universalization of elementary education called Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. ... of new high-quality schools, technical training institutes and institutes of higher ... However, an important thing that must change if we are to attract the best teachers to ...
Ranjan Panigrahi, Manas
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a national programme to the goals of Universalization of Elementary Education in India. Distance Education Programme (DEP) plays a major role in providing technical support to the states in building capacity among institutions and people at national, state, district and sub-district levels to design, develop, produce…
Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Jenkins, Marion W; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter
Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. NBA's community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme's theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80) and focus group discussions (n = 26) with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government's cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50 villages, a marginal increase of 7 percentage points over baseline. In
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA – “Clean India Campaign”, the successor of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. Methods NBA’s community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme’s theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80 and focus group discussions (n = 26 with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Results Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government’s cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50
Manas RANJAN PANIGRAHI
Full Text Available Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA is a national programme to the goals of Universalization of Elementary Education in India. Distance Education Programme (DEP plays a major role in providing technical support to the states in building capacity among institutions and people at national, state, district and sub-district levels to design, develop, produce and deliver distance learning inputs and materials in a recurrent manner. Rajasthan Council of Primary Education, Jaipur and DEP-SSA, IGNOU, New Delhi has organized 07 content based teleconferences during the period January, 2005 to October, 2005 for the capacity building of elementary school teachers. The main Objective of the study was to find out the effectiveness of the capacity building of teachers through distance mode using teleconferencing as an innovative tool. Method: the researcher was used survey method under descriptive research for investigating the impact of teleconference programmes organized on different topics and areas. Sample: The sample consists of 4775 elementary school teachers as participants from the different learning ends of the Rajasthan were selected for the study. Tools: The DEP-SSA, IGNOU developed structured opinionnaire/feedback format to know the effectiveness of teleconference programme. Data analysis: The collected data were tabulated and analyzed with the percentage techniques and it is presented in table. Finding: Most of the teacher respondents agreed on the positive contribution of teleconferencing towards capacity building of teachers.
L Govinda Rao
Full Text Available Historically in India, persons with disabilities enjoyed co-existence, though at different times, the treatment and attitudes were at variance. Out of all the types of disabilities, an intellectual disability poses greater challenges than the other types. The families of persons with intellectual disabilities do also have needs different from others, which cannot be segregated from the needs of children with intellectual disability. Specific legislations have been put in place to ensure empowerment of persons with disabilities. Through Rehabilitation Council of India, human resource development programs are standardized. The National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped has developed many service models and contributed toward human resource development and research. Many Non-Government Organizations have started special education and vocational training programs. National Trust, a statutory body, supports the individuals and families and seeks to protect those individuals having no parents. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All, has special focus on education of children with disabilities. Vocational training centres have an obligation to develop eco-centric and commercially viable jobs. As per the National Policy, the Government of India envisages that every child with a disability should have access to appropriate preschool, primary and secondary level education by 2020.Históricamente en India las personas con discapacidades han disfrutado siempre de la coexistencia, si bien a veces el tratamiento y las actitudes podían contrastar. De entre todos los tipos de discapacidad, la intelectual es la que presenta los mayores desafíos. Las familias de las personas con discapacidad intelectual tienen asimismo necesidades distintas de las demás, inseparables de las necesidades de los niños con discapacidad intelectual. Se ha implementado legislación específica para asegurar el apoderamiento de las personas con discapacidades. Los programas
D. Uma Devi
Full Text Available Education is envisaged as an important tool for the socio-economic and cultural development of an individual and acts as a catalyst for the pace of the development of the country. Keeping this in view, the Government of India has launched several programmes for the promotion of the education among the children as well as adults in the country. But, due to the malnutrition, superstitions, fluoride in the water, diseases like polio etc., natural calamities and other adverse conditions some children are becoming disabled. The place of the differently abled in the Indian society is lower when compared with the normal children as there is a notion that their disability is due to curse for the sins in the previous birth etc. and they were deprived in all spheres of life including education. To mainstream them on par with the normal population and to make them as partners of the pace of development of the country, the Government of India from time to time launched several programmes and started special schools. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is one of the programme implemented to create barrier free environment in the school and to promote inclusive education for the children with special needs (CWSN as one of the components. The present study was taken up in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India to find out the extent of accessibility of education to the CWSNs in normal schools. The study covered a sample of CWSNs (300, teachers (90, parents (150, heads of the schools (30, home based teachers (30 and tried to identify the problems of the CWSNs in accessing the education, problems of the teachers in tackling with the children, parents opinions towards the efforts of the schools in making education to be accessible to their CSWN.
