplified DNA in chromosomal translocations is discussed.

  7. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa. (United States)

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni


    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  8. Dissecting the Satellite DNA Landscape in Three Cactophilic Drosophila Sequenced Genomes

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    Leonardo G. de Lima


    Full Text Available Eukaryote genomes are replete with repetitive DNAs. This class includes tandemly repeated satellite DNAs (satDNA which are among the most abundant, fast evolving (yet poorly studied genomic components. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing data from three cactophilic Drosophila species, D. buzzatii, D. seriema, and D. mojavensis, to access and study their whole satDNA landscape. In total, the RepeatExplorer software identified five satDNAs, three previously described (pBuM, DBC-150 and CDSTR198 and two novel ones (CDSTR138 and CDSTR130. Only pBuM is shared among all three species. The satDNA repeat length falls within only two classes, between 130 and 200 bp or between 340 and 390 bp. FISH on metaphase and polytene chromosomes revealed the presence of satDNA arrays in at least one of the following genomic compartments: centromeric, telomeric, subtelomeric, or dispersed along euchromatin. The chromosomal distribution ranges from a single chromosome to almost all chromosomes of the complement. Fiber-FISH and sequence analysis of contigs revealed interspersion between pBuM and CDSTR130 in the microchromosomes of D. mojavensis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the pBuM satDNA underwent concerted evolution at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. Based on RNA-seq data, we found transcription activity for pBuM (in D. mojavensis and CDSTR198 (in D. buzzatii in all five analyzed developmental stages, most notably in pupae and adult males. Our data revealed that cactophilic Drosophila present the lowest amount of satDNAs (1.9–2.9% within the Drosophila genus reported so far. We discuss how our findings on the satDNA location, abundance, organization, and transcription activity may be related to functional aspects.

  9. Obesity-induced sperm DNA methylation changes at satellite repeats are reprogrammed in rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Youngson


    Full Text Available There is now strong evidence that the paternal contribution to offspring phenotype at fertilisation is more than just DNA. However, the identity and mechanisms of this nongenetic inheritance are poorly understood. One of the more important questions in this research area is: do changes in sperm DNA methylation have phenotypic consequences for offspring? We have previously reported that offspring of obese male rats have altered glucose metabolism compared with controls and that this effect was inherited through nongenetic means. Here, we describe investigations into sperm DNA methylation in a new cohort using the same protocol. Male rats on a high-fat diet were 30% heavier than control-fed males at the time of mating (16-19 weeks old, n = 14/14. A small (0.25% increase in total 5-methyl-2Ͳ-deoxycytidine was detected in obese rat spermatozoa by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Examination of the repetitive fraction of the genome with methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq and pyrosequencing revealed that retrotransposon DNA methylation states in spermatozoa were not affected by obesity, but methylation at satellite repeats throughout the genome was increased. However, examination of muscle, liver, and spermatozoa from male 27-week-old offspring from obese and control fathers (both groups from n = 8 fathers revealed that normal DNA methylation levels were restored during offspring development. Furthermore, no changes were found in three genomic imprints in obese rat spermatozoa. Our findings have implications for transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming. They suggest that postfertilization mechanisms exist for normalising some environmentally-induced DNA methylation changes in sperm cells.

  10. De novo generation of satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes by induced large-scale amplification. (United States)

    Csonka, Erika


    Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are engineered chromosomes with defined genetic content that can function as non-integrating vectors with large carrying capacity and stability. The large carrying capacity allows the engineering of MACs with multiple copies of the same transgene, gene complexes, and to include regulatory elements necessary for the regulated expression of transgene(s). In recent years, different approaches have been explored to generate MACs (Vos Curr Opin Genet Dev 8:351-359, 1998; Danielle et al. Trends Biotech 23:573-583, 2005; Duncan and Hadlaczky Curr Opin Biotech 18:420-424, 2007): (1) the de novo formation by centromere seeding, the "bottom-up" approach, (2) the truncation of natural chromosomes or the modification of naturally occurring minichromosomes, the "top-down" approach, and (3) the in vivo "inductive" approach. Satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes (SATACs) generated by the in vivo "inductive" method have the potential to become an efficient tool in diverse gene technology applications such as cellular protein manufacturing (Kennard et al. BioPharm Int 20:52-59, 2007; Kennard et al. Biotechnol Bioeng 104:526-539, 2009; Kennard et al. Biotechnol Bioeng 104:540-553, 2009), transgenic animal production (Telenius et al. Chromosome Res 7:3-7, 1999; Co et al. Chromosome Res 8:183-191, 2000; Monteith et al. Methods Mol Biol 240:227-242, 2003), and ultimately a safe vector for gene therapy (Vanderbyl et al. Stem Cells 22:324-333, 2004; Vanderbyl et al. Exp Hematol 33:1470-1476, 2005; Katona et al. Cell. Mol. Life Sci 65:3830-3838, 2008). A detailed protocol for the de novo generation of satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes (SATACs) via induced large-scale amplification is presented.

  11. De novo formed satellite DNA-based mammalian artificial chromosomes and their possible applications. (United States)

    Katona, Robert L


    Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are non-integrating, autonomously replicating natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material, which in turn enable potentially prolonged, safe, and regulated therapeutic transgene expression and render MACs as attractive genetic vectors for "gene replacement" or for controlling differentiation pathways in target cells. Satellite-DNA-based artificial chromosomes (SATACs) can be made by induced de novo chromosome formation in cells of different mammalian and plant species. These artificially generated accessory chromosomes are composed of predictable DNA sequences, and they contain defined genetic information. SATACs have already passed a number of obstacles crucial to their further development as gene therapy vectors, including large-scale purification, transfer of purified artificial chromosomes into different cells and embryos, generation of transgenic animals and germline transmission with purified SATACs, and the tissue-specific expression of a therapeutic gene from an artificial chromosome in the milk of transgenic animals. SATACs could be used in cell therapy protocols. For these methods, the most versatile target cell would be one that was pluripotent and self-renewing to address multiple disease target cell types, thus making multilineage stem cells, such as adult derived early progenitor cells and embryonic stem cells, as attractive universal host cells.

  12. Evolutionary Origin of Higher-Order Repeat Structure in Alpha-Satellite DNA of Primate Centromeres (United States)

    Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Yuriko; Terada, Shoko; Jahan, Israt; Baicharoen, Sudarath; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Hirohisa


    Alpha-satellite DNA (AS) is a main DNA component of primate centromeres, consisting of tandemly repeated units of ∼170 bp. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, in which a block of multiple repeat units forms a larger repeat unit and the larger units are repeated tandemly. The presence of HOR in AS is widely thought to be unique to hominids (family Hominidae; humans and great apes). Recently, we have identified an HOR-containing AS in the siamang, which is a small ape species belonging to the genus Symphalangus in the family Hylobatidae. This result supports the view that HOR in AS is an attribute of hominoids (superfamily Hominoidea) rather than hominids. A single example is, however, not sufficient for discussion of the evolutionary origin of HOR-containing AS. In the present study, we developed an efficient method for detecting signs of large-scale HOR and demonstrated HOR of AS in all the three other genera. Thus, AS organized into HOR occurs widely in hominoids. Our results indicate that (i) HOR-containing AS was present in the last common ancestor of hominoids or (ii) HOR-containing AS emerged independently in most or all basal branches of hominoids. We have also confirmed HOR occurrence in centromeric AS in the Hylobatidae family, which remained unclear in our previous study because of the existence of AS in subtelomeric regions, in addition to centromeres, of siamang chromosomes. PMID:24585002

  13. Molecular characterization of the first satellite DNA with CENP-B and CDEIII motifs in the bat Pipistrellus kuhli. (United States)

    Fantaccione, Stefania; Pontecorvo, Giovanni; Zampella, Vincenzo


    The centromere is an essential structure in the chromosomes of all eukariotes and is central to the mechanism that ensures proper segregation during mitosis and meiosis. The comparison of DNA sequence motifs, organization and kinetocore components from yeast to man is beginning to indicate that, although centromeres are highly variable DNA elements, a conserved pattern of sequence arrangement and function is emerging. We have identified and characterized the first satellite DNA (P.k.SAT) from microbat species Pipistrellus kuhli. The presence of mammalian CENP-B box and yeast CDEIII box could indicate the participation of P.k.SAT in centromere organization.

  14. [Variability of satellite DNA II and IV in cattle, various representatives of the subfamily Bovinae and their hybrids]. (United States)

    Smirnov, A F; Pavlova, V A; Sleptsov, M K; Steklenev, E P


    Polymorphism of satellite DNA II and IV was studied in Bos taurus by means of Southern blotting and dot hybridization. Of primary interest is the absence of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the individual and interbreed levels. Differences in the content of satellite II in the genome are demonstrated for animals of the Kholmogorskaya and Yakutian breeds. The specific features of satellite IV organization in the bison, banteng and yak are revealed, allowing the use of the satellite as a specific genetic marker. Superposition of parental organizational types of this class of repeats is detected for the interspecies hybrids yak x cattle, banteng x cattle, and bison x cattle. At the same time, several cases of deviation from classic inheritance of such parental types in the interspecies hybrids were found.

  15. Amplification, contraction and genomic spread of a satellite DNA family (E180) in Medicago (Fabaceae) and allied genera. (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Galián, José A; Rosselló, Josep A


    Satellite DNA is a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNA is an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we assess the presence and physical distribution of the repetitive DNA E180 family in Medicago and allied genera. Our goals were to gain insight into the karyotype evolution of Medicago using satellite DNA markers, and to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic signal of a satellite DNA family in a genus hypothesized to have a complex evolutionary history. Seventy accessions from Medicago, Trigonella, Melilotus and Trifolium were analysed by PCR to assess the presence of the repetitive E180 family, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping in somatic chromosomes. The E180 repeat unit was PCR-amplified in 37 of 40 taxa in Medicago, eight of 12 species of Trigonella, six of seven species of Melilotus and in two of 11 Trifolium species. Examination of the mitotic chromosomes revealed that only 13 Medicago and two Trigonella species showed FISH signals using the E180 probe. Stronger hybridization signals were observed in subtelomeric and interstitial loci than in the pericentromeric loci, suggesting this satellite family has a preferential genomic location. Not all 13 Medicago species that showed FISH localization of the E180 repeat were phylogenetically related. However, nine of these species belong to the phylogenetically derived clade including the M. sativa and M. arborea complexes. The use of the E180 family as a phylogenetic marker in Medicago should be viewed with caution. Its amplification appears to have been produced through recurrent and independent evolutionary episodes in both annual and perennial Medicago species as well as in basal and derived clades.

  16. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon. (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K


    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of pKi-67 with satellite DNA of the human genome in early G1 cells. (United States)

    Bridger, J M; Kill, I R; Lichter, P


    pKi-67 is a nucleolar antigen that provides a specific marker for proliferating cells. It has been shown previously that pKi-67's distribution varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner: it coats all chromosomes during mitosis, accumulates in nuclear foci during G1 phase (type I distribution) and localizes within nucleoli in late G1 S and G2 phase (type II distribution). Although no function has as yet been ascribed to pKi-67, it has been found associated with centromeres in G1. In the present study the distribution pattern of pKi-67 during G1 in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was analysed in more detail. Synchronization experiments show that in very early G1 cells pKi-67 coincides with virtually all satellite regions analysed, i.e. with centromeric (alpha-satellite), telomeric (minisatellite) and heterochromatic blocks (satellite III) on chromosomes 1 and Y (type Ia distribution). In contrast, later in the G1 phase, a smaller fraction of satellite DNA regions are found collocalized with pKi-67 foci (type Ib distribution). When all pKi-67 becomes localized within nucleoli, even fewer satellite regions remain associated with the pKi-67 staining. However, all centromeric and short arm regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, which are in very close proximity to or even contain the rRNA genes, are collocalized with anti-pKi-67 staining throughout the remaining interphase of the cell cycle. Thus, our data demonstrate that during post-mitotic reformation and nucleogenesis there is a progressive decline in the fraction of specific satellite regions of DNA that remain associated with pKi-67. This may be relevant to nucleolar reformation following mitosis.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Begomoviruses and DNA Satellites Associated with a New Host Spanish Flag (Lantana camara) in India


    Marwal, Avinash; Kumar Sahu, Anurag; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar


    In the year 2010 yellowing of leaf vein disease was observed on Spanish Flag (Lantana camara) in Sirsa, Haryana province, India. There was no earlier report of association of begomovirus and DNA satellites with Lantana camara. Therefore, molecular characterization and understanding of the genomic analysis of begomovirus infecting Lantana camara is imperative for the pathogen diagnosis and disease management. This is the first report and molecular characterization of a begomovirus associated w...

  19. Satellite DNA methylation status and expression of selected genes in Bos indicus blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. (United States)

    Urrego, R; Bernal-Ulloa, S M; Chavarría, N A; Herrera-Puerta, E; Lucas-Hahn, A; Herrmann, D; Winkler, S; Pache, D; Niemann, H; Rodriguez-Osorio, N


    Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P vitro embryo production system.

  20. Alphoid satellite DNA is tightly associated with centromere antigens in human chromosomes throughout the cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Okazaki, Tuneko (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))


    In this study, the authors have examined a DNA element specific to the centromere domain of human chromosomes. Purified HeLa chromosomes were digested with the restriction enzyme Sau3AI and fractionated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient. Fractions showing antigenicity to anticentromere (kinetochore) serum obtained from a scleroderma CREST patient were used to construct a DNA library. From this library they found one clone which has specifically hybridized to the centromere domain of metaphase chromosomes using a biotinylated probe DNA and FITC-conjugated avidin. The clone contained a stretch of alphoid DNA dimer. To determine precisely the relative location of the alphoid DNA stretch and the centromere antigen, a method was developed to carry out in situ hybridization of DNA and indirect immunofluorescent staining of antigen on the same cell preparation. Using this method, they have found perfect overlapping of the alphoid DNA sites with the centromere antigen in both metaphase chromosomes and nuclei at various stages in the cell cycle. They have also observed this exact correlation at the attachment sites of artificially extended sister chromatids. These results suggest the possibility that alphoid DNA repeats are a key component of kinetochore structure.

  1. Lack of satellite DNA species-specific homogenization and relationship to chromosomal rearrangements in monitor lizards (Varanidae, Squamata). (United States)

    Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Suntronpong, Aorarat; Singchat, Worapong; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Phatcharakullawarawat, Rattanin; Muangmai, Narongrit; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Matsubara, Kazumi; Ezaz, Tariq; Srikulnath, Kornsorn


    Satellite DNAs (stDNAs) are highly repeated sequences that constitute large portions of any genome. The evolutionary dynamics of stDNA (e.g. copy number, nucleotide sequence, location) can, therefore, provide an insight into genome organization and evolution. We investigated the evolutionary origin of VSAREP stDNA in 17 monitor lizards (seven Asian, five Australian, and five African) at molecular and cytogenetic level. Results revealed that VSAREP is conserved in the genome of Asian and Australian varanids, but not in African varanids, suggesting that these sequences are either differentiated or lost in the African varanids. Phylogenetic and arrangement network analyses revealed the existence of at least four VSAREP subfamilies. The similarity of each sequence unit within the same VSAREP subfamily from different species was higher than those of other VSAREP subfamilies belonging to the same species. Additionally, all VSAREP subfamilies isolated from the three Australian species (Varanus rosenbergi, V. gouldii, and V. acanthurus) were co-localized near the centromeric or pericentromeric regions of the macrochromosomes, except for chromosomes 3 and 4 in each Australian varanid. However, their chromosomal arrangements were different among species. The VSAREP stDNA family lack homogenized species-specific nucleotide positions in varanid lineage. Most VSAREP sequences were shared among varanids within the four VSAREP subfamilies. This suggests that nucleotide substitutions in each varanid species accumulated more slowly than homogenization rates in each VSAREP subfamily, resulting in non-species-specific evolution of stDNA profiles. Moreover, changes in location of VSAREP stDNA in each Australian varanid suggests a correlation with chromosomal rearrangements, leading to karyotypic differences among these species.

  2. The satellite DNA AflaSAT-1 in the A and B chromosomes of the grasshopper Abracris flavolineata. (United States)

    Milani, Diogo; Ramos, Érica; Loreto, Vilma; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Cardoso, Adauto Lima; de Moraes, Karen Cristiane Martinez; Martins, Cesar; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti


    Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are organized in repetitions directly contiguous to one another, forming long arrays and composing a large portion of eukaryote genomes. These sequences evolve according to the concerted evolution model, and homogenization of repeats is observed at the intragenomic level. Satellite DNAs are the primary component of heterochromatin, located primarily in centromeres and telomeres. Moreover, satDNA enrichment in specific chromosomes has been observed, such as in B chromosomes, that can provide clues about composition, origin and evolution of this chromosome. In this study, we isolated and characterized a satDNA in A and B chromosomes of Abracris flavolineata by integrating cytogenetic, molecular and genomics approaches at intra- and inter-population levels, with the aim to understand the evolution of satDNA and composition of B chromosomes. AflaSAT-1 satDNA was shared with other species and in A. flavolineata, was associated with another satDNA, AflaSAT-2. Chromosomal mapping revealed centromeric blocks variable in size in almost all chromosomes (except pair 11) of A complement for both satDNAs, whereas for B chromosome, only a small centromeric signal occurred. In distinct populations, variable number of AflaSAT-1 chromosomal sites correlated with variability in copy number. Instead of such variability, low sequence diversity was observed in A complement, but monomers from B chromosome were more variable, presenting also exclusive mutations. AflaSAT-1 was transcribed in five tissues of adults in distinct life cycle phases. The sharing of AflaSAT-1 with other species is consistent with the library hypothesis and indicates common origin in a common ancestor; however, AflaSAT-1 was highly amplified in the genome of A. flavolineata. At the population level, homogenization of repeats in distinct populations was documented, but dynamic expansion or elimination of repeats was also observed. Concerning the B chromosome, our data provided new

  3. Higher-order repeat structure in alpha satellite DNA occurs in New World monkeys and is not confined to hominoids. (United States)

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko


    Centromeres usually contain large amounts of tandem repeat DNA. Alpha satellite DNA (AS) is the most abundant tandem repeat DNA found in the centromeres of simian primates. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, which are tandem arrays of larger repeat units consisting of multiple basic repeat units. HOR-carrying AS also occurs in other hominoids, but results reported to date for phylogenetically more remote taxa have been negative. Here we show direct evidence for clear HOR structures in AS of the owl monkey and common marmoset. These monkeys are New World monkey species that are located phylogenetically outside of hominoids. It is currently postulated that the presence of HOR structures in AS is unique to hominoids. Our results suggest that this view must be modified. A plausible explanation is that generation of HOR structures is a general event that occurs occasionally or frequently in primate centromeres, and that, in humans, HOR-carrying AS became predominant in the central region of the centromere. It is often difficult to assemble sequence reads of tandem repeat DNAs into accurate contig sequences; our careful sequencing strategy allowed us to overcome this problem.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of an at-rich satellite DNA and its contribution to karyotype differentiation in wild diploid Arachis species. (United States)

    Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Robledo, Germán; Bertioli, David; Seijo, José Guillermo


    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component of the heterochromatic regions of eukaryote genomes and usually shows a high evolutionary dynamic, even among closely related species. Section Arachis (genus Arachis) is composed of species belonging to six different genomes (A, B, D, F, G and K). The most distinguishing features among these genomes are the amount and distribution of the heterochromatin in the karyotypes. With the objective of gaining insight into the sequence composition and evolutionary dynamics of the heterochromatin fraction in Arachis, we investigated here the sequence diversity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of a satDNA family (ATR-2) among seven diploid species of section Arachis. All of the isolated sequences were AT-rich and highly conserved at both intraspecific and interspecific levels, without any species-specific polymorphism. Pairwise comparisons of isolated ATR-2 monomers revealed that most of the nucleotide sites were in the first two transitional stages of Strachan's model. However, the abundance of ATR-2 was significantly different among genomes according to the 'library hypothesis'. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that ATR-2 is a main component of the DAPI + centromeric heterochromatin of the A, F, and K genomes. Thus, the evolution of the different heterochromatin patterns observed in Arachis genomes can be explained, at least in part, by the differential representation of ATR-2 among the different species or even among the chromosomes of the same complement. These findings are the first to demonstrate the participation of satDNA sequences in the karyotype diversification of wild diploid Arachis species.

  5. Human chromosome 1 satellite 3 DNA is decondensed, demethylated and transcribed in senescent cells and in A431 epithelial carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Enukashvily, N I; Donev, R; Waisertreiger, I S-R; Podgornaya, O I


    Constitutive heterochromatin mainly consists of different classes of satellite DNAs and is defined as a transcriptionally inactive chromatin that remains compact throughout the cell cycle. The aim of this work was to investigate the level of condensation, methylation and transcriptional status of centromeric (alphoid DNA) and pericentromeric satellites (human satellite 3, HS3) in tissues (lymphocytes, placenta cells) and in cultured primary (MRC5, VH-10, AT2Sp) and malignant (A431) cells. We found that alphoid DNA remained condensed and heavily methylated in all the cell types. The HS3 of chromosome 1 (HS3-1) but not of chromosome 9 (HS3-9) was strongly decondensed and demethylated in A431 cells. The same observation was made for aged embryonic lung (MRC5) and juvenile foreskin (VH-10) fibroblasts obtained at late passages (32(nd) and 23(rd), respectively). Decondensation was also found in ataxia telangiectasia AT2Sp fibroblasts at the 16(th) passage. One of the manifestations of the disease is premature aging. The level of HS3-1 decondensation was higher in aged primary fibroblasts as compared to A431. The HS3-1 extended into the territory of neighbouring chromosomes. An RT-PCR product was detected in A431 and senescent MRC5 fibroblasts using primers specific for HS3-1. The RNA was polyadenylated and transcribed from the reverse chain. Our results demonstrate the involvement of satellite DNA in associations between human chromosomes and intermingling of chromosome territories. The invading satellite DNA can undergo decondensation to a certain level. This process is accompanied by demethylation and transcription. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. De novo evolution of satellite DNA on the rye B chromosome. (United States)

    Langdon, T; Seago, C; Jones, R N; Ougham, H; Thomas, H; Forster, J W; Jenkins, G


    The most distinctive region of the rye B chromosome is a subtelomeric domain that contains an exceptional concentration of B-chromosome-specific sequences. At metaphase this domain appears to be the physical counterpart of the subtelomeric heterochromatic regions present on standard rye chromosomes, but its conformation at interphase is less condensed. In this report we show that the two sequence families that have been previously found to make up the bulk of the domain have been assembled from fragments of a variety of sequence elements, giving rise to their ostensibly foreign origin. A single mechanism, probably based on synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), is responsible for their assembly. We provide evidence for sequential evolution of one family on the B chromosome itself. The extent of these rearrangements and the complexity of the higher-order organization of the B-chromosome-specific families indicate that instability is a property of the domain itself, rather than of any single sequence. Indirect evidence suggests that particular fragments may have been selected to confer different properties on the domain and that rearrangements are frequently selected for their effect on DNA structure. The current organization appears to represent a transient stage in the evolution of a conventional heterochromatic region from complex sequences.

  7. Interplay of selective pressure and stochastic events directs evolution of the MEL172 satellite DNA library in root-knot nematodes. (United States)

    Mestrović, Nevenka; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Plohl, Miroslav


    According to the library model, related species can have in common satellite DNA (satDNA) families amplified in differing abundances, but reasons for persistence of particular sequences in the library during long periods of time are poorly understood. In this paper, we characterize 3 related satDNAs coexisting in the form of a library in mitotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Due to sequence similarity and conserved monomer length of 172 bp, this group of satDNAs is named MEL172. Analysis of sequence variability patterns among monomers of the 3 MEL172 satellites revealed 2 low-variable (LV) domains highly reluctant to sequence changes, 2 moderately variable (MV) domains characterized by limited number of mutations, and 1 highly variable (HV) domain. The latter domain is prone to rapid spread and homogenization of changes. Comparison of the 3 MEL172 consensus sequences shows that the LV domains have 6% changed nucleotide positions, the MV domains have 48%, whereas 78% divergence is concentrated in the HV domain. Conserved distribution of intersatellite variability might indicate a complex pattern of interactions in heterochromatin, which limits the range and phasing of allowed changes, implying a possible selection imposed on monomer sequences. The lack of fixed species-diagnostic mutations in each of the examined MEL172 satellites suggests that they existed in unaltered form in a common ancestor of extant species. Consequently, the evolution of these satellites seems to be driven by interplay of selective constraints and stochastic events. We propose that new satellites were derived from an ancestral progenitor sequence by nonrandom accumulation of mutations due to selective pressure on particular sequence segments. In the library of particular taxa, established satellites might be subject to differential amplification at chance due to stochastic mechanisms of concerted evolution.

  8. A Viral Satellite DNA Vector (TYLCCNV) for Functional Analysis of miRNAs and siRNAs in Plants. (United States)

    Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Gao, Chao; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhai, Baiqiang; Li, Shan; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong


    With experimental and bioinformatical methods, numerous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), have been found in plants, and they play vital roles in various biological regulation processes. However, most of these small RNAs remain to be functionally characterized. Until now, only several viral vectors were developed to overexpress miRNAs with limited application in plants. In this study, we report a new small RNA overexpression system via viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) vector, which could highly overexpress not only artificial and endogenous miRNAs but also endogenous siRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana First, we constructed basic TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(319L) vector with widely used AtMIR319a backbone, but the expected photobleaching phenotype was very weak. Second, through comparing the effect of backbones (AtMIR319a, AtMIR390a, and SlMIR159) on specificity and significance of generating small RNAs, the AtMIR390a backbone was optimally selected to construct the small RNA overexpression system. Third, through sRNA-Seq and Degradome-Seq, the small RNAs from AtMIR390a backbone in TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(390) vector were confirmed to highly overexpress amiRPDS and specifically silence targeted PDS gene. Using this system, rapid functional analysis of endogenous miRNAs and siRNAs was carried out, including miR156 and athTAS3a 5'D8(+). Meanwhile, through designing corresponding artificial miRNAs, this system could also significantly silence targeted endogenous genes and show specific phenotypes, including PDS, Su, and PCNA These results demonstrated that this small RNA overexpression system could contribute to investigating not only the function of endogenous small RNAs, but also the functional genes in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Organization and molecular evolution of CENP-A--associated satellite DNA families in a basal primate genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Hayden, Karen E; Willard, Huntington F


    ... satellite is found in old and new world monkey genomes, little is known about the organization, function, and evolution of centromeric sequences in more distant primates, including lemurs. Aye-Aye...

