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Sample records for sari city iran

  1. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus.

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    Hedayati, Mohammad T; Mayahi, Sabah; Denning, David W

    2010-09-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic patients' houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus. Open plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n = 360) and outdoor (n = 180) air of 90 asthmatic patients' houses living in Sari City, Iran. Plates were incubated at room temperature for 7-14 days. Cultured Aspergillus spp. were identified by standard mycological techniques. All culture plates grew fungi, a testament to the ubiquitous nature of fungal exposure. Cladosporium spp. (29.2%), Aspergillus spp. (19.0%), and Penicillium spp. (18.3%) were most common inside the houses while Cladosporium spp. (44.5%), Aspergillus spp. (12.4%), and Alternaria spp. (11.1%) were most common outside the houses. Aspergillus flavus (30.1%) and A. fumigatus (23.1%) are the most commonly isolated species in indoor air. Aspergillus flavus (44.5%) and A. fumigatus (42.6%) were the most prevalent Aspergillus spp. outside. The most colony numbers of Aspergillus were isolated from kitchens (30.4%) and the least from bedrooms (21.1%). Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species in all sampled rooms except in the kitchen where A. fumigatus was the most common. Aspergillus flavus is the most prevalent species among the Aspergillus spp. in the indoor and outdoor of a warm climate area. In these areas, A. flavus can be a major source of allergen in the air. Therefore, minimizing indoor fungal exposure could play an important role in reducing allergic symptoms in susceptible persons.

  2. Dietary habits in adolescent girls of Sari (Mazandaran Province, Iran

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    A. Khalilian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: An appropriate nutrition throughout the lifespan is important. As adolescent girls nutrition status can affect community health in future. We decide to determine the frequency and composition of food from different groups of foods in adolescent girls of Sari (North of Iran.Materials and Methods: In the winter of 2004, 240 adolescent girls (14-18 years of age from Sari high schools were randomly selected and food frequency questionnaires were completed. Also they were asked about their meals and snacks. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 software and the charts were drown using Microsoft Excel software.Results: The results indicated that the most consumed foods in groups of meats, dairies, grains and potatoes, vegetables, fruits and junky foods were egg, yoghurt, rice, tomato, citrus and chocolate respectively.Conclusion: This survey showed Sari adolescent girls dietary habits (in the winter, and it could be a part of studies to design a food program for them.

  3. Parasitic contamination of surface and deep soil in different areas of Sari in north of Iran

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    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic contamination of soil in selected areas of Sari, north of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify all available parasites in surface and deep soil. In this study 580 soil samples (278 deep soil and 302 topsoil samples from 21 different locations were collected from pathways, parks, greenhouses, estates around the city, cemetery, main squares, farmlands, fenced gardens and seashores. Depending on the soil type, two samples were prepared, from surface and deep soil at the depth of 3 to 5 cm. After performing various stages of preparation, including cleaning and washing, smoothing and flotation, parasitic elements were examined microscopically and quantitative parasite counting was done using a McMaster slide. Results: The results showed that the highest rate of parasitic contamination was related to nematodes larvae (26.11%. Other contaminants such as Entamoeba and Acanthamoeba cysts, vacuolization Blastocystis hominis form, oocyte containing sporocysts, Toxascaris eggs, nematoda larvae, Hymenolepis eggs, Ascaris eggs, Fasciola eggs, hookworm eggs, Toxocara eggs, insects' larvae and other ciliated and flagellated organisms were also observed. The results of this study showed that the highest contamination was found in public garden (25.80% both in surface (29.30% and in deep soil (21.12%, while the lowest level of contamination was observed in seashore surface soil (4.90%. Conclusions: The results showed that soil can provide a potential medium for the spread of soil transmitted parasitic diseases in the environment; therefore, preventive programs are needed.

  4. Continuation rates and reasons for discontinuing TCu380A IUD use in Sari, Iran.

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    Khademloo, Mohamad; Ghasemian, Roya; Yasari, Mandana

    2008-06-01

    This study reports results from a 60-month study on the use of TCu380A IUD among 400 women in Sari, Iran. The aim of this study was to assess a sample of women in our region who requested removal of their IUD, continuation rates use and reason for discontinuation. This is a cohort study on 400 women who using the TCu380A IUD and referred to medical health centers of Sari/Iran from May 1999 to May 2006. We randomly selected one half of all health and medical centers in Sari (a total of 20 centers). At each selected center, we randomly sampled 10% of all IUD subjects whose insertion occurred between May 1999 and May 2006. Obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Continuation rates at the end of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 96.3, 81.5, 79.2 and 18 per 100, respectively. Median survival time was about 37 months. Among women using the TCu380A IUD, the rate of termination due to bleeding was significantly higher than the rate of termination due to other causes. These findings indicate that family planning educators and health care providers should give more emphasis to counseling programs for women desiring IUD insertion and during follow-up.

  5. Parasitic contamination of surface and deep soil in different areas of Sari in north of Iran

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    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi; Ahmad Daryani; Nastaran Amani Kelarijani; Mina Eskandari Shahraki; Beheshteh Haghparast Kenari; Mohammad Saaid Dayer; Najla Hamidianfar; Fatemeh Ghaffarifar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the parasitic contamination of soil in selected areas of Sari, north of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify all available parasites in surface and deep soil. In this study 580 soil samples (278 deep soil and 302 topsoil samples) from 21 different locations were collected from pathways, parks, greenhouses, estates around the city, cemetery, main squares, farmlands, fenced gardens and seashores. Depending on the soil type, two samples were prepared, from surface and deep soil at the depth of 3 to 5 cm. After performing various stages of preparation, including cleaning and washing, smoothing and flotation, parasitic elements were examined microscopically and quantitative parasite counting was done using a McMaster slide. Results:The results showed that the highest rate of parasitic contamination was related to nematodes larvae (26.11%). Other contaminants such asEntamoeba andAcanthamoeba cysts, vacuolizationBlastocystis hominis form, oocyte containing sporocysts,Toxascaris eggs, nematoda larvae,Hymenolepis eggs,Ascaris eggs,Fasciola eggs, hookworm eggs,Toxocara eggs, insects' larvae and other ciliated and flagellated organisms were also observed. The results of this study showed that the highest contamination was found in public garden (25.80%) both in surface (29.30%) and in deep soil (21.12%), while the lowest level of contamination was observed in seashore surface soil (4.90%). Conclusions:The results showed that soil can provide a potential medium for the spread of soil transmitted parasitic diseases in the environment; therefore, preventive programs are needed.

  6. A survey on the pathogenic fungi in soil samples of potted plants from Sari hospitals, Iran.

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    Hedayati, M T; Mohseni-Bandpi, A; Moradi, S

    2004-09-01

    A total of 23 soil samples of potted plants was collected from hospitals in Sari, Iran. Each sample contained approximately 200 g soil, taken from a depth of 0-10 cm of the pots. Samples were analysed by two different methods. (1) Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol (SC); cultured fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic characterization. (2) The hair-baiting technique (HBT) was used to isolate the keratinophilic fungi. After culture on SC medium, 100% of plates were positive for fungal growth, and in total 1150 colonies with 13 different types of fungi were isolated. Penicillium spp. (52%), Acremonium spp. (20%), Paecilomyces spp. (11.9%), Cladsporium spp. (3.7%) and Aspergillus spp. (3.1%) were the predominant fungal species. Rhizopus spp. (0.1%) were less frequent. Keratinophilic fungi such as Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum cookei and Chrysosporium spp. were isolated using HBT. The presence of pathogenic fungi such as Cladosporium spp, Aspergillus spp, M. gypseum, and M. cookei in potted plants in hospitals represents a potential source of nosocomial infection.

  7. Obesity and related factors in 7-12 year-old elementary school students during 2009-2010 in Sari, Iran

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    Salar Behzadnia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To define the prevalence of obesity and its related factors in 2-7 year-old elementary school students in Sari city (Mazandaran, Iran. Methods In this descriptive cross sectional study, which was conducted in the 2009-2010 period, the study population included7-12 year-old first to fifth grade elementary school students in Sari. Sampling was multi-stage and stratified randomization at level of the target students. Student’s height and weight were measured using stediometer and digital scales. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. A questionnaire about feeding habits and socio-economic status(SES of families was used. Data collection was performed using phone interview with parents also the questionnaire’s records. Analysis was done in SPSS16 using appropriate statistical tests, p85% and 78 (12% were obese (BMI> 95%. Higher prevalence of obesity in the children with good socio economic status was found (p=0.001. Significant relationship between usage of fast food and obesity, and between school grade and obesity (p= 0.001 was found. Conclusion The overall prevalence of obesity in studied children was high, which suggests the need for serious attention in the health system, extensive studies, also designing and implementation of interventions with regard to childhood obesity.

  8. Sexual Dysfunction and Help Seeking Behaviors in Newly Married Men in Sari City: a Descriptive

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    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for people's general health. The aim of this study was to determine the status of sexual function and help-seeking behaviors in newly married men. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 363 newly married men. Simple random sampling was used according to premarital counseling offices in the health center of Sari city. Data collection instruments included personal and social characteristics, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX, and help-seeking behaviors questionnaires. In order to determine the relationship between characteristics and sexual function, general linear model and also between socio-demographic characteristics and receiving or lack of receiving help, multivariate logistic regression test were used. Results: The mean of sexual function score was 21.3 (2.7 out of possible 5-30, and 26% of men suffered sexual dysfunction. The highest prevalence (27.2% of dysfunction was in the dimension of sexual stimulation, and the lowest (15.7% in maintaining erection. For the treatment of sexual dysfunction, only 32% men had sought help, and 40% of them had visited specialists. The most frequent reasons for not seeking help were feeling uncomfortable with doctor, and their belief that doctor is not able to do much. 65% of men desired to be treated. Conclusion: The results demonstrated relatively high prevalence of sexual dysfunction among men, and unfortunately, most of them did not seek help for their sexual problem. Since Sexual dysfunction can leave damaging effects on the quality of life and marital relationship, interventions to deal with these challenges and screening to identify such problems appear necessary.

  9. Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Hemodialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Sari, Iran

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    Seyyedpour, Seyyed Hosein; Afshar, Parvaneh; Barzegarnejad, Ayoub; Kalhori, Shamsi; Agah, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii has worldwide distribution and is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in humans. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the hemodialysis unit of Fatemeh Zahra hospital at the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari, Iran. Methods Seventy-three patients with CKD and 145 healthy volunteers were assessed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii (IgG, IgM, and IgA) antibodies using a conventional ELISA technique. Results The anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody was detected in 80.8% of the cases in the patient group, while 31.5% of the cases in the CKD patient group and 31.8% in the control group were found to be positive for the anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgA antibody. All the patients in the CKD group were negative for the anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibody, although 2.76% of the healthy volunteers were found to be positive. The present study suggests that there was no significant difference between the hemodialysis patient group and the healthy volunteers. Conclusions The epidemiological data collected in this study could serve as a reference for future studies and may be useful in developing preventive and educational strategies, and consequently reducing healthcare expenditure. PMID:27896240

  10. Pro-environmental analysis of farmers' concerns and behaviors towards soil conservation in central district of Sari County, Iran

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    Masoud Bijani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to pro-environmentally analyze farmers' concerns and behaviors towards soil conservation. This research was a descriptive, causal, and correlational and conducted through a survey technique. The study population consisted of all farmers at the central district of Sari county, Iran (N=9621. Based on the Cochran's formula, 120 farmers were selected using stratified random sampling. The instrument employed in this study was a questionnaire with its validity being confirmed by a number of academic experts and agriculture specialists and its reliability being proved using Cronbach's alpha coefficients in a pilot study (outside the scope of the current study. (0.66≤α≤0.90. The results of the analysis regarding the effects of independent variables on the variables "soil conservation behavior" and "soil conservation concern" indicated that, among the variables affecting these two variables, the variable "attitude towards soil conservation "was the most powerful predictor of "soil conservation concerns" and the variable "social pressures on soil conservation" predicted farmers' "soil conservation behaviors" better. Furthermore, the independent variables used in this research could predict 42% of the variance in terms of soil conservation concern and 21% of the variance in terms of soil conservation behavior. These findings can be practical and appropriate for executive officials since, instead of making efforts to direct change the behavior, they can first focus on conceptual changes and persuasive changes like changing attitudes towards soil conservation.