Berg, A.P. van den
In recent years several excellent books on the subject of theoretical seismology have appeared on the market. This might be seen as an indication that seismology has finally become a full grown branch of physics since its foundations were laid, theoretically and empirically, in the 19th
Full Text Available The Centre for Environment Education (CEE, Andhra Pradesh State Cell, implemented the project ‘Student Amateurs in School Yard Agriculture (SASYA’ with support from UNICEF Hyderabad and the Department of Education (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan in 150 schools in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The Medak district is a semi-arid district with an average annual rainfall of 80 cm. Agricultural activities are dependent mainly on rainfall. The aim of the project was to provide chemical-free, nutrient-rich vegetables to the children and to provide an opportunity to learn by doing. Schools were selected based on the available space, water, fence. A small start-up kit was provided with a manual with guidelines, vegetable seeds and other requirements like sample bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and equipment like hand sprayers. A resource group was formed for every 10 schools with a teacher, the Mandal Educational Officer, and a field coordinator from a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO. The resource group was trained at the district level that acted as trainers for the other 9 schools of their mandal (administrative district and provided continuous support.The gardens were initiated with support from the village community who were part of the garden lay out plan, and operations like land preparation, and sowing. Contributions from the villagers also came in the form of implements, farm yard manure and seeds. Gardens were maintained by the student committees formed for the purpose under guidance of teachers. Suggestions regarding the cultural operations were provided by the community, field coordinators and CEE. The produce was utilised for the mid-day meals served in the school. At times they were also shared by the community and teachers. Preparations (collection of seed from the garden and community were under progress for the next season. This project was implemented successfully in 136 schools where the students had benefited through
Full Text Available District Municipality environmental officers attending the 2011 SRRP training workshop were introduced to the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas (SARVA) as a vital tool for local planning and resilience. This workshop was aimed at raising...
Author Affiliations. Baljeet Singh1 Sarva Jit Singh2. Department of Mathematics, Government College (M), Sector-11, Chandigarh 160 011, India; Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124 001, India ...
Author Affiliations. Sarva Jit Singh1 Raman Kumar2 Sunita Rani2. Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi, South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. Department of Mathematics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India.
Author Affiliations. Anil Kumar1 Sarva Jit Singh2 Jagdish Singh1. Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124 001, India. Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India.
Full Text Available As part of the outreach programme the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas (SARVA) was introduced to geography students of the Society of South African Geographers Students. The students were attending their annual conference hosted...
Full Text Available Risk and Vulnerability Atlas was conceived by the DST in 2008 as a flagship programme under the ‘Global Change Grand Challenge‘, which falls under one of the themes of the ‘Innovation Towards a Knowledge Economy’ plan. One of the themes.... The SARVA falls within this theme and was designed to ensure that existing knowledge on global change risks and vulnerability is made available for those who could benefit from its use. Three products have since been developed under the SARVA: the online...
S. Anantha Ramakrishna
... estimated from INSAT infra red digital cloud imagery data — Onkari Prasad, Sant ... An ocean-atmosphere index for ENSO and its relation to Indian monsoon rainfall — ... Numerical study of the effects of urban heat island on the characteristic ... two-dimensional modelling of preseismic deformation — Sarva Jit Singh and ...