  10. Major satellite repeat RNA stabilize heterochromatin retention of Suv39h enzymes by RNA-nucleosome association and RNA:DNA hybrid formation. (United States)

    Velazquez Camacho, Oscar; Galan, Carmen; Swist-Rosowska, Kalina; Ching, Reagan; Gamalinda, Michael; Karabiber, Fethullah; De La Rosa-Velazquez, Inti; Engist, Bettina; Koschorz, Birgit; Shukeir, Nicholas; Onishi-Seebacher, Megumi; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Jenuwein, Thomas


    The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 histone lysine methyltransferases are hallmark enzymes at mammalian heterochromatin. We show here that the mouse Suv39h2 enzyme differs from Suv39h1 by containing an N-terminal basic domain that facilitates retention at mitotic chromatin and provides an additional affinity for major satellite repeat RNA. To analyze an RNA-dependent interaction with chromatin, we purified native nucleosomes from mouse ES cells and detect that Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 exclusively associate with poly-nucleosomes. This association was attenuated upon RNaseH incubation and entirely lost upon RNaseA digestion of native chromatin. Major satellite repeat transcripts remain chromatin-associated and have a secondary structure that favors RNA:DNA hybrid formation. Together, these data reveal an RNA-mediated mechanism for the stable chromatin interaction of the Suv39h KMT and suggest a function for major satellite non-coding RNA in the organization of an RNA-nucleosome scaffold as the underlying structure of mouse heterochromatin.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of satellite DNA sequences from constitutive heterochromatin of the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Viperidae) and the Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae). (United States)

    Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Seki, Risako; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi


    Highly repetitive DNA sequences of the centromeric heterochromatin provide valuable molecular cytogenetic markers for the investigation of genomic compartmentalization in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of sauropsids. Here, the relationship between centromeric heterochromatin and karyotype evolution was examined using cloned repetitive DNA sequences from two snake species, the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Crotalinae, Viperidae) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae). Three satellite DNA (stDNA) families were isolated from the heterochromatin of these snakes: 168-bp PFL-MspI from P. flavoviridis and 196-bp PBI-DdeI and 174-bp PBI-MspI from P. bivittatus. The PFL-MspI and PBI-DdeI sequences were localized to the centromeric regions of most chromosomes in the respective species, suggesting that the two sequences were the major components of the centromeric heterochromatin in these organisms. The PBI-MspI sequence was localized to the pericentromeric region of four chromosome pairs. The PFL-MspI and the PBI-DdeI sequences were conserved only in the genome of closely related species, Gloydius blomhoffii (Crotalinae) and Python molurus, respectively, although their locations on the chromosomes were slightly different. In contrast, the PBI-MspI sequence was also in the genomes of P. molurus and Boa constrictor (Boidae), and additionally localized to the centromeric regions of eight chromosome pairs in B. constrictor, suggesting that this sequence originated in the genome of a common ancestor of Pythonidae and Boidae, approximately 86 million years ago. The three stDNA sequences showed no genomic compartmentalization between the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, suggesting that homogenization of the centromeric and/or pericentromeric stDNA sequences occurred in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of these snakes.

  12. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae). (United States)

    Martinsen, Lene; Johnsen, Arild; Venanzetti, Federica; Bachmann, Lutz


    The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH) ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH) region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead.

  13. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venanzetti Federica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead.

  14. A Naturally Occurring Defective DNA Satellite Associated with a Monopartite Begomovirus: Evidence for Recombination between Alphasatellite and Betasatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghe Li


    Full Text Available Monopartite begomoviruses and their associated satellites form unique disease complexes that have emerged as a serious threat to agriculture worldwide. It is well known that frequent recombination contributes to the diversification and evolution of geminiviruses. In this study, we identified a novel defective satellite molecule (RecSat in association with Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYNV in a naturally infected tobacco plant. Sequence analysis showed that Recsat comprises 754 nucleotides in size and is a chimera involving alphasatellite and betasatellite sequences, containing both betasatellite-conserved region and alphasatellite stem-loop structure. Recombination analysis revealed that RecSat has arisen from three independent recombination events likely involving Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite, Ageratum yellow vein China betasatellite and Tobacco curly shoot alphasatellite. Co-inoculation of RecSat with TbLCYNV induced symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by TbLCYNV alone in Nicotiana benthamiana. Southern blot hybridization showed that RecSat could be trans-replicated stably in N. benthamiana plants by TbLCYNV, and impaired the accumulation of helper virus and co-inoculated alphasatellite. Our results provide the first evidence for recombination between two distinct types of satellites among geminivirus complex and highlight recombination as a driving force for geminivirus evolution.

  15. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation. (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diverse retrotransposon families and an AT-rich satellite DNA revealed in giant genomes of Fritillaria lilies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrožová, K.; Mandáková, T.; Bureš, P.; Neumann, Pavel; Leitch, I. J.; Koblížková, Andrea; Macas, Jiří; Lysák, M.


    Roč. 107, č. 2 (2011), s. 255-268 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/07/0284; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Fritillaria * Liliaceae * repetitive DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2011

  17. Detection of a mariner-like element and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) associated with the heterochromatin from ants of the genus Messor and their possible involvement for satellite DNA evolution. (United States)

    Palomeque, Teresa; Antonio Carrillo, José; Muñoz-López, Martín; Lorite, Pedro


    The satellite DNA of ants Messor bouvieri, M. barbarus and M. structor, studied in a previous paper, is organized as tandemly repeated 79-bp monomers in the three species showing high sequence similarity. In the present paper, a mariner-like element (Mboumar) and a new MITE (miniature inverted-repeat transposable element) called IRE-130, inserted into satellite DNA from M. bouvieri, are analyzed. The study of Mboumar element, of its transcription and the putative transposase that it would encode, suggests that it could be an active element. Mboumar elements inserted into IRE-130 elements have also been detected. It is the first time, to our knowledge, that a MITE has been described in Hymenoptera and it is also the first time that a mariner-like element inserted into a MITE has been detected. A mariner-like element, inserted into satellite DNA from M. structor and in M. barbarus, also has been found. The results seem to indicate that transposition events have participated in the satellite DNA mobilization and evolution.

  18. Satellite DNA and Transposable Elements in Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), a Dioecious Plant with Small Y and Large X Chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puterová, J.; Razumova, O.; Martínek, T.; Alexandrov, O.; Divashuk, M.; Kubát, Z.; Hobza, Roman; Karlov, G.; Kejnovský, E.


    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2017), s. 197-212 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : sex-chromosomes * repetitive sequences * silene-latifolia * molecular cytogenetics * arabidopsis-thaliana * genome size * evolution * organization * alignment * database * sex chromosomes * genome composition * chromosomal localization * repetitive DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.979, year: 2016

  19. Analytical Performance of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Using TaqMan Probes for Quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi Satellite DNA in Blood Samples (United States)

    Abate, Teresa; Cayo, Nelly M.; Parrado, Rudy; Bello, Zoraida Diaz; Velazquez, Elsa; Muñoz-Calderon, Arturo; Juiz, Natalia A.; Basile, Joaquín; Garcia, Lineth; Riarte, Adelina; Nasser, Julio R.; Ocampo, Susana B.; Yadon, Zaida E.; Torrico, Faustino; de Noya, Belkisyole Alarcón; Ribeiro, Isabela; Schijman, Alejandro G.


    Background The analytical validation of sensitive, accurate and standardized Real-Time PCR methods for Trypanosoma cruzi quantification is crucial to provide a reliable laboratory tool for diagnosis of recent infections as well as for monitoring treatment efficacy. Methods/Principal Findings We have standardized and validated a multiplex Real-Time quantitative PCR assay (qPCR) based on TaqMan technology, aiming to quantify T. cruzi satellite DNA as well as an internal amplification control (IAC) in a single-tube reaction. IAC amplification allows rule out false negative PCR results due to inhibitory substances or loss of DNA during sample processing. The assay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.53 parasite equivalents/mL starting from non-boiled Guanidine EDTA blood spiked with T. cruzi CL-Brener stock. The method was evaluated with blood samples collected from Chagas disease patients experiencing different clinical stages and epidemiological scenarios: 1- Sixteen Venezuelan patients from an outbreak of oral transmission, 2- Sixty three Bolivian patients suffering chronic Chagas disease, 3- Thirty four Argentinean cases with chronic Chagas disease, 4- Twenty seven newborns to seropositive mothers, 5- A seronegative receptor who got infected after transplantation with a cadaveric kidney explanted from an infected subject. Conclusions/Significance The performing parameters of this assay encourage its application to early assessment of T. cruzi infection in cases in which serological methods are not informative, such as recent infections by oral contamination or congenital transmission or after transplantation with organs from seropositive donors, as well as for monitoring Chagas disease patients under etiological treatment. PMID:23350002

  20. Uncovering the evolutionary history of neo-XY sex chromosomes in the grasshopper Ronderosia bergii (Orthoptera, Melanoplinae) through satellite DNA analysis. (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Milani, Diogo; Lemos, Bernardo; Castillo, Elio R; Martí, Dardo A; Ramos, Erica; Martins, Cesar; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C


    Neo-sex chromosome systems arose independently multiple times in evolution, presenting the remarkable characteristic of repetitive DNAs accumulation. Among grasshoppers, occurrence of neo-XY was repeatedly noticed in Melanoplinae. Here we analyzed the most abundant tandem repeats of R. bergii (2n = 22, neo-XY♂) using deep Illumina sequencing and graph-based clustering in order to address the neo-sex chromosomes evolution. The analyses revealed ten families of satDNAs comprising about ~1% of the male genome, which occupied mainly C-positive regions of autosomes. Regarding the sex chromosomes, satDNAs were recorded within centromeric or interstitial regions of the neo-X chromosome and four satDNAs occurred in the neo-Y, two of them being exclusive (Rber248 and Rber299). Using a combination of probes we uncovered five well-defined cytological variants for neo-Y, originated by multiple paracentric inversions and satDNA amplification, besides fragmented neo-Y. These neo-Y variants were distinct in frequency between embryos and adult males. The genomic data together with cytogenetic mapping enabled us to better understand the neo-sex chromosome dynamics in grasshoppers, reinforcing differentiation of neo-X and neo-Y and revealing the occurrence of multiple additional rearrangements involved in the neo-Y evolution of R. bergii. We discussed the possible causes that led to differences in frequency for the neo-Y variants between embryos and adults. Finally we hypothesize about the role of DNA satellites in R. bergii as well as putative historical events involved in the evolution of the R. bergii neo-XY.

  1. DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Couldrey

    Full Text Available Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5 during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI or in vitro fertilization (IVF and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at αsatI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at αsatI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at αsatI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at αsatI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at αsatI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic

  2. Satellite reconnaissance (United States)

    Deloor, G. P.


    The potential of the observation equipment in remote sensing satellites is described. United States meteorology, land use and oceanography satellites and the major US Earth observation programs are listed. Imaging satellite systems are described such as: visible light and near infrared, thermal IR window, and microwave window. It is concluded that a geometrical resolution between 10 and 40 m can be expected. In order to reduce the data flow from the satellite system the input side of the system (the object-sensor interaction) has to be known. Satellites with synthetic aperture radar are increasingly important, but satellites can never fully replace observations with aircraft and drones.

  3. Structure, organization, and sequence of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for evolution by unequal crossing-over and an ancestral pentamer repeat shared with the human X chromosome. (United States)

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F


    The centromeric regions of all human chromosomes are characterized by distinct subsets of a diverse tandemly repeated DNA family, alpha satellite. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 2.7-kilobase-pair higher-order repeat unit consisting of 16 alphoid monomers. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the 16-monomer repeat, which is present in 500 to 1,000 copies per chromosome 17, as well as that of a less abundant 15-monomer repeat, also from chromosome 17. These repeat units were approximately 98% identical in sequence, differing by the exclusion of precisely 1 monomer from the 15-monomer repeat. Homologous unequal crossing-over is suggested as a probable mechanism by which the different repeat lengths on chromosome 17 were generated, and the putative site of such a recombination event is identified. The monomer organization of the chromosome 17 higher-order repeat unit is based, in part, on tandemly repeated pentamers. A similar pentameric suborganization has been previously demonstrated for alpha satellite of the human X chromosome. Despite the organizational similarities, substantial sequence divergence distinguishes these subsets. Hybridization experiments indicate that the chromosome 17 and X subsets are more similar to each other than to the subsets found on several other human chromosomes. We suggest that the chromosome 17 and X alpha satellite subsets may be related components of a larger alphoid subfamily which have evolved from a common ancestral repeat into the contemporary chromosome-specific subsets.

  4. Suppression of RNA silencing by a plant DNA virus satellite requires a host calmodulin-like protein to repress RDR6 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Li


    Full Text Available In plants, RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense. To counteract host defense, plant viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs that target different effector molecules in the RNA silencing pathway. Evidence has shown that plants also encode endogenous suppressors of RNA silencing (ESRs that function in proper regulation of RNA silencing. The possibility that these cellular proteins can be subverted by viruses to thwart host defense is intriguing but has not been fully explored. Here we report that the Nicotiana benthamiana calmodulin-like protein Nbrgs-CaM is required for the functions of the VSR βC1, the sole protein encoded by the DNA satellite associated with the geminivirus Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV. Nbrgs-CaM expression is up-regulated by the βC1. Transgenic plants over-expressing Nbrgs-CaM displayed developmental abnormities reminiscent of βC1-associated morphological alterations. Nbrgs-CaM suppressed RNA silencing in an Agrobacterium infiltration assay and, when over-expressed, blocked TYLCCNV-induced gene silencing. Genetic evidence showed that Nbrgs-CaM mediated the βC1 functions in silencing suppression and symptom modulation, and was required for efficient virus infection. Moreover, the tobacco and tomato orthologs of Nbrgs-CaM also possessed ESR activity, and were induced by betasatellite to promote virus infection in these Solanaceae hosts. We further demonstrated that βC1-induced Nbrgs-CaM suppressed the production of secondary siRNAs, likely through repressing RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6 expression. RDR6-deficient N. benthamiana plants were defective in antiviral response and were hypersensitive to TYLCCNV infection. More significantly, TYLCCNV could overcome host range restrictions to infect Arabidopsis thaliana when the plants carried a RDR6 mutation. These findings demonstrate a distinct mechanism of VSR for suppressing PTGS through usurpation of a host ESR, and

  5. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  6. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    , emerging evidence points to these structures as important hubs for dynamic, multi-faceted regulation in response to a variety of cues. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the roles of centriolar satellites in regulating centrosome functions, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis. We also...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  7. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  8. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  9. Satellite myths (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David


    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  10. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  11. Legendrian satellites


    Etnyre, John; Vértesi, Vera


    In this paper we study Legendrian knots in the knot types of satellite knots. In particular, we classify Legendrian Whitehead patterns and learn a great deal about Legendrian braided patterns. We also show how the classification of Legendrian patterns can lead to a classification of the associated satellite knots if the companion knot is Legendrian simple and uniformly thick. This leads to new Legendrian and transverse classification results for knots in the 3-sphere with its standard contact...

  12. Scientific Satellites (United States)


    igniters, and restrictors, can provide dozens of precision bursts of thrust upon command. Solid-rocket throttling ( vernier -thrusting) is more difficult...Here is a very straightforward micromete - oroid detector. A particle penetrates a pressurized vessel, usually a cylinder; the gas inside escapes; and a...The first Explorer satellites carried wire grids. The Micromete - oroid Satellite series used 46 cards, like those sketched in figure 11-85. Explorer

  13. Boomerang Satellites (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.


    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  14. Satellite broadcasting (United States)

    Gregory, D.; Rainger, P.; Harvey, R. V.; Jennings, A.

    Questions related to direct broadcasting satellites are addressed with attention given to celestial mechanics, synchronous orbits, propagation, international plans, domestic installation, related laws and system costs. The role of the World Administrative Planning Conference (WARC) organization is discussed and contrasted with that of the regional administrative radio conference. Topics related to the field of law include coverage and overspill, regulation and control, copyrights and international organizations. Alternative ways of estimating direct broadcasting system costs are presented with consideration given to satellite costs as a function of mass, launch costs and system costs as a function of power.

  15. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.


    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  16. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  17. Iodine Satellite (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James


    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  18. Iodine Satellite (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  19. Feasibility of microminiature satellites (United States)

    Imai, Ryouichi


    A conceptual study is conducted on technical problems and system design techniques to accomplish higher performance microminiature satellites by smaller systems. Applications of microminiature satellite technology to practical satellite mission are mentioned. Concepts of microminiature satellites, measures to miniaturize satellites, and micro-miniaturization technologies for communication and data processing, electric solar power paddle, attitude and orbit control, structure, thermal control, propulsion, and instrumentation systems are outlined. Examples of miniaturizing satellite missions such as planet exploration, low-altitude communication networks, space positioning system, low-altitude earth observation mission, clustered satellites, tethered satellites, and timely observation are described. Satellite miniaturizing technology can also be used to launch systems by lasers, and superconductive linear catapults (space escalator). It is pointed out that keys to promote satellite miniaturization are electronics, precision machining, raw material, electric power source technologies, and system design technology to integrate those technologies.

  20. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  1. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan


    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  2. Molecular biology of fuselloviruses and their satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; Fusco, Salvatore; Cannio, Raffaele


    Fuselloviruses, also known as Sulfolobus Spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs), are "lemon"- or "spindle"-shaped double-stranded DNA viruses. Among them, SSV1, SSV2 and the satellite viruses pSSVx and pSSVi have been investigated at the structural, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical level...

  3. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  4. Satellite orbit predictor (United States)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  5. Galileo satellite antenna modeling (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver


    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  6. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  7. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  8. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  9. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  10. Methods of satellite oceanography (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  11. Planets and satellites galore (United States)

    Marsden, B. G.


    The facts and controversies surrounding the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and their satellites are reviewed. Earth-approaching and earth-crossing minor planets are discussed with attention to the work of Helin and Giclas. The problems attending satellite discoveries are examined, and the criteria for 1978 P 1 is evaluated.

  12. Satellite Communications Industry (United States)


    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  13. Satellite Operations in Alaska (United States)

    Kreller, M. A.


    Numerous observational challenges exist across Alaska impacting National Weather Service (NWS) forecast operations and providing decision support services (DSS) to critical core partners and customers. These observational challenges range from limited utility of GOES imagery at higher latitudes, scarcity of observing platforms, to limited radar coverage. Although we are fortunate to receive these valuable and limited data sets, there still remain extensive spatial and temporal data gaps across Alaska. Many forecast challenges in Alaska are similar to those in the CONUS with the detection and monitoring of wildfire conditions, severe thunderstorms, river flooding, and coastal flooding, etc. There are additional unique DSS provided in Alaska including sea ice forecasting, ivu (ice shoves onshore), coastal erosion due to permafrost melt, and extreme hazardous winter conditions (temperatures as low as -80F). In addition to the observational and forecast challenges, the sheer size of the area of responsibility in Alaska is a challenge. NWS operations have always heavily relied on satellite imagery to quickly assess the current weather situation and provide forecast guidance. NWS operations have established several partnerships with the satellite community to help with these challenges. In particular the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) OCONUS Satellite Proving Ground (PG) Programs have not only improved Alaska's observational challenges, but continue to identify new capabilities with the next generation geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite products.. For example, River ice and flood detection products derived from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS satellite imagery with the support of the JPSS Proving Ground and Risk Reduction Program. This presentation will provide examples of how new satellite capabilities are being used in NWS Alaska forecast operations to support DSS, with emphasis on JPSS satellite products. Future satellite utilization or operational needs

  14. Skeletal muscle satellite cells (United States)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.


    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  15. Small Satellite Transporter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  16. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  17. Multiple Satellite Trajectory Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendy Jr, Paul B


    This thesis develops and validates a satellite trajectory optimization model. A summary is given of the general mathematical principles of dynamic optimal control to minimize fuel consumed or transfer time...

  18. Saturn's outer satellite, Phoebe (United States)


    Voyager 2 took this photo of Saturn's outer satellite, Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles) away. The photo shows that Phoebe is about 200 kilometers (120 miles) in diameter, about twice the size of Earth-based measurements; and dark, with five percent reflectivity -- much darker than any other Saturnian satellite. That, and information from Earth-based observations, indicates Phoebe is almost certainly a captured asteroid, and did not form in the original Saturn nebula as Saturn's other satellites did. Phoebe is the only Saturnian satellite that does not always show the same face to Saturn: Its orbital period is 550 days. Its rotation period (length of day), determined from Voyager 2 observations, is nine to ten hours. Other ground-based observations that indicate that Phoebe is a captured asteroid: It orbits Saturn in the ecliptic plane (the plane in which Earth and most other planets orbit the Sun), rather than in Saturn's equatorial plane as the other Saturn satellites do. And Phoebe's orbit is retrograde -- in the direction opposite to that of the other satellites. Voyager is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils


    satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results...

  20. ISDN - The case for satellites (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; McDougal, P. J.


    The role of satellites in the proposed Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is examined. ISDN is to be a unified global network providing international telecommunication services. The delay time connected with satellite communications is considered. The advantages of using satellites in ISDN are: (1) the digital services available with satellites (time-division multiple access, intermediate data rate, and Intelsat business services); (2) satellite networking features; (3) flexibility; and (4) global interconnectivity. It is noted that with the use of powerful transmitters on satellites, the growth of small earth stations, and developments in band switching and intersatellite links that satellites are applicable to ISDN.

  1. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian


    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  2. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M


    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  3. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry


    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  4. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin. (United States)

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica


    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  5. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.


    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.


    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  7. Rotation of Synchronous Satellites: Application to the Galilean Satellites (United States)

    Henrard, Jacques; Schwanen, Gabriel


    An analytical theory of the rotation of a synchronous satellite is developed for the application to the rotation of the Galilean satellites. The theory is developed in the framework of Hamiltonian mechanics, using Andoyer variables. Special attention is given to the frequencies of libration as functions of the moments of inertia of the satellite.

  8. Cibola flight experiment satellite (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart


    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  9. Modeling DNA (United States)

    Robertson, Carol


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  10. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  11. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  12. CDDIS_GNSS_satellite_data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data consists of the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS)...

  13. Satellite transmission of oceanographic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; DeSa, E.J.

    Oceanographic data collected on a research vessel has been transmitted to a shore laboratory using the INMARSAT maritime satellite The system configuration used, consisted of Satellite Communication Terminals interfaced to desk top computers...

  14. Saturn's outer satellite - Phoebe (United States)


    Voyager 2 took these images of Saturn's outer satellite Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles)away. This pair shows two different hemispheres of the satellite. The left image shows a bright mountain on the upper right edge reflecting the light of the setting sun. This mountain is possibly the central peak of a large impact crater taking up most of the upper right quadrant of Phoebe in this view. The right images shows a hemisphere with an intrinsically bright spot in the top portion of the image as well as the ridges appearing bright in the sunset light of the lower right. These images were processed by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  15. Expert systems for satellite stationkeeping (United States)

    Mekaru, M. M.; Wright, M. A.

    The feasibility of implementing artificial intelligence on satellites is evaluated, with the aim of using an onboard expert system to perform effective stationkeeping functions without assistance from the ground. The Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS III) is used as an example. The cost for implementing a satellite stationkeeping expert system is analyzed. A ground-based expert system could reduce the current number of support personnel for the stationkeeping task. Results of analyzing a possible flight system are quite promising. An expert system for satellite stationkeeping seems feasible, appears cost-effective, and offers increased satellite endurance through autonomous operations.

  16. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J


    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  17. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo


    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  18. ASPEC: Solar power satellite (United States)


    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  19. Laser satellite power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walbridge, E.W.


    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  20. Satellite Laser Ranging Satellite Orbit Product from NASA CDDIS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLR Satellite Orbit solutions available from the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Precise Orbit Determination (POD) solutions in Standard Product 3...

  1. Radio broadcasting via satellite (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.


    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  2. The Galilean Satellites (United States)


    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. Shown from left to right in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, the Europa images in September 1996, and the Callisto images in November 1997.Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission

  3. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian


    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  4. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat


    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  5. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue


    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  6. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.


    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  7. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research interests include: eukaryotic gene expres- sion and infectious diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ... T -cells: Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and ... enhance DNA delivery into skeletal muscle.

  8. Collision matrix for Leo satellites (United States)

    McKnight, Darren; Lorenzen, Gary

    The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is becoming cluttered with thousands of satellites, rocket bodies, and a variety of space garbage. This collection of objects crossing paths at speeds on the order of 10 km/s is creating an increasing collision hazard to many operational systems. The effect that the destruction of LEO satellites will have on other users of the near-Earth environment is of great concern. A model is examined which quantifies the effect of one satellite fragmentation on neighboring satellites. This model is used to evaluate the interdependent hazard to a series of satellite systems. A number of space system fragmentation events are numerically simulated and the collision hazard to each is tabulated. Once all satellites in the matrix have been fragmented separately, a complete collision hazard representation can be depicted. This model has potential for developing an enhanced understanding of a number of aspects of the growing debris hazard in LEO.

  9. Public Service Communication Satellite Program (United States)

    Brown, J. P.