  11. Report of thirty one admissions due to adverse drug reactions inBo-Ali Sina hospital, Sari, Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Rafati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , (Received 16 May, 2009 ; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Mortality rate due to ADRs are ahead of pulmonary disease, AIDS, pneumonia and automobile accidents. This study evaluated the admission rates in a University teaching hospital related to ADRs.Materials and methods: During this retrospective study between 2001 and 2007, all patients admitted due to adverse drug reaction in Sari Bo-Ali Sina Hospital were evaluated.Results: In these years, 31 patients out of 71,680 were admitted, due to ADRs. Most common ADRs were skin reaction (74% and fever (22%. Phenobarbital and penicillin were the most common drugs causing ADRs.Conclusion: Only 0.04% of hospital admissions were drug related, while reported admission due to ADRs in other countries were 2.4 to 6.2%. It appears that less drug-depended hospital admissions in Iran rational drug administration, but are due to lack of enough detection, records and reporting procedures.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(71: 67-70 (Persian.

  12. Determination of target Exchange rate for the comparative advantage of Iran crops (A Case of Sari Township

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    Mohammad Reza Pakravan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the value of exchange rate was calculated inorder to determine comparative advantage in crops of SariTownship during 2009-2010. Hence, first, comparative advantageindices are estimated by using a policy analysis matrix. Theresults showed that just wheat has a DRC index of one in theminimum amount of national currency exchange rate value.This indicated the fact that only wheat, compared to Rice,Soybean, Canola and Barley in this region, can compete withglobal markets and had a social profitable production system.Therefore, it is recommended that executive policies, whichmake competitive ability in wheat, should also be applied forother products.

  13. Antibiotic resistance of Helycobacter pylori isolated from patients admitted to Imam Hospital, Sari, IRAN, 2002-2003

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    F. Naghshvar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : -Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative spiral bacilus which infects gastric mucosa and causes a wide range of gastro intestinal diseases.Unfortunately the prevalence of the infection by this organism in developing countries is high and despite numerous existing drug regimens, treatment fails to eradicate the organism in many occasions. To reach an effective and curative regimen, invitro determination of suscepibility and resistance of the organism, to various antimicrobials, is pradent. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori,s isolated from cultures. Biopsies from 67 patients admitted to the Sari Imam Hospital were used to cultur Helicobacter pylori and determine their susceptibility and resistance to metronidazole, claritromycin and amoxycillin.Materials and methods : Disc diffusion tecniqu was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration , (MIC and resistance pattern of the isolated Helicobacter pylori.In this method we used the cutoff point of MIC 90 ie , a concentration at which 90% or more of culture plates show inhibition zone around the antimicrobial test disc. Results : MIC 90 for amoxycillin and claritramycin in our study was 0.25 g/ml and all isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin. Only one isolate was resistant to claritramycin. MIC 90 for metronidzole was 16 and 4 resistant cases were isolated.Conclusion : This stndy showed low level of resistance to metronidazole and claritramycin which were comparable to the reported results from other studies. No resistance was observed to amoxycillin which was also the same as other reported results. According to the pattern of antimicrobial resistance, we can recommend the studied drugs, against Helicobacter pylori.

  14. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A,B, and C and Hepatitis B vaccination status Among Health Care Workers in SariIran . 2003

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    MR. Mahdavi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Health care workers (HCW,s are at increased risk of hepatitis viruses infection .Seroprevalence rates of hepatitis B and C viruses ( HBV,HCV are higher among HCWs .Universal precautions to prevent the transmission of infections during medical cares along with vaccination are recommended or even mandatory in most countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HAV , anti–HCV ,and anti-HBs antibodies,and HBV vaccination status in a general teaching hospital HCWs in Sari-Iran .Materials and methods : Between June to October 2003, questionnaire was used, data extracted from medical records, and serology by ELISA method for anti-HAV, anti-HBs anti-HCV, and-HBs-Ag in those HCWs with negative anti-HBs. HBV vaccination status were recorded . Seroprovalence rates of HBs-Ag and anti-HCV antibody were compared with those detected in blood donors during the same period.Results : Totally 263 HCWs and 17 kitchen staff were participated in the study. Anti –HAV, anti-HBs , anti-HCV ,and HBs-Ag were detected in 90.36% ,87.5% ,0.37% and 0.74% of the subjects respectively. HBs-Ag and anti-HCV were detected in 4.8% and 0.83% of blood donors, respectively. 61.9 % of HCWs completed their HBV vaccine series and 72.7% of non-vaccinated HCWs developed anti-HBs antibody.Conclusion : These data showed that the prevalence of HBs-Ag and anti-HCV in HCWs was lower than general population. HAV infection was hyperendemic. HBV infection was higher among non-vaccinated personnel, and more than 1/3 of HCWs did not complete their vaccination, so, mandatory HBV vaccination, is recommended.

  15. Optimal Cropping Pattern Based on Multiple Economic, Regional, and Agricultural Sustainability Criteria in Sari, Iran: Application of a Consolidated Model of AHP and Linear Programming

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    E. Fallahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining a suitable cropping pattern is an important task for planners and requires an exact and realistic decision-making process based on several goals and criteria corresponding to secure the interest of agricultural beneficiaries in long-term. Accordingly, this study reviews the current pattern operated by farmers in Sari, Iran, and intends to provide a cropping pattern that considers the multifold regional and agricultural sustainability criteria along with economic considerations. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the study goals, a consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming was applied. For this purpose, we constructed a three-level AHP, including a goal (determining the weight of each crop, seven criteria, and seven alternatives. Profitability, compatibility with regional and geographical conditions, water consumption, environmental effects of cropping, job creation opportunities, skill and proficiency required for producing a crop, and risk taken to cultivate a crop were considered as the criteria in the model. Seven alternative crops including rice, wheat, rapeseed, barley, soybean, clover, and vegetables were considered too. The next step is determining the weight of each criterion with regard to the goal and the weight of each alternative with regard to each criteria. By multiplying these weights, final weights for various crops were obtained from the model. Derived weights for each crop were then applied as objective function coefficients in the Linear Programming model and the model was solved subject to the constraints. Results and Discussion: Optimal cropping pattern determined based on the consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming and the results compared to a scenario that only looks forward to maximizing the economic interests. Due to the low profitability of rapeseed and barley, these crops eliminated from the pattern in the profit-maximizing scenario. According to the results, the

  16. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. as Neglected Parasites in North of Iran

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    Shokri, Azar; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, is widely distributed in the environment, water sources, soil, dust, and air. It can cause keratitis in contact lens wearers with poor hygiene and also fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to gain some insights into the distribution and genotypes of the potentially pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba present in water sources in north of Iran. Total 43 Acanthamoeba species were isolated from 77 water samples taken from different water sources within the Mazandaran province in Northern Iran (Sari city and suburbs). Isolates were identified based on cyst and trophozoite morphological characteristics as well genetics. PCR fragments corresponding to the small-subunit 18S rRNA gene were sequenced for 20 of 43 positive isolates. The results revealed that 83.3% of sequenced isolates belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T2 genotype. Our results indicated that Acanthamoeba is widely distributed in Sari city. As the incidence in Iran of amoebic keratitis has increased in recent years, the exact estimation of the prevalence of this amoeba and its predominant genotype may play a crucial role in prevention of the disease. Sari city has several rivers, seashores, and natural recreational amenities, which attract visitors during the year. This is the first report of Acanthamoeba genotypes from water sources in Sari city, Mazandaran province of Iran, and the results suggest that more attention is needed to protect the visiting population and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:27658596

  17. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. as Neglected Parasites in North of Iran.

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    Shokri, Azar; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, is widely distributed in the environment, water sources, soil, dust, and air. It can cause keratitis in contact lens wearers with poor hygiene and also fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to gain some insights into the distribution and genotypes of the potentially pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba present in water sources in north of Iran. Total 43 Acanthamoeba species were isolated from 77 water samples taken from different water sources within the Mazandaran province in Northern Iran (Sari city and suburbs). Isolates were identified based on cyst and trophozoite morphological characteristics as well genetics. PCR fragments corresponding to the small-subunit 18S rRNA gene were sequenced for 20 of 43 positive isolates. The results revealed that 83.3% of sequenced isolates belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T2 genotype. Our results indicated that Acanthamoeba is widely distributed in Sari city. As the incidence in Iran of amoebic keratitis has increased in recent years, the exact estimation of the prevalence of this amoeba and its predominant genotype may play a crucial role in prevention of the disease. Sari city has several rivers, seashores, and natural recreational amenities, which attract visitors during the year. This is the first report of Acanthamoeba genotypes from water sources in Sari city, Mazandaran province of Iran, and the results suggest that more attention is needed to protect the visiting population and immunocompromised individuals.

  18. The study of the relationship between value creation and customer loyalty with the role of trust moderation and customer satisfaction in Sari hospitals

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    Rahmani, Zienolabedin; Ranjbar, Mansour; Gara, Ali Asgar Nadi; gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari

    2017-01-01

    Background Healthcare providers are competitive, owing to heightened customers’ awareness and expectations of health care services. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between customer value creation and loyalty with mediator trust and customer satisfaction. Methods This is a cross sectional survey study. Participants were 196 patients referred to private hospitals in Sari city, Iran from May to June 2014 which were selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected using questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling software Smart PLS. Results The results revealed a relationship between customer value creation and customer loyalty in a Sari city private hospital, and customer satisfaction and trust, mediate the relationship between customer value creation and customer loyalty. The results also revealed significant positive relationship between customer satisfaction and trust (p=0.000 r=0.585). Conclusion customer satisfaction and trust mediate the relationship between customer value creation and customer loyalty. PMID:28848619

  19. The study of the relationship between value creation and customer loyalty with the role of trust moderation and customer satisfaction in Sari hospitals.

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    Rahmani, Zienolabedin; Ranjbar, Mansour; Gara, Ali Asgar Nadi; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari

    2017-06-01

    Healthcare providers are competitive, owing to heightened customers' awareness and expectations of health care services. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between customer value creation and loyalty with mediator trust and customer satisfaction. This is a cross sectional survey study. Participants were 196 patients referred to private hospitals in Sari city, Iran from May to June 2014 which were selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected using questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling software Smart PLS. The results revealed a relationship between customer value creation and customer loyalty in a Sari city private hospital, and customer satisfaction and trust, mediate the relationship between customer value creation and customer loyalty. The results also revealed significant positive relationship between customer satisfaction and trust (p=0.000 r=0.585). customer satisfaction and trust mediate the relationship between customer value creation and customer loyalty.