Full Text Available The success of the first edition of the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas (SARVA), both as a publication and at COP17 (17th meeting of the ‘Conference of the Parties’ of the international treaty known as the United Nations Framework...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
D Mukhopadhyay, Roorkee, India. S Mukhopadhya, Roorkee, India. V S N Murty, Goa, India. Ravi S Nanjundiah, Bangalore, India. B M Reddy, Hyderabad, India. Roger Bilham, USA. Sajani Surendran, USA. Sarva Jit Singh, Rohtak, India. S K Satheesh, Bangalore, India. D Sengupta, Bangalore, India. D Shankar, Goa, India.
static deformation due to two-dimensional seismic sources embedded in an elastic half-space in welded contact with a poroelastic half-space. Sunita Rani Sarva Jit Singh. Volume 116 Issue 2 April 2007 pp 99-111 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Mahabir Singh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 113 Issue 2 June 2004 pp 235-246. Deformation of a layered half-space due to a very long tensile fault · Sarva Jit Singh Mahabir Singh · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The problem of the ...
expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, association and action, subject to law and public morality .”99 Nehru also passed a resolution, which...explains: Collective action takes place when political entrepreneurs give shape to a collective identity. The collective identity, which defines “us...Vidya Bharati Akhil Bharatiya Shiksha Sansthan (all India learning centers) network that focuses on moral , extracurricular, and physical education for
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Bhanderi, D J; Mukherjee, S M; Gohel, Manisha K; Christian, D S
A multi-indicator thirty cluster survey was conducted during February- March 2008 in the rural areas of Anand district of Gujrat state to assess the utilization of the reproductive and child health services provided through government sector. In each selected village minimum 40 households were visited till total eight children in age group 12-23 months, at least two antenatal mothers in last trimester and five mothers who delivered in last year were studied. A total of 555 children of age less than three years & 1481 women in reproductive age group were included in the study. 74.8% of the children had institutional delivery. Birth registration was almost 100%. Immunization coverage was 84.5%. Registration of children and pregnant mothers under Mamta Abhiyan(MA) were 91% and 84 % respectively. Only 53% children were brought to Mamta Diwas Kendra regularly. Vitamin A coverage to children was 76.9%. Tetanus toxoid coverage of pregnant women was 85.1%, while Iron tablets were provided to 48.3% women. 43% of the postnatal mothers had no post-partum visit. Utilization of government schemes among postnatal women was 9% to 20%.
Full Text Available Objectives A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal. Methods Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Results The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal. Conclusions This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.
Mondal Biraj Kanti
Full Text Available The spatial variations of the literacy intensity of any regions reflect its educational standard and its diverse dimensions of development and Sundarban region of West Bengal is no exception. Education is probably the most important amongst the three elements of human development to quantify the Human Development Index (HDI for any region. Thus education holds the prime priority for development of all the region and Sundarban is no exception. The literacy level of Sundarban is not far ahead than other backward areas of West Bengal. In the present era of globalization, ‘Education for all’ has become the matter of human rights. Various developmental schemes of the Central and State Government, like Mid Day Meal (MDM, Sarva Sikhsha Aviyan (SSA etc. are able to make some positive loop and make a paradigm shift in the educational sector after crossing the first decades of the 21st century. The Sundarban region might be more developed than the present if its literacy echelon and educational sector improves much more. Proper education can make the inhabitants of the region more conscious and aware to do their betterment themselves as well as to save the biodiversity of the mangrove forest area of Sundarban. Thus an attempt has been made to portrait the spatial explorations and developmental scenario along with the regional disparities of the literacy status of Sundarban in the present paper.