    The proposed NASA Public Service Communication Satellite Program consists of four different activities designed to fulfill the needs of public service sector. These are: interaction with the users, experimentation with existing satellites, development of a limited capability satellite for the earliest possible launch, and initiation of an R&D program to develop the greatly increased capability that future systems will require. This paper will discuss NASA efforts in each of these areas.

  10. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael


    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  11. Jupiter's Galilean Satellites (United States)

    McGrath, Melissa A.


    Jupiter's Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto encompass some of the most bizarre environments known in the solar system, spanning that of Io, the most volcanically active and perhaps the most inhospitable body known, to Europa, currently the focus of a search for life in the solar system because of its subsurface ocean. One of the premier areas of scientific return in solar system research in the past 10 years, due in large part to the Galileo mission and observations by the Hubble Space Telescope, has been a remarkable increase in our knowledge about these satellites. Discoveries have been made of tenuous molecular oxygen atmospheres on Europa and Ganymede, a magnetic field and accompanying auroral emissions at the poles of Ganymede, and of ozone and sulfur dioxide embedded in the surfaces of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Io's unusual sulfur dioxide atmosphere, including its volcanic plumes and strong electrodynamic interaction with magnetospheric plasma, has finally been quantitatively characterized. This talk will present highlights from the recent discoveries and advances in our understanding of these fascinating objects.

  12. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  13. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos


    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  14. Centromeric DNA replication reconstitution reveals DNA loops and ATR checkpoint suppression. (United States)

    Aze, Antoine; Sannino, Vincenzo; Soffientini, Paolo; Bachi, Angela; Costanzo, Vincenzo


    Half of the human genome is made up of repetitive DNA. However, mechanisms underlying replication of chromosome regions containing repetitive DNA are poorly understood. We reconstituted replication of defined human chromosome segments using bacterial artificial chromosomes in Xenopus laevis egg extract. Using this approach we characterized the chromatin assembly and replication dynamics of centromeric alpha-satellite DNA. Proteomic analysis of centromeric chromatin revealed replication-dependent enrichment of a network of DNA repair factors including the MSH2-6 complex, which was required for efficient centromeric DNA replication. However, contrary to expectations, the ATR-dependent checkpoint monitoring DNA replication fork arrest could not be activated on highly repetitive DNA due to the inability of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to accumulate on chromatin. Electron microscopy of centromeric DNA and supercoil mapping revealed the presence of topoisomerase I-dependent DNA loops embedded in a protein matrix enriched for SMC2-4 proteins. This arrangement suppressed ATR signalling by preventing RPA hyper-loading, facilitating replication of centromeric DNA. These findings have important implications for our understanding of repetitive DNA metabolism and centromere organization under normal and stressful conditions.

  15. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements...

  16. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.


    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  17. Satellite Rings Movie (United States)


    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000.Cassini is a cooperative mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  18. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements....

  19. Study of satellite microminiaturization technology (United States)

    Obara, Hiroaki; Oomura, Katsutoshi


    The characteristics, objectives, and missions, such as those for message relaying, low orbit broadcasting, monitoring and warning, scientific observation and space environment monitoring, planet exploration, and technology development of microminiature satellites are outlined. An overview of the study of satellite microminiaturization technologies for communication, information processing, sensing for navigation and observation missions, power supply, actuators, structure and thermal control, and overall system is presented.

  20. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo


    Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element for an...

  1. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell (United States)


    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  2. Mobility management in satellite networks (United States)

    Johanson, Gary A.


    This paper addresses the methods used or proposed for use in multi-beam and/or multi-satellite networks designed to provide Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). Specific topics include beam crossover in the North American Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system as well as registration and live call hand-off for a multi-regional geosynchronous (GEO) satellite based system and a global coverage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) system. In the MSAT system, the individual satellite beams cover very large geographic areas so the need for live call hand-off was not anticipated. This paper discusses the methods used to keep track of the beam location of the users so that incoming call announcements or other messages may be directed to them. Proposed new GEO systems with large numbers of beams will provide much smaller geographic coverage in individual beams and thus the need arises to keep track of the user's location as well as to provide live call hand-off as the user traverses from beam to beam. This situation also occurs in proposed LEO systems where the problems are worsened by the need for satellite to satellite hand-off as well as beam to beam hand-off within a single satellite. The paper discusses methods to accomplish these handoffs and proposes system architectures to address the various hand-off scenarios.

  3. Interference in Cellular Satellite Systems


    Kilic, Ozlem; Zaghloul, Amir I.


    Co-channel beam interference in multi-beam satellite communications systems was investigated particularly for the downlink. Concept of frequency reuse was explained and the role of satellite antenna size and pattern was examined. Conventional spot beam coverage and its impact on determining the antenna size on board was discussed.

  4. Advanced satellite communication system (United States)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen


    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  5. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian


    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  6. DNA data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  7. DNA nanotechnology (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.


    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  8. DNA Chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the human ge- nome, the ratio between coding and non-coding DNA is very low (less than 3% of the human .... construction of a Tm-specific chip, i.e. all the oligos/cDNA on the chip will hybridize at the same temperature. The techniques available are still not able to create a chip ...

  9. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les


    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  10. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.


    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  11. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van


    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  12. IP voice over ATM satellite: experimental results over satellite channels (United States)

    Saraf, Koroush A.; Butts, Norman P.


    IP telephony, a new technology to provide voice communication over traditional data networks, has the potential to revolutionize telephone communication within the modern enterprise. This innovation uses packetization techniques to carry voice conversations over IP networks. This packet switched technology promises new integrated services, and lower cost long-distance communication compared to traditional circuit switched telephone networks. Future satellites will need to carry IP traffic efficiently in order to stay competitive in servicing the global data- networking and global telephony infrastructure. However, the effects of Voice over IP over switched satellite channels have not been investigated in detail. To fully understand the effects of satellite channels on Voice over IP quality; several experiments were conducted at Lockheed Martin Telecommunications' Satellite Integration Lab. The result of those experiments along with suggested improvements for voice communication over satellite are presented in this document. First, a detailed introduction of IP telephony as a suitable technology for voice communication over future satellites is presented. This is followed by procedures for the experiments, along with results and strategies. In conclusion we hope that these capability demonstrations will alleviate any uncertainty regarding the applicability of this technology to satellite networks.

  13. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  14. The exterior tidal potential acting on a satellite. [satellite orbits/satellite perturbation - gravitation effects (United States)

    Musen, P.


    A theory is presented that points out the existence of several long period and 'cross effects' in the coefficients in the expansion of the geopotential and in the motion of satellites. The tidal potential, defined as small periodic variations in the geopotential, was calculated. The influence of these geopotential variations on satellite perturbation is examined. Spherical harmonics were employed.

  15. Targeted DNA methylation in pericentromeres with genome editing-based artificial DNA methyltransferase. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Taiga; Hatano, Yu; Handa, Tetsuya; Kato, Sakiko; Hoida, Kensuke; Yamamura, Rui; Fukuyama, Takashi; Uematsu, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Noritada; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Kazuo


    To study the impact of epigenetic changes on biological functions, the ability to manipulate the epigenetic status of certain genomic regions artificially could be an indispensable technology. "Epigenome editing" techniques have gradually emerged that apply TALE or CRISPR/Cas9 technologies with various effector domains isolated from epigenetic code writers or erasers such as DNA methyltransferase, 5-methylcytosine oxidase, and histone modification enzymes. Here we demonstrate that a TALE recognizing a major satellite, consisting of a repeated sequence in pericentromeres, could be fused with the bacterial CpG methyltransferase, SssI. ChIP-qPCR assays demonstrated that the fusion protein TALMaj-SssI preferentially bound to major chromosomal satellites in cultured cell lines. Then, TALMaj-SssI was expressed in fertilized mouse oocytes with hypomethylated major satellites (10-20% CpG islands). Bisulfite sequencing revealed that the DNA methylation status was increased specifically in major satellites (50-60%), but not in minor satellites or other repeat elements, such as Intracisternal A-particle (IAP) or long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (Line1) when the expression level of TALMaj-SssI is optimized in the cell. At a microscopic level, distal ends of chromosomes at the first mitotic stage were dramatically highlighted by the mCherry-tagged methyl CpG binding domain of human MBD1 (mCherry-MBD-NLS). Moreover, targeted DNA methylation to major satellites did not interfere with kinetochore function during early embryonic cleavages. Co-injection of dCas9 fused with SssI and guide RNA (gRNA) recognizing major satellite sequences enabled increment of the DNA methylation in the satellites, but a few off-target effects were also observed in minor satellites and retrotransposons. Although CRISPR can be applied instead of the TALE system, technical improvements to reduce off-target effects are required. We have demonstrated a new method of introducing DNA methylation without

  16. Targeted DNA methylation in pericentromeres with genome editing-based artificial DNA methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiga Yamazaki

    Full Text Available To study the impact of epigenetic changes on biological functions, the ability to manipulate the epigenetic status of certain genomic regions artificially could be an indispensable technology. "Epigenome editing" techniques have gradually emerged that apply TALE or CRISPR/Cas9 technologies with various effector domains isolated from epigenetic code writers or erasers such as DNA methyltransferase, 5-methylcytosine oxidase, and histone modification enzymes. Here we demonstrate that a TALE recognizing a major satellite, consisting of a repeated sequence in pericentromeres, could be fused with the bacterial CpG methyltransferase, SssI. ChIP-qPCR assays demonstrated that the fusion protein TALMaj-SssI preferentially bound to major chromosomal satellites in cultured cell lines. Then, TALMaj-SssI was expressed in fertilized mouse oocytes with hypomethylated major satellites (10-20% CpG islands. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that the DNA methylation status was increased specifically in major satellites (50-60%, but not in minor satellites or other repeat elements, such as Intracisternal A-particle (IAP or long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (Line1 when the expression level of TALMaj-SssI is optimized in the cell. At a microscopic level, distal ends of chromosomes at the first mitotic stage were dramatically highlighted by the mCherry-tagged methyl CpG binding domain of human MBD1 (mCherry-MBD-NLS. Moreover, targeted DNA methylation to major satellites did not interfere with kinetochore function during early embryonic cleavages. Co-injection of dCas9 fused with SssI and guide RNA (gRNA recognizing major satellite sequences enabled increment of the DNA methylation in the satellites, but a few off-target effects were also observed in minor satellites and retrotransposons. Although CRISPR can be applied instead of the TALE system, technical improvements to reduce off-target effects are required. We have demonstrated a new method of introducing DNA

  17. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M


    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  18. What Is Mitochondrial DNA? (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  19. Roles and interactions of begomoviruses and satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Mali, West Africa. (United States)

    Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R; Abdourhamane, Issoufou K; Gilbertson, Robert L


    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production in West Africa. Two monopartite begomoviruses (okra virus-1 and okra virus-2), a betasatellite and a DNA1 satellite are associated with OLCD in Mali. Okra virus-1 is an isolate of okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV), okra virus-2 is a recombinant isolate of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) and the betasatellite is a variant of cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB). Cloned DNA of OYCrV and CLCuGV were infectious and induced leaf curl symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, but did not induce OLCD in okra. However, when these clones were individually co-inoculated with the cloned CLCuGB DNA, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in N. benthamiana plants and typical OLCD symptoms were induced in okra. The CLCuGB was also replicated by, and increased symptom severity of, three monopartite tomato-infecting begomoviruses, including two from West Africa. The sequence of the DNA1 satellite was highly divergent, indicating that it represents a distinct West African lineage. DNA1 replicated autonomously, and replication required the DNA1-encoded Rep protein. Although DNA1 reduced helper begomovirus DNA levels, symptoms were not attenuated. In the presence of CLCuGB, DNA levels of the helper begomoviruses and DNA1 were substantially increased. Together, these findings establish that OLCD in Mali is caused by a complex of monopartite begomoviruses and a promiscuous betasatellite with an associated parasitic DNA1 satellite. These findings are discussed in terms of the aetiology of OLCD and the evolution of new begomovirus/satellite DNA complexes.

  20. Multi-mission Satellite Management (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  1. The Canadian mobile satellite system (United States)

    Bertenyi, Elemer


    Plans to upgrade Canadian mobile data services by introducing a full, two way mobile voice and data service, using a large geostationary satellite which is scheduled to be launched in 1994, are reported. This Mobile Satellite (MSAT) will offer customers the ability to communicate, using mobile or transportable terminals, from the most remote parts of the continent, to any other point within North America, and indeed the whole world. Currently planned MSAT services are reviewed, the main features of the overall system are outlined, and the configuration and key performance parameters of the MSAT satellite are presented. The communications subsystem is detailed, and a summary of the spacecraft service module is given.

  2. Progress in satellite tracking cranes (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Fuller, M.R.; Landfried, S.E.; Higuchi, H.; Vermillion, C.H.


    We review the history of tracking cranes with satellite telemetry and identify some of the difficulties in designing satellite transmitters and harnesses for cranes. Miniaturization of these transmitters and a plethora of harnessing experiments since 1989 allow us to recommend limited application of this technology to all species of cranes. We are still uncertain, however, if cranes harnessed with satellite telemetry devices are able to reproduce after migration. Because of this uncertainty, we urge caution in the use of this technology, especially with breeding adults in severely endangered populations. This manuscript also describes continuing research needs.

  3. Slitless spectroscopy of geosynchronous satellites (United States)

    Tippets, Roger D.; Wakefield, Stephen; Young, Shannon; Ferguson, Ian; Earp-Pitkins, Christopher; Chun, Francis K.


    A preliminary investigation into the use of slitless spectroscopy for characterization of geosynchronous satellites is described. A 100 line/mm diffraction grating is used as the dispersing device, and the spectral data obtained are compared to a model with good results. A method used to collect and calibrate slitless spectral observations accounting for pixel to wavelength conversion, pixel response as a function of wavelength, and solar features is presented. Observations of several geosynchronous satellites throughout a night reveal reflectance with noticeable and different profiles indicating that slitless spectroscopy offers the potential for another modality for identifying and discriminating satellites.

  4. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David


    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  5. Satellite Propellant Pump Research (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan


    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  6. Sea Turtle Satellite Telemetry Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles captured in various fishing gear (pound nets, long haul seines, gill nets) were outfitted with satellite transmitters so that their movements, migratory...

  7. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  8. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  9. European global navigation satellite launches (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.

  10. Taos: A low cost satellite (United States)

    Jung, P.

    Aerospatiale, under contract to CNES, has studied a new satellite based system with the double mission of mobile tracking and paging. This is called Taos. A constellation of five Taos satellites will allow positioning with an accuracy of 1 km, as well as small message transmission with a maximum time delay of 2 hours. Using a low earth orbit, Taos will have a small power budget, with the attendant gains in dimensions, mass, and eventually cost. The emergence of such class of lightsats has been fostered by the progress of electronics, as well as the new small launchers now being offered. Furthermore, the market is clearly hungry for ever more worldwide data collection. This paper describes the Taos system of satellite and ground segment, for which a primary goal will be a significant reduction of the recurring price. Weighing 152 kg, each satellite will have a power of 270 W.

  11. Satellite Observations of Arctic Change (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this site is to expose NASA satellite data and research on Arctic change in the form of maps that illustrate the changes taking place in the Arctic...

  12. Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification


    Harish Kundra; Parminder Singh; Navdeep Kaur; V.K. Panchal


    Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researc...

  13. A multipurpose satellite ejection system (United States)

    Moore, Michael B.


    A design is presented for a pneumatic ejection system capable of ejecting a spin stabilized satellite from the cargo bay of space vehicles. This system was orginally designed for use on the Spacelab 6 shuttle mission, but is now being considered for use with expendable rockets for launching satellites. The ejection system was designed to launch a 150 lb satellite at an initial ejection velocity of 32 ft/sec with a spin rate of 30 rev/min. The ejection system consists of a pneumatic cylinder, satellite retaining mechanism, and bearing assembly to allow the satellite to rotate during the spin up phase. As the cylinder is pressurized rapidly causing movement of the actuation piston, the mechanism automatically releases the spinning satellite by retracting a pneumatic locking pin and three spring loaded holddown pins. When the piston reaches the end of its stroke, it encounters a crushable aluminum honeycomb shock absorber which decelerates the piston and retaining mechanism. The assembly is designed for multiple uses except for the crushable shock absorber and pyrotechnic valves. The advantage of the design is discussed and patent no. and date given.

  14. [DNA of some regions of constitutive heterochromatin is demethylated and decondensed in MRC5 and A431 cells]. (United States)

    Vaĭsertreĭger, I S R; Podgornaia, O I; Enukashvili, N I


    It is believed that satellite DNA is compact and transcriptionally inert during interphase. We determined localization, range of compactization and methylation state of the centromeric and pericentromeric satellite DNA using the method of fluorescence hybridization in situ (FISH) combined with the antibody immunostaining against the methylated DNA. We investigated the tissue cells (the cells of placenta and lymphocytes), primary (MRC5 fibroblasts) and malignant (A431) cell cultures. Centromeric satellite DNA was condensed and stained with antibodies against 5-methylcytosine in all the cases. Pericentromeric satellite 3 of the chromosome 1 was condensed in lymphocytes, placenta cells and young culture of fibroblasts. The unwrapping of satellite 3 of the chromosome 1 has been observed in the senescent MRC5 fibroblasts and in the malignant cell line A431. The compact areas of pericentromeric satellites were stained with antibodies against the methylated DNA, white the decondensed areas were'nt stained. Thus, we observed pericentromeric satellite 3 decondensation in senescent fibroblasts culture MRC5 and in cell line A431. The decondensation was accompanied by the partial demethylation of the satellite DNA, which is believed to belong to constitutive heterochromatin.

  15. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that

  16. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  17. Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Born, George H.; Leonard, Jason M.; McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Fujimoto, Kohei


    A navigation technology known as LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation) has been known to produce very impressive navigation results for scenarios involving two or more cooperative satellites near the Moon, such that at least one satellite must be in an orbit significantly perturbed by the Earth, such as a lunar halo orbit. The two (or more) satellites track each other using satellite-to-satellite range and/or range-rate measurements. These relative measurements yield absolute orbit navigation when one of the satellites is in a lunar halo orbit, or the like. The geometry between a lunar halo orbiter and a GEO satellite continuously changes, which dramatically improves the information content of a satellite-to-satellite tracking signal. The geometrical variations include significant out-of-plane shifts, as well as inplane shifts. Further, the GEO satellite is almost continuously in view of a lunar halo orbiter. High-fidelity simulations demonstrate that LiAISON technology improves the navigation of GEO orbiters by an order of magnitude, relative to standard ground tracking. If a GEO satellite is navigated using LiAISON- only tracking measurements, its position is typically known to better than 10 meters. If LiAISON measurements are combined with simple radiometric ground observations, then the satellite s position is typically known to better than 3 meters, which is substantially better than the current state of GEO navigation. There are two features of LiAISON that are novel and advantageous compared with conventional satellite navigation. First, ordinary satellite-to-satellite tracking data only provides relative navigation of each satellite. The novelty is the placement of one navigation satellite in an orbit that is significantly perturbed by both the Earth and the Moon. A navigation satellite can track other satellites elsewhere in the Earth-Moon system and acquire knowledge about both satellites absolute positions and velocities

  18. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.


    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  19. Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) (United States)

    Sakoda, D.; Hiser, J. K.


    The Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Space Systems Academic Group (SSAG) is designing and developing a small communications satellite for launch aboard the shuttle as a complex autonomous payload (CAP). The objectives of PANSAT are three-fold. First, PANSAT will provide an ideal educational tool for the officer students at NPS supporting Space Systems Engineering and Space Systems Operations with hands-on hardware development. Second, the satellite will provide digital store-and-forward communications, or packet radio, for the amateur radio community. The third objective is to provide a low-cost, space-based platform for small experiments. PANSAT will be launched from the shuttle at a nominal altitude of 200 n.m. and an inclination of at least 37 degrees. The satellite weight is 150 lbs. Since there is no attitude control, eight dipole whip antennas will be used to provide isotropic ground coverage for communications. FM digital communications will be used with up-link and down-link on a single frequency in the amateur band of 437.25 MHz. A maximum 50 kHz of bandwidth is envisioned for the satellite. The expected lifetime of the satellite is 1 1/2 to 2 years before atmospheric reentry. The PANSAT design consists of the following: communications subsystem (COMM); computer, or data processor and sequencer (DP&S); power subsystem; structure subsystem; and experiment payload.

  20. Measurements of Outgassing from Satellites (United States)

    Cho, Hyokjin; Moon, Guee-Won; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Seo, Hee-Jun


    TQCM(Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance)s and witness plates were used to measure the molecular contamination for satellites and the outgassing from satellites during vacuum bake-out tests and thermal vacuum tests at KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute). First, vacuum bake-out tests were performed several times for the satellite, KAISTSAT-4(KAIST Satellite-4) flight model, and its components under different temperature conditions. Second, thermal vacuum tests for KOMPSAT-2(Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-2) flight model were done under specific environment conditions. Through the measurements by TQCMs, the mass and the mass deposition rate of a molecular contamination could be traced in a real time. The molecular contamination of witness plates' surfaces could also be measured through an infrared spectrometer, and those results were compared to the TQCMs' results. And the materials from the decontamination plate of the thermal vacuum chamber after the tests were also analyzed using a GC-MS (Gas Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometer).

  1. Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement (United States)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.


    An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

  2. Landsat—Earth observation satellites (United States)



    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  3. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S


    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  4. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan


    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  5. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  6. Regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells declines without significant accumulation of DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cousin

    Full Text Available The performance of adult stem cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis but their regenerative capacity declines with age, leading to failure of multiple organs. In skeletal muscle this failure is manifested by the loss of functional tissue, the accumulation of fibrosis, and reduced satellite cell-mediated myogenesis in response to injury. While recent studies have shown that changes in the composition of the satellite cell niche are at least in part responsible for the impaired function observed with aging, little is known about the effects of aging on the intrinsic properties of satellite cells. For instance, their ability to repair DNA damage and the effects of a potential accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs on their regenerative performance remain unclear. This work demonstrates that old muscle stem cells display no significant accumulation of DNA DSBs when compared to those of young, as assayed after cell isolation and in tissue sections, either in uninjured muscle or at multiple time points after injury. Additionally, there is no significant difference in the expression of DNA DSB repair proteins or globally assayed DNA damage response genes, suggesting that not only DNA DSBs, but also other types of DNA damage, do not significantly mark aged muscle stem cells. Satellite cells from DNA DSB-repair-deficient SCID mice do have an unsurprisingly higher level of innate DNA DSBs and a weakened recovery from gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly, they are as myogenic in vitro and in vivo as satellite cells from young wild type mice, suggesting that the inefficiency in DNA DSB repair does not directly correlate with the ability to regenerate muscle after injury. Overall, our findings suggest that a DNA DSB-repair deficiency is unlikely to be a key factor in the decline in muscle regeneration observed upon aging.

  7. Communication Satellites 1958 to 1986 (United States)


    Greenland India Libya Mexico Morocco Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Peru Portugal Saudi Arabia Spain Sudan Zaire .C.) Angola Bangladesh Bolivia...34 Paper 13-5, EASCOM 󈨑 Conference Record (September 1977). 748. G. Cheadle, "Philippine Dow» » tic Satellite System," AIAA Paper 74-491, AIAA 5th...Experiment in 1.7f 11.5, and 34.5 GHz with Engineering Tesi Satellite Type II," AIAA Paper 78-623, AIAA 7th Communications Sate!’ite Systems Conference

  8. Big Deployables in Small Satellites


    Davis, Bruce; Francis, William; Goff, Jonathan; Cross, Michael; Copel, Daniel


    The concept of utilizing small satellites to perform big mission objectives has grown from a distant idea to a demonstrated reality. One of the challenges in using small-satellite platforms for high-value missions is the packaging of long and large surface-area devices such as antennae, solar arrays and sensor positioning booms. One possible enabling technology is the slit-tube, or a deployable “tape-measure” boom which can be flattened and rolled into a coil achieving a high volumetric packa...

  9. Magnetospheres of the galilean satellites. (United States)

    Kivelson, M G; Slavin, J A; Southwood, D J


    The plasma and field perturbations of magnetospheres that would surround magnetized galilean satellites embedded in the corotating jovian plasma differ from those produced by interaction with an unmagnetized conductor. If the intrinsic satellite dipole is antiparallel to that of Jupiter, the magnetosphere will be open. It is predicted that Io has an internal magnetic field with a dipole moment of 6.5 x 10(22) gauss-cubic centimeters antiparallel to Jupiter's, and Io's special properties can be interpreted on the basis of a reconnecting magnetosphere.

  10. DNA Microarrays (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  11. Distinct evolutionary histories of the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz-ul-Rehman Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae have genomes consisting of either one or two genomic components. The component of bipartite begomoviruses known as DNA-A is homologous to the genomes of all geminiviruses and encodes proteins required for replication, control of gene expression, overcoming host defenses, encapsidation and insect transmission. The second component, referred to as DNA-B, encodes two proteins with functions in intra- and intercellular movement in host plants. The origin of the DNA-B component remains unclear. The study described here was initiated to investigate the relationship between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses with a view to unraveling their evolutionary histories and providing information on the possible origin of the DNA-B component. Results Comparative phylogenetic and exhaustive pairwise sequence comparison of all DNA-A and DNA-B components of begomoviruses demonstrates that the two molecules have very distinct molecular evolutionary histories and likely are under very different evolutionary pressures. The analysis highlights that component exchange has played a far greater role in diversification of begomoviruses than previously suspected, although there are distinct differences in the apparent ability of different groups of viruses to utilize this "sexual" mechanism of genetic exchange. Additionally we explore the hypothesis that DNA-B originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite begomoviruses and subsequently evolved to become the integral (essential genome component that we recognize today. The situation with present-day satellites associated with begomoviruses provides some clues to the processes and selection pressures that may have led to the "domestication" of a wild progenitor of the DNA-B component. Conclusions The analysis has highlighted the greater genetic variation of DNA-B components, in

  12. University Satellite Campus Management Models (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken


    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  13. GOES-R: Satellite Insight (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.