  20. The roles of factors affecting learning spaces with an emphasis on primary schools (Case study: Schools located in Sari –provincial capital of Mazandaran, Iran

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    Shaqayeq Najafi Bayekolaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Education and creatingincentives forlearningare important educational and cognitive issues to be consideredingrowing the country's futuregeneration. This research aimed to study the creation of learning spaces that are desirable qualitatively and quantitatively, also to identify standards through which the relations between visual quality and structural features could be promoted to the highest level. This is a descriptive – analytical research study that can be classified as applied research. In this research, 389 primary school teachers and workers (in Sari, involving 60% women and 34% men, were selected by cluster sampling and the analyses were conducted using SPSS 16. The results indicate that individual and social factors (developing a sense ofcalm in students by building relationshipsbetweenteachers and students 56%, the effect of individual factors and understanding the differences existing among students 53.7% , and the effect of current limitations in learning spaces compared with homes 52%, as well as qualitative factors (attention to aesthetic qualities in school building and furniture compared with traditional simple schools 49%, the availability of educational facilities including salons with equipment necessary for doing visual arts and various sports and availability of modernrecreational facilities designed in schools for different contests 48.7%, and the effect of colors used in the design of external and internal walls specifically happy colors 43.4%are the most determining factors affecting the extent to which students welcome schools. However, individual and social factors showed to have a little more effect on learning spaces than qualitative variables.

  1. Study of the Resistance of Escherichia Coli Which Creates Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections to Ciprofloxacin and Co-Trimoxazole Antibiotics in Sari Hospitals, Iran

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    Ghasemian Roya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Escherichia coli is the most important etiologic factor in urinary tract infection (UTI, which is becoming resistant to the common antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of this bacterium to the antibiotics that are commonly used. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study conducted in patients with uncomplicated UTI referring to Sari hospitals during 2013-2014. For this purpose, samples that had positive urine culture were selected and evaluated with antibiogram. In addition, E-Test MIC method was used for antibiotics ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 101 patients studied, 83 (82.2% were females and 18 (17.8% were male. The mean age of patients was 40.32 ± 3.22 years. The most sensitivity was seen to nitrofurantoin (92.07%, gentamicin (76.23%. Most resistance was also seen to the antibiotics amoxicillin (74.25%, co-trimoxazole (64.35% and ciprofloxacin (36.63%. In E-Test MIC method, 23.7% were resistant to the ciprofloxacin and 43.5% to co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: Due to the high antibiotic resistance that was observed to ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole in this study, it seems a better alternative antibiotic such as nitrofurantoin should be used for the empirical treatment of patients with UTIs.

  2. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Hamadan City, Western Iran

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    M Fallah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in humans. The prevalence of infection in Iran has been reported between 2 to 8%, depending on deferent socio-cultural conditions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in women referred to gynecologic clinics in Hamadan city, West of Iran.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 750 women who referred to Gyneco­logic clinics in Hamadan from November 2010 to July 2011. Vaginal samples were obtained from them and examined by wet mount and culture methods for the detection of T. vaginalis.Results: Sixteen out of 750 vaginal swab specimens (2.1% were culture positive for T. vaginalis and 13 of these positive specimens (1.7% were wet mount positive. Only 12 of 42 patients who were clinically diagnosed as having T. vaginalis infection, confirmed by culture method. Five hundred and fifty of the participants women (73.3% had at least one of signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis. No statistical correlation was observed between clinical manifestations and parasitological results (p>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed low prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in the study population. Since clinical signs of trichomonal vaginitis are the same of other STDs, a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis is necessary. Wet smear as well as culture are sensitive for detection of T. vaginalis.

  3. Level of Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women of Kashan City, Iran

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    Nekooi M.S. BSc; Ayazi Sh. BSc,; Gandomi M. BSc,; Moosavi S.Gh. MSc,; Fakhri A.* PhD

    2016-01-01

    Aims A few studies concentrate on the level of knowledge of HPV. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of knowledge about HPV, its risk factors, and its relation with cervical cancer in women of Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2015 in the population of the women of Kashan City, Iran, and 200 persons were selected by simple sampling method. The level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer were ...

  4. A Survey on PET Recycling Problems in Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Omrani, S Nasseri, A H Mahvi, Y Ghafuri

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling process is developed in communities to decrease the volume of high solid wastes and prevent environmental pollution. Plastic is one of the most recyclable materials in municipal solid wastes (MSW with a high rate of application during the last decades. PET (poly ethylene therphtalate is one of the basic plastic compounds which are used in a variety of products such as textile fibers, bottles and other containers. Methods for PET recycling include mechanical and chemical processes and PET incineration. In this study which was conducted on MSW analysis in Qom (a city in the central region of Iran, known for increase of population and high migration, environmental pollutions such as high quantity of MSW, industries and vehicle contamination, noise pollution and municipal sewage, physical analysis of MSW was carried out to four geographical sites and in different seasons of the year 2002. Results showed the rate of PET production to be 0.44% of the total MSW production, depending on site characteristics and area, time and cultural specifications. It is concluded that approximately 700 tons of PET plastics are buried per year

  5. Cyclical mastalgia: Prevalence and associated determinants in Hamadan City, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri; Khodayar Oshvandi; Mansour Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess prevalence of cyclical mastalgia and its main determinants in women who attended in health centers of Hamadan City, Iran.Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 400 women(case: cyclical mastalgia, n = 240; control: without cyclical mastalgia, n = 160) who attended family planning clinic for routine follow-up in health centers. The cluster sampling was used.Information was collected by interviewing and using a standardized validated questionnaire. Severity of mastalgia was assessed through using visual analog scaling. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed by using SPSS 19.0.Results: The results revealed that majority of women(60.0%) experienced cyclical mastalgia.Out of these, 22.5% and 37.5% were mild and moderate-to-severe mastalgia, respectively. No association was revealed in experience of depression and anxiety in mastalgia group. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the increasing age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome were main determinants of mastalgia, while use of oral contraceptive and regular exercise was associated with lower incidence of mastalgia.Conclusions: Most of women with breast discomfort suffered cyclical mastalgia which severity can be determined by advanced age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome, but inversely by oral contraceptive use and exercise activity.

  6. Prevalence of skin disorders in Sari, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hajheydari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Skin disorders are the most common preseting health problems. According to dermatological researches, only scant studies estimated the prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of skin diseases in Sari, Mazandaran, North of Iran.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on all of the patients referred to Boo-Ali Sina hospital in Sari, in 2003-2004. All data such as diagnosis of skin problem, age, sex, marrital status and job were recorded. Diagnoses were classified according to the international classification of diseases (ICD-10. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics using SPSS software.Results: A total of 4460 patients with mean age of 28.01±16.2 years including 1807 (40.4% men and 2653 (59.7% women were studied. Most of the patients (33.4% referred in summer. The most common observed skin disease was appendices disorders (24% the most common of which acne (55.8% and androgenic alopecia (30%. The second common problem was infections (23.3% and dermatitis (19.8% was the third. Irritant contact dermatitis (82.7% was the most common form of dermatitis.Conclusion: We found that prevalence and distribution of skin disorders in the study area are different from those of other parts of Iran. More studies are needed to identify common skin disorders in Iran.

  7. A survey on medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rahimpour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Studying medicine consumption is a significant parameter in the estimation of the health care system of a country. This study evaluates the amount of medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran and indentifies individual factors that influence this consumption.
    Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey of public medicine consumption was directed at random samples that counted 628 persons of fifteen years and older in several public places in the mega cities of Iran. The data were collected through questionnaires administered at the public vaccination department of the Pasteur institute of Iran in Tehran, and in other public places in Esfahan. A multiple regression model was utilized to analyze individual information.
    Results: Our results showed that 59.4% of the respondents were current medicine consumers. Women used medicines less frequently. The rates of medicine consumption among the surveyed population, for daily and weekly-monthly consumption, were 21.8% and 37.6% respectively. In Iran, it emerged that 52.4% of the respondents obtained their medicines, such as acetaminophen antibiotics, and pain-killers, without a prescription.
    Conclusions: the study clearly showed that more than 53% of the medicine consuming persons undertake self treatment. Three factors gender, age and income level are the main factors influencing medicines consumed without physicians’ prescription in the mega cities of Iran.

  8. A reconnaissance study of radon concentration in Hamadan city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabari Vasal, Naghi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 107.87 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this reconnaissance study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993, although further work is required to confirm these results. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable 'surficial' deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats to distribute water underground, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings. Keywords: Radon; health; dwellings; clay floors; alluvial fan; surficial geology; Hamadan; Iran

  9. Hazing Iran: Satellite Imagery, Human Rights, and City as Camp

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Amy

    2014-01-01

    As perhaps most obviously evidenced in the political maneuverings that led up to the second Gulf War in 2003, the use of satellite imagery to document spatial terrain is often, and almost instantly, politicized. In the two images presented here, this politicization takes on a two-way relationship and is open to contrasting and inevitably dualistic readings. One way of describing their relationship is as "Target" and "Aftermath". On the left, we have an image of the nuclear plant near the Iran...

  10. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabarivasal, N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  11. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Gillmore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration – these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  12. A Dog with Multiple Infections of Enteric Parasitic Zoonosis in Mashhad City, North-East of Iran; a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran. Patient & Methods: A 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitolog...

  13. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  14. Level of Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekooi M.S. BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims A few studies concentrate on the level of knowledge of HPV. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of knowledge about HPV, its risk factors, and its relation with cervical cancer in women of Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2015 in the population of the women of Kashan City, Iran, and 200 persons were selected by simple sampling method. The level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer were measured using a questionnaire with 10 questions about knowledge. The data was analyzed in SPSS 16 software by Chi-square, Exact Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings Most of the participants (152 persons; 76% had “weak, 26 participants (13% had “moderate” and only 22 participants (11% had “strong” level of knowledge about HPV. There were significant differences between the level of knowledge according to educational level (p=0.014 and professional status (p0.05. In all the questions, the most frequent answer was “don’t know”. The participants had some knowledge about “HPV causing cervical cancer” (34.5%, “HPV causing genital warts” (38%, “sexually transmission of HPV” (37.5% and “increased risk of getting HPV by extramarital sexual affairs” (43.5% Conclusion The level of knowledge about HPV, genital warts, and ways of infection transmission and its preventions in women of Kashan City, Iran, is insufficient.

  15. Access to healthcare resources in the cities of west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The healthcare sector is one of the most important sectors in the development of each country, and the disparities in the distribution of health resources will reduce the level of development. The aim of this study was to examine the physical accessibility and degree of development in healthcare resources in the cities of five western provinces, including Kermanshah, Kurdistan, Ilam, Lorestan and Hamadan by numerical taxonomy method in 2012. Methods: The study sample of this cross-sectional study included 51 cities of five Western provinces of Iran. The physical accessibility and degree of development of healthcare resources were evaluated by numerical taxonomy technique using 23 indicators of health resources. Data were obtained from the statistical yearbooks of provinces in 2012. The data analysis was done by Excel and Arc GIS software. Results: The cities of Kermanshah and Salas-e-Babajani had the highest (F=0.59 and lowest (F=1.07 degree of development in terms of access to healthcare resources, respectively. Also, 50% of Kermanshah cities, 40% of Kurdistan cities, 37.5% of Ilam cities, 40% of Lorestan cities and about 88.8% of Hamadan cities were found to have good and very good status in access to healthcare services.. Conclusion: This study showed a large gap between the cities of one province and among the western provinces in access to healthcare resources.