Vohra, Rajaat; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Srivastava, Jyoti P; Srivastava, Shekhar; Vohra, Anusha
Childhood obesity is increasingly being observed with changing lifestyles of families. The magnitude of overweight ranges from 9% to 27.5% and obesity ranges from 1% to 12.9% among Indian children. The present study was undertaken to study the magnitude of overweight/obesity and its determinants among children in Lucknow city. A list of government and private school was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Three government and three private schools were selected by Simple Random Sampling. Students of 5th to 12th grades available at the time of study were included as study unit. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family characteristics and individual characteristics. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Children with BMI of 25 and above were considered overweight and children with BMI more than 30 were considered obese. Overweight and obesity was found to be 4.17% and 0.73%, respectively; they together constitute 4.91% for overweight/obesity. The study revealed that the important correlates of overweight/obesity were father's education, father's occupation, class, children playing outdoor games for less than 30 min, and those consuming fast foods. Children of higher classes (above 8th standard) belonging to higher socioeconomic group with less outdoor activities and consuming fast foods were more predisposed to overweight/obesity. As a preventive strategy, there is a need to apply health and nutritional education programs for inculcating healthy life styles, and incorporating more outdoor activities in Physical Education Department of school curriculum.
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is increasingly being observed with changing lifestyles of families. The magnitude of overweight ranges from 9% to 27.5% and obesity ranges from 1% to 12.9% among Indian children. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the magnitude of overweight/obesity and its determinants among children in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A list of government and private school was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Three government and three private schools were selected by Simple Random Sampling. Students of 5th to 12th grades available at the time of study were included as study unit. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family characteristics and individual characteristics. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Children with BMI of 25 and above were considered overweight and children with BMI more than 30 were considered obese. Results: Overweight and obesity was found to be 4.17% and 0.73%, respectively; they together constitute 4.91% for overweight/obesity. The study revealed that the important correlates of overweight/obesity were father′s education, father′s occupation, class, children playing outdoor games for less than 30 min, and those consuming fast foods. Conclusions : Children of higher classes (above 8th standard belonging to higher socioeconomic group with less outdoor activities and consuming fast foods were more predisposed to overweight/obesity. As a preventive strategy, there is a need to apply health and nutritional education programs for inculcating healthy life styles, and incorporating more outdoor activities in Physical Education Department of school curriculum.
Full Text Available Journey from demonetization to digitalization is very hard hitting but not impossible. Recent demonetization in India on November 8, 2016, created lot of panic in the economy but also paved the way to digitalization. Cash crunch and availability of e-sources of transactions compelled many people to use electronic modes of payment. Credit cards, debit cards/RuPay card, USSD/UPI, Internet banking, mobile wallets like Oxigen, Paytm, Mobiwik, aadhar-enabled payment system, POS, and so on are few popular modes of electronic transaction, which are commonly used by the citizen. Digitalization will embrace higher transparency in monetary terms; low-cost maintenance; more convenience in use; and help in financial inclusion and weeding out black money and counterfeit money from the economy. But journey to a destination is always full of roadblocks, and similarly the journey of India toward a digital India is also full of hurdles like a huge illiteracy rate; low bandwidth; more unbanked areas; late adoption of technology; lack of full-time electricity; security concerns like hacking, cybercrime, and safety of personal details; and need for high investments. So, to defend the dream of a digital India, we have to develop well-defined strategies to coach people in using technology like focusing on customer education as well as employee education in technology by conducting workshops, presentations, enforcing strict cyber laws, use of local language, and developing user-friendly websites that leverage technology using the development of simple and smart digital tools, such as the use of a one-time password (OTP. The government has started Vittiya Sakharata Abhiyaan (VISAKA and outreach campaigns like DigiDhan Abhiyan and so on to encourage people to adopt digital tools. Overall demonetization is greasing the wheels of digitalization and transforming India into Digital India.
Assessing the feasibility of integrating ecosystem-based with engineered water resource governance and management for water security in semi-arid landscapes: A case study in the Banas catchment, Rajasthan, India.