    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  14. Icy satellites, rings and Pluto (United States)

    Klinger, J.

    The present state of knowledge on the occurrence of ices on the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, on ring particles and on Pluto is briefly reviewed. An overview is given of the role of ices in the geological evolution of the above mentioned bodies.

  15. Audio Satellites: Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Jonas Rasmussen; Breinbjerg, M.; Højlund, M. K.


    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web browser, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life in a collaborative...

  16. Electric propulsion for small satellites (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Zhuang, Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Teel, George; Chiu, Dereck; Lukas, Joseph; Haque, Samudra; Brieda, Lubos


    Propulsion is required for satellite motion in outer space. The displacement of a satellite in space, orbit transfer and its attitude control are the task of space propulsion, which is carried out by rocket engines. Electric propulsion uses electric energy to energize or accelerate the propellant. The electric propulsion, which uses electrical energy to accelerate propellant in the form of plasma, is known as plasma propulsion. Plasma propulsion utilizes the electric energy to first, ionize the propellant and then, deliver energy to the resulting plasma leading to plasma acceleration. Many types of plasma thrusters have been developed over last 50 years. The variety of these devices can be divided into three main categories dependent on the mechanism of acceleration: (i) electrothermal, (ii) electrostatic and (iii) electromagnetic. Recent trends in space exploration associate with the paradigm shift towards small and efficient satellites, or micro- and nano-satellites. A particular example of microthruster considered in this paper is the micro-cathode arc thruster (µCAT). The µCAT is based on vacuum arc discharge. Thrust is produced when the arc discharge erodes some of the cathode at high velocity and is accelerated out the nozzle by a Lorentz force. The thrust amount is controlled by varying the frequency of pulses with demonstrated range to date of 1-50 Hz producing thrust ranging from 1 µN to 0.05 mN.

  17. RFP for the italien satellite AGILE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels


    The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE.......The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE....

  18. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  19. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan


    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  20. New Equipment Training Center-Satellite Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Satellite Facility is a 24-hour on-site military satellite transmission and downlink capability to Southwest Asia and all other military OCONUS and CONUS...

  1. DIORAMA Model of Satellite Body Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The DIORAMA GPS satellite platform orientation model is described. Satellites need to keep sensors pointed towards the earth and solar panels oriented to face the sun (when not in the earth’s shadow) while they orbit the earth.

  2. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) (United States)


    resistant communications for high priority military ground, sea, and air assets. The system consists of four satellites in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit that...submarine terminals, and airborne terminals. The mission control segment controls satellites on orbit , monitors satellite health, and provides...Schriever Air Force Base (AFB). Due to the proprietary nature of the AEHF Space Satellite (on- orbit ) Segment, this segment is not considered core and the

  3. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records (United States)

    Halpern, David


    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.

  4. Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 12 ... Keywords. Global Navigation Satellite System, GPS, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass, GAGAN. ... The article also covers the Indian RegionalNavigation Satellite System (IRNSS) and its potentials.

  5. Processor Units Reduce Satellite Construction Costs (United States)


    As part of the effort to build the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), Marshall Space Flight Center developed a low-cost telemetry unit which is used to facilitate communication between a satellite and its receiving station. Huntsville, Alabama-based Orbital Telemetry Inc. has licensed the NASA technology and is offering to install the cost-cutting units on commercial satellites.

  6. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor is...

  7. On-Particle Rolling Circle Amplification-Based Core-Satellite Magnetic Superstructures for MicroRNA Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Jing


    Benefiting from the specially tailored properties of the building blocks as well as of the scaffolds, DNA-assembled core-satellite superstructures have gained increasing interest in drug delivery, imaging, and biosensing. The load of satellites plays a vital role in core-satellite superstructures......-specific nuclease in the presence of target microRNA, resulting in a release of MNPs that can be quantified in an optomagnetic sensor. The proposed biosensor has a simple mix-separate-measure strategy. For let-7b detection, the proposed biosensor offers a wide linear detection range of approximately 5 orders...

  8. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul


    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  9. Global Geopotential Modelling from Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking, (United States)


    of the noise) a method known as least squares collocation has been developed ( Moritz , 1967, Krarup 1969) that treats both parts of the error in a way...that of least squares collocation ; above degree n =2u the accuracies predicted according to collocation are significantly better than those according to...polar orbits is given. The main results according to collocation can be summed up as follows: if the two satellites move in much the same polar, circular

  10. Leveraging the NPS Femto Satellite for Alternative Satellite Communication Networks (United States)


    experiment using Intel Arduino 101 to control the Iridium 9602 Modem, also known as the RockBlock MK2, to test the possibility of sending a text file from...the next-generation NPSFS. 14. SUBJECT TERMS space, Femto satellite, NPSFS, network, communication, Arduino , RockBlock, Iridium Modem 15. NUMBER...using System Tool Kit with QualNet (STK/QualNet) software. For the next generation of NPSFS, we conducted an experiment using Intel Arduino 101 to

  11. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  12. Satellite-Based Quantum Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nordholt, Jane E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCabe, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newell, Raymond T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Charles G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers the attractive feature of 'future proof', forward security rooted in the laws of quantum physics. Ground based quantum key distribution (QKD) experiments in optical fiber have attained transmission ranges in excess of 200km, but for larger distances we proposed a methodology for satellite-based QC. Over the past decade we have devised solutions to the technical challenges to satellite-to-ground QC, and we now have a clear concept for how space-based QC could be performed and potentially utilized within a trusted QKD network architecture. Functioning as a trusted QKD node, a QC satellite ('QC-sat') could deliver secret keys to the key stores of ground-based trusted QKD network nodes, to each of which multiple users are connected by optical fiber or free-space QC. A QC-sat could thereby extend quantum-secured connectivity to geographically disjoint domains, separated by continental or inter-continental distances. In this paper we describe our system concept that makes QC feasible with low-earth orbit (LEO) QC-sats (200-km-2,000-km altitude orbits), and the results of link modeling of expected performance. Using the architecture that we have developed, LEO satellite-to-ground QKD will be feasible with secret bit yields of several hundred 256-bit AES keys per contact. With multiple ground sites separated by {approx} 100km, mitigation of cloudiness over any single ground site would be possible, potentially allowing multiple contact opportunities each day. The essential next step is an experimental QC-sat. A number of LEO-platforms would be suitable, ranging from a dedicated, three-axis stabilized small satellite, to a secondary experiment on an imaging satellite. to the ISS. With one or more QC-sats, low-latency quantum-secured communications could then be provided to ground-based users on a global scale. Air-to-ground QC would also be possible.

  13. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls


    and inflammation in otherwise healthy human skeletal muscles. We approach this concept by comparing changes in muscle function (i.e., the force-generating capacity) with the degree of leucocyte accumulation in muscle following exercise. In the second section, we explore the cytokine response to 'muscle......-damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...

  14. Study of miniature and microminiature satellite technology (United States)

    Kaneko, Kazuhisa


    An overview of the study on miniaturized satellite missions for the purpose of communication, broadcasting, earth observation, space environment utilization, global positioning, lunar exploration, solar-terrestrial science observation, and astronomical observation is presented. The results from examination of documents and periodicals of technologies expected to be usable for satellite miniaturization is outlined by subsystem, such as orbit and attitude control, electric power, communication, thermal control, and other subsystems. Technical measures for upgrading heat radiation and solar battery efficiencies, and antenna gain are proposed. The results of the study of super-miniature satellite system model (low orbit data relay satellite system for earth observation satellite to process many data) are outlined.

  15. Satellite television analogue and digital reception techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Herve


    Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec

  16. Inter-satellite laser link simulation analysis (United States)

    Tong, Lanjuan; Guan, Hui; Wang, Zhilin


    The characteristic of satellite communication link was firstly described and four application modes were put forward. By comparison, it is suggested that microwave link is used in satellite-to-ground communication and laser link is used in inter-satellite communication. Secondly the condition and composition of laser link establishment was analyzed and laser link model was set up, and the principle and composition of APT system was described. Finally, based on STK and MATLAB platform, the process of inter-satellite laser link establishment was designed, and setting the scene of TDRS capturing and tracking user's satellite as an example, simulation was realized and demonstrated.

  17. Satellite communications network design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Kenneth Y


    This authoritative book provides a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of satellite communications (SATCOM) network design and performance assessments. You find discussions on a wide class of SATCOM networks using satellites as core components, as well as coverage key applications in the field. This in-depth resource presents a broad range of critical topics, from geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellites and direct broadcast satellite systems, to low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, radio standards and protocols.This invaluable reference explains the many specific uses of

  18. Desert Dust Satellite Retrieval Intercomparison (United States)

    Carboni, E.; Thomas, G. E.; Sayer, A. M.; Siddans, R.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.; Ahn, C.; Antoine, D.; Bevan, S.; Braak, R.; hide


    This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify and understand the differences between current algorithms, and hence improve future retrieval algorithms. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR), polarisation measurements (POLDER), single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS), and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS). Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as as20 sumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, at least as significant as these differences are sampling issues related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset.

  19. Characterization of human satellite cells


    Gloy, Sina


    Satellite cells guarantee the regeneration of skeletal muscle until old age. They are genuine muscle stem cells that are localized in a characteristic anatomic localization between basal lamina and sarkolemma of each muscle fiber. On protein level they are characterized by their expression of the transcription factor Pax7 and different other markers like c-Met and CXCR4. Most of our knowledge is based on studies with mouse models. Due to their availability and remarkable capacity to regen...



    Francisco Sacristán Romero


    SUMMARY This article comprises of an investigation that approaches a so complex subject and in process as the trajectory, from its birth like project, of the Spanish satellite of communications HISPASAT. HISPASAT supposes to enter in the more fascinating world of the technologies out poste with the risk of believing have approval part of the possibilities that it offers, when in fact not we have begun the study of a plan in transition. The investigators that come behind us will extend and...

  1. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (United States)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.


    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish developments and heritage in small- / microsatellites like Astrid-2, SMART-1 or the upcoming rendezvous and formation flying demonstration mission PRISMA.

  2. Synthesis of DNA (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.


    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  3. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres (United States)

    McGrath, M. A.


    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., Io, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  4. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti


    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  5. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R. [and others


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project`s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies.

  6. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity. (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni


    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  7. Congestion control in satellite networks (United States)

    Byun, Do Jun

    Due to exponential increases in internet traffic, Active Queue Management (AQM) has been heavily studied by numerous researchers. However, little is known about AQM in satellite networks. A microscopic examination of queueing behavior in satellite networks is conducted to identify problems with applying existing AQM methods. A new AQM method is proposed to overcome the problems and it is validated using a realistic emulation environment and a mathematical model. Three problems that were discovered during the research are discussed in this dissertation. The first problem is oscillatory queueing, which is caused by high buffering due to Performance Enhancing Proxy (PEP) in satellite networks where congestion control after the PEP buffering does not effectively control traffic senders. Existing AQMs that can solve this problem have tail drop queueing that results in consecutive packet drops (global synchronization). A new AQM method called Adaptive Virtual Queue Random Early Detection (AVQRED) is proposed to solve this problem. The second problem is unfair bandwidth sharing caused by inaccurate measurements of per-flow bandwidth usage. AVQRED is enhanced to accurately measure per-flow bandwidth usage to solve this problem without adding much complexity to the algorithm. The third problem is queueing instability caused by buffer flow control where TCP receive windows are adjusted to flow control traffic senders instead of dropping received packets during congestion. Although buffer flow control is quite attractive to satellite networks, queueing becomes unstable because accepting packets instead of dropping them aggravates the congestion level. Furthermore, buffer flow control has abrupt reductions in the TCP receive window size due to high PEP buffering causing more instability. AVQRED with packet drop is proposed to solve this problem. Networks with scarce bandwidth and high propagation delays can not afford to have an unstable AQM. In this research, three problems

  8. Satellite orbit determination using satellite gravity gradiometry observations in GOCE mission perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bobojć


    Full Text Available Between the years 2004 and 2005 the launch of the first gradiometric satellite is planned. This satellite will be an important element of the Gravity Field and Steady – State Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE. This mission is one of the reasons for performing the simulation research of the Satellite Gravity Gradiometry. Our work contains the theory description and simulation results of the satellite orbit determination using the gravity tensor observations. In the process of the satellite orbit determination the initial dynamic state vector corrections are obtained. These corrections are estimated by means of the gravity gradiometry measurements. The performed simulations confirm the possibility of satellite orbit determination by means of the gravity tensor observations.Key words. satellite geodesy, satellite gradiometry, satellite orbits

  9. Replication, checkpoint suppression and structure of centromeric DNA. (United States)

    Romeo, Francesco; Falbo, Lucia; Costanzo, Vincenzo


    Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication. We also showed that centromeric chromatin forms condensins enriched and topologically constrained DNA loops, which likely contribute to the overall structure of the centromere. These findings have important implications on how chromosomes are organized and genome stability is maintained in mammalian cells.

  10. DNA methylation dynamics in muscle development and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eCarrio


    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification for mammalian development and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cellular identity. Traditionally, DNA methylation has been considered as a permanent repressive epigenetic mark. However, the application of genome-wide approaches has allowed the analysis of DNA methylation in different genomic contexts revealing a more dynamic regulation than originally thought, since active DNA methylation and demethylation occur during cellular differentiation and tissue specification. Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration. This review outlines the published data regarding DNA methylation changes along the skeletal muscle program, in both physiological and pathological conditions, to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenesis

  11. Digital frequency control of satellite frequency standards. [Defense Navigation Satellites (United States)

    Nichols, S. A.


    In the Frequency and Time Standard Development Program of the TIMATION System, a new miniaturized rubidium vapor frequency standard has been tested and analyzed for possible use on the TIMATION 3A launch, as part of the Defense Navigation Satellite Development Program. The design and construction of a digital frequency control was required to remotely control this rubidium vapor frequency standard as well as the quartz oscillator in current use. This control must be capable of accepting commands from a satellite telemetry system, verify that the correct commands have been sent and control the frequency to the requirements of the system. Several modifications must be performed to the rubidium vapor frequency standard to allow it to be compatible with the digital frequency control. These include the addition of a varactor to voltage tune the coarse range of the flywheel oscillator, and a modification to supply the C field current externally. The digital frequency control for the rubidium vapor frequency standard has been successfully tested in prototype form.

  12. Satellite Spacecraft Charging Control Materials. (United States)


    MAAG, private comunication (3) A. PAILLOUS, Mise au point de matdriaux combinant la qualitf de rdflecteurs solaires et une bonne conductibilit...AD-A087 675 OFFICE NATIONAL D’EUDES ET DE RECHERCHES AEROSPATIALE--ETC F/G 22/2 SATELLITE SPACECRAFT CHARGING CONTROL MATERIALS*(U) APR 80 8 BENAISSA...this problem of outgassing (6)* The composite is obtained by lamin- ating at 280 C the quartz fabric with a FEP film and an aluminum (6) A.E. EAGLES et

  13. Gulf Offshore Satellite Application Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegert, E.K.; Berry, J.L.; Oakley, S.D. [Shell E and P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Baker, R.N. [Amoco (United States); Mott, S. [Imagelinks (United States); Gelpi, C. [Xontech (United States); Mitchell, R. [Earth Satellite Corp., Washington, DC (United States)


    The Gulf Offshore Satellite Applications Project (GOSAP) was designed to evaluate remote sensing systems such as RADARSAT and SAR and their use in petroleum, marine and environmental industries. The project`s goal is to detect oil seeps and spills in the marine environment and to determine the influence of sea temperature, geological, geochemical and biological factors on natural seep rates. GOSAP and the RADARSAT Application Development and Research Opportunity (ADRO) program acquired the first RADARSAT images over a Gulf of Mexico test site and observed spills as well as natural oil slicks. Operational criteria for RADARSAT commercial products for these applications were also determined, and special processing problems were resolved.

  14. Cartography of irregularly shaped satellites (United States)

    Batson, R. M.; Edwards, Kathleen


    Irregularly shaped satellites, such as Phobos and Amalthea, do not lend themselves to mapping by conventional methods because mathematical projections of their surfaces fail to convey an accurate visual impression of the landforms, and because large and irregular scale changes make their features difficult to measure on maps. A digital mapping technique has therefore been developed by which maps are compiled from digital topographic and spacecraft image files. The digital file is geometrically transformed as desired for human viewing, either on video screens or on hard copy. Digital files of this kind consist of digital images superimposed on another digital file representing the three-dimensional form of a body.

  15. Satellite demodulator and telecommand decoder (United States)

    Pereiradelucena, Antonio Macilio


    This work presents the design, analysis and test results of the BPSK/NRZ-L demodulator and telecommand decoder of the data collecting the satellite of Missao Espacial Completa Brasileira (MECB). The constraints imposed by the space application motivate the adoption of nonconventional solutions. Basically, the innovations are the parallel subcarrier and bit synchronization and the replacement of multipliers by exclusive-or gates operating on digital signals. These innovations offer advantages in speed, power consumption and reliability. A partial and original mathematical analysis of the adopted solutions is presented.

  16. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José


    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  17. Study of chaos in chaotic satellite systems (United States)

    Khan, Ayub; Kumar, Sanjay


    In this paper, we study the qualitative behaviour of satellite systems using bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré section, Lyapunov exponents, dissipation, equilibrium points, Kaplan-Yorke dimension etc. Bifurcation diagrams with respect to the known parameters of satellite systems are analysed. Poincaré sections with different sowing axes of the satellite are drawn. Eigenvalues of Jacobian matrices for the satellite system at different equilibrium points are calculated to justify the unstable regions. Lyapunov exponents are estimated. From these studies, chaos in satellite system has been established. Solution of equations of motion of the satellite system are drawn in the form of three-dimensional, two-dimensional and time series phase portraits. Phase portraits and time series display the chaotic nature of the considered system.

  18. ECS - The European Communication Satellite system (United States)

    Wooster, C. B.


    The evolution of the European Communication Satellite system (ECS) is traced from feasibility studies in 1970 to the development and launch in 1978 of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) by the European Space Agency to prove the new satellite and radio transmission technology being used on ECS. This was followed by the establishment of 'Interim EUTELSAT' in 1979 as the organization to operate ECS. The satellite, which operates at 11/14 GHz, covers all the capitals in Europe via three spot beam antennas, supplemented by a 'Eurobeam' regional coverage antenna which extends the range to cover all of Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Telephony channels are transmitted digitally using time division multiple access (TDMA) with digital speech interpolation (DSI) to optimize satellite capacity. Television transmission is by analog FM over the Eurobeam antenna to North African as well as European capitals. System implications of TDMA operation are discussed, and the EUTELSAT policy for Special Services or satellite business systems is discussed.

  19. C2 of Next-Generation Satellites (United States)


    government Cosmos satellite and a U.S. commercial Iridium satellite. Not only does this risk of collision threaten national space capabilities, but January 2013 with the passage of the FY2013 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which included a long-awaited satellite export control...architectures • Guaranteed minimum number of launches • Export control reform • Jan. 02, 2013: Passage of FY2013 NDAA • Sec. 1262, “Removal of

  20. Global telemedicine using INMARSAT satellite system (United States)

    Mukhedkar, Dinkar; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Lambert Torres, Germano


    Departement of Electrical Engineering Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba Itajuba Minas Gerais Brazil This paper describes a " medical satellite network" for long distance diagnosis. The network proposed will be composed by mobile medical laboratories two transmission stations and a satellite system. This network will allow to link two hospitals for emergency expert medical consultations. INMARSAT satellite system is investigated and a tradeoff is made between a land based I ink and a satellitecommunication link. 1.

  1. Global navigation satellite systems and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott


    Dr. Madry, one of the world's leading experts in the field, provides in a condensed form a quick yet comprehensive overview of satellite navigation. This book concisely addresses the latest technology, the applications, the regulatory issues, and the strategic implications of satellite navigation systems. This assesses the strengths and weaknesses of satellite navigation networks and review of all the various national systems now being deployed and the motivation behind the proliferation of these systems.

  2. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education


    Hafied Cangara


    Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and international cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also...

  3. Satellite system considerations for computer data transfer (United States)

    Cook, W. L.; Kaul, A. K.


    Communications satellites will play a key role in the transmission of computer generated data through nationwide networks. This paper examines critical aspects of satellite system design as they relate to the computer data transfer task. In addition, it discusses the factors influencing the choice of error control technique, modulation scheme, multiple-access mode, and satellite beam configuration based on an evaluation of system requirements for a broad range of application areas including telemetry, terminal dialog, and bulk data transmission.

  4. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization


    Wood, Lloyd


    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  5. Satellite Gravity Drilling the Earth (United States)

    vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Leftwich, T. E.; Kim, H. R.; Han, S.-H.; Taylor, P. T.; Ashgharzadeh, M. F.


    Analysis of satellite-measured gravity and topography can provide crust-to-core mass variation models for new insi@t on the geologic evolution of the Earth. The internal structure of the Earth is mostly constrained by seismic observations and geochemical considerations. We suggest that these constraints may be augmented by gravity drilling that interprets satellite altitude free-air gravity observations for boundary undulations of the internal density layers related to mass flow. The approach involves separating the free-air anomalies into terrain-correlated and -decorrelated components based on the correlation spectrum between the anomalies and the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain-decorrelated gravity anomalies are largely devoid of the long wavelength interfering effects of the terrain gravity and thus provide enhanced constraints for modeling mass variations of the mantle and core. For the Earth, subcrustal interpretations of the terrain-decorrelated anomalies are constrained by radially stratified densities inferred from seismic observations. These anomalies, with frequencies that clearly decrease as the density contrasts deepen, facilitate mapping mass flow patterns related to the thermodynamic state and evolution of the Earth's interior.

  6. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin


    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  7. The Canadian mobile satellite program (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  8. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A


    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) focuses on the distribution and variation of cloud radiative properties to improve the understanding of the...

  10. Surficial textures of the Galilean satellites (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Nelson, R. M.; Lane, A. L.


    The observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter obtained with the IUE have been analyzed as a function of solar phase angle. By fitting the measurements to a shadowing model, comparative descriptions of the microtextures of the optically active portion of the surfaces of the satellites are derived. Important differences among the satellites and between leading and trailing hemispheres of individual satellites result from the different processes of meteoritic bombardment, magnetospheric interaction, and geological resurfacing that operate in the Jovian system. Io and Callisto have the most tenuous upper regoliths, whereas the surface of the leading side of Europa is the most compact.

  11. Earth Observation Satellites and Chinese Applications (United States)

    Li, D.

    In this talk existing and future Earth observation satellites are briefly described These satellites include meteorological satellites ocean satellites land resources satellites cartographic satellites and gravimetric satellites The Chinese government has paid and will pay more attention to and put more effort into enhancing Chinese earth observation satellite programs in the next fifteen years The utilization of these satellites will effectively help human beings to solve problems it faces in areas such as population natural resources and environment and natural hazards The author will emphasize the originality of the scientific and application aspects of the Chinese program in the field of Earth observations The main applications include early warning and prevention of forest fires flooding and drought disaster water and ocean ice disasters monitoring of landslides and urban subsidence investigation of land cover change and urban expansion as well as urban and rural planning The author introduces the most up-to-date technology used by Chinese scientists including fusion and integration of multi-sensor multi-platform optical and SAR data of remote sensing Most applications in China have obtained much support from related international organizations and universities around the world These applications in China are helpful for economic construction and the efficient improvement of living quality

  12. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend


    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...

  13. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  14. Small satellite debris catalog maintenance issues (United States)

    Jackson, Phoebe A.


    The United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) is a unified command of the Department of Defense, and one of its tasks is to detect, track, identify, and maintain a catalog of all man-made objects in Earth orbit. This task is called space surveillance, and the most important tool for space surveillance is the satellite catalog. The command's reasons for performing satellite catalog maintenance is presented. A satellite catalog is described, and small satellite-debris catalog-maintenance issues are identified. The underlying rationale is to describe the catalog maintenance services so that the members of the community can use them with assurance.

  15. Doppler factors in satellite-to-satellite tracking. [with relativistic effects (United States)

    Marini, J. W.


    The Doppler factors occurring in range rate satellite-to-satellite tracking measurements are derived with special relativistic effects included. The error resulting from the use of simplified expressions for these factors is discussed.

  16. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) simulator development for advanced satellite designs and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The simulation development associated with the network models of both the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures is documented. The ISIS Network Model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communications satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete event simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters, and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  17. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1, Version 6 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from derived International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1 observations of tropical cyclones worldwide. The B1 data...

  18. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  19. Artificial satellites orbiting planetary satellites: critical inclination and sun-synchronous orbits (United States)

    da Costa, Maria Lívia G. T. X.; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Carvalho, Jean Paulo S.; Prado, Antônio Fernando B. A.


    The behavior of critical inclinations and sun-synchronous orbits of artificial satellites orbiting planetary satellites are analyzed considering, simultaneously, the influence of the harmonics J 2 and C 22, both due to the non-uniform mass distribution of the natural satellite. In the present research, the central bodies of interest are the Moon and two of the Galilean moons: Io and Europa.

  20. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher


    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  1. Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office Testing (United States)

    Sanders, Sean


    While at the KSC, I was given the opportunity of assisting the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) specifically the Propellant Transfer System (PTS) lead by my mentor, Brian Nufer. While waiting to test different components in the PTS, I was able to assist with testing for the Hose Management Assembly (HMA) and was able to work on a simulation in Labview. For the HMA, I was able to help with testing of a coating as well as to help test the durability of the pinch rollers in space. In Labview, I experimented with building a simulation for the PTS, to show where fluids and gases were flowing depending on which valves in the PTS were opened. Not all of the integrated parts required assembly level testing, which allowed me to test these parts individually by myself and document the results. I was also able to volunteer to assist project NEO, allowing me to gain some knowledge of cryogenic fluid systems.