  16. Epidemiological Study of Ascariasis in Hamadan City , West of Iran, 2001

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    M. Fallah

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite in the world. Various studies has indicated the high prevalence of this parasite in Iran, specially in the west parts of Iran. The epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection is prerequisite for planning of control programs. The Hamadan province is one of the most tourist attraction regions of Iran and providing a safe environment for travelers is the main aim of regional authorities. A mass chemotherapy for Ascariasis performed in rural areas of Hamadan province for a five years period but, no any intervention was done for control of this parasite in the Hamadan city. Therefore, an epidemiological study of Ascariasis in this town was necessary. A cross sectional study carried out by cluster random sampling in Hamadan and 580 stool specimens collected from different parts of city. The stools were examined by formalin ether concentration technique for ova and parasites and intensity of infection was determined by quantitative modified Stoll method. Mean infection rate of Ascariasis was 19.5%. The Farhangian suburb (northern part had higher infection rate than other parts(28.5% and central parts of city showed lower infection rate(12.7%. The highest infection rate were found in the 31-40 years age group (33.8% and in the females(23.9%.In view of intensity, 59.3% of infections were moderate and 48.3% had low intensity. No any high intensity were found. Mean egg per gram(epg were 7129 and 48.7% of eggs were infertile. This study indicated that , prevalence of Ascaris in Hamadan city is considerable at present and a suitable intervention, like health education and selective chemotherapy is necessary to decrease the infection.

  17. Evaluation of Public Awareness about Orthodontic Treatments in Two Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafighi Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most orthodontic patients are children or adolescents. In recent years, orthodontic treatment in adults, also has gained social and professional acceptance. Adults have undoubtable effect on overall treatment demand. Parents are the most powerful single factor in children motivation for treatment. Therefore, parents and other members of the society are expected to have proper knowledge about orthodontic problems. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare public awareness about orthodontic treatment in two cities of Iran. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 17 questions, including general information, suitable age, and costs of orthodontic treatment, was given to 384 subjects. The questionnaire was given to healthcare centers in different districts of both cities in order to justify a homogeneous study sample. The public awareness in two cities was analyzed and compared with independent t-test. Results: There was no significant difference between the two cities in general information and their opinion about the costs of the orthodontic treatment. The difference in public awareness about the proper age for orthodontic treatment was statistically significant between the two cities (p= 0.002. Conclusion: General awareness of people about orthodontic treatment in both cities was not adequate, and in the two cities, high costs of orthodontic treatment were the main problems causing treatment demand reduction. Knowledge of people in Tabriz about proper age of orthodontic treatment was higher.   Key words: Health Care Costs; Health Knowledge; Health Service Needs and Demands; Orthodontics

  18. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshandel, J. [Tehran University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The rationale behind Iran`s support for the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) treaty being negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, is explained. The CTB is seen as crucial to nuclear non-proliferation, again supported by Iran. The Iranian nuclear energy programme exists, it is argued, for peaceful purposes only, despite international suspicions on weapons testing. Foreign policy too, it is argued, has favoured denuclearization of the region. With recent emnities with neighbouring states, and the USA, safeguards in treaties are a high priority. Iran argues for near-term security assurances and long term nuclear disarmament to remove the threat it perceives from the USA. No new states should be allowed to possess nuclear weapons and nuclear arsenals should be gradually eliminated, it is argued. (UK).

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in Eghbalieh city from Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H; Bakht, M; Saghafi, H; Shahsavari, T

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. The prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections was estimated to be 5.92 %. Entamoeba coli was the most common parasite followed by Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis. About 5.15 % of samples contained a single parasite and 0.76 % contained multiple parasites. In this study, the prevalence of intestinal parasites especially helminthic infections was low. The study aimed to estimate prevalence of intestinal parasites in Eghbalieh city from Qazvin Province, Iran.

  20. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The  frequency of  allergic diseases such  as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT by standard extracts of three insect aeroallergens including Mosquito,  Corn  moth,  Cockroach  and  two  species of  mites  as common  aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoid  Farina, Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus were done.SPT results showed that the most common insect aeroallergens were: mosquito (32.6% followed by corn  moth  (26.3% and cockroach (13.7%.The prevalence of SPT positive response to Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus, Dermatophagoid Farina were 8.4% and 7.4%, respectively. These  results  demonstrated  that  sensitization  to  insect  aeroallergens was significantly more common compared to mites in patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd city, a city surrounded by deserts.High prevalence of skin reactivity to mosquito and corn moth as insect aeroallergens in Yazd city with hot and dry climate in contrast to humid regions such as north of Iran, where mites are more frequent, indicates differences in the prevalence of aeroallergen reactivity in various areas with different climates. Our  study could highlight the importance of insect aeroallergens for clinicians for better  diagnosis and management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  1. Analysis the Existence of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Active Water Desalination Plant Output of Kashan City, Iran

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    Hosseindoost Gh. MSc,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims One of the consequences of taking ground water into surface is changing its chemical quality, specially increasing the concentration of dissolved salts. This research was performed in order to analyze growth possibility of heterotrophic bacteria in the membrane of active desalination plants in Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on water output of 20 active desalination plants in 2013 in Kashan City, Iran and 200 specimens of input and output water was randomly extracted from desalination plants. Awareness and education level of system operators, filter changing intervals, HPC of input and output water and chlorine concentration of input and output water were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, McNemar and one-sample T tests. Findings There was a significant relation between the interval time and output HPC level of the plants (p0.05. The mean concentration of chlorine in samples of 20 desalination plants was 0.76±0.44mg/l in input water and 0.64±0.52mg/l in output water (p>0.05. Level of awareness had significant relation with the output water pollution with HPC (p0.05. Conclusion The mean level of HPC

  2. Land Use/Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis in Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dadras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of land use change and urban sprawl has been considered as a prominent characteristic of urban development. This study aims to investigate urban growth process in Bandar Abbas city, Iran, focusing on urban sprawl and land use change during 1956–2012. To calculate urban sprawl and land use changes, aerial photos and satellite images are utilized in different time spans. The results demonstrate that urban region area has changed from 403.77 to 4959.59 hectares between 1956 and 2012. Moreover, the population has increased more than 30 times in last six decades. The major part of population growth is related to migration from other parts the country to Bandar Abbas city. Considering the speed of urban sprawl growth rate, the scale and the role of the city have changed from medium and regional to large scale and transregional. Due to natural and structural limitations, more than 80% of barren lands, stone cliffs, beach zone, and agricultural lands are occupied by built-up areas. Our results revealed that the irregular expansion of Bandar Abbas city must be controlled so that sustainable development could be achieved.

  3. Molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus of bushehr city, southwestern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL represents the most frequent vector borne parasitoses in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological features of CL including human infection and the reservoir host in the city of Bushehr, Bushehr Province, Iran during 2010-2011.Studies on human infection was carried out on 2962 school children aged 7-14 years old from 60 primary schools and among 400 households with a total population of 1568 in four infected districts of the city in December 2010. Serosity materials from patients on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. Rodents were caught by Sherman traps and examined for identification of the parasite.Prevalence of scars and ulcers among the inhabitants were 5.86% and 0.12% respectively. Molecular study indicated the presence of two coexisting species: Leishmania major and L. tropica among patients. The scar rate was 1.24% but no ulcers were seen among the students. Nineteen rodents were caught and identified as Tatera indica (47.4% and Rattus norvegicus (52.6%. Specimens from 7 T. indica and 9 R. norvegicus were examined by two techniques, microscopic examination and nested-PCR. Out of 7 T. indica, 14.3% were infected with L. major and 42.9% with L. turanica by nested-PCR. Out of 9 R. norvegicus 22.2% were infected with L. turanica and 11.1% with L. gerbilli.Based on this survey L. major and L. tropica are the causative agents of the disease among patients and T. indica plays a predominant role in the dissemination of L. major in the city.

  4. An Investigation about obstacles of Mobile Commerce in Iran (A case study in Saravan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqer Kord

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is an investigation about obstacles and challenges in development of mobile commerce in Iran. To notice the present infrastructure and the ratio of high influence of mobile commerce and its availability and being at the hand of common people as one of main tools in mobile commerce, in the world as well as in Iran, people have tendency and are going for mobile commerce and it is also attracting general attentions of people. In this paper it investigate the unique benefits of mobile commerce using a descriptive field survey to access barriers and obstacles which are facing to the development of mobile commerce. Samples and statistical research population are teachers in Saravan city of Sistan and Baluchestan in south of Iran which are using mobile phone for paying light and water bills or doing business and financial transactions. The samples were choosing among 300 of so-call teachers which selected in order random tools of data collection was questionnaire which collected after 15 days. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. The result of this analysis is showing that information technology, in the development of mobile commerce is facing many problems and challenges such as: the limitation in extension of internet band, inappropriate user accepted connector mobile equipments, none existence of using mobile commerce culture in trade, lack of the security feeling for users technical equipment limitations and also mobile network stability. And scale of importance of each one from the view of users is different. At the end to overcome these problems and barriers and to accelerate the development of mobile commerce which is the requirement of the modern life, with the results based on and come out from the present paper some strategies are going to be shown.

  5. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  6. Toxocara Spp. Eggs in Public Parks of Urmia City, West Azer¬baijan Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Charesaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The visceral larva migrans (VLM is a syndrome observed in human infection with helminth larval eggs such as the Toxocara spp. that usually infects dogs and cats. Among the risk factors involved in the occurrence of VLM, partic­ularly importance of these animal populations, an investigation was carried out for the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks in the city of Urmia, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran."nMethods: Samples were collected from total 26 existing public parks in Urmia from December 2003 to March 2004. Soil samples were collected from 3-4 distinct sites in the same area. The floating material was analyzed under the light micro­scope."nResults: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 8 samples of total 102 taken samples from 26 public parks showed a contami­nation rate of 7.8%. The number of observed Toxacara eggs in each microscopic field was varied from 1-8."nConclusion: Low rate of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in Urmia parks might be due to lower dog population and cultural differences of present study in this city in comparison of other cities of the world.

  7. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Spp. In Diarrheic Children from Gonbad Kavoos City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra SHARBATKHORI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium is an intestinal protozean parasite causing water­borne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. The present study was per­formed in order to find prevalence and subtypes of Cryptosporidium among children with diarrhea in Gonbad Kavoos City, Northern Iran.Methods: Diarrheic samples were collected from 547 children. The initial parasitologi­cal diagnosis was made based on detection of oocysts using the modi­fied Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining method. The positive microscopically samples were selected for sequence analysis of partial 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Results: Out of 547 collected samples, 27 (4.94% were positive for Cryptosporid­ium oocysts. Fifteen from 27 positive samples successfully amplified in PCR. Se­quences analysis of gp60 gene in 15 Cryptosporidium isolates revealed that all of them (100% were C. parvum. The results showed three subtypes of IIa subtype family (7 cases including IIaA16G2R1, IIaA17G1R1, IIaA22G3R1 and one subtype of IId subtype family (8 cases. The most common allele was IId A17G1d (53.3%. Conclusion: The predominance of zoonotic subtype families of C. parvum species (IIa, IId in the present study is in concordance with previous studies in Iran and emphasizes the significance of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in the country.