Everard, Mark; Sharma, Om Prakash; Vishwakarma, Vinod Kumar; Khandal, Dharmendra; Sahu, Yogesh K; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Singh, Jitendra K; Kumar, Ritesh; Nawab, Asghar; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Vivek; Kashyap, Anil; Pandey, Deep Narayan; Pinder, Adrian C
Much of the developing world and areas of the developed world suffer water vulnerability. Engineering solutions enable technically efficient extraction and diversion of water towards areas of demand but, without rebalancing resource regeneration, can generate multiple adverse ecological and human consequences. The Banas River, Rajasthan (India), has been extensively developed for water diversion, particularly from the Bisalpur Dam from which water is appropriated by powerful urban constituencies dispossessing local people. Coincidentally, abandonment of traditional management, including groundwater recharge practices, is leading to increasingly receding and contaminated groundwater. This creates linked vulnerabilities for rural communities, irrigation schemes, urban users, dependent ecosystems and the multiple ecosystem services that they provide, compounded by climate change and population growth. This paper addresses vulnerabilities created by fragmented policy measures between rural development, urban and irrigation water supply and downstream consequences for people and wildlife. Perpetuating narrowly technocentric approaches to resource exploitation is likely only to compound emerging problems. Alternatively, restoration or innovation of groundwater recharge practices, particularly in the upper catchment, can represent a proven, ecosystem-based approach to resource regeneration with linked beneficial socio-ecological benefits. Hybridising an ecosystem-based approach with engineered methods can simultaneously increase the security of rural livelihoods, piped urban and irrigation supplies, and the vitality of river ecosystems and their services to beneficiaries. A renewed policy focus on local-scale water recharge practices balancing water extraction technologies is consistent with emerging Rajasthani policies, particularly Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan ('water self-reliance mission'). Policy reform emphasising recharge can contribute to water security and yield socio
Full Text Available Rag pickers play an important role in our society. We spread our garbage in the society and these rag pickers use to collect it and send it for recycling. We all know about Child trafficking, child labor and Sexual exploitation of child. Nevertheless, ever we tried to rescue any child who uses to collect these rags from dumping area. Such kind of work done by the children’s, amount to violation of their basic human rights. Even though if they were not force by anyone to do such kinds of work but still it will amount to violation of their basic human right. Poverty and illiteracy is one of most common reason behind any kind of violation of human right. In India, any kind of child labors is deal under Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986. Here, in this Act certain Occupation and Process are mentioned in the Schedule Part – A and Part - B which is hazardous for the children below 14 years and these includes "rag picking and scavenging" also. In M.C. Mehta Vs State of Tamil Nadu case, the Honorable Supreme Court of India has given certain directions regarding the manner in which children working in hazardous occupations should be shift from such working conditions and they should be rehabilitate. In addition, the conditions of the children who work in the non-hazardous occupations should be improved and regulated by proper law. For "Swach Bharat Abhiyan" not only we have to clean our society but for development of our country, we have to spread literacy also so that our future generation should literate one.
Kaplinski, Jaan, 1941-
Tekst eesti ja inglise k. J. Kaplinski lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 93. Sisu: "Uni katab meid ühele palju kahele vähe..." = "Sleep covers us too much for one, too little for two..." ; "Olematus ulatub kõikjale ja olemasolu on täis rahu..." = "Non-being pervades everything and being is full of peace..." ; "See mis meid äratas..." = "What woke us..." ; "Seesama meri meis kõigis..." = "The same sea in us all..." ; Dana paramita ; "Ida ja Lääne vaheline piir rändab ikka, vahel itta, vahel läände..." = "The East-West border is always wandering..." ; "Pesu ei saa kunagi pestud..." = "The washing never gets home..." ; "Neli ja pool tonni sileesia sütt..." = "Four-and-a-half tons of Silesian coal..." ; "Ei teagi, kas ma tohin rääkida roheline..." = "I don't even know if I have the right to say "green"..." ; "Maailmu on nii palju kui liivateri mere ääres..." = "There are as many worlds as grains of sand on a beach..." ; "Viimane pilv läheb üle taeva läänest itta..." = "A last cloud goes over the sky from West to East..." ; "Taevas on pilves. Soe tuul tuleb hõlma alla..." = "The sky is overcast. The warm wind is creeping under your shirt..." ; "Mu tädi tundis neid hästi, mina ei tea..." = "My aunt knew them well, I know of them..." ; "Hommikul tutvustati mind president Mitterrandile..." = "In the morning, I was presented to President Mitterrand..." ; "Meri ei taha lainetada. Tuul ei taha puhuda..." = "The sea doesn't want to wave...".Poems written in English: "Om svabhavasuddhah sarva dharmah. No selfhood..." ; "My little boy..." ; "After many bitterly cold days..." ; "You can forget nature..." ; I walk facing East..." ; "A skier going south..."