  2. Potential applications of satellite navigation (United States)

    Schaenzer, G.

    The applicability of Navstar GPS to civil air navigation is discussed. The accuracy of current air-navigation systems is reviewed; the basic principle and accuracy of GPS navigation are characterized; the relatively low cost of GPS receiving equipment is pointed out; and particular attention is given to hybrid systems combining GPS with inertial navigation. It is predicted that CAT III landings will be possible using such hybrid systems when the GPS satellites are fully deployed, even without access to the military GPS code. Techniques for GPS-based precision landings, reduced-noise landings, landings on parallel runways, control of taxiing maneuvers, and aircraft-based geodetic measurements are briefly described and illustrated with diagrams.

  3. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites (United States)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert


    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  4. Photogrammetric mobile satellite service prediction (United States)

    Akturan, Riza; Vogel, Wolfhard J.


    Photographic images of the sky were taken with a camera through a fisheye lens with a 180 deg field-of-view. The images of rural, suburban, and urban scenes were analyzed on a computer to derive quantitative information about the elevation angles at which the sky becomes visible. Such knowledge is needed by designers of mobile and personal satellite communications systems and is desired by customers of these systems. The 90th percentile elevation angle of the skyline was found to be 10 deg, 17 deg, and 51 deg in the three environments. At 8 deg, 75 percent, 75 percent, and 35 percent of the sky was visible, respectively. The elevation autocorrelation fell to zero with a 72 deg lag in the rural and urban environment and a 40 deg lag in the suburb. Mean estimation errors are below 4 deg.

  5. Satellite material contaminant optical properties (United States)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.


    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  6. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.


    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  7. Nanosatellite swarm support for larger satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Chris; Engelen, Steven; Noroozi, Arash; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Sundaramoorthy, Prem; Meijer, Robert


    Nano-satellites are small (less than 10 kg) and low cost satellites of which quite a number has been launched the last few years, mostly as university educational or research projects. The development of professional scientific and commercial applications is still in its infancy and there are only

  8. Orbital positioning and stationkeeping of geostationary satellites (United States)

    Donat, H.

    Orbit, launcher, and satellite related constraints on launch windows are reviewed. The flight sequence and orbital position optimization of spin and three axis stabilized satellites are described. Geostationary orbit perturbations and evolution, and orbit correction are considered. North-south and east-west stationkeeping strategies are outlined. Stationkeeping of Telecom-1 and TDF-1 is illustrated.

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul


    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  10. Study of chaos in chaotic satellite systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper,we study the qualitative behaviour of satellite systems using bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré section, Lyapunov exponents, dissipation, equilibrium points, Kaplan–Yorke dimension etc. Bifurcation diagrams with respect to the known parameters of satellite systems are analysed. Poincaré sections with different ...

  11. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels


    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. High-Capacity Aeronautical Satellite Communication System (United States)

    Sue, M. K.; Davarian, F.; Chan, H. W.


    System primarily designed to serve aircraft en route. Provides 5,093 forward communication channels and 7,093 reverse channels. This allocation of forward and reverse channels reflects anticipated communication traffic patterns. East and west satellites relay messages from ground to airplanes and from airplanes to ground. Use of two satellites instead of one increases availability of services and reliability of system.

  13. RFP for CNES micro satellite program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Finn E; Betto, Maurizio


    This document descibes the ASC STAR TRACKER (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) for their micro Satellites.......This document descibes the ASC STAR TRACKER (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) for their micro Satellites....

  14. Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation. K C T Swamy. Dr. K C T Swamy is an. Associate Professor in ECE at. G Pullaih College of. Engineering and Technology,. Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh. His research interests are global navigation satellite system and antennas. He has been carrying out research in.

  15. Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia (United States)

    Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Rinsland, C. P.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Beer, R.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D.; Payne, V. H.; Clough, S.; Rodgers, C. D.; Osterman, G. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.


    Global high-spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) nadir measurements from TES-Aura enable the simultaneous retrieval of a number of tropospheric pollutants and trace gases in addition to the TES standard operationally retrieved products (e.g. carbon monoxide, ozone). Ammonia (NH3) is one of the additional species that can be retrieved in conjunction with the TES standard products, and is important for local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry studies. Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions are poorly constrained. In the atmosphere, an important fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, nitrogen, including ammonia can cause nutrient imbalances, change in ecosystem species composition, eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Ammonia is also challenging to measure in-situ. Observations of surface concentrations are rare and are particularly sparse in North America. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. We recently demonstrated that tropospheric ammonia is detectable in the TES spectra and presented some corresponding preliminary retrievals over a very limited range of conditions (Beer et al., 2008). Presented here are results that expand upon these initial TES ammonia retrievals in order to evaluate/validate the retrieval results utilizing in-situ surface observations (e.g. LADCO, CASTNet, EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ). We also present retrievals over regions of interest that have the potential to help further understand air quality and the active nitrogen cycle. Beer, R., M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering, K. W. Bowman, S. P. Sander, B. M. Fisher, V. H. Payne, M. Luo, G. B. Osterman, and J. R. Worden, First

  16. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  17. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment development for advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The Interim Service Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Development for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the development of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the RS-499 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the RS-499 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  18. Future Satellite Gravimetry and Earth Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob


    Currently, a first generation of dedicated satellite missions for the precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity field is in orbit (CHAMP, GRACE, and soon GOCE). The gravity data from these satellite missions provide us with very new information on the dynamics of planet Earth. In particular, on the mass distribution in the Earth’s interior, the entire water cycle (ocean circulation, ice mass balance, continental water masses, and atmosphere), and on changes in the mass distribution. The results are fascinating, but still rough with respect to spatial and temporal resolution. Technical progress in satellite-to-satellite tracking and in gravity gradiometry will allow more detailed results in the future. In this special issue, Earth scientists develop visions of future applications based on follow-on high-precision satellite gravimetry missions.

  19. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite im...... images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  20. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff


    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  1. Satellite Attitude Control Using Only Electromagnetic Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    of the work was on the class of periodic systems reflecting orbital motion of the satellite. In addition to a theoretical treatment, the thesis contains a large portion of application considerations. The controllers developed were implemented for the Danish Ørsted satellite. The control concept considered......The primary purpose of this work was to develop control laws for three axis stabilization of a magnetic actuated satellite. This was achieved by a combination of linear and nonlinear system theory. In order to reach this goal new theoretical results were produced in both fields. The focus...... was that interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and a magnetic field generated by a set of coils in the satellite can be used for actuation. Magnetic torquing was found attractive for generation of control torques on small satellites, since magnetic control systems are relatively lightweight, require low power...

  2. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Alway


    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  3. DNA tagged microparticles (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth


    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  4. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz


    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  5. Modeling DNA Replication. (United States)

    Bennett, Joan


    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  6. Small optical inter-satellite communication system for small and micro satellites (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kyohei; Nakao, Takashi; Ito, Taiji; Sano, Takeshi; Ishii, Tamotsu; Shibata, Keiichi; Ueno, Mitsuhiro; Ohta, Shinji; Komatsu, Hiromitsu; Araki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Yuta; Sawada, Hirotaka


    Small optical inter-satellite communication system to be installed into small and micro satellites flying on LEO are designed and experimentally verified of its fundamental functions. Small, light weighted, power efficient as well as usable data transmission rate optical inter-satellite communication system is one of promising approach to provide realtime data handling and operation capabilities for micro and small satellite constellations which have limited conditions of payload. Proposed system is designed to connect satellites with 4500 (km) long maximum to be able to talk with ground station continuously by relaying LEO satellites even when they are in their own maneuvers. Connecting satellites with 4500 (km) long with keeping steady data rate, accurate pointing and tracking method will be one of a crucial issue. In this paper, we propose a precious pointing and tracking method and system with a miniature optics and experimentally verified almost 10 (μrad) of pointing accuracy with more than 500 (mrad) of angular coverage.

  7. A systematic method of generating Galilean satellite-to-satellite transfers for Orbiter/Lander missions (United States)

    Soldner, J. K.; Feingold, H.


    A Galilean satellite tour design strategy is presented which minimizes the approach velocities at the target satellites. A technique is developed such that once a Hohmann transfer is established between any two adjacent Galilean satellites, transfer trajectories to the remaining Galilean satellites can be derived in a systematic manner. A relationship between spacecraft orbital period and perijove radius is used to develop an algorithm which produces transfer trajectories by simply accounting for the satellites' angular position. The algorithm is incorporated into a FORTRAN code which demonstrates that a finite number of realizable trajectories exist in the specialized Galilean satellite tours due to resonance phasing. The basic assumption is made that the orbits of all the Galilean satellites are circular and coplanar.

  8. 78 FR 43118 - Allegations of Anticompetitive Behavior in Satellite Industry (United States)


    ... behavior: First, that Intelsat and other dominant satellite operators are warehousing scarce orbital... satellites on a timely basis or otherwise failing to provide transponder capacity that reflects current... unforeseen circumstances. Under the Commission's current rules, requests for emergency replacement satellites...

  9. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney


    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  10. DNA damage response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Giglia-Mari (Giuseppina); A. Zotter (Angelika); W. Vermeulen (Wim)


    textabstractStructural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network ofDNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance

  11. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nal factors such as UV radiation, high energy radiation such as X-. Keywords. DNA repair, DNA damage, base excision repair, nucleotide exci- sion repair, methlyl-directed mis- match repair, Nobel Prize. rays and gamma rays, mutagenic chemicals and viruses. Different types of DNA ... be especially important in plants.

  12. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.


    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  13. Updating the maize karyotype by chromosome DNA sizing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Coutinho Silva

    Full Text Available The karyotype is a basic concept regarding the genome, fundamentally described by the number and morphological features of all chromosomes. Chromosome class, centromeric index, intra- and interchromosomal asymmetry index, and constriction localization are important in clinical, systematic and evolutionary approaches. In spite of the advances in karyotype characterization made over the last years, new data about the chromosomes can be generated from quantitative methods, such as image cytometry. Therefore, using Zea mays L., this study aimed to update the species' karyotype by supplementing information on chromosome DNA sizing. After adjustment of the procedures, chromosome morphometry and class as well as knob localization enabled describing the Z. mays karyotype. In addition, applying image cytometry, DNA sizing was unprecedentedly measured for the arms and satellite of all chromosomes. This way, unambiguous identification of the chromosome pairs, and hence the assembly of 51 karyograms, were only possible after the DNA sizing of each chromosome, their arms and satellite portions. These accurate, quantitative and reproducible data also enabled determining the distribution and variation of DNA content in each chromosome. From this, a correlation between DNA amount and total chromosome length evidenced that the mean DNA content of chromosome 9 was higher than that of chromosome 8. The chromosomal DNA sizing updated the Z. mays karyotype, providing insights into its dynamic genome with regards to the organization of the ten chromosomes and their respective portions. Considering the results and the relevance of cytogenetics in the current scenario of comparative sequencing and genomics, chromosomal DNA sizing should be incorporated as an additional parameter for karyotype definition. Based on this study, it can be affirmed that cytogenetic approaches go beyond the simple morphological description of chromosomes.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Composite Satellite Overpasses GCPEx dataset provides satellite overpasses from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS)...

  15. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eSnijders


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodelling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodelling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodelling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  16. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske


    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  17. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir


    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...... for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...

  18. Archaeal DNA replication. (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi


    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  19. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  20. Satellite Shadow Modeling and Algorithm of Satellite Shadow Parameters for GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Lan


    Full Text Available The satellite shadow parameters can be numerically calculated with high accuracy from the positions of the sun, the earth and the specific satellite. Unfortunately, it is difficult for the numerical calculation to give a general profile of the variations and distributions of these parameters for some certain types of orbital spacecraft. A satellite shadow model was presented based on the spatial view at the altitude of the satellite and the correlative geometry amongst the sun, the earth and the satellite. Firstly, the size and location of the satellite shadow were determined by the semi-major axis of the satellite orbit and the annual motion of the apparent sun, respectively. Secondly, the computing formulae of the satellite shadow parameters were derived, together with the correction formulae for the long-term prediction of the parameters due to oblateness perturbation, etc. Examinations on the three types of orbits for the BeiDou navigation constellation show that the proposed satellite shadow model and its shadow parameters computing formulae can provide a prompt profile of the eclipse parameters for the medium-high altitude circular orbit satellites.

  1. A Review on Inter-satellite Link in Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication (United States)

    Arora, Heena; Goyal, Rakesh


    In this paper, inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) system is proposed, one of the imperative utilizations of free space optics/wireless space optics (FSO)/WSO innovation. IsOWC frameworks give a high bandwidth, small size, small weight, low power and minimal effort different option for present microwave satellite frameworks. Optical communications systems have evolved from lengthy fibers to powerful wireless system. This has hence resulted in the use of optical wireless communication system in space communications. As the quantity of satellites circling the Earth expands year by year, a system between the satellites gives a strategy to them to correspond with one another. This is vital for satellites to send data to each other furthermore to hand off the data starting with one satellite then onto the next satellite and after that to the ground stations. By utilizing laser satellite correspondence, the satellites can be joined with information rates up to a few Gbps. The system performance including bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance on an inter-satellite link was analyzed. Various issues such as bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance were presented in IsOWC.

  2. DNA structure and function. (United States)

    Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi


    The proposal of a double-helical structure for DNA over 60 years ago provided an eminently satisfying explanation for the heritability of genetic information. But why is DNA, and not RNA, now the dominant biological information store? We argue that, in addition to its coding function, the ability of DNA, unlike RNA, to adopt a B-DNA structure confers advantages both for information accessibility and for packaging. The information encoded by DNA is both digital - the precise base specifying, for example, amino acid sequences - and analogue. The latter determines the sequence-dependent physicochemical properties of DNA, for example, its stiffness and susceptibility to strand separation. Most importantly, DNA chirality enables the formation of supercoiling under torsional stress. We review recent evidence suggesting that DNA supercoiling, particularly that generated by DNA translocases, is a major driver of gene regulation and patterns of chromosomal gene organization, and in its guise as a promoter of DNA packaging enables DNA to act as an energy store to facilitate the passage of translocating enzymes such as RNA polymerase. © 2015 FEBS.

  3. Gravimetric geodesy and sea surface topography studies by means of satellite-to-satellite tracking and satellite altimetry (United States)

    Siry, J. W.


    A satellite-to-satellite tracking experiment is planned between ATS-F and GEOS-C with a range accuracy of 2-meters and a range rate accuracy of 0.035 centimeters per second for a 10-second integration time. This experiment is planned for 1974. It is anticipated that it will improve the spatial resolution of the satellite geoid by half an order of magnitude to about 6 degrees. Longer integration times should also permit a modest increase in the acceleration resolution. Satellite altimeter data will also be obtained by means of GEOS-C. An overall accuracy of 5-meters in altitude is the goal. The altimeter, per se, is expected to have an instrumental precision of about 2 meters, and an additional capability to observe with a precision of about 0.2 meters for limited periods.

  4. Satellite multiple access systems for mobile communication (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.


    This paper considers multiple access techniques for a mobile radio system which incorporates a geosynchronous orbiting satellite repeater through which mobile terminals communicate. The communication capacities of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA systems are examined for a 4 MHz bandwidth system to serve up to 10,000 users. An FDMA system with multibeam coverage is analyzed in detail. The system includes an order-wire network for demand-access control and reassignment of satellite channels. Satellite and terminal configurations are developed to a block diagram level and system costs and implementation requirements are discussed.

  5. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.


    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  6. FDMA implementation for domestic mobile satellite systems (United States)

    Wachira, Muya; Bossler, Dan; Skerry, Brian

    MSAT (the domestic mobile satellite system for North America, planned for the 1990s) is briefly described. The considerations that led to the choice of FDMA/SCPC (frequency division multiple access/single carrier per channel) as the primary access scheme for MSAT are discussed. Service requirements and practical constraints are examined. It is shown that, in a shadowed environment, FDMA leads to an efficient use of satellite power while providing good link availability. Also, because of the inherent flexibility of narrowband carrier assignments within the shared MSS (mobile satellite service) bands, FDMA can provide ample coordinated spectrum for all MSS operators.

  7. Ionospheric tomography using the FORTE satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.C.


    The possibility of obtaining ionospheric profile data via tomographic techniques has elicited considerable interest in recent years. The input data for the method is a set of total electron content measurements along intersecting lines of sight which form a grid. This can conveniently be provided by a fast-moving satellite with a VHF beacon which will generate the multiple paths needed for effective tomography. Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories will launch and operate the FORTE satellite for the US Department of Energy, with launch scheduled in 1995. FORTE will provide such a beacon. Additionally, wideband VHF receivers aboard the satellite will allow corraborative measurements of ionospheric profile parameters in some cases.

  8. The satellite city in Soviet urban development. (United States)

    Hausladen, G


    "This paper examines the impact of satellite-city policies [in the USSR] during the period 1959-80. First, it traces the evolution of satellite-city policies that evolved in response to Khrushchev's interest in regulating the growth of large cities. Second, it examines the extent to which these policies have affected actual urban growth during the period 1959-80. The analysis suggests that, despite satellite-city policies designed to restrict their growth, large cities have become even more dominant in the Soviet Union." excerpt

  9. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J


    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  10. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander


    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  11. Cosmology with the Planck Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Sketched out in 1992, selected by ESA in 1996, and launched in 2009, the Planck satellite was shut off in 2013, after a measuring mission that exceeded all expectations. The Planck collaboration delivered a first set of cosmological data and results in March 21st 2013, and the full set in February 2015. Part of the data delivery is a "definitive" map of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), its angular power spectrum together with their full statistical characterisation. The 2015 delivery also includes pioneering polarisation data. The temperature anisotropy map displays minuscule variations as a function of the observing direction, of rms ~100microK, of the fossil radiation around its mean temperature of 2.725K. Other maps reveal the CMB polarisation. The anisotropies are the imprint of the primordial fluctuations which initiated the growth of the large scale structures of the Universe, as transformed by their evolution, in particular during the first 370 000 years, as well as finer e...

  12. Satellite sound broadcast propagation measurements (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.


    Power transmitted from atop a 17.9 m tower in simulation of a satellite signal, emitted by a tone generator sweeping from 700 to 1800 MHz, was received using a 90 deg beamwidth linearly scanning antenna at many locations inside six buildings of solid brick, corrugated sheet-metal, wood-frame, mobile home, and concrete wall construction. The signal levels are found to have much structure in the spatial and frequency domain but were relatively stable in time. Typically, people moving nearby produced less than 0.5 dB variations, whereas a person blocking the transmission path produces 6 to 10 dB fades. Losses, which at an average position in a room increased from 6 to 12 dB over 750 to 1750 MHz, could be mitigated to 2 to 6 dB by moving the antenna typically less than 30 cm. Severe losses (17.5 dB, mitigated to 12.5 dB) were observed in a concrete wall building, which also exhibited the longest multipath delays (greater than 100 ns). Losses inside a mobile home were even larger (greater than 20 dB) and independent of antenna orientation. The losses showed a clear frequency dependence.

  13. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    is incorporated in a parabolic FSS reflector antenna that is investigated by full-wave analysis tools, and the antenna shows performance comparable to conventional reflector antennas within its frequency band of operation. A planar prototype FSS is manufactured and measured with particular attention to the impact......Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...... on the performance of an L-band antenna radiating through the FSS. From these investigations, it is concluded that the FSS antenna concept is well suited for hybrid L- and Ka-band operation. A printed reflectarray antenna with FSS ground-plane is demonstrated. The reflectarray produces a collimated beam as a curved...

  14. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  15. DNA origami: the art of folding DNA. (United States)

    Saccà, Barbara; Niemeyer, Christof M


    The advent of DNA origami technology greatly simplified the design and construction of nanometer-sized DNA objects. The self-assembly of a DNA-origami structure is a straightforward process in which a long single-stranded scaffold (often from the phage M13mp18) is folded into basically any desired shape with the help of a multitude of short helper strands. This approach enables the ready generation of objects with an addressable surface area of a few thousand nm(2) and with a single "pixel" resolution of about 6 nm. The process is rapid, puts low demands on experimental conditions, and delivers target products in high yields. These features make DNA origami the method of choice in structural DNA nanotechnology when two- and three-dimensional objects are desired. This Minireview summarizes recent advances in the design of DNA origami nanostructures, which open the door to numerous exciting applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)] [and others


    Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  17. DNA methylation in plants. (United States)

    Vanyushin, B F


    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of siRNA-DNA

  18. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer the best combination of simplicity, performance, wet system mass and power consumption for small satellites (<100kg, <50Watts)...

  19. Satellite Formation Control Using Atmospheric Drag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hajovsky, Blake B


    This study investigates the use of a linear quadratic terminal controller to reconfigure satellite formations using atmospheric drag actuated control while minimizing the loss of energy of the formation...

  20. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer an excellent combination of simplicity, performance and wet system mass for small satellites (<100 kg, <50 watts) requiring mN level...

  1. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  2. Selected Geomagnetic Measurements From Several Satellites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — More than 17 million selected magnetic observations from several orbiting low-altitude satellites are contained in this digital collection. Except for MAGSAT, all...

  3. Femto-Satellite Sensor Node Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key challenge for reducing a traditional satellite to such a small size is to remove the maximum possible functionality that is not critical for creating a...

  4. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses need to...

  5. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small...

  6. Future Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance (United States)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.; Lawrence, G.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W.; Kopp, G.


    Required solar irradiance measurements for climate studies include those now being made by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) onboard the SORCE satellite, part of the Earth Observing System fleet of NASA satellites. Equivalent or better measures of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI, 200 to 2000 nm) are planned for the post-2010 satellites of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System ("OESS). The design life of SORCE is 5 years, so a "Solar Irradiance Gap Filler" EOS mission is being planned for launch in the 2007 time frame, to include the same TSI and SSI measurements. Besides avoiding any gap, overlap of the data sources is also necessary for determination of possible multi-decadal trends in solar irradiance. We discuss these requirements and the impacts of data gaps, and data overlaps, that may occur in the monitoring of the critical solar radiative forcing.

  7. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu


    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  8. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.


    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  9. Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with darker greens...

  10. Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  11. Estimating the PNF of Internal Satellite Components (United States)

    Evans, Leanne; Winterboer, Arne


    As a consequence of the debris environment and its growing severity, the quantification of the risk posed to a satellite and its mission is becoming more desired not only from space agencies but also from satellite manufacturers. This paper looks into the use of ESABASE and how it can be used to assess the probability of no penetration (PNP) of a satellite's internal components, providing a more representative probability of no failure (PNF) of the entire satellite and the actual risk imposed on the mission. This improved modelling and analysis methodology increases the knowledge of which areas are the most vulnerable by considering component failures and not just the number of impacts or perforations of the structure walls. This information can then be used for assessing different mitigation measures, whether it is relocating the component, thickening the component walls or implementing additional shielding.

  12. Software for validating parameters retrieved from satellite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Sathe, P.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    form 21 April, 2006 with assured periodicity. Potential of satellite sensors in understanding processes occurring over the land is well documented. But the dynamics of both ocean and atmosphere make the entire process so complex that a certain level...

  13. Small Satellite Transceiver for Launch Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a small, light-weight, low-cost transceivers capable of establishing satellite communications links for telemetry and...

  14. Nicotiana small RNA sequences support a host genome origin of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Zahid


    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are small noncoding subviral RNA pathogens in plants that depend on helper viruses for replication and spread. Despite many decades of research, the origin of satRNAs remains unknown. In this study we show that a β-glucuronidase (GUS transgene fused with a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV Y satellite RNA (Y-Sat sequence (35S-GUS:Sat was transcriptionally repressed in N. tabacum in comparison to a 35S-GUS transgene that did not contain the Y-Sat sequence. This repression was not due to DNA methylation at the 35S promoter, but was associated with specific DNA methylation at the Y-Sat sequence. Both northern blot hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing detected 24-nt siRNAs in wild-type Nicotiana plants with sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that the N. tabacum genome contains Y-Sat-like sequences that give rise to 24-nt sRNAs capable of guiding RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM to the Y-Sat sequence in the 35S-GUS:Sat transgene. Consistent with this, Southern blot hybridization detected multiple DNA bands in Nicotiana plants that had sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that Y-Sat-like sequences exist in the Nicotiana genome as repetitive DNA, a DNA feature associated with 24-nt sRNAs. Our results point to a host genome origin for CMV satRNAs, and suggest novel approach of using small RNA sequences for finding the origin of other satRNAs.

  15. Communication satellites: Guidelines for a strategic plan (United States)


    To maintain and augment the leadership that the United States has enjoyed and to ensure that the nation is investing sufficiently and wisely to this purpose, a strategic plan for satellite communications research and development was prepared by NASA. Guidelines and recommendations for a NASA plan to support this objective and for the conduct of communication satellite research and development program over the next 25 years were generated. The guidelines are briefly summarized.

  16. SODART optical block of the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Frederiksen, P.; Polny, Josef


    This paper describes the design and the successful integration of the optical block of the SODART telescopes to be flown on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite. The integration involves both the integration of the two high throughput x-ray telescopes as well as the objective crystal spectrometer....... The integrated unit meets all mechanical, thermal and optical specifications and it is now in safe storage in Moscow and awaits further integration procedures with the remaining satellite structure....

  17. Evaluating Evaporation with Satellite Thermal Data. (United States)


    and Executive S~ury: se attachd Water surface tmiera e can be obtaind fron satellite Ueml remote senir. landsat and other satellite s emitted thermal...values with the lake’s surface temp ~eratuire by performing a linear regression to get an equation, or model, that defines the evaporation for a given...infrared radiation on a regular basis over uxfd of the earth’s surface . Evaporation is acccmplished by the net txansport of mas from the water surface

  18. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.