  8. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus in Urmia city, Iran: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Gorgani-Firouzjaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70% were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus. Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%. There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05 but found in fleas (p 0.05. Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p < 0.05. The result of our survey revealed that infestation rate in hedgehog was high. According to zoonotic importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran.

  9. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in Urmia city, Iran: First report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh; Pour-Reza, Behzad; Naem, Soraya; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70%) were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus). Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%). There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05) but found in fleas (p ticks and fleas did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran.

  10. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

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    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs

  11. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

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    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs.

  12. Distribution of Hepatitis C virus genotypes in city of Mashhad, North-east of Iran

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    M Rastin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Six major hepatitis C virus genotypes have been characterised, which vary in their geographical distribution. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV in an area is not constant, and depends on the changes in route of infection, which may change over time. In this study, the distribution of HCV genotypes in Mashhad, the capital of Razavi Khorasan province in north-east of Iran was investigated. Mashhad is a holy city of Shiate Moslems, which attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight HCV infected subjects (227 males and 51 females were included in this study. HCV genotypes were analysed by type specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: Genotype 3a was detected in 49.6%, 1a in 36.3%, 1b in 12.6% and 2a in 0.4%. Two HCV genotypes were detected in 1.1% cases; 1a +3a in 1%, 3a + 1b in 0.4%. Genotypes 2b and 3b were not detected in any samples. Conclusion: We demonstrated that despite the previous reports on the frequency of HCV genotypes in Iran, 3a is the predominant genotype in Mashhad.

  13. Nitrate Determination of Vegetables in Varzeghan City, North-western Iran

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    Parviz Nowrouz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition. Nitrate content is a signifi-cant quality criterion to determine characteristic of vegetables. About 80% of nitrate intake in human is from vegetables and fruits. High dietary intake of nitrate is seen as an undesirable be-cause of its association with gastric cancer and infantile methemoglobinemia. Varzeghan, North-western Iran is one of the cities with high Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR of gastric can-cer in Iran. Currently, in Varzeghan there is no available and accurate information describing ni-trate concentration as one of the important risk factors of vegetables for human consumption.Methods: In this cross sectional study totally 11 types of vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, parsley, coriander, dill, leek, fenugreek, tarragon, fumitory and mint from several different green-grocery of Varzeghan were collected in spring (April and autumn (November and December 2011 and their nitrate contents were analyzed.Results: Mean nitrate contents at the above noted fresh vegetables were 161, 781, 83, 707, 441,501, 1702, 684, 805, 772 and 191 mg NO3-kg-1 respectively. In none of the 11 fresh vegetablesnitrate content were not more than established limitations.Conclusion: Nitrate concentrations were below of others reported at different countries. The mean concentration of nitrate at all vegetables in autumn was higher than in spring significantly.

  14. Determination of Synthetic Colors in Some Locally Available Foods of Kashan City, Iran

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    Sharafati Chaleshtori R.* PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: The synthetic colors are preferred by the food industry because of the variety of shades, intensity, uniformity, excellent solubility and stability. They are used in a variety of food products such as dairy products, beverages, baked products, confections and pet foods. Food colors may have toxic effects on the human body. This study aimed to examine the amount of synthetic colors in some ready to use foods in Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this cross sectional study, conducted in Kashan City, Iran, in March to October 2015, a total of 52 samples of meat products, 33 samples of sweets, 43 samples of drinks and 21 samples of miscellaneous foods were collected. The coloring agents were extracted of samples and purified using the hydrochloric acid extraction method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the samples. Findings: 72 samples (48.30% contained no coloring and 77 samples (51.7% contained artificial colors. The most coloring agents were in sweets (72.7%, drinks (51.2% and meat products samples (48.10%. The quinoline yellow, tartrazine and sunset yellow were the most common coloring used in the various foods. Conclusion: About 52% of examined foods contained artificial colors that have been banned by the national Iranian standards organization.

  15. Prevalence of Toxocara Spp. eggs in Public Parks in Tehran City, Iran

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    SJ Seyyed Tabaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present research was to determine the frequency of Toxocara spp. eggs in soil samples of public parks, in the city of Tehran, Iran. Methods: A total of 600 soil samples were taken from 120 parks between Aprils to November, 2008. Soil samples were collected from 5 distinct sites in the parks. The samples were washed with saline solution and the collected sediment from each park were equally divided and examined by floatation and Petri dish methods for Toxocara eggs. Result:  Ten percent were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. The number of observed Toxocara eggs in each microscopic field was varied from 1-3. No significant differences were observed be­tween floatation and Petri dish methods. Conclusion: Our public parks showed a high risk of toxocariasis and the need for preventive studies.

  16. Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran

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    AA Khafajeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm—the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples.

  17. Attitude and practice of pediatrics and gynecology physicians in the cities of Sari and Babol regarding non-initiation and discontinuation of resuscitation in cases of gravely Ill newborns

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    Vajiheh Ghaffari Saravi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 6 June, 2009; Accepted 23 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: There are some debates with decision making for withdrawal/ withholding of life sustaining treatment in infants with adverse prognoses and incurable conditions. This study is conducted to review attitudes and practice of pediatrics and gynecology physicians in this field.Materials and methods: This survey was conducted during 2009 in Sari and Babol. A total of 140 pediatricians, gynecologists and residents/fellows in these fields were recruited by census; 106 doctors completed an anonymous questionnaire (response rate 75.7%.Results: More than 70 percent of respondents disagreed and less than a quarter of them agreed with euthanasia. Thus far, none of the doctors prescribed drugs to expedite neonatal death. Withdrawal of life sustaining treatment in infants with adverse prognoses and incurable conditions was uncommon, and reported by one fifth of physicians in their diagnosis of infants with multiple congenital anomalies.Influential factors in their decision to withdraw life sustaining treatment in these infants were: the number of children, the insistence of hospital staff, the request from parents, the infant's sex, lack of hospital facilities, parental history of infertility and family income, respectively. Religious beliefs were effective for withdrawal/withholding of life sustaining treatment in the decision making process and was led to an agreement more with the approval of the law in the majority of cases.Conclusion: This study revealed that attitude and sanctity of life, overcomes the attitude regarding to quality of life from most of the physicians. Law approval in this field is necessaryJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(70: 33-40 (Persian

  18. Urban Growth Modeling Using Anfis Algorithm: a Case Study for Sanandaj City, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammady, S.; Delavar, M. R.; Pijanowski, B. C.

    2013-10-01

    Global urban population has increased from 22.9% in 1985 to 47% in 2010. In spite of the tendency for urbanization worldwide, only about 2% of Earth's land surface is covered by cities. Urban population in Iran is increasing due to social and economic development. The proportion of the population living in Iran urban areas has consistently increased from about 31% in 1956 to 68.4% in 2006. Migration of the rural population to cities and population growth in cities have caused many problems, such as irregular growth of cities, improper placement of infrastructure and urban services. Air and environmental pollution, resource degradation and insufficient infrastructure, are the results of poor urban planning that have negative impact on the environment or livelihoods of people living in cities. These issues are a consequence of improper land use planning. Models have been employed to assist in our understanding of relations between land use and its subsequent effects. Different models for urban growth modeling have been developed. Methods from computational intelligence have made great contributions in all specific application domains and hybrid algorithms research as a part of them has become a big trend in computational intelligence. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has the capability to deal with imprecise data by training, while fuzzy logic can deal with the uncertainty of human cognition. ANN learns from scratch by adjusting the interconnections between layers and Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) is a popular computing framework based on the concept of fuzzy set theory, fuzzy logic, and fuzzy reasoning. Fuzzy logic has many advantages such as flexibility and at the other sides, one of the biggest problems in fuzzy logic application is the location and shape and of membership function for each fuzzy variable which is generally being solved by trial and error method. In contrast, numerical computation and learning are the advantages of neural network, however, it is

  19. URBAN GROWTH MODELING USING ANFIS ALGORITHM: A CASE STUDY FOR SANANDAJ CITY, IRAN

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    S. Mohammady

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global urban population has increased from 22.9% in 1985 to 47% in 2010. In spite of the tendency for urbanization worldwide, only about 2% of Earth's land surface is covered by cities. Urban population in Iran is increasing due to social and economic development. The proportion of the population living in Iran urban areas has consistently increased from about 31% in 1956 to 68.4% in 2006. Migration of the rural population to cities and population growth in cities have caused many problems, such as irregular growth of cities, improper placement of infrastructure and urban services. Air and environmental pollution, resource degradation and insufficient infrastructure, are the results of poor urban planning that have negative impact on the environment or livelihoods of people living in cities. These issues are a consequence of improper land use planning. Models have been employed to assist in our understanding of relations between land use and its subsequent effects. Different models for urban growth modeling have been developed. Methods from computational intelligence have made great contributions in all specific application domains and hybrid algorithms research as a part of them has become a big trend in computational intelligence. Artificial Neural Network (ANN has the capability to deal with imprecise data by training, while fuzzy logic can deal with the uncertainty of human cognition. ANN learns from scratch by adjusting the interconnections between layers and Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS is a popular computing framework based on the concept of fuzzy set theory, fuzzy logic, and fuzzy reasoning. Fuzzy logic has many advantages such as flexibility and at the other sides, one of the biggest problems in fuzzy logic application is the location and shape and of membership function for each fuzzy variable which is generally being solved by trial and error method. In contrast, numerical computation and learning are the advantages of neural network

  20. Prevalence and determinants of sexual intimate partner violence against women in the city of marivan, iran.

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    Arezoo Yari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual intimate partner violence (SIPV and to investigate its associated factors among women attending public obstetrics, genecology, and family planning health services of the city of Marivan, Iran.This multistage cluster sampling study recruited 770 women attending the public obstetrics, gynecology and family planning health services of the city of Marivan from May to November, 2009.Our findings confirmed that about one-third of the women experienced SIPV (32.9%. Statistically significant differences were found (p < .001 in SIPV by almost all demographic and characteristic variables. Woman's circumcision, forced marriage, spouse's infidelity, level of sexual desire, woman's pleasure from intercourse, and spouse's inattention to woman's sexual satisfaction during intercourse were statistically significant predictors of SIPV, and also, were accounted for 61.8% of the participants.Public health centers and health-care providers should focus on both women and their spouses in order to participate in both national and community level of educational and promotional intervention programs. Without their participation, the likelihood of success in decreasing SIPV against women would be low.

  1. Urban Growth Modeling Using AN Artificial Neural Network a Case Study of Sanandaj City, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammady, S.; Delavar, M. R.; Pahlavani, P.

    2014-10-01

    Land use activity is a major issue and challenge for town and country planners. Modelling and managing urban growth is a complex problem. Cities are now recognized as complex, non-linear and dynamic process systems. The design of a system that can handle these complexities is a challenging prospect. Local governments that implement urban growth models need to estimate the amount of urban land required in the future given anticipated growth of housing, business, recreation and other urban uses within the boundary. There are so many negative implications related with the type of inappropriate urban development such as increased traffic and demand for mobility, reduced landscape attractively, land use fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and alterations of the hydrological cycle. The aim of this study is to use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to make a powerful tool for simulating urban growth patterns. Our study area is Sanandaj city located in the west of Iran. Landsat imageries acquired at 2000 and 2006 are used. Dataset were used include distance to principle roads, distance to residential areas, elevation, slope, distance to green spaces and distance to region centers. In this study an appropriate methodology for urban growth modelling using satellite remotely sensed data is presented and evaluated. Percent Correct Match (PCM) and Figure of Merit were used to evaluate ANN results.