In India, the conclusion from experience of the URMUL Rural Health Research and Development Trust is that literacy involves attitude change. In remote and rural areas in Rajasthan parents see no need for literacy when .01% of women in 24 villages cannot read and write. The female literacy rate in Bikaner District is 17.57%; the annual population growth rate is 4.2%. Rajasthan had the lowest literacy rate in India in 1991 (20.84% vs. 39.52% for all India). There are many examples of traditional customs that place women in inferior positions: the wearing of the ghunghat (a thin veil) when men are around; confinement to the house even in illness; the belief that a girl is another's wealth, so why bother investing in her? The definition of a good wife is one who is willing to walk 10 km to fetch water. The desert habitat forces a demanding existence which does not leave much room for education. In degraded habitats, women's work is increased, and their girl helpers are also encumbered. In the government school at Mithariya, only 15 girls out of 125 students attend school. The URMUL program in a nonformal school has better girl enrollment (14 out of 25 children), but when the weather is good, the girls are working on the farms. In the village of 4BGM, a trust school is run by the Shiksha-Karmi Program of the state government; funding has come from the Swedish Development Authority. Teachers are recruited from the local population because of the remoteness of the area. Female teachers with 5-8 years of formal schooling are difficult to find and are instrumental in securing girl students, when parents refuse to send their daughters unless there is a female teacher. The importance of having female teachers was recognized in 1991 by the Ramamurti Committee of Education, which recommended at least 50% of teachers at all educational levels, be women. In 4BGM village, Sharada Devi was the only female teacher available, because husbands would not allow their wives to teach. An
Gencer, Nevzat G; Akalin-Acar, Zeynep
The isolated problem approach (IPA) is a method used in the boundary element method (BEM) to overcome numerical inaccuracies caused by the high-conductivity difference in the skull and the brain tissues in the head. Haemaelaeinen and Sarvas (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 165-71) described how the source terms can be updated to overcome these inaccuracies for a three-layer head model. Meijs et al (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 1038-49) derived the integral equations for the general case where there are an arbitrary number of layers inside the skull. However, the IPA is used in the literature only for three-layer head models. Studies that use complex boundary element head models that investigate the inhomogeneities in the brain or model the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) do not make use of the IPA. In this study, the generalized formulation of the IPA for multi-layer models is presented in terms of integral equations. The discretized version of these equations are presented in two different forms. In a previous study (Akalin-Acar and Gencer 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 5011-28), we derived formulations to calculate the electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography transfer matrices assuming a single layer in the skull. In this study, the transfer matrix formulations are updated to incorporate the generalized IPA. The effects of the IPA are investigated on the accuracy of spherical and realistic models when the CSF layer and a tumour tissue are included in the model. It is observed that, in the spherical model, for a radial dipole 1 mm close to the brain surface, the relative difference measure (RDM*) drops from 1.88 to 0.03 when IPA is used. For the realistic model, the inclusion of the CSF layer does not change the field pattern significantly. However, the inclusion of an inhomogeneity changes the field pattern by 25% for a dipole oriented towards the inhomogeneity. The effect of the IPA is also investigated when there is an inhomogeneity in the brain. In addition