    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  19. Workshop on Bridging Satellite Climate Data Gaps


    Cooksey, Catherine; Datla, Raju


    Detecting the small signals of climate change for the most essential climate variables requires that satellite sensors make highly accurate and consistent measurements. Data gaps in the time series (such as gaps resulting from launch delay or failure) and inconsistencies in radiometric scales between satellites undermine the credibility of fundamental climate data records, and can lead to erroneous analysis in climate change detection. To address these issues, leading experts in Earth observa...

  20. Experimental Satellite Phase 3D before Launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sebesta


    Full Text Available To build a satellite can be a dream for many engineers. We are happy that we can participate in the AMSAT PHASE 3D project. Our responsibility is very high because one of our on-board receivers is the main one of the command link and will never be switched off. The project is also a very good opportunity for our students to meet satellite technology.

  1. Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks (United States)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; Goyal, Mukul


    Various issues associated with "Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Traffic management issues for TCP/IP based data services over satellite-ATM networks; 2) Design issues for TCP/IP over ATM; 3) Optimization of the performance of TCP/IP over ATM for long delay networks; and 4) Evaluation of ATM service categories for TCP/IP traffic.

  2. Small Satellite Constellations for Geospace Sciences (United States)

    Spence, H. E.


    The recent National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey (DS) identified community-consensus science priorities for the decade spanning 2013 - 2022. In this talk, we discuss the ways by which small satellite constellations are already and may soon accelerate progress toward achieving many of these science targets. The DS outlined four overarching science goals: (1) determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment; (2) determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs; (3) determine the interaction of the Sun with the solar system and the interstellar medium; and, (4) discover and characterize fundamental processes that occur both within the heliosphere and throughout the universe. These DS science goals provide the context for key science challenges in the three connected parts of the system that encompass all of solar and space physics, herein referred to as geospace: the Sun and heliosphere; the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere system; and, the coupled atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The DS further presented the role that small satellites play in resolving many of these science challenges, with a particular emphasis on the role that constellations of small satellites will play. While once considered by many as being "futuristic" or even "unrealizable", constellations of small satellites are already making important contributions to geospace science and with the promise for more to come. Using the DS as a guidepost, in this presentation, we outline representative small satellite constellation missions alread underway, some in development, and others notionally proposed over the next several years that employ small satellite constellations to tackle large science imperatives. Finally, we give examples of key small satellite technologies in development that will potentially enable great scientific

  3. Satellite Video Stabilization with Geometric Distortion


    Wang, Xia; Zhang, Guo; Shen, Xin; Li, Beibei; Jiang, Yonghua


    There is an exterior orientation difference in each satellite video frame, and the corresponding points have different image locations in adjacent frames images which has geometric distortion. So the projection model, affine model and other classical image stabilization registration model cannot accurately describe the relationship between adjacent frames. This paper proposes a new satellite video image stabilization method with geometric distortion to solve the problem, based on the simulate...

  4. Observing iodine monoxide from satellite (United States)

    Schoenhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Begoin, Mathias; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    Iodine and iodine monoxide (IO) belong to the group of reactive halogen species, and they may impact on atmospheric chemical composition and the radiation budget. Vice versa, sur-rounding conditions may influence the emissions and pathways of iodine compounds. Although atmospheric amounts of iodine are typically fairly small, the impact may still be substantial. Iodine radicals are photolytically released from precursors and may then cause catalytic ozone depletion. In this reaction with ozone, IO is produced, a molecule which plays a central role in the iodine cycling. Via self reactions of IO, higher iodine oxides form and initiate the formation of new particles, which may change the atmospheric radiation balance. Apart from that, many living species, including human beings, vertebrates in general, but also micro-and macroalgae species, e.g., depend on the supply with iodine. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the cycling of iodine through the different components of the Earth system. Although increas-ing research effort in the form of field, laboratory and modeling studies has strongly improved our knowledge and understanding of iodine abundances and impact, still many open questions remain. The relevance of iodine on a global scale is not well known yet; sources are not well quantified and release processes are not fully understood. Since recently, IO may be observed from space by the SCIAMACHY instrument on the EN-VISAT satellite, which is in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. Nadir observations from SCIAMACHY have been analysed for the IO absorption signature in the visible wavelength range for several mission years. IO amounts are typically close to the limit of detectability of SCIAMACHY. Detecting such small quantities, careful attention needs to be paid to system-atic errors, spectral correlations and resulting retrieval artefacts. Subsequently, appropriate temporal averaging is utilised to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting

  5. Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Jr , Richard


    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what it is they are observing. This is the basis for the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Every amateur astronomer sees "stars" that aren't natural objects steadily slide across the background of the sky. Artificial satellites can be seen on any night, and some are as bright as the planets. But can you identify which satellite or spent launch vehicle casing you are seeing? Do you know how to image it? Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them describes all of the different satellites that can be observed, including communication, scientific, spy satellites, and of course, the International Space Station. Richard Schmude describes how to recognize them and even how to predict their orbits. The book tells how to observe artificial satellites with the unaided eye, binoculars and with telesc...

  6. An optimization tool for satellite equipment layout (United States)

    Qin, Zheng; Liang, Yan-gang; Zhou, Jian-ping


    Selection of the satellite equipment layout with performance constraints is a complex task which can be viewed as a constrained multi-objective optimization and a multiple criteria decision making problem. The layout design of a satellite cabin involves the process of locating the required equipment in a limited space, thereby satisfying various behavioral constraints of the interior and exterior environments. The layout optimization of satellite cabin in this paper includes the C.G. offset, the moments of inertia and the space debris impact risk of the system, of which the impact risk index is developed to quantify the risk to a satellite cabin of coming into contact with space debris. In this paper an optimization tool for the integration of CAD software as well as the optimization algorithms is presented, which is developed to automatically find solutions for a three-dimensional layout of equipment in satellite. The effectiveness of the tool is also demonstrated by applying to the layout optimization of a satellite platform.

  7. Virus Satellites Drive Viral Evolution and Ecology. (United States)

    Frígols, Belén; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Donderis, Jorge; Elena, Santiago F; Buckling, Angus; Novick, Richard P; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R


    Virus satellites are widespread subcellular entities, present both in eukaryotic and in prokaryotic cells. Their modus vivendi involves parasitism of the life cycle of their inducing helper viruses, which assures their transmission to a new host. However, the evolutionary and ecological implications of satellites on helper viruses remain unclear. Here, using staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) as a model of virus satellites, we experimentally show that helper viruses rapidly evolve resistance to their virus satellites, preventing SaPI proliferation, and SaPIs in turn can readily evolve to overcome phage resistance. Genomic analyses of both these experimentally evolved strains as well as naturally occurring bacteriophages suggest that the SaPIs drive the coexistence of multiple alleles of the phage-coded SaPI inducing genes, as well as sometimes selecting for the absence of the SaPI depressing genes. We report similar (accidental) evolution of resistance to SaPIs in laboratory phages used for Staphylococcus aureus typing and also obtain the same qualitative results in both experimental evolution and phylogenetic studies of Enterococcus faecalis phages and their satellites viruses. In summary, our results suggest that helper and satellite viruses undergo rapid coevolution, which is likely to play a key role in the evolution and ecology of the viruses as well as their prokaryotic hosts.

  8. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.


    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  9. Human Satellite Cell Isolation and Xenotransplantation. (United States)

    Garcia, Steven M; Tamaki, Stanley; Xu, Xiaoti; Pomerantz, Jason H


    Satellite cells are mononucleated cells of the skeletal muscle lineage that exist beneath the basal lamina juxtaposed to the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibers. It is widely accepted that satellite cells mediate skeletal muscle regeneration. Within the satellite cell pool of adult muscle are skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs), also called satellite stem cells, which fulfill criteria of tissue stem cells: They proliferate and their progeny either occupies the adult MuSC niche during self-renewal or differentiates to regenerate mature muscle fibers. Here, we describe robust methods for the isolation of enriched populations of human satellite cells containing MuSCs from fresh human muscle, utilizing mechanical and enzymatic dissociation and purification by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We also describe a process for xenotransplantation of human satellite cells into mouse muscle by injection into irradiated, immunodeficient, mouse leg muscle with concurrent notexin or bupivacaine muscle injury to increase engraftment efficiency. The engraftment of human MuSCs and the formation of human muscle can then be analyzed by histological and immunofluorescence staining, or subjected to in vivo experimentation.

  10. Unraveling the sequence dynamics of the formation of genus-specific satellite DNAs in the family solanaceae. (United States)

    Jo, S-H; Park, H-M; Kim, S-M; Kim, H H; Hur, C-G; Choi, D


    Tandemly repeated DNAs, referred to as satellite DNAs, often occur in a genome in a genus-specific manner. However, the mechanisms for generation and evolution for these sequences are largely unknown because of the uncertain origins of the satellite DNAs. We found highly divergent genus-specific satellite DNAs that showed sequence similarity with genus-specific intergenic spacers (IGSs) in the family Solanaceae, which includes the genera Nicotiana, Solanum and Capsicum. The conserved position of the IGS between 25S and 18S rDNA facilitates comparison of IGS sequences across genera, even in the presence of very low sequence similarity. Sequence comparison of IGS may elucidate the procedure of the genesis of complex monomer units of the satellite DNAs. Within the IGS of Capsicum species, base substitutions and copy number variation of subrepeat monomers were causes of monomer divergence in IGS sequences. At the level of inter-generic IGS sequences of the family Solanaceae, however, genus-specific motif selection, motif shuffling between subrepeats and differential amplification among motifs were involved in formation of genus-specific IGS. Therefore, the genus-specific satellite DNAs in Solanaceae plants can be generated from differentially organized repeat monomers of the IGS rather than by accumulation of mutations from pre-existent satellite DNAs.

  11. Satellite Imaging in the Study of Pennsylvania's Environmental Issues. (United States)

    Nous, Albert P.

    This document focuses on using satellite images from space in the classroom. There are two types of environmental satellites routinely broadcasting: (1) Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), and (2) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Imaging and visualization techniques provide students with a better…

  12. Using satellite communications for a mobile computer network (United States)

    Wyman, Douglas J.


    The topics discussed include the following: patrol car automation, mobile computer network, network requirements, network design overview, MCN mobile network software, MCN hub operation, mobile satellite software, hub satellite software, the benefits of patrol car automation, the benefits of satellite mobile computing, and national law enforcement satellite.

  13. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications Technologies · Satellite Communications · Communications Satellites for Global Coverage · Satellite Transponders · The Four Generations Of Commercial Communication Geo-Sat · PowerPoint Presentation · An Indian Scenario INSAT ...

  14. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard


    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  15. DNA barcoding fishes. (United States)

    Weigt, Lee A; Driskell, Amy C; Baldwin, Carole C; Ormos, Andrea


    This chapter is an overview of the techniques for DNA barcoding of fishes from field collection to DNA sequence analysis. Recommendations for modifications of field protocols and best tissue sampling practices are made. A variety of DNA extraction protocols is provided, including high-throughput robot-assisted methods. A pair of well-tested forward and reverse primers for PCR amplification and sequencing are presented. These primers have been successfully used for DNA barcode on a wide array of marine fish taxa and also work well in most freshwater and cartilaginous fishes. Recipes and cycling protocols for both PCR amplification and sequencing and cleanup methods for the reaction products are provided. A method for the consistent production of high-quality DNA barcodes from DNA sequence data is given and stringent guidelines for judging the quality of raw sequence data are laid out.

  16. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork. (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A


    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidhehi Narayan Nayak


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mitochondrion, the sausage-shaped organelle residing in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, apart from being the power house, represents endosymbiotic evolution of a free living organism to intracellular structure. Anthropologically, mitochondrial DNA is the fossilised source to trace the human ancestry particularly of maternal lineage. This article attempts to highlight the various biological functions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA with a note on its forensic application.

  18. Tightly bound DNA-protein complexes representing stable attachment sites of large DNA loops to components of the matrix. (United States)

    Patriotis, C; Djondjurov, L


    This study describes tightly bound DNA-protein complexes in DNA of matrices isolated from Friend erythroleukemia cells. When after radio-iodination of the associated proteins, such DNA is electrophoresed on agarose and the gel is subsequently subjected to autoradiography, the protein components of three or four complexes are visualized. Their two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis revealed that each possesses a simple but specific polypeptide composition, including a set of five non-histone proteins, characteristic for the matrix, and the core histones H3 and H4. Since the polypeptides dissociate from DNA by treatment with SDS, it is suggested that the linkage is not covalent. Reassociation and hybridization analysis of the DNA of the complexes indicated that it is enriched in highly repetitive, satellite sequences. The latter were found to be, to a great extent, similar to sequences localized at the base of large, dehistonized DNA loops obtained by high-salt extraction of isolated nuclei. Further experiments emphasized the complete conservation of this type of attachment throughout erythroid differentiation of Friend cells. It is proposed that the complexes represent attachment sites of basic, 30-100-kbp loop units of DNA.

  19. Estimation of Satellite-Rainfall Error Correlation (United States)

    ElSaadani, Mohamed; Krajewski, Witold; Seo, Bong Chul; Goska, Radoslaw


    With many satellite rainfall products being available for long periods, it is important to assess and validate the algorithms estimating the rainfall rates for these products. Many studies have been done on evaluating the uncertainty of satellite rainfall products over different parts of the world by comparing them to rain-gauge and/or radar rainfall products. In preparation for the field experiment Iowa Flood Studies, or IFloodS, one of the integrated validation activities of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission, we are evaluating three popular satellite-based products for the IFloodS domain of the upper Midwest in the US. One of the relevant questions is the determination of the covariance (correlation) of rainfall errors in space and time for the domain. Three satellite rainfall products have been used in this study, and a radar rainfall product has been used as a ground reference. The three rainfall products are TRMM's TMPA 3B42 V7, CPC's CMORPH and CHRS at UCI's PERSIANN. All the satellite rainfall products used in this study represent 3 hourly, quarter degree, rainfall accumulation. Our ground reference is NCEP Stage IV radar-rainfall, which is available in an hourly, four kilometers, resolution. We discuss the adequacy of the Stage IV product as a ground reference for evaluating the satellite products. We used our rain gauge network in Iowa to evaluate the performance of the Stage IV data on different spatial and temporal scales. While arguably this adequacy is only marginal, we used the radar products to study the spatial and temporal correlation of the satellite product errors. We studied the behavior of the errors, defined as the difference between the satellite and radar product (with matched space time resolution), during the period from the year 2004 through the year 2010. Our results show that the error behavior of the satellite rainfall products is quite similar. Errors are less correlated during warm seasons and the errors of CMORPH and

  20. A planning approach to monitor and control the satellite cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kini N. Gopalakrishna


    Full Text Available There are many satellites in space that revolve round the Earth. Increase in the number of satellites leads to the importance of monitoring satellites for collision detection and avoidance. Collision of satellites can occur if their orbits intersect each other. In order to detect collision and to avoid the collision of satellites, the relative distance between any two satellites needs to be calculated as they revolve. As an objective to calculate the distance between any two satellites, parallel computation is required in order to detect collision. Our paper shows the prediction of collision possibilities between any two satellites and proposes at parallelizing the relative distance and position computation for a satellite of interest and its neighboring satellites.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  2. DNA origami nanopores. (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A W; Engst, Christian R; Ablay, Marc; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Liedl, Tim; Keyser, Ulrich F


    We demonstrate the assembly of functional hybrid nanopores for single molecule sensing by inserting DNA origami structures into solid-state nanopores. In our experiments, single artificial nanopores based on DNA origami are repeatedly inserted in and ejected from solid-state nanopores with diameters around 15 nm. We show that these hybrid nanopores can be employed for the detection of λ-DNA molecules. Our approach paves the way for future development of adaptable single-molecule nanopore sensors based on the combination of solid-state nanopores and DNA self-assembly. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. 2000 Year-old ancient equids: an ancient-DNA lesson from pompeii remains. (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena


    Ancient DNA extracted from 2000 year-old equine bones was examined in order to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. A specific equine satellite-type sequence representing 3.7%-11% of the entire equine genome, proved to be a suitable target to address the question of the presence of aDNA in ancient bones. The PCR strategy designed to investigate this specific target also allowed us to calculate the molecular weight of amplifiable DNA fragments. Sequencing of a 370 bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial control region allowed the comparison of ancient DNA sequences with those of modern horses to assess their genetic relationship. The 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene was also examined to unravel the post-mortem base modification feature and to test the status of Pompeian equids taxon on the basis of a Mae III restriction site polymorphism. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Performance Analysis of BDS Satellite Orbits during Eclipse Periods: Results of Satellite Laser Ranging Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Hanbing


    Full Text Available The performance of BeiDou satellite orbits during eclipse periods is an important part of the performance analysis of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS. Accuracy evaluation of satellite orbits in ephemeris of BDS during eclipse periods can provide support for the service performance assessment. It also helps to find possible deficiencies in the orbit modeling during eclipse periods, which may further contribute to the improvements of functional models for precise orbit determination. The effects of eclipse periods on the orbits of the three types of satellites of BDS are analyzed with the satellite laser ranging (SLR observations ranging from January 2014 to July 2015. At the same time, the orbit radial accuracy of BDS broadcast and precise ephemeris are validated. The results show that, obvious orbit accuracy decrease can be observed in both broadcast and precise ephemeris for IGSO/MEO satellites during eclipse periods (especially the yaw-maneuver periods. And orbit radial errors of IGSO/MEO satellites in broadcast ephemeris reach 1.5~2.0 m, and exceed 10.0 cm for that in precise ephemeris. Performance decrease of the GEO satellite orbit during eclipse arcs can hardly be revealed by the orbit radial residual series. During non-eclipse periods, radial accuracy of IGSO/MEO and GEO satellite orbits in broadcast ephemeris are better than 0.5 m and 0.9 m respectively. The radial accuracy of IGSO/MEO satellite orbits in precise ephemeris are better than 10.0 cm and that of the GEO satellite is about 50.0 cm with a systematic bias of 40.0 cm around.

  5. Probing DNA-DNA electrostatic friction in tight superhelical DNA plies. (United States)

    Cherstvy, A G


    We estimate theoretically the strength of DNA-DNA electrostatic friction forces emerging upon a slow drag of one DNA over another one in a close juxtaposition. For ideally helical DNA duplexes, this friction occurs due to correlations in electrostatic potential near the DNA surface. The latter originate from the intrinsic helicity of DNA phosphates and adsorbed cations on a scale of 3.4 nm. They produce positive-negative charge interlocking along the DNA-DNA contact. For realistic nonideally helical DNAs, where electrostatic potential barriers become decorrelated due to accumulation of mismatches in DNA structure, DNA-DNA frictional forces are strongly impeded. We discuss possibilities of probing the DNA-DNA intermolecular interactions in strongly confined DNA superhelical plies, as obtained in single-molecule experiments.

  6. Satellite data-relay activities in Arizona (United States)

    Boner, F.C.; Blee, J.W.; Shope, W.G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Arizona District collects data from automated streamflow stations for a wide variety of uses. Data from these stations are provided to Federal, State, and local agencies that have a responsibility to issue flood warnings; to generate forecasts of water availability; to monitor flow to insure compliance with treaties and other legal mandates; and to manage reservoirs for hydropower, flood abatement, and municipal and irrigation water supply. In the mid-1970's, the escalation of data collection costs and a need for more timely data led the Arizona District to examine alternatives for remote data acquisition. On the basis of successful data communications experiments with NASA 's Landsat satellite, an operational system for satellite-data relay was developed in 1976 using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations 's (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). A total of 62 data collection platforms (DCP's) was operated in 1983. Satellite telemetry operations are controlled at the remote data-collection stations by small battery-operated data collection platforms. The DCP 's periodically collect data from the sensors, store the data in computer memory, and at preset times transmit the data to the GOES satellite. The satellite retransmits the data to Earth where a ground-receive station transmits or transfers the data by land communications to the USGS computer in Reston, Virginia, for processing. The satellite relay transfers the data from sensor to computer in minutes; therefore, the data are available to users on a near real-time basis. (Author 's abstract)

  7. The Demeter micro satellite launch campaign (United States)

    Dubourg, V.; Kainov, V.; Thoby, M.; Silkin, O.; Solovey, V.

    The CNES Micro satellite DEMETER is planned for launch by the end of June 2004 on a DNEPR launcher, from the Baíkonur cosmodrome. DEMETER will be the main payload among nine co-passengers. DEMETER, initiated by CNES in 1998, is the first model of the MYRIADE micro satellites line of product; at the time when this abstract is issued, the satellite is going through the final integration tests, as well as the last system validation phase. The space head module of the launcher has been developed by the Ukrainian YSDO company, and a successful fit check test campaign has been performed in December 2003 and January 2004 that allowed confirming the compatibility of the payloads with their launcher interface. The launch campaign is in process of preparation, implying a close partnership between the satellite team at CNES and Russian and Ukrainian launcher authorities: DEMETER is a pioneer not only for the satellite concept itself, but also for being the first satellite of this range (3 axis stabilized, including an hydrazine propulsion system and developed by a national space agency) being launched on a Russian space adapted intercontinental ballistic missile SS18. The launch service is contracted and managed by ISC Kosmotras, and it will also be the first sun synchronous orbit launch for DNEPR. Thus the launch preparation proved to be a very challenging endeavour providing all the actors with very rich human experience, as well as technical exchanges, in the fields of launcher technology and interfaces, facilities adaptation, logistics and project coordination. In the coming paper, a short presentation of the DEMETER satellite and of the DNEPR launcher will be made, but the main purpose is to present: the launch campaign preparation milestones, the launch campaign itself and related preliminary results and the lessons learnt from this first CNES/DNEPR experience to open the way to the future MYRIADE launches. A common CNES/KOSMOTRAS presentation is proposed at the

  8. Energetic Ion Interactions with the Galilean Satellites (United States)

    Cooper, John F.


    The principal research tasks of this investigation are: (1) specification of the energetic (keV to MeV) ion environments upstream of the four Galilean satellites and (2) data analysis and numerical modeling of observed ion interactions with the satellites. Differential flux spectra are being compiled for the most abundant ions (protons, oxygen, and sulfur) from measurements at 20 keV to 100 MeV total energy by the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) experiment and at higher ion energies by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) experiment. Runge-Kutta and other numerical techniques are used to propagate test particles sampled from the measured upstream spectra to the satellite surface or spacecraft through the local magnetic and corotational electric field environment of each satellite. Modeling of spatial variations in directional flux anisotropies measured during each close flyby provides limits on atomic charge states for heavy (O, S) magnetospheric ions and on internal or induced magnetic fields of the satellites. Validation of models for magnetic and electric field configurations then allows computation of rates for ion implantation, sputtering, and energy deposition into the satellite surfaces for further modeling of observable chemical changes induced by irradiation. Our ongoing work on production of oxidants and other secondary species by ice irradiation on Europa's surface has significant applications, already acknowledged in current literature, to astrobiological evolution. Finally, the work will improve understanding of energetic ion sources and sinks at the satellite orbits for improved modeling of magnetospheric transport processes. The scope of the research effort mainly includes data from the primary Galileo mission (1995-1997) but may also include some later data where directly relevant (e.g., comparison of J0 and I27 data for Io) to the primary mission objectives. Funding for this contract also includes partial support for our related education and public

  9. Organization and evolution of Gorilla centromeric DNA from old strategies to new approaches. (United States)

    Catacchio, C R; Ragone, R; Chiatante, G; Ventura, M


    The centromere/kinetochore interaction is responsible for the pairing and segregation of replicated chromosomes in eukaryotes. Centromere DNA is portrayed as scarcely conserved, repetitive in nature, quickly evolving and protein-binding competent. Among primates, the major class of centromeric DNA is the pancentromeric α-satellite, made of arrays of 171 bp monomers, repeated in a head-to-tail pattern. α-satellite sequences can either form tandem heterogeneous monomeric arrays or assemble in higher-order repeats (HORs). Gorilla centromere DNA has barely been characterized, and data are mainly based on hybridizations of human alphoid sequences. We isolated and finely characterized gorilla α-satellite sequences and revealed relevant structure and chromosomal distribution similarities with other great apes as well as gorilla-specific features, such as the uniquely octameric structure of the suprachromosomal family-2 (SF2). We demonstrated for the first time the orthologous localization of alphoid suprachromosomal families-1 and -2 (SF1 and SF2) between human and gorilla in contrast to chimpanzee centromeres. Finally, the discovery of a new 189 bp monomer type in gorilla centromeres unravels clues to the role of the centromere protein B, paving the way to solve the significance of the centromere DNA's essential repetitive nature in association with its function and the peculiar evolution of the α-satellite sequence.