  2. URBAN GROWTH MODELING USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK A CASE STUDY OF SANANDAJ CITY, IRAN

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    S. Mohammady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Land use activity is a major issue and challenge for town and country planners. Modelling and managing urban growth is a complex problem. Cities are now recognized as complex, non-linear and dynamic process systems. The design of a system that can handle these complexities is a challenging prospect. Local governments that implement urban growth models need to estimate the amount of urban land required in the future given anticipated growth of housing, business, recreation and other urban uses within the boundary. There are so many negative implications related with the type of inappropriate urban development such as increased traffic and demand for mobility, reduced landscape attractively, land use fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and alterations of the hydrological cycle. The aim of this study is to use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN to make a powerful tool for simulating urban growth patterns. Our study area is Sanandaj city located in the west of Iran. Landsat imageries acquired at 2000 and 2006 are used. Dataset were used include distance to principle roads, distance to residential areas, elevation, slope, distance to green spaces and distance to region centers. In this study an appropriate methodology for urban growth modelling using satellite remotely sensed data is presented and evaluated. Percent Correct Match (PCM and Figure of Merit were used to evaluate ANN results.

  3. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

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    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  4. Evaluation of Parasitic Pollution in Fresh Unwashed Herbs Sold in Izeh City, Iran

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    Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fresh herbs are a crucial part of a good diet. However, they can easily become contaminated with food-borne pathogens. Eating fresh unwashed or improperly washed herbs has a major role in transmission of some important parasitic diseases. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate parasitic pollution in fresh unwashed herbs sold in Izeh city, Iran. Materials and Methods Four hundred samples of fresh unwashed herbs were purchased from a distributor in Izeh city during January 2014 to April 2015. Detergent solution was added to 240 g of each sample. The mixture was shaken and washed solution was filtered through 0.2 µm bottle-top filter. The filtrate was discarded and filter was placed in a 50 mL conical screw cap tube. Then, the detergent solution was added. Following vortex, filter was discarded. The sediment was examined by light microscope after centrifuge. Finally, data descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Parasitic pollution was detected in 3.5% of the examined samples, including Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst (1.5%, Giardia spp. cyst (1%, Blastocystis spp. cyst (0.5% and Taenia spp. egg (0.5%. Conclusions Parasitic contamination of fresh herbs sold in Izeh may pose a health risk to consumers if eaten as unwashed or improperly washed.

  5. Correlation Study and Regression Analysis of Drinking Water Quality in Kashan City, Iran

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    Mohammad Mehdi HEYDARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on drinking water samples at five fields (21 sampling wells with hot and dry climate in Kashan city, central Iran was carried out. Samples were collected during October 2006 to May 2007 (25 - 30 °C. Comparing the results with drinking water quality standards issued by World Health Organization (WHO, it is found that some of the water samples are not potable. Hydrochemical facies using a Piper diagram indicate that in most parts of the city, the chemical character of water is dominated by NaCl. All samples showed sulfate and sodium ion higher and K+ and F- content lower than the permissible limit. A strongly positive correlation is observed between TDS and EC (R = 0.995 and Ca2+ and TH (R = 0.948. The results showed that regression relations have the same correlation coefficients: (I pH -TH, EC -TH (R = 0.520, (II NO3- -pH, TH-pH (R = 0.520, (III Ca2+-SO42-, TH-SO42-, Cl- -SO42- (R = 0.630. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.

  6. Relationship between Abuse Experience and General Health among Older Adults in Yazd City- Iran

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    Hassan Rezaeipandari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elder abuse may increase the vulnerability of ageing people to disease and decrease their general health status, so addressing the issue is essential for promoting elderly quality of life. The study aimed to examine the relation between abuse experience and general health among elderly people in Yazd city- Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study carried out on 250 community-dwelling seniors in the city of Yazd who were selected with cluster random sampling. Data collection tools included, Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire and Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire 28. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: Mean scores of abuse experience and general health among the elders were 11.84±12.70 (range 0-100 and 21.82±10.84 (range 0-84 respectively. General health status was more undesirable among elders who had experienced abuse than those who had not. Elder abuse subscales accounted for 17.2 % changes in general health, which had only care neglect and physical abuse subscales with significant prediction effect. Conclusion: Abuse experience has negative effects on older adults' general health. care neglect and physical abuse play a more important role.

  7. Comparison of Social, Economic and Familial Empowerment in Married Women in Three Cities of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbar, Masoumeh; Alizadeh, Shiva; Hajifoghaha, Mahboubeh; Dabiri, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    Women's empowerment was defined as their ability to achieve awareness and control their personal, social, economic and political forces aiming at taking measures in order to improve their lives. This study aimed to compare the empowerment of the married women in medical sciences university in social, economic and familial domains in three cities, IRAN. This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in 2016 on 399 married and employed women. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire consisting of demographic, social, economic and familial domains and made by researchers. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS, version 16. Using paired t-test for intra-group and Chi-square and t-test for between groups comparisons. The significance level was set atempowerment in Rasht (126.34±17.51) was more than the two cities of Shiraz (123.46±15.62) and Bandar Abbas (123.42±12.34). There was a significant relationship between the mean score of the total empowerment and monthly income of the participants in Bandar Abbas (P=0.04), and job of their husbands in Rasht (P=0.004). The mean score of family empowerment of the women was significantly interrelated with the number of their children in Rasht (P=0.001), and with the education of the participants' husbands in Shiraz (P=0.002). The score of social empowerment in Rasht was more than two other cities. In economic domain, the scores of Rasht and Bandar Abbas were more than those of Shiraz. Scores of Rasht and Shiraz were more than Bandar Abbas in the familial domain. It is useful to carry out qualitative studies aiming at determining the effects of various factors on women's empowerment and strategies for improving it.

  8. Comparison of Social, Economic and Familial Empowerment in Married Women in Three Cities of Iran

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    Masoumeh Simbar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment was defined as their ability to achieve awareness and control their personal, social, economic and political forces aiming at taking measures in order to improve their lives. This study aimed to compare the empowerment of the married women in medical sciences university in social, economic and familial domains in three cities, IRAN. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in 2016 on 399 married and employed women. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire consisting of demographic, social, economic and familial domains and made by researchers. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS, version 16. Using paired t-test for intra-group and Chi-square and t-test for between groups comparisons. The significance level was set at<0.05. Results: The total score of empowerment in Rasht (126.34±17.51 was more than the two cities of Shiraz (123.46±15.62 and Bandar Abbas (123.42±12.34. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of the total empowerment and monthly income of the participants in Bandar Abbas (P=0.04, and job of their husbands in Rasht (P=0.004. The mean score of family empowerment of the women was significantly interrelated with the number of their children in Rasht (P=0.001, and with the education of the participants’ husbands in Shiraz (P=0.002. Conclusion: The score of social empowerment in Rasht was more than two other cities. In economic domain, the scores of Rasht and Bandar Abbas were more than those of Shiraz. Scores of Rasht and Shiraz were more than Bandar Abbas in the familial domain. It is useful to carry out qualitative studies aiming at determining the effects of various factors on women’s empowerment and strategies for improving it..

  9. The preliminary assessment of abundance and composition of marine beach debris in the northern Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sarafraz, J.; Rajabizadeh, M.; Kamrani, E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is a major challenge threatening ocean and coastal environment with no easy solution in coming years. The problem is totally manmade and extendeds to coastal areas around the world. The accumulation of marine debris is largely due to lack of awareness and environmental education among the public reinforced with mismanagement of municipal litter in coastal cities. Iran has about 2415 km of coastlines in the north and south of the country that suffer severely from a marine debris ...

  10. "A STUDY OF WASTEWATERS OF INDUSTRIAL UNITS DISCHARGED INTO THE GHATOR RIVER IN KHOY CITY, IRAN "

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    K. Imandel

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To find the quantity and quality of wastewaters of the two main industrial units of Khoy city in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, namely the Slaughterhouse and the Totia Chocolate Factory, ten composite samples were taken in 112 hour intervals between 3.5 and 7.5 A.M. (4 hours working shift from the Slaughterhouse and between 7.5 A.M. and 2 P.M from the Totia Chocolate Factory (8hours working shift. The analyses were done according to the latest (1985 edition of the Standard Methods. The results showed that water consumption rates of the Slaughterhouse and the Chocolate Factory were 29m3 and 31. Sm3, respectively, whereas the means of their wastewater flow rate per hour were 5.9m3 and 2.9m3, discharged directly into the Ghator River and its branches. The means of the fat substances, settleable solids, BOD5 and COD of the slaughter livestock in one working shift was 1451 mg/1. Comparing per capita per day BOD production of humans, reported to be 54 gram per day, we find that the BOD production of humans, reported to be 54 gram per day we find that BOD population equivalent of the Slaughterhouse waste was equivalent to BOD of 770 persons.

  11. Mycological Survey and Total Aflatoxin Analyze in Silage from Qaemshahr City (Northern Iran

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    M. Hashemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 42 samples of silage were collected in Qaemshahr city in Iran during fall 2011. Samples were tested by competitive ELISA for total aflatoxins. Seven samples (16.7% (Mean±se:1.24 from 42 silage samples were positive with total aflatoxin (1.1-27.3 ppb in Nov., Dec. and Oct. The highest contamination was observed in Oct., three samples (21.4% from 14 samples were contaminated with total aflatoxin by 22.2 ppb, 25.6 and 27.3 ppb. The culture results of samples showed that the most toxinigenic fungi among 57 colonies were Aspergillus sp. with fifteen (% 31.5, Fusarium sp. With thirteen (% 22.8, Alternaria spp. With twelve (21.05%, Penicillium spp. with nine (%15.78 and Acremonium sp. with five (8.77% and also the most nontoxigenic fungi were cladosporium spp. with fifteen (% 37.5, Rhizopus spp. with nine (% 22.5, Mucor spp. with six (15%, yeast with six (15% and Scopulariopsis spp. with four (10% colonies isolated in culture medium among 40 colonies of nontoxigenic fungi.

  12. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05). Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area.

  13. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

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    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  14. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  15. Identification of Leishmania isolates from Varzaneh city, Isfahan province, Iran using nested polymerase chain reaction method

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    Reza Arjmand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, is caused by the Leishmania genus, a protozoan parasite transmitted by sand fly arthropods. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in old world is usually caused by L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica complexes. One of the most important hyper endemic areas of CL in Iran is Isfahan province. Varzaneh is a city in the eastern part of Isfahan province. Due to different biological patterns of parasite strains which are distributed in the region, this study was design to identify Leishmania species from human victims using Kinetoplastid DNA as templates in a molecular PCR method. Materials and Methods: Among 186 suspected cases, 50 cases were confirmed positive by direct microscopy after Giemsa staining. Species characterization of the isolates was done using Nested- PCR as a very effective and sensitive tool to reproduce mini circle strands. Results: After Nested-PCR from all 50 cases, 560 bp bands were produced which according to products of reference strains indicate that the infection etiologic agent has been L. major. 22 (44% of patients were females and 28 (56% of them were males. Their age ranges were between 7 months and 60 years. Conclusion: According to the results of the study and the particular pattern of infection prevalent in the region, genetic studies and identification of Leishmania parasites are very important in the disease control and improvement of regional strategy of therapy protocols.

  16. Seroprevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies in Healthy Voluntary Blood Donors from Mashhad City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarean, Mehdi; Shafiei, Reza; Gholami, Maryam; Fata, Abdolmajid; Rahmati Balaghaleh, Mansour; Kariminik, Ashraf; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Hasani, Ali; Akhavan, Arash

    2017-07-01

    The present investigation aims to evaluate the prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies and the associated risk factors among healthy blood donors in Mashhad city, Razavi Khorasan province, Iran. We screened a total of 500 serum samples by census method from apparently healthy blood donors of the Mashhad Blood Transfusion Organization (MBTO) for IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that 29.6%, 25%, 1.4%, and 3.2% of tested donors were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies, only IgG antibody, both IgM and IgG, and IgM antibody alone, respectively. Several risk factors which were significantly related to T. gondii seropositivity in the univariate analysis at P sausage/hot dog consumption (OR = 4.472, P < 0.001). The results of this study can be a warning for blood transfusion organizations to pay special attention to toxoplasmosis among blood donors and also design screening programs for prevention of transfusion-transmitted toxoplasmosis.

  17. The Parasitic Contamination of Farm Vegetables in Asadabad City, West of Iran, in 2014

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    Matini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is a basic component of a healthy diet. Thus, the consumption of vegetables can have an important role in public health. Objectives Because of this concern, a prevalence study of parasitic contamination was carried out on raw vegetables to estimate the human risk of parasitic infections in Asadabad city, west of Iran. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 383 samples of different vegetables were obtained randomly from 12 vegetable farms in and around Asadabad. These samples included 10 types of seasonal vegetables: coriander, radish, spring onion, leek, parsley, tarragon, savory, basil, mint, and cress. The samples were examined by two parasitological methods: sedimentation and floatation techniques. Results Parasitic contaminations were detected in 34 (8.4% vegetable samples, including five pathogenic and two non-pathogenic parasites. The parasites identified were Giardia intestinalis (1.6%, Entamoeba coli (2.6%, Toxocara spp. (0.8%, Fasciola spp. (0.5%, Taenia spp. (0.3%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.3%, and free-living larvae (2.3%. Among the infested samples, coriander was the most contaminated vegetable (15.8%. The relationship between contamination of vegetables and untreated water used on farms was significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions The results implicate the importance of consumption of vegetables in the spread of parasitic diseases in the studied region. Thus, some basic hygiene measures should be carried out to improve public health and reduce infectious disease rates.

  18. PENGARUH BAURAN PEMASARAN TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN MINYAK GORENG SARI MURNI

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    Yulna Dewita Hia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides the issue of product, pricing and distribution of cooking oil Sari Murni, the promotion is also an important issue that should also be considered to introduce Sari Murni cooking oil to the public. Since the promotion is an activity to introduce a product to consumers, such as through advertising, direct sales, sales promotion or through this publicity, this research using causal design research. According to Umar (2009:139 that a causal research design is a useful research to analyze the relationships between one variable with another variable. The research shows, that are significant influences between products, price, promotion, and distribution to consumer decision to buy Sari murni

  19. Strategi Bauran Pemasaran di Agrowisata Buana Ametha Sari

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    Nami Fitricia Pasaribu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Object of this research is Agrowisata Buana Amertha Sari, Bali. Limitation on this study is marketing mix, especially on product and promotion. Coffee is the main comodity in Agrowisata Buana Amertha Sari, while promotion is conducted through words of mouth method and in cooperation with local guides. Agrowisata Buana Amertha Sari uses website to promote its products. Within this research, it is expected the use of social media Facebook and Twitter could make contribution in boosting the recognition to global customers. This research is qualitative using interview and observation at one time in May 2013.

  20. Epidemiological Survey of Scorpion Sting Cases and Identification of Scorpion Fauna in Hamadan City, Iran (2013

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    M. Nazari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional- descriptive study. To determine the scorpion fauna of the region using a random cluster sampling in specified locations from May to Sep-tember in 2013 and was attempting we caught scorpions and put them in containers of alcohol (70% and identified them based on Iran scorpions´ key. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during 2010-2013. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi (Family: Buthidae, were identified. Mesobuthus eupeus species with 89.7% of the samples collected had the highest frequency. Totally, 797 cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including 498 (62.5% male and 299 (37.5% females. The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in 2011 in July and in the rural areas were 29.6%, 33.1%, 28.9%, 64.4%, respectively. The most stung organs were hands, with 48.2%. All patients (100% during the study were treated. Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti-scorpion serum in the health centers. Adequate

  1. Morphological and Molecular Survey of Naegleria spp. in Water Bodies Used for Recreational Purposes in Rasht city, Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIYYATI, Maryam; LASJERDI, Zohreh; ZAREIN-DOLAB, Saeed; NAZAR, Mahdieh; BEHNIAFAR, Hamed; MAHMOUDI, Mohammad Reza; NAZEMALHOSSEINI MOJARAD, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naegleria spp. is a free-living amoeba of which some species including N. fowleri and N. australeinsis are highly pathogenic in human and animals. These widespread amoebae could be found in different environmental sources particularly in aquatic resources of tropical and subtropical regions. The most important source of infection is via recreational water contact. Due to the lack of thorough research regarding species of Naegleria spp. in aquatic sources, the present study was conducted. Methods: In the present study, 60 samples were collected from recreational water resources of Rasht city, Guilan province, north of Iran. After filtering and culturing the samples, plates were examined by microscopic method and according to the page criteria. DNA of vahlkampfiid-positive samples were then extracted using phenol-chlorophorm method. Amoebae genus was identified by targeting the ITS-region and sequencing based-approaches. Results: Nine (15%) samples out of a 60 total samples were positive for Naegleria spp. of which seven belonged to potentially pathogenic N. australiensis. Two other strains were belonged to non-pathogenic N. pagei. Conclusion: The present research was the first report of occurrence of N. australiensis and N. pagei in Rasht city, north Iran. This study reflects the occurrence of Naegleria spp. in water sources of Guilan Province, Iran. PMID:26811717

  2. Socioeconomic, psychiatric and materiality determinants and risk of postpartum depression in border city of ilam, Western iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherifard, Pegah; Delpisheh, Ali; Shirali, Ramin; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim; Veisani, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered as one of the mood disturbances occurring during 2-3 months after delivery. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of PPD and its associated risk factors in border city of Ilam, western Iran. Methods. Through a descriptive cross-sectional study in 2011, overall, 197 women who attended Obstetrics & Gynecology clinics postpartumly in the border city of Ilam, western Iran, were randomly recruited. A standard questionnaire that was completed by a trained midwife through face to face interviews was used for data gathering. Results. Mean age ± standard deviations was 27.9 ± 5.2 years. Prevalence of PPD was estimated to be 34.8% (95% CI: 27.7-41.7). A significant difference was observed among depression scores before and after delivery (P ≤ 0.001). Type of delivery (P = 0.044), low socioeconomic status (P = 0.011), and women having low educational level (P = 0.009) were the most important significant risk factors associated with PPD. The regression analysis showed that employed mothers compared to housekeepers were more at risk for PPD (adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-2.28, P = 0.003). Conclusions. Prevalence of PPD in western Iran was slightly higher than the corresponding rate from either national or international reports.

  3. Morphological and Molecular Survey of Naegleria spp. in Water Bodies Used for Recreational Purposes in Rasht city, Northern Iran

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    Maryam NIYYATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naegleria spp. is a free-living amoeba of which some species includ­ing N. fowleri and N. australeinsis are highly pathogenic in human and ani­mals. These widespread amoebae could be found in different environmental sources particularly in aquatic resources of tropical and subtropical regions. The most important source of infection is via recreational water contact. Due to the lack of thorough research regarding species of Naegleria spp. in aquatic sources, the present study was conducted.Methods: In the present study, 60 samples were collected from recreational wa­ter resources of Rasht city, Guilan province, north of Iran. After filtering and culturing the samples, plates were examined by microscopic method and accord­ing to the page criteria. DNA of vahlkampfiid-positive samples were then ex­tracted using phe­nol-chlorophorm method. Amoebae genus was identified by targeting the ITS-region and sequencing based-approaches.Results: Nine (15% samples out of a 60 total samples were positive for Naegleria spp. of which seven belonged to potentially pathogenic N. australiensis. Two other strains were belonged to non-pathogenic N. pagei.Conclusion: The present research was the first report of occurrence of N. aus­traliensis and N. pagei in Rasht city, north Iran. This study reflects the occurrence of Naegleria spp. in water sources of Guilan Province, Iran.

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections in different groups of immunocompromised patients in Kashan and Qom cities, central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Sima; Hassanzadeh, Malihe; Hooshyar, Hossein; Momen-Heravi, Mansooreh; Mousavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Abdoli, Amir

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with immunocompromising conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IPIs in different groups of immunocompromised patients, including hemodialysis patients (HD), renal transplant recipients (RTR), cancer and HIV/AIDS patients in comparison with healthy individuals in two central cities of Iran (Kashan and Qom). In this case-control study, the stool samples of 135 HD, 50 RTR, 60 cancer patients, 20 HIV/AIDS patients and 120 healthy subjects were tested using direct-smear, formol-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and Agar plate method. The overall infection rate was 11.7% (31/265) in patient groups and 0% (0/120) in the control group. The frequency of parasites was 25% in HIV/AIDS patients, 11.9% (16/135) in HD, 12.0% (6/50) in RTR and 6.7% (4/60) in cancer patients. Blastocystis hominis (4.2%) and Giardia lamblia (3.0%) were the most prevalent parasites in patient groups. The infection rate was significantly higher in male (17.6%) than female (5.4%) patients (p = .002), but no statistically significant association was observed according to the age and educational levels. This study showed a high prevalence of IPIs in immunocompromised patients. The results of this study suggest that periodic stool examinations for screening of IPIs should be included as a part of routine medical care in these patients.

  5. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS IN WATER RESOURCES AND SEWAGE IN HAMADAN CITY OF IRAN

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    A. J. Jafari ، R. Pourkabireh Abasabad ، A. Salehzadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals which are released into the environment have the potential to disrupt the function of endocrine systems. They pose a growing threat to human and wildlife health. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Some phenolic chemicals, such as bisphenol A, have been measured in surface water, sediments and sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate endocrine-disrupting agents in drinking, surface and groundwaters sources and also sewage in the city of Hamadan, in the west of Iran. Samples from all sources were collected during April-September and October-March, extracted by solid phase method and analyzed by HPLC-UV in the wave length of 270nm for estrol, 210 nm for ethinyl estradiol and 280 nm for other compounds. The results showed that presence of bisphenol A with concentrations ranging 0.002 to 1μg/L, 0-0.002 μg/L in drinking and groundwaterfor nonylphenol and 0.001 - 10ng/L for 17-beta estradiol. Estron was not detected in drinking water during October-March. The concentration levels of pollutants in wastewater were tens times higher than the water. Analysis of different types of water showed that concentration levels of pollutants were higher during April-September comparing with October-March (Pvalue <0.005, which may be due to the changes of environmental conditions. The widespread use of birth control pills formulated with these potent estrogenic chemicals appear to be the major route for the release of estrogenic substances into the aquatic environment.