  10. Small Earth Observing Satellites Flying with Large Satellites in the A-Train (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Loverro, Adam; Case, Warren F.; Queruel, Nadege; Marechal, Chistophe; Barroso, Therese


    This paper/poster presents a real-life example of the benefits of flying small satellites with other satellites, large or small, and vice versa. Typically, most small satellites fly payloads consisting of one or two instruments and fly in orbits that are independent from that of other satellites. The science data from these satellites are either used in isolation or correlated with instrument data from other satellites. Data correlation with other satellites is greatly improved when the measurements of the same point or air mass are taken at approximately the same time. Scientists worldwide are beginning to take advantage of the opportunities for improved data correlation, or coincidental science, offered by the international Earth Observing Constellation known as the A-Train (sometimes referred to as the Afternoon Constellation). Most of the A-Train satellites are small - the A-Train is anchored by two large NASA satellites (EOS-Aqua and EOS-Aura), but consists also of 5 small satellites (CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, OCO and Glory these last two will join in 2009). By flying in a constellation, each mission benefits from coincidental observations from instruments on the other satellites in the constellation. Essentially, from a data point of view, the A-Train can be envisioned as a single, virtual science platform with multiple instruments. Satellites in the A-Train fly at 705 km in sun-synchronous orbits. Their mean local times at the equator are within seconds to a few minutes of each other. This paper describes the challenges of operating an international constellation of independent satellites from the U.S. and Europe to maximize the coincidental science opportunities while at the same time minimizing the level of operational interactions required between team members. The A-Train mission teams have been able to demonstrate that flying as members of an international constellation does not take away the flexibility to accommodate new requirements. Specific

  11. Time synchronization of new-generation BDS satellites using inter-satellite link measurements (United States)

    Pan, Junyang; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Tang, Chengpan; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Lingfeng; Tang, Guifeng; Hu, Guangming


    Autonomous satellite navigation is based on the ability of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), such as Beidou, to estimate orbits and clock parameters onboard satellites using Inter-Satellite Link (ISL) measurements instead of tracking data from a ground monitoring network. This paper focuses on the time synchronization of new-generation Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) satellites equipped with an ISL payload. Two modes of Ka-band ISL measurements, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) mode and the continuous link mode, were used onboard these BDS satellites. Using a mathematical formulation for each measurement mode along with a derivation of the satellite clock offsets, geometric ranges from the dual one-way measurements were introduced. Then, pseudoranges and clock offsets were evaluated for the new-generation BDS satellites. The evaluation shows that the ranging accuracies of TDMA ISL and the continuous link are approximately 4 cm and 1 cm (root mean square, RMS), respectively. Both lead to ISL clock offset residuals of less than 0.3 ns (RMS). For further validation, time synchronization between these satellites to a ground control station keeping the systematic time in BDT was conducted using L-band Two-way Satellite Time Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT). System errors in the ISL measurements were calibrated by comparing the derived clock offsets with the TWSTFT. The standard deviations of the estimated ISL system errors are less than 0.3 ns, and the calibrated ISL clock parameters are consistent with that of the L-band TWSTFT. For the regional BDS network, the addition of ISL measurements for medium orbit (MEO) BDS satellites increased the clock tracking coverage by more than 40% for each orbital revolution. As a result, the clock predicting error for the satellite M1S was improved from 3.59 to 0.86 ns (RMS), and the predicting error of the satellite M2S was improved from 1.94 to 0.57 ns (RMS), which is a significant improvement by a factor of 3-4.

  12. DNA barcoding of Cryptosporidium. (United States)

    Šlapeta, Jan


    Cryptosporidium spp. (Apicomplexa) causing cryptosporidiosis are of medical and veterinary significance. The genus Cryptosporidium has benefited from the application of what is considered a DNA-barcoding approach, even before the term 'DNA barcoding' was formally coined. Here, the objective to define the DNA barcode diversity of Cryptosporidium infecting mammals is reviewed and considered to be accomplished. Within the Cryptosporidium literature, the distinction between DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy is indistinct. DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy are examined using the latest additions to the growing spectrum of named Cryptosporidium species and within-species and between-species identity is revisited. Ease and availability of whole-genome DNA sequencing of the relatively small Cryptosporidium genome offer an initial perspective on the intra-host diversity. The opportunity emerges to apply a metagenomic approach to purified field/clinical Cryptosporidum isolates. The outstanding question remains a reliable definition of Cryptosporidium phenotype. The complementary experimental infections and metagenome approach will need to be applied simultaneously to address Cryptosporidium phenotype with carefully chosen clinical evaluations enabling identification of virulence factors.

  13. Actinomycin and DNA transcription.


    Sobell, H M


    Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis.

  14. Actinomycin and DNA transcription. (United States)

    Sobell, H M


    Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis. Images PMID:2410919

  15. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.


    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange.

  16. Whose DNA is this?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taroni, Franco; Biedermann, Alex; Vuille, Joëlle


    evoked during the international conference "The hidden side of DNA profiles. Artifacts, errors and uncertain evidence" held in Rome (April 27th to 28th, 2012). Indeed, despite the fact that this conference brought together some of the world's leading forensic DNA specialists, it appeared clearly...

  17. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao


    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  18. Actinomycin and DNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobell, H.M.


    Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis.

  19. DNA-cell conjugates (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki


    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  20. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions (United States)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)


    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  1. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović


    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  2. Web Transfer Over Satellites Being Improved (United States)

    Allman, Mark


    Extensive research conducted by NASA Lewis Research Center's Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch and the Ohio University has demonstrated performance improvements in World Wide Web transfers over satellite-based networks. The use of a new version of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) reduced the time required to load web pages over a single Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection traversing a satellite channel. However, an older technique of simultaneously making multiple requests of a given server has been shown to provide even faster transfer time. Unfortunately, the use of multiple simultaneous requests has been shown to be harmful to the network in general. Therefore, we are developing new mechanisms for the HTTP protocol which may allow a single request at any given time to perform as well as, or better than, multiple simultaneous requests. In the course of study, we also demonstrated that the time for web pages to load is at least as short via a satellite link as it is via a standard 28.8-kbps dialup modem channel. This demonstrates that satellites are a viable means of accessing the Internet.

  3. Searching for Dark Matter using Navigation Satellites (United States)

    Harris, R.


    Earth mass is a parameter that plays a role in how satellites and probes are navigated and thus impacts how any satellite-based observation is registered, or positioned. It also impacts the function of the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this project we describe how GPS and several similar, new satellite systems can be used to create a precise estimate of Earth's mass. Our ultimate goal is to determine if the Earth mass is fluctuating--the possible signature of a dark matter halo orbiting the Earth. We present how the orbit period is precisely derived from publicly available satellite navigation data. Using these data we can observe Earth mass by calculating where each satellite is to the centimeter level, and timing to the picosecond level. We develop how we eliminate the impact of solar pressure and drag on the observation process. We describe the analytic orbital theories that further correct the observations. The Earth mass observations are presented and discussed. The solutions agree to the standard accepted value established by the International Astronomical Union in 2009, but shows a slight excess, constrained between .005 to .008%. The high precision associated with the process is analyzed. We discuss errors systematic to this process. Finally, we describe how this process will be improved by incorporated more advanced orbit theories. Earth mass solutions from all four navigation systems. Variation from the moon is seen as vertical distribution. Estimates of Earth mass derived from Russia's GLONASS.

  4. Radar Absorbing Materials for Cube Stealth Satellite (United States)

    Micheli, D.; Pastore, R.; Vricella, A.; Marchetti, M.

    A Cube Stealth Satellite is proposed for potential applications in defense system. Particularly, the faces of the satellite exposed to the Earth are made of nanostructured materials able to absorb radar surveillance electromagnetic waves, conferring stealth capability to the cube satellite. Microwave absorbing and shielding material tiles are proposed using composite materials consisting in epoxy-resin and carbon nanotubes filler. The electric permittivity of the composite nanostructured materials is measured and discussed. Such data are used by the modeling algorithm to design the microwave absorbing and the shielding faces of the cube satellite. The electromagnetic modeling takes into account for several incidence angles (0-80°), extended frequency band (2-18 GHz), and for the minimization of the electromagnetic reflection coefficient. The evolutionary algorithm used for microwave layered microwave absorber modeling is the recently developed Winning Particle Optimization. The mathematical model of the absorbing structure is finally experimentally validated by comparing the electromagnetic simulation to the measurement of the manufactured radar absorber tile. Nanostructured composite materials manufacturing process and electromagnetic reflection measurements methods are described. Finally, a finite element method analysis of the electromagnetic scattering by cube stealth satellite is performed.

  5. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel


    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  6. Satellite-Relayed Intercontinental Quantum Network (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei


    We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ˜kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

  7. Current state of art of satellite altimetry (United States)

    Łyszkowicz, Adam Bolesław; Bernatowicz, Anna


    One of the fundamental problems of modern geodesy is precise defi nition of the gravitational fi eld and its changes in time. This is essential in positioning and navigation, geophysics, geodynamics, oceanography and other sciences related to the climate and Earth's environment. One of the major sources of gravity data is satellite altimetry that provides gravity data with almost 75% surface of the Earth. Satellite altimetry also provides data to study local, regional and global geophysical processes, the geoid model in the areas of oceans and seas. This technique can be successfully used to study the ocean mean dynamic topography. The results of the investigations and possible products of altimetry will provide a good material for the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) and institutions of IAS (International Altimetry Service). This paper presents the achievements in satellite altimetry in all the above disciplines obtained in the last years. First very shorly basic concept of satellite altimetry is given. In order to obtain the highest accuracy on range measurements over the ocean improved of altimetry waveforms performed on the ground is described. Next, signifi cant improvements of sea and ocean gravity anomalies models developed presently is shown. Study of sea level and its extremes examined, around European and Australian coasts using tide gauges data and satellite altimetry measurements were described. Then investigations of the phenomenon of the ocean tides, calibration of altimeters, studies of rivers and ice-sheets in the last years are given.

  8. W-enriched satellite sequence in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). (United States)

    Dalíková, Martina; Zrzavá, Magda; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František


    The W chromosome of most lepidopteran species represents the largest heterochromatin entity in the female genome. Although satellite DNA is a typical component of constitutive heterochromatin, there are only a few known satellite DNAs (satDNAs) located on the W chromosome in moths and butterflies. In this study, we isolated and characterized new satDNA (PiSAT1) from microdissected W chromosomes of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Even though the PiSAT1 is mainly localized near the female-specific segment of the W chromosome, short arrays of this satDNA also occur on autosomes and/or the Z chromosome. Probably due to the predominant location in the non-recombining part of the genome, PiSAT1 exhibits a relatively large nucleotide variability in its monomers. However, at least a part of all predicted functional motifs is located in conserved regions. Moreover, we detected polyadenylated transcripts of PiSAT1 in all developmental stages and in both sexes (female and male larvae, pupae and adults). Our results suggest a potential structural and functional role of PiSAT1 in the P. interpunctella genome, which is consistent with accumulating evidence for the important role of satDNAs in eukaryotic genomes.

  9. History of Satellite TV Broadcasting and Satellite Broadcasting Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalis KUYUCU


    Full Text Available The present study analyses the satellite broadcasting that is the first important development that emerged as a result of digitalization in communication technologies and its reflections in Turkey. As the first milestone in the globalization of television broadcasting, satellite broadcasting provided substantial contribution towards the development of the media. Satellite bro adcasting both increased the broadcasting quality and geographical coverage of the television media. A conceptual study was carried out in the first part of the study in connection with the history of satellite broadcasting in Turkey and across the world. In the research part of the study, an analysis was performed on 160 television channels that broadcast in Turkey via Turksat Satellite. Economic structure of the television channels broadcasting in Turkey via satellite was studied and an analysis was perfo rmed on the operational structure of the channels. As a result of the study, it was emphasized that the television channels broadcasting via satellite platform also use other platforms for the purpose of spreading their broadcasts and television channel ow ners make investments in different branches of the media, too. Capital owners invest in different business areas other than the media although television channels broadcasting via Turksat mostly focus on thematic broadcasting and make effort to generate ec onomic income from advertisements. Delays are encountered in the course of the convergence between the new media and television channels that broadcast only from the satellite platform and such television channels experience more economic problems than the other channels. New media and many TV broadcasting platforms emerged as a result of the developments in the communication technologies. In television broadcasting, satellite platform is not an effective platform on its own. Channels make effort to reach t o more people by using other platforms in addition to

  10. Premeltons in DNA. (United States)

    Sobell, Henry M


    Premeltons are examples of emergent-structures (i.e., structural-solitons) that arise spontaneously in DNA due to the presence of nonlinear-excitations in its structure. They are of two kinds: B-B (or A-A) premeltons form at specific DNA-regions to nucleate site-specific DNA melting. These are stationary and, being globally-nontopological, undergo breather-motions that allow drugs and dyes to intercalate into DNA. B-A (or A-B) premeltons, on the other hand, are mobile, and being globally-topological, act as phase-boundaries transforming B- into A-DNA during the structural phase-transition. They are not expected to undergo breather motions. A key feature of both types of premeltons is the presence of an intermediate structural-form in their central regions (proposed as being a transition-state intermediate in DNA-melting and in the B- to A-transition), which differs from either A- or B-DNA. Called beta-DNA, this is both metastable and hyperflexible--and contains an alternating sugar-puckering pattern along the polymer backbone combined with the partial unstacking (in its lower energy-forms) of every-other base-pair. Beta-DNA is connected to either B- or to A-DNA on either side by boundaries possessing a gradation of nonlinear structural-change, these being called the kink and the antikink regions. The presence of premeltons in DNA leads to a unifying theory to understand much of DNA physical chemistry and molecular biology. In particular, premeltons are predicted to define the 5' and 3' ends of genes in naked-DNA and DNA in active-chromatin, this having important implications for understanding physical aspects of the initiation, elongation and termination of RNA-synthesis during transcription. For these and other reasons, the model will be of broader interest to the general-audience working in these areas. The model explains a wide variety of data, and carries with it a number of experimental predictions--all readily testable--as will be described in this review.

  11. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...

  12. Advances in DNA photonics (United States)

    Heckman, Emily M.; Aga, Roberto S.; Fehrman Cory, Emily M.; Ouchen, Fahima; Lesko, Alyssa; Telek, Brian; Lombardi, Jack; Bartsch, Carrie M.; Grote, James G.


    In this paper we present our current research in exploring a DNA biopolymer for photonics applications. A new processing technique has been adopted that employs a modified soxhlet-dialysis (SD) rinsing technique to completely remove excess ionic contaminants from the DNA biopolymer, resulting in a material with greater mechanical stability and enhanced performance reproducibility. This newly processed material has been shown to be an excellent material for cladding layers in poled polymer electro-optic (EO) waveguide modulator applications. Thin film poling results are reported for materials using the DNA biopolymer as a cladding layer, as are results for beam steering devices also using the DNA biopolymer. Finally, progress on fabrication of a Mach Zehnder EO modulator with DNA biopolymer claddings using nanoimprint lithography techniques is reported.

  13. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  14. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including......In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  15. Fidelity of DNA polymerases in DNA amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keohavong, P.; Thilly, W.G. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))


    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to separate and isolate the products of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The strategy permitted direct enumeration and identification of point mutations created by T4, modified T7, Klenow fragment of polymerase I, and Thermus aquaticus (Tag) DNA polymerases. Incorrectly synthesized sequences were separated from the wild type by DGGE as mutant/wild-type heteroduplexes and the heteroduplex fraction was used to calculate the average error rate (mutations per base duplication). The error rate induced in the 104-base-pair low-temperature melting domain of exon 3 of the human hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene was {approx} 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} for modified T7, 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for Klenow fragment, and 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for Taq polymerases after a 10{sup 6}-fold amplification. The error rate for T4 DNA polymerase was not more than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} error per base duplication. The predominant mutations were sequenced and found to be transitions of G{center dot}C to A{center dot}T for T4 and modified T7 DNA polymerases, and A{center dot}T to G{center dot}C for Taq polymerase. Klenow fragment induced both possible transitions and deletions of 2 and 4 base pairs.

  16. Demonstration on the indexes design of gravity satellite orbit parameters in the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaogang


    Full Text Available Combining with the exigent demand of the development of satellite gravimetry system in China, aiming at the determination of technical indexes of gravity satellite orbit parameters, on the basis of the numerical experiments and results analysis, the design indexes of gravity satellite orbit height, inter-satellite range and the orbit inclination are analyzed and calculated, and the issues towards twin gravity satellites such as coherence requirement of the orbit semi-major axes, control requirement of the pitch angle and time interval requirement to keep twin satellites formation in mobility are discussed. Results show that the satellite orbit height is 400 km to 500 km, the inter-satellite range is about 220 km, the satellite orbit inclination is between polar orbit and sun-synchronous orbit, the semi-major axes difference of twin satellites orbit is within ±70. 146 m, the pitch angle of twin satellites is about 0.9 degree, and the time interval to keep twin satellites formation in mobility is 7 days to 15 days.

  17. Satellite image analysis using neural networks (United States)

    Sheldon, Roger A.


    The tremendous backlog of unanalyzed satellite data necessitates the development of improved methods for data cataloging and analysis. Ford Aerospace has developed an image analysis system, SIANN (Satellite Image Analysis using Neural Networks) that integrates the technologies necessary to satisfy NASA's science data analysis requirements for the next generation of satellites. SIANN will enable scientists to train a neural network to recognize image data containing scenes of interest and then rapidly search data archives for all such images. The approach combines conventional image processing technology with recent advances in neural networks to provide improved classification capabilities. SIANN allows users to proceed through a four step process of image classification: filtering and enhancement, creation of neural network training data via application of feature extraction algorithms, configuring and training a neural network model, and classification of images by application of the trained neural network. A prototype experimentation testbed was completed and applied to climatological data.

  18. Coordinates of features on the Galilean satellites (United States)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.


    Control nets of the four Galilean satellites have been established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft during their flybys of Jupiter in 1979. Coordinates of 504 points on Io, 112 points on Europa, 1547 points on Ganymede, and 439 points on Callisto are listed. Selected points are identified on U.S. Geological Survey maps of the satellites. Measurements of these points were made on 234 pictures of Io, 115 pictures of Europa, 282 pictures of Ganymede, and 200 pictures of Callisto. The systems of longitude were defined by craters on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Preliminary solutions have been found for the directions of the axes of rotation of the Galilean satellites. New mean radii have been determined as 1815 + or - 5 km for Io, 1569 + or - 10 km for Europa, 2631 + or - 10 km for Ganymede, and 2400 + or - 10 km for Callisto.

  19. Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues (United States)

    Walbridge, E. W.

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  20. 5th China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Wenhai; Wu, Haitao; Lu, Mingquan


    China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings presents selected research papers from CSNC2014, held on 21-23 May in Nanjing, China. The theme of CSNC2014 is 'BDS Application: Innovation, Integration and Sharing'. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 9 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2014, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.  SUN Jiadong is the Chief Designer of the Compass/ BDS, and the Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); JIAO Wenhai is a researcher at China Satellite Navigation Office; WU Haitao is a professor at Navigation Headquarters, CAS; LU Mingquan is a professor at Department of Electronic Engineering of Tsinghua University.

  1. Seasonal streamflow estimation employing satellite snowcover observations (United States)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.


    Low resolution meteorological satellite and high resolution earth resources satellite data have been used to map snow covered area over the upper Indus River and the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, respectively. For the Indus River early spring snow covered area was extracted and related to April through June stream flow from 1967-1971 using a regression equation. Prediction of the April-June 1972 stream flow from the satellite data was within three percent of the actual total. Composited results from two years of data over seven Wind River Mountain watersheds indicated that LANDSAT-1 snow cover observations, separated on the basis of watershed elevation, could also be related to runoff in significant regression equations.

  2. Operations research investigations of satellite power stations (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Ballard, J. L.


    A systems model reflecting the design concepts of Satellite Power Stations (SPS) was developed. The model is of sufficient scope to include the interrelationships of the following major design parameters: the transportation to and between orbits; assembly of the SPS; and maintenance of the SPS. The systems model is composed of a set of equations that are nonlinear with respect to the system parameters and decision variables. The model determines a figure of merit from which alternative concepts concerning transportation, assembly, and maintenance of satellite power stations are studied. A hybrid optimization model was developed to optimize the system's decision variables. The optimization model consists of a random search procedure and the optimal-steepest descent method. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to enable the user to optimize nonlinear functions using the model. Specifically, the computer program was used to optimize Satellite Power Station system components.

  3. Satellite Ocean Biology: Past, Present, Future (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.


    Since 1978 when the first satellite ocean color proof-of-concept sensor, the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner, was launched, much progress has been made in refining the basic measurement concept and expanding the research applications of global satellite time series of biological and optical properties such as chlorophyll-a concentrations. The seminar will review the fundamentals of satellite ocean color measurements (sensor design considerations, on-orbit calibration, atmospheric corrections, and bio-optical algorithms), scientific results from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) missions, and the goals of future NASA missions such as PACE, the Aerosol, Cloud, Ecology (ACE), and Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) missions.

  4. Mobile satellite communications - Vehicle antenna technology update (United States)

    Bell, D.; Naderi, F. M.


    This paper discusses options for vehicle antennas to be used in mobile satellite communications systems. Two types of antennas are identified. A non-steerable, azimuthally omnidirectional antenna with a modest gain of 3 to 5 dBi is suggested when a low cost is desired. Alternatively, mechanically or electronically steerable antennas with a higher gain of 10 to 12 dBi are suggested to alleviate power and spectrum scarcity associated with mobile satellite communications. For steerable antennas, both open-loop and closed-loop pointing schemes are discussed. Monopulse and sequential lobing are proposed for the mechanically steered and electronically steered antennas, respectively. This paper suggests a hybrid open-loop/closed-loop pointing technique as the best performer in the mobile satellite environment.

  5. Review of Tracktable for Satellite Maneuver Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquesta, Erin C.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valicka, Christopher G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinga, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ehn, Carollan Beret [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    As a tool developed to translate geospatial data into geometrical descriptors, Tracktable offers a highly efficient means to detect anomalous flight and maritime behavior. Following the success of using geometrical descriptors for detecting anomalous trajectory behavior, the question of whether Tracktable could be used to detect satellite maneuvers arose. In answering this question, this re- port will introduce a brief description of how Tracktable has been used in the past, along with an introduction to the fundamental properties of astrodynamics for satellite trajectories. This will then allow us to compare the two problem spaces, addressing how easily the methods used by Tracktable will translate to orbital mechanics. Based on these results, we will then be able to out- line the current limitations as well as possible path forward for using Tracktable to detect satellite maneuvers.

  6. Proliferation conditions for human satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Schrøder, H D


    Primary satellite cell cultures have become an important tool as a model system for skeletal muscles. A common problem in human satellite cell culturing is fibroblast overgrowth. We combined N-CAM (Leu19) immunocytochemical staining of satellite cells (Sc) with stereological methods to estimate...... the fraction of Sc in culture. Evaluation of different culture conditions allowed us to find proliferation conditions preferentially for Sc: a) Sc should be cultured on surfaces coated with ECM-gel. b) Primary cell culture should be inoculated in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum to increase cell...... adherence. c) Change of media to DMEM supplemented with 2% Ultroser-G and 2% FCS after 24 h.d) Before subcultivation, cells should be preplated for 30 min. The fractional content of Sc in passage four when applying this method of cultivation was 0.82 +/- 0.07 (mean +/- SE, N = 10). Our method enabled us...

  7. Monitoring auroral electrojets with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.


    of the satellite orbit and how it varies with local time and season in both hemispheres. Statistically, the strongest currents are observed in the predawn and predusk local time quadrants at latitudes that depend on the general magnetic activity level. We also show how the satellite-derived parameters relate......The strong horizontal ionospheric currents in the auroral oval constitute an important space weather parameter. Here we present a method to estimate the latitude location and intensity of these currents from measurements of variations in the magnetic field magnitude made by low Earth polar orbiting...... satellites. The method is simple enough to be implemented for real-time monitoring, especially since it does not require the full vector field measurement. We demonstrate the method on 5 years of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) data and show how the monitoring depends on the local time...

  8. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space (United States)

    Humi, Mayer


    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  9. Progress in satellite quantum key distribution (United States)

    Bedington, Robert; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Ling, Alexander


    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a family of protocols for growing a private encryption key between two parties. Despite much progress, all ground-based QKD approaches have a distance limit due to atmospheric losses or in-fibre attenuation. These limitations make purely ground-based systems impractical for a global distribution network. However, the range of communication may be extended by employing satellites equipped with high-quality optical links. This manuscript summarizes research and development which is beginning to enable QKD with satellites. It includes a discussion of protocols, infrastructure, and the technical challenges involved with implementing such systems, as well as a top level summary of on-going satellite QKD initiatives around the world.

  10. More efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks in skeletal muscle stem cells compared to their committed progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Vahidi Ferdousi


    Full Text Available The loss of genome integrity in adult stem cells results in accelerated tissue aging and is possibly cancerogenic. Adult stem cells in different tissues appear to react robustly to DNA damage. We report that adult skeletal stem (satellite cells do not primarily respond to radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs via differentiation and exhibit less apoptosis compared to other myogenic cells. Satellite cells repair these DNA lesions more efficiently than their committed progeny. Importantly, non-proliferating satellite cells and post-mitotic nuclei in the fiber exhibit dramatically distinct repair efficiencies. Altogether, reduction of the repair capacity appears to be more a function of differentiation than of the proliferation status of the muscle cell. Notably, satellite cells retain a high efficiency of DSB repair also when isolated from the natural niche. Finally, we show that repair of DSB substrates is not only very efficient but, surprisingly, also very accurate in satellite cells and that accurate repair depends on the key non-homologous end-joining factor DNA-PKcs.

  11. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.


    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. The organization and evolution of the Responder satellite in species of the Drosophila melanogaster group: dynamic evolution of a target of meiotic drive. (United States)

    Larracuente, Amanda M


    Satellite DNA can make up a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes and has roles in genome structure and chromosome segregation. The rapid evolution of satellite DNA can contribute to genomic instability and genetic incompatibilities between species. Despite its ubiquity and its contribution to genome evolution, we currently know little about the dynamics of satellite DNA evolution. The Responder (Rsp) satellite DNA family is found in the pericentric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Rsp is well-known for being the target of Segregation Distorter (SD)- an autosomal meiotic drive system in D. melanogaster. I present an evolutionary genetic analysis of the Rsp family of repeats in D. melanogaster and its closely-related species in the melanogaster group (D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. mauritiana, D. erecta, and D. yakuba) using a combination of available BAC sequences, whole genome shotgun Sanger reads, Illumina short read deep sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. I show that Rsp repeats have euchromatic locations throughout the D. melanogaster genome, that Rsp arrays show evidence for concerted evolution, and that Rsp repeats exist outside of D. melanogaster, in the melanogaster group. The repeats in these species are considerably diverged at the sequence level compared to D. melanogaster, and have a strikingly different genomic distribution, even between closely-related sister taxa. The genomic organization of the Rsp repeat in the D. melanogaster genome is complex-it exists of large blocks of tandem repeats in the heterochromatin and small blocks of tandem repeats in the euchromatin. My discovery of heterochromatic Rsp-like sequences outside of D. melanogaster suggests that SD evolved after its target satellite and that the evolution of the Rsp satellite family is highly dynamic over a short evolutionary time scale (<240,000 years).

  13. A Model for Evaluating Communications Satellite Interoperability. (United States)


    loss and presented them in a NASA reference publication titled Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design. Subtitled "A Summary of...the oblique path through the rain volume. 33 POINT RAIN RATE (mmvhrj 0 10 20 20 40 60 so 70 1.0 am 0.70 LM iam 20 OHz, ATS4, ROSMAN , NC 0.40 0 RAIN...April 15, 1985. 9Louis J. Ippolito, et al. Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design. NASA Reference Publication 1083(03), June 1983

  14. Tethered satellite thermal design and test (United States)

    Chapter, John J.


    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is the first Shuttle Orbiter mission that investigates electrodynamic phenomenon of a 20 km conductive tether, in space. The TSS Mission is planned for January 1992. The 'Deployer' that provides the mechanisms that control a tethered satellite is mounted on a Spacelab Pallet. The Deployer thermal design uses Multilayer Insulation (MLI), heaters, and the Spacelab payload freon loop. The pallet and Deployer are isolated from the space thermal environment with MLI that forms an enclosure that is a unique part of the thermal design. This paper describes the TSS thermal design, presents the analysis approach, and details the Deployer thermal balance test.

  15. Routing in double layered satellite network (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Fei, Gao


    With the fast development of aviation technology and network, satellite communication systems are not limited to a signal satellite any more, they are now oriented to network. Double LEO/MEO network can separate network manage from traffic in physical layer in order to manage total network and operate central routing. At last, aiming at the problem of the frequency link switch, we give a new routing protocol (OSPF_SAT) based on OSPF routing protocol. The optimized strategy routing algorithm and is applied to the model, with the result of getting less link switch ratio.

  16. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Woo, K.


    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Overview of TCTS satellite service applications (United States)

    Savas, M. J.

    An overview is presented of existing satellite service applications of the TransCanada Telephone System (TCTS) and its member companies, and future plans considered of significant interest to the business community are highlighted. TCTS currently manages two major long-haul message trunking networks over satellite to augment to capacity of existing terrestrial facilities and to provide route diversity. The history and operation of these message trunking applications are described. Video service applications of TCTS are briefly considered, including educational and pay-TV services and the CBC network. Business and special service applications include transportable earth station service and customer high-speed data services. Future service applications are addressed.

  18. The orbit estimation for Larets satellite (United States)

    Rutkowska, M.


    The LARETS satellite was launched on September 26, 2004 into a circular orbit at an altitude of 690 km and with an inclination of 98.2 degree. The aim of this study is the computation of the orbit of the satellite LARETS with the highest accuracy possible. The paper discusses the influence of the modelling of different physical effects on the motion of LARETS, in particular in terms of orbit quality. All computations are performed with the NASA program GEODYN II (Eddy et al.,1990).

  19. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay


    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  20. Time elements. [for transformations in satellite equations (United States)

    Nacozy, P. E.


    Time elements are introduced for use with Sundman time transformations of the type dt = r(alpha)ds for satellite equations of motion. Two time elements are given, one providing maximum accuracy for alpha = 1, the other for alpha = 2. Time elements and time transformations reduce local truncation error and Liapunov (in track) instability, and provide analytical step size control. Numerical results show accuracy improvements of more than one order of magnitude when time elements are employed with time transformations in the numerical integration of the satellite equations, compared with using time transformations alone.

  1. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay


    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resourcestudies. Comparison results from complex...... in WASP combined with topography and roughness information to assess the coastal wind power potential. Scatterometer wind data are observed ~ twice per day, whereas SAR only are obtained 3 to 8 timesmonthly. The relatively low number of samples and the absolute uncertainty within the maps, ~ 1.3 ms-1...

  2. Adaptive Resource Management Technology for Satellite Constellations (United States)

    Welch, Lonnie; Tjaden, Brett; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)


    This manuscript describes the Sensor Web Adaptive Resource Manager (SWARM) project. The primary focus of the project is on the design and prototyping of middleware for managing computing and network resources in a way that enables the information systems of satellite constellations to provide realtime performance within dynamic environments. The middleware has been prototyped, and it has been evaluated by employing it to manage a pool of distributed resources for the ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) satellite command and control software system. The design of the middleware is discussed and a summary of the evaluation effort is provided.

  3. Cryptic satellites rich in inverted repeats comprise 30% of the genome of a hermit crab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R.F.; Skinner, D.M.


    One major very highly repeated (VHR) DNA (approx. 7 x 10W copies/genome; repeat unit = 156 base pairs (bp)), a family of three minor VHR DNAs (approx. 2.8 x 10W copies/genome; repeat units = 71-74 bp), and a number of trace components account for almost 30% of the genome of a hermit crab. The repeat units of the three minor variants are defined by identical 14-bp G + C-rich inverted repeats that might form cruciforms. Two copies of the repeat unit (CCTA) of one of two patent satellites of this crab occur at the center of one in seven of the G + C-rich inverted repeats; copies of the other patent satellite are found in main component DNA. The sequences of both the major and minor VHR DNAs are characterized by short tracts of A/sub n/ and/or T/sub n/ (n = 4-7) residues whose presence would permit the formation of perfectly matched stems separated by loops of 8-16 bp. The A/sub n/ and/or T/sub n/ tracts are interspersed with segments of G + C-rich DNA and are arranged differently in the major and minor VHR DNAs. Although the repeat units of the major and the three minor VHR DNAs are arranged in tandem, the composition and sequence of their bases are such that they do not form distinct bands in CsCl gradients; they are cryptic satellites. 42 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  4. DNA mini-barcodes. (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; McKenna, Charly


    Conventional DNA barcoding uses an approximately 650 bp DNA barcode of the mitochondrial gene COI for species identification in animal groups. Similar size fragments from chloroplast genes have been proposed as barcode markers for plants. While PCR amplification and sequencing of a 650 bp fragment is consistent in freshly collected and well-preserved specimens, it is difficult to obtain a full-length barcode in older museum specimens and samples which have been preserved in formalin or similar DNA-unfriendly preservatives. A comparable issue may prevent effective DNA-based authentication and testing in processed biological materials, such as food products, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. In these cases, shorter DNA sequences-mini-barcodes-have been robustly recovered and shown to be effective in identifying majority of specimens to a species level. Furthermore, short DNA regions can be utilized via high-throughput sequencing platforms providing an inexpensive and comprehensive means of large-scale species identification. These properties of mini-barcodes, coupled with the availability of standardized and universal primers make mini-barcodes a feasible option for DNA barcode analysis in museum samples and applied diagnostic and environmental biodiversity analysis.

  5. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.


    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  6. HIV DNA Integration (United States)

    Craigie, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D.


    Retroviruses are distinguished from other viruses by two characteristic steps in the viral replication cycle. The first is reverse transcription, which results in the production of a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome, and the second is integration, which results in covalent attachment of the DNA copy to host cell DNA. The initial catalytic steps of the integration reaction are performed by the virus-encoded integrase (IN) protein. The chemistry of the IN-mediated DNA breaking and joining steps is well worked out, and structures of IN-DNA complexes have now clarified how the overall complex assembles. Methods developed during these studies were adapted for identification of IN inhibitors, which received FDA approval for use in patients in 2007. At the chromosomal level, HIV integration is strongly favored in active transcription units, which may promote efficient viral gene expression after integration. HIV IN binds to the cellular factor LEDGF/p75, which promotes efficient infection and tethers IN to favored target sites. The HIV integration machinery must also interact with many additional host factors during infection, including nuclear trafficking and pore proteins during nuclear entry, histones during initial target capture, and DNA repair proteins during completion of the DNA joining steps. Models for some of the molecular mechanisms involved have been proposed, but important details remain to be clarified. PMID:22762018

  7. DNA Import into Mitochondria. (United States)

    Konstantinov, Yu M; Dietrich, A; Weber-Lotfi, F; Ibrahim, N; Klimenko, E S; Tarasenko, V I; Bolotova, T A; Koulintchenko, M V


    In recent decades, it has become evident that the condition for normal functioning of mitochondria in higher eukaryotes is the presence of membrane transport systems of macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids). Natural competence of the mitochondria in plants, animals, and yeasts to actively uptake DNA may be directly related to horizontal gene transfer into these organelles occurring at much higher rate compared to the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, in contrast with import of proteins and tRNAs, little is known about the biological role and molecular mechanism underlying import of DNA into eukaryotic mitochondria. In this review, we discuss current state of investigations in this area, particularly specificity of DNA import into mitochondria and its features in plants, animals, and yeasts; a tentative mechanism of DNA import across the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes; experimental data evidencing several existing, but not yet fully understood mechanisms of DNA transfer into mitochondria. Currently available data regarding transport of informational macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) into the mitochondria do not rule out that the mechanism of protein and tRNA import as well as tRNA and DNA import into the mitochondria may partially overlap.

  8. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link (United States)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.


    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  9. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions. (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde


    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Chaotic motions of a tethered satellite system in circular orbit (United States)

    Jin, D. P.; PANG, Z. J.; Wen, H.; Yu, B. S.


    This paper studies the chaotic motions of a tethered satellite system by utilizing a ground-based experimental system. Based on dynamics similarity principle, a dynamical equivalent model between the on-orbit tethered satellite and its ground physical model is obtained. As a result, the space dynamics environment of the tethered satellite can be simulated via the thrust forces and the torque of a momentum wheel on the satellite simulator. The numerical results of the on-orbit tethered satellite show the chaotic motions of the attitude motion of mother satellite. The experiment shows that the torque of momentum wheel as a negative damping is able to suppress the chaotic motion.

  11. DNA Bending elasticity (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  12. "Artifactual" arsenate DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E


    The recent claim by Wolfe-Simon et al. that the Halomonas bacterial strain GFAJ-1 when grown in arsenate-containing medium with limiting phosphate is able to substitute phosphate with arsenate in biomolecules including nucleic acids and in particular DNA(1) arose much skepticism, primarily due...... to the very limited chemical stability of arsenate esters (see ref. 2 and references therein). A major part of the criticisms was concerned with the insufficient (bio)chemical evidence in the Wolfe-Simon study for the actual chemical incorporation of arsenate in DNA (and/or RNA). Redfield et al. now present...... evidence that the identification of arsenate DNA was artifactual....

  13. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Meehan


    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  14. W-enriched satellite sequence in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dalíková, Martina; Zrzavá, Magda; Kubíčková, S.; Marec, František


    Roč. 25, 3-4 (2017), s. 241-252 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-17211S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : satellite DNA * sex chromosomes * transcription Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.385, year: 2016

  15. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.


    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  16. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Composite Satellite Overpasses MC3E dataset provides satellite overpasses from the AQUA satellite during the Midlatitude Continental...

  18. Archaeal DNA polymerases in biotechnology. (United States)

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Huang, Yanchao


    DNA polymerase (pol) is a ubiquitous enzyme that synthesizes DNA strands in all living cells. In vitro, DNA pol is used for DNA manipulation, including cloning, PCR, site-directed mutagenesis, sequencing, and several other applications. Family B archaeal DNA pols have been widely used for molecular biological methods. Biochemical and structural studies reveal that each archaeal DNA pol has different characteristics with respect to fidelity, processivity and thermostability. Due to their high fidelity and strong thermostability, family B archaeal DNA pols have the extensive application on high-fidelity PCR, DNA sequencing, and site-directed mutagenesis while family Y archaeal DNA pols have the potential for error-prone PCR and random mutagenesis because of their low fidelity and strong thermostability. This information combined with mutational analysis has been used to construct novel DNA pols with altered properties that enhance their use as biotechnological reagents. In this review, we focus on the development and use of family B archaeal DNA pols.

  19. Recent Arctic Sea Level Variations from Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Piccioni, Gaia


    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish Tec...

  20. NORSEWInD satellite wind climatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, Alexis

    is to provide new offshore wind climatology map for the entire area of interest based on satellite remote sensing. This has been based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from Envisat ASAR using 9000 scenes re-processed with ECMWF wind direction and CMOD-IFR. The number of overlapping samples range from 450...

  1. Issues in Satellite Packet Video Communication. (United States)


    i.o . .. . . _ _: .. ,: -t - .. . ..:’, • ... . . . ... . . . j.. - . ". 4 ISSUES IN SATELLITE PACKET VIDEO COMMUNICATIO \\ For the transmitter: 1. Get...No. 4469. Ma. 1981. 4. Forgie. James W., ST- A Proposed Internet Stream Protocol, M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory, IEN 119, September 1979. 5. Jam. A. K

  2. Telematics and satellites. Part 1: Information systems (United States)

    Burke, W. R.


    Telematic systems are identified and described. The applications are examined emphasizing the role played by satellite links. The discussion includes file transfer, examples of distributed processor systems, terminal communication, information retrieval systems, office information systems, electronic preparation and publishing of information, electronic systems for transfer of funds, electronic mail systems, record file transfer characteristics, intra-enterprise networks, and inter-enterprise networks.

  3. Seismic Rays, Satellites and Sea Winds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 11. Seismic Rays, Satellites and Sea Winds. Vinod K Gaur Sujata Varadarajan. Face to Face Volume 15 Issue 11 November 2010 pp 1031-1053. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. LTE Adaptation for Mobile Broadband Satellite Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastia Francesco


    Full Text Available One of the key factors for the successful deployment of mobile satellite systems in 4G networks is the maximization of the technology commonalities with the terrestrial systems. An effective way of achieving this objective consists in considering the terrestrial radio interface as the baseline for the satellite radio interface. Since the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE standard will be one of the main players in the 4G scenario, along with other emerging technologies, such as mobile WiMAX; this paper analyzes the possible applicability of the 3GPP LTE interface to satellite transmission, presenting several enabling techniques for this adaptation. In particular, we propose the introduction of an inter-TTI interleaving technique that exploits the existing H-ARQ facilities provided by the LTE physical layer, the use of PAPR reduction techniques to increase the resilience of the OFDM waveform to non linear distortion, and the design of the sequences for Random Access, taking into account the requirements deriving from the large round trip times. The outcomes of this analysis show that, with the required proposed enablers, it is possible to reuse the existing terrestrial air interface to transmit over the satellite link.

  5. Investigation of Satellite Imagery for Regional Planning (United States)

    Harting, W. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite multispectral imagery was found to be useful in regional planning for depicting general developed land patterns, wooded areas, and newly constructed highways by using visual photointerpretation methods. Other characteristics, such as residential and nonresidential development, street patterns, development density, and some vacant land components cannot be adequately detected using these standard methods.

  6. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.


    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  7. Europe over the moon with new satellite

    CERN Multimedia


    ESA has taken delivery of a 3kg device that it plans to use to complete the first high-resolution map of the moon. The D-CIXS (Demonstration of a Compact Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer) will be aboard the SMART-1 satellite to be launched from French Guyana in South America next February (1/2 page).

  8. Satellites at Work, Space in the Seventies. (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication in the "Space in the Seventies" series describes current status and future plans for "working" spacecraft, also called "application satellites." These spacecraft serve the needs of communications, meteorology, geodesy, and navigation. They also enable us to study earth resources from space. Many scientific and technical concepts…

  9. Inter-satellite links for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Castro, T.J.W.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan


    Realizing inter-satellite links is a must for ensuring the success of cubesat swarm missions. Nevertheless, it has hardly been considered until now. The communication systems for cubesats have to deal with a few peculiar demands regarding consumed power, geometry and throughput. Depending on the

  10. Tsunami damage assessment with satellite radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greidanus, H.; Dekker, R.J.; Caliz, J.J.; Rodrigues, A.


    Medium (25 meter) resolution satellite radar imagery was used to identify damage from the SE Asia tsunami of December 2004. Several analysis methods were used on test areas over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and NW Sumatra: visual assessment of before-after colour composites, pixel-based CFAR

  11. Frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems (United States)

    Lau, Yuk-Hong; Skellern, D. J.


    A method for searching the frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems is proposed based on the method for the case of equal carrier systems. The quality of assignment improves significantly on published results. The method requires only very short computations times.

  12. Satellite Radar Measurements of Land Subsidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, D. van; Kooij, M.W.A. van der


    The potential of satelliteborne interferometric measurements for the mapping of slow land subsidence has been investigated. Two test sites, covered by the E,RS-1 satellite, were selected in the Netherlands: the provinces of Groningen and Zeeland. In situ measurements on the weather and the actual

  13. Audio Satellites – Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten; Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.


    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web interface, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life...

  14. Critical areas: Satellite power systems concepts (United States)


    Critical Areas are defined and discussed in the various areas pertinent to satellite power systems. The presentation is grouped into five areas (General, Space Systems, Solar Energy Conversion, Microwave Systems, and Environment/Ecology) with a sixth area (Power Relay) considered separately in an appendix. Areas for Future Consideration as critical areas are discussed in a second appendix.

  15. Sources of Error in Satellite Navigation Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Januszewski


    Full Text Available An uninterrupted information about the user’s position can be obtained generally from satellite navigation system (SNS. At the time of this writing (January 2017 currently two global SNSs, GPS and GLONASS, are fully operational, two next, also global, Galileo and BeiDou are under construction. In each SNS the accuracy of the user’s position is affected by the three main factors: accuracy of each satellite position, accuracy of pseudorange measurement and satellite geometry. The user’s position error is a function of both the pseudorange error called UERE (User Equivalent Range Error and user/satellite geometry expressed by right Dilution Of Precision (DOP coefficient. This error is decomposed into two types of errors: the signal in space ranging error called URE (User Range Error and the user equipment error UEE. The detailed analyses of URE, UEE, UERE and DOP coefficients, and the changes of DOP coefficients in different days are presented in this paper.

  16. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.


    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  17. Study of chaos in chaotic satellite systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayub Khan


    Dec 27, 2017 ... External disturbances may include aerodynamics moment, sunlight pressure torques, grav- ity gradient torque and magnetic moment, while inter- nal disturbance includes parameters' uncertainties [1]. When disturbances occur in the drive satellite system, then controlling the relative error is directly associ-.

  18. Investigation of multipactor breakdown in communication satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Multipactor breakdown or multipactor discharge is a form of high frequency discharge that may occur in microwave components operating at very low pressures. Some. RF components of multi-channel communication satellites have co-axial geometry and handle high RF power under near-vacuum conditions.

  19. Investigation of multipactor breakdown in communication satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multipactor breakdown or multipactor discharge is a form of high frequency discharge that may occur in microwave components operating at very low pressures. Some RF components of multi-channel communication satellites have co-axial geometry and handle high RF power under near-vacuum conditions.

  20. Soil moisture from operational meteorological satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; De Jeu, R.A.M.; Fernandez, M.


    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  1. Soil moisture from Operational Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.


    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  2. The NSDB natural satellites astrometric database (United States)

    Arlot, J.-E.; Emelyanov, N. V.


    Context: Any study of the dynamics of the Natural Planetary satellites needs to gather as many astrometric observations as possible of those that have been observed for centuries. This kind of work is partially made by each astronomer starting this kind of study but has never been done for all the satellite systems. Aims: The goal of our work is to build a database of all the available astrometric observations, together with all the information needed for efficient use of these data, and to avoid astronomers interested in the dynamics of Planetary satellites have to redo this data search. Methods: To do this we had to find and carefully read all the publications including observational data, international journals, or internal reports to be able to add the observations in the database knowing the reference frame used by the observer, the corrections and reduction made, and the time scale needed to link all the data. We also had to contact observatories and observers to be sure to have the raw data available. We gathered the bibliographic references related to the observations put in the database. Results: A new database containing about 90 percent of all the observations useful for studying the dynamics of the satellites is now available for the interested community of astronomers. NSDB is accessible on the Internet: (IMCCE) and (trilingual version of SAI).

  3. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ... (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  4. Scripps satellite archive browsing for localized environments (United States)

    Simpson, J. J.

    Scripps Satellite Archive Browsing for Localized Environments (SSable) is a new interactive tool for browsing the Scripps Satellite Oceanography Center's (SSOC) archive of satellite data in your laboratory or office. The archive contains data from the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer(AVHRR) series of satellites dating from 1979 to present. SSOC maintains a capture station, and data are continually being added to the SSable system within 10 minutes of capture completion.SSable provides an easy-to-use, pointand-click, mouse driven user interface developed around the OSF/Motif widget set and the X Window protocol. All options are selected by either directly clicking the mouse on the desired push button, or pulling down a sub-menu from a push-button. A “fill-inthe-blanks” window appears to guide the user in defining the operation. All SSable option menus have a cancel button to abort the operation. Users can search for data by time, day, geographic coordinate or, if the user knows the structure of the Scripps archive, by explicit archive number.

  5. Close encounters with DNA (United States)

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.


    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  6. Kink solitons in DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Zdravković, S; Daniel, M


    We here examine the nonlinear dynamics of artificial homogeneous DNA chain relying on the plain-base rotator model. It is shown that such dynamics can exhibit kink and antikink solitons of sine-Gordon type. In that respect we propose possible experimental assays based on single molecule micromanipulation techniques. The aim of these experiments is to excite the rotational waves and to determine their speeds along excited DNA. We propose that these experiments should be conducted either for the case of double stranded (DS) or single stranded (SS) DNA. A key question is to compare the corresponding velocities of the rotational waves indicating which one is bigger. The ratio of these velocities appears to be related with the sign of the model parameter representing ratio of the hydrogen-bonding and the covalent-bonding interaction within the considered DNA chain.

  7. DNA Microarray Technology (United States)

    Skip to main content DNA Microarray Technology Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  8. Retroviral DNA Integration (United States)


    The integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into host chromatin is the defining step of retroviral replication. This enzymatic process is catalyzed by the virus-encoded integrase protein, which is conserved among retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons. Retroviral integration proceeds via two integrase activities: 3′-processing of the viral DNA ends, followed by the strand transfer of the processed ends into host cell chromosomal DNA. Herein we review the molecular mechanism of retroviral DNA integration, with an emphasis on reaction chemistries and architectures of the nucleoprotein complexes involved. We additionally discuss the latest advances on anti-integrase drug development for the treatment of AIDS and the utility of integrating retroviral vectors in gene therapy applications. PMID:27198982

  9. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  10. HPV DNA test (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  11. Making DNA Fingerprints. (United States)

    Nunley, Kathie F.


    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  12. Ratchet Nanofiltration of DNA (United States)

    Thomas, Joel D. P.; Joswiak, Mark N.; Olson, Daniel W.; Park, Sung-Gyu


    The DNA nanofilter is a microfabricated electrophoretic separation device consisting of a periodic array of thin slits (circa 60 nm) separated by deeper wells (circa 320 nm). We demonstrate that this device can act as a tuneable, clog-free filter when operating in a low frequency, asymmetric field inversion mode. This filtration occurs by using the asymmetric field inversion to achieve bi-directional migration of short (less than 1000 bp) DNA. Moreover, similar ratchet-type operation can improve separations when compared to a constant field separation in the same device. These modes of operation enhance the utility of the DNA nanofilter as a component of integrated lab-on-a-chip devices. The experimental data confirm theoretical predictions for the bidirectional transport of DNA in entropy-based separations. PMID:23896739

  13. DNA-Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Niels Vinther; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager


    DNA-nanostrukturer giver nye muligheder for studier af individuelle molekyler. Ved at udnytte DNAs unikke selvsamlende egenskaber kan man designe systemer, hvorpå der kan studeres kemiske reaktioner, fluoroforer og biiomolekyler på enkeltmolekyle-niveau....

  14. Supercoiling DNA Locates Mismatches (United States)

    Dittmore, Andrew; Brahmachari, Sumitabha; Takagi, Yasuharu; Marko, John F.; Neuman, Keir C.


    We present a method of detecting sequence defects by supercoiling DNA with magnetic tweezers. The method is sensitive to a single mismatched base pair in a DNA sequence of several thousand base pairs. We systematically compare DNA molecules with 0 to 16 adjacent mismatches at 1 M monovalent salt and 3.6 pN force and show that under these conditions, a single plectoneme forms and is stably pinned at the defect. We use these measurements to estimate the energy and degree of end-loop kinking at defects. From this, we calculate the relative probability of plectoneme pinning at the mismatch under physiologically relevant conditions. Based on this estimate, we propose that DNA supercoiling could contribute to mismatch and damage sensing in vivo.

  15. DNA Sampling Hook (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  16. Gomphid DNA sequence data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...

  17. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted


    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  18. Satellite-Friendly Protocols and Standards (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner, S.; Riedler, W.


    We are currently observing a development unprecedented with other services, the enormous growth of the Internet. Video, voice and data applications can be supported via this network in high quality. Multi-media applications require high bandwidth which may not be available in many areas. When making proper use of the broadcast feature of a communications satellite, the performance of the satellite-based system can compare favourably to terrestrial solutions. Internet applications are in many cases highly asymmetric, making them very well suited to applications using small and inexpensive terminals. Data from one source may be used simultaneously by a large number of users. The Internet protocol suite has become the de-facto standard. But this protocol family in its original form has not been designed to support guaranteed quality of service, a prerequisite for real-time, high quality traffic. The Internet Protocol has to be adapted for the satellite environment, because long roundtrip delays and the error behaviour of the channel could make it inefficient over a GEO satellite. Another requirement is to utilise the satellite bandwidth as efficiently as possible. This can be achieved by adapting the access system to the nature of IP frames, which are variable in length. In the framework of ESA's ARTES project a novel satellite multimedia system was developed which utilises Multi-Frequency TDMA in a meshed network topology. The system supports Quality of Service (QoS) by reserving capacity with different QoS requirements. The system is centrally controlled by a master station with the implementation of a demand assignment (DAMA) system. A lean internal signalling system has been adopted. Network management is based on the SNMP protocol and industry-standard network management platforms, making interfaces to standard accounting and billing systems easy. Modern communication systems will have to be compliant to different standards in a very flexible manner. The

  19. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  20. Das DNA-Puzzle (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.