  6. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

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    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  7. Prevalence, Characteristics, and One-Year Follow-Up of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Isfahan City, Iran

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    Pegah Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Need of neonatal screening for Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is under debate, in part because of limited data on importance of the disease regarding the prevalence of congenital CMV (cCMV infection and associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of cCMV infection in Iran, where there is high maternal seroprevalence of CMV. Methodology. This prospective study was conducted in Isfahan city, Iran, from 2014 to 2016. CMV was investigated in urine specimens by using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method. CMV-infected infants were examined for clinical and laboratory findings attributed to CMV infection and followed up for one year. Results. Among 1617 studied neonates, eight (0.49% were positive for CMV infection. CMV-infected neonates were more likely to be preterm than noninfected ones (25% versus 4.5%, p=0.0508, and they had lower birth weight. Three out of the eight CMV-infected neonates had transient symptoms at birth. At follow-up, one case had mild hearing loss. Most patients had impaired growth during the one-year follow-up. Conclusions. The primary object of this study was determination of prevalence of cCMV infection in Iran as a developing country, which was at the lower range compared with other such countries. cCMV infection may result in short-term impairment in growth.

  8. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) estimation: A case study of Ahvaz City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Babaei, Aliakbar; Takdastan, Afshin; Bagheri, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    The development of new technologies and the increasing consumption of electronic and electrical equipment have led to increased generation of e-waste in the municipal waste streams. This waste due to the presence of hazardous substances in its composition needs specific attention and management. The present study was carried out in Ahvaz metropolis using a survey method in 2011. For estimating the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generated, the "use and consumption" method was used. In order to determine the amounts of the electrical and electronic equipment that were used and their lifetime, and for investigating the current status of e-waste management in Ahvaz, an appropriate questionnaire was devised. In 2011, the total number of discarded electronic items was 2,157,742 units. According to the average weight of the equipment, the total generation of e-waste was 9952.25 metric tons per year and was 9.95 kg per capita per year. The highest e-waste generated was related to air conditioners, with 3125.36 metric tons per year, followed by the wastes from refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, and televisions. The wastes from desktop computers and laptops were 418 and 63 metric tons/year, respectively, and the corresponding values per capita were 0.42 and 0.063 kg, respectively. These results also showed that 10 tons fixed phones, 25 tons mobile phones, and by considering an average lifetime of 3 years for each lamp about 320 tons lamps were generated as e-waste in Ahvaz in the year 2011. Based on this study, currently there is not an integrated system for proper management of WEEE in Ahvaz, and this waste stream is collected and disposed of with other municipal waste. Some measures, including a specific collection system, recycling of valuable substances, and proper treatment and disposal, should be done about such waste. Ahvaz is one of the most important economic centers of Iran, and to the best of our knowledge, no study has been

  9. A survey of effective factors on improvement of environmental quality of Tehran book city-Iran

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    Hanieh Sadat Zendehbad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Architecture, art, technique of building construction, urban spaces and other outer and inner spaces are used for harmonious fulfillment of functional and aesthetic requirements. Architecture should be distinguished from structural engineering. Based on the concentrated designs in common urban architecture projects, one of the basic studies in the present world is considering the improvement of human-based environmental quality in relevant plan. Master plans as one of the most important managerial tools at region and township in the past decades have encountered the problems inhibiting the achievement of results and goals. Also, the designers and architects of urban projects have not considered environmental space creation despite its requirements with the leisure time of the youth, adolescents and the elderly. Today, urban green space is used as one of the main indicators of sustainable development of qualitative space creation in the border of designed building and it is a criterion to recognize a healthy city. From the view of architecture planning and urban design and architects expert in landscape, development of green space in landscape of site has broader concept than mere vegetation and improvement of surrounding natural environment requires much attention. Hence, the present study is aimed to perform space creation consistent with book reading in study design “Book city” in Iran, Tehran, Shahrak-e Gharb district. For data collection, field-descriptive and library methods are applied. In theoretical method “library researches” by referring to Persian and English resources (different types of journals, theses and related books and the important relevant websites. Descriptive method includes direct observation and indirect observation and the results showed that there was a positive correlation between liveliness and the components of image ability in citizens and environmental quality with the invitation to the designed building

  10. A Dog with Multiple Infections of Enteric Parasitic Zoonosis in Mashhad City, North-East of Iran; a Case Report

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    Mohaghegh M.A. PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran. Patient & Methods: A 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitological examination, formalin-ether concentration technique was used. Fecal smears were made from the sediment, stained with iodine and observed by light microscope. Modified Ziehl Neelsen method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Findings: The animal was infected with 10 disease-causing parasites; Taenia spp., Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Acanthocephal spp., Trichuris vulpis, Hook worm, Giardia spp., Blastocystis spp., Eimeria spp., and Cystoisospora spp. Conclusion: Domestic and stray dog could be an important sources for distribution of zoonoses disease especially parasitic agents.

  11. An Investigation about obstacles of Mobile Commerce in Iran (A case study in Saravan City)

    OpenAIRE

    Baqer Kord; Dawood Karimzadegan; Mehrab Omara

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is an investigation about obstacles and challenges in development of mobile commerce in Iran. To notice the present infrastructure and the ratio of high influence of mobile commerce and its availability and being at the hand of common people as one of main tools in mobile commerce, in the world as well as in Iran, people have tendency and are going for mobile commerce and it is also attracting general attentions of people. In this paper it investigate the...

  12. Evaluation of noise pollution in Sari (2007-2008

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    Ahmad Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , , , (Received 16 Dec, 2008 ; Accepted 8 Apr, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Noise is one of the most harmful factors in the environment. It is also one of the harsh phenomenons in this century that people are exposed to. Exposure to noise higher than threshold limit value could cause some physical and mental disorders. High traffic flow due to recent increase in number of vehicles causes higher noise pollution. There are few studies regarding the evaluation of noise pollution in the environment in some Iranian cities. Thus, it is necessary to measure sound pressure level and other related parameters for noise pollution control. Identification of the effective factors on noise pollution is the best approach for promotion of individual, as well as, public health and safety. The aim of this study is to evaluate the noise level in the city of Sari.Materials and methods: There exist various methods for calculating the equivalent noise level regarding to noise measurement period. The most ordinary method is DL (day average sound level, that takes 15 hours of sampling (7 am- 10 pm, based on regulations that was approved by the National Environmental Protection Association in year 2003. This method was used for evaluation of noise level in this study. In the first stage, sampling locations were selected, followed by measuring sound levels at the height of one’s hearing zone (1.6 m above the ground surface. A calibrated sound level meter (Model Cell-490, Casella CEL, England was used for all measurements. The SPSS software V.15 was used to perform T-test analysis.Results: The results showed that the mean (SD DL was 75.52± (4.41 dB. The minimum and maximum sound pressure levels during the sampling period were 47 dB and 121.5 dB respectively. Due to the measurement of various circumstances, some times, and also, sampling locations, measure sound pressure level was high.Conclusion: The mean sound level during the daytime period was higher than the

  13. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, IranMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  14. Application of Fuzzy Set Theory and SPOT Satellite Images in Site Selection of Public Libraries (Case Study: Saqqez City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Dashti Nasserabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Easy availability to public libraries is one of the main keys in successful presentation of public library services with high quality will be valueless for those have not access to them. Availability to services should be configured in such a way that maximizes easiness and facility for potential and de facto users. In present research the required number of public libraries and establishment situation of public libraries in Saqqez city in Kurdistan province in North West of Iran were investigated and evaluated by using fuzzy set theory and SPOT 5 satellite images in 2009. In addition, optimum regions for generation of new public libraries were distinguished in city area in form of recommended map. Results showed that weighting variables classes were determined between 0-1 (profusion proportion. Fuzzification each one of effective factors using IDRISI software terminated and after was assigned type and shape membership function. Final map of suitable regions for construction of new public libraries in saqqez city area indicates that none of the libraries were situated in suitable regions.

  15. Human Linguatulosis Caused by Linguatula serrata in the City of Kerman, South-eastern Iran- Case Report.

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    Rostam Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented. The patient consumed raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. serrata was detected. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L. serrata in patients with complaints of nasopharyngeal symptoms.

  16. Isolation and characterization of curcumin from powdered rhizomes of turmeric plant marketed in Maragheh city of Iran with soxhlet technique

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    Mehdi Nabati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is extensively used as a spice, food preservative and coloring ma-terial. It has been used in traditional medicine for various diseases. Curcumin, the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric has been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological actions. Heretofore, it has been reported that natural colored extracts were isolated from turmeric rhi-zomes with many methods such as maceration, digestion, microwave and infusion. In this paper, it was tried to isolate and characterize curcumin from the curcumin rhizomes marketed in Mara-gheh city of Iran by soxhlet extraction technique in methanol solvent. The advantage of this technique is the isolation of large amounts of curcumin (208 mg from 25 g turmeric rhizomes powder with smaller quantity of methanol.

  17. Relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with gestational weight gain among pregnant women in Rafsanjan City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Mun, Chan Yoke; Nazari, Mozhgan

    2015-03-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (pnutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care.

  18. Determination of Synthetic Colors in Some Locally Available Foods of Kashan City, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafati Chaleshtori R.* PhD,; Golsorkhi F. BSc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The synthetic colors are preferred by the food industry because of the variety of shades, intensity, uniformity, excellent solubility and stability. They are used in a variety of food products such as dairy products, beverages, baked products, confections and pet foods. Food colors may have toxic effects on the human body. This study aimed to examine the amount of synthetic colors in some ready to use foods in Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this cro...

  19. Substance dependence and mental health in northern Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. E‑mail: ... Mots-clés: Abus et dépendance, trouble mental, la santé mentale, de recherche en psychiatrie. Annals of African ... This inventory has two types of questions and covers nine ...

  20. Six decades of urban growth using remote sensing and GIS in the city of Bandar Abbas, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadras, Mohsen; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ahmad, Noordin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Safarpour, Sahabeh

    2014-06-01

    Bandar Abbas is the capital city of Hormozgan province, is the south of Iran. The city has witnessed rapid growth in the last three decades, mostly because of its economic, commercial and social attractions. However, forms and operations of urban sprawl may vary in important manners according to determine geographical and historical characteristics, and these difference need to be reviewed with creation geodatabase of spatial and attribute data during past periods until now of urban formation and expansion. We implemented this research to understand Bandar Abbas city growth dynamic during last six decades using aerial photo, Remote Sensing (RS) data and Geographical Information System (GIS), to investigate its sprawl for the during six decades and to prepare a basis for urban planning and management. We calibrated it with geospatial data derived from a time series of aerial photos and satellite images. Treated remote sensing data covering the six decades were used to calculate land use/cover and urban growth. The application of classification techniques to the remote sensing data enabled the extraction of eight main types of land use: agricultural, barren, coastal, hole, river, rocky hill, urban, and built-up. Growth was calculated through Shannon's entropy model. The urbanized area increased from 403.77 ha to 4959.59 ha from 1956 to 2012, a rate almost five times that of the population growth observed in the same period. Such findings make the case of Bandar Abbas important for several reasons. First, Bandar Abbas has undergone a rapid increase in urban sprawl according to urban growth indicators. Second, the urban sprawl quickly grew from medium-sized to large a process considered inappropriate according to physical and structural limitations on urban growth. Lastly, the excessive extension of the built-up boundary in the city resulted in the loss of coastal land and open space, two main sources of tourist attraction and economic sustainable development.

  1. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014

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    Yaser Sarikhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6–151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3–105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P<0.05. Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  2. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikhani, Yaser; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Reza; Karimpour, Saeed; Kalateh sadati, Ahmad; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6–151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3–105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:28191019

  3. STUDY OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN BEHBAHAN CITY, IRAN

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    B. Nikpour

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of the Population of Behbahan city, carried out in years 1990-91, the mean age was approximated up to 15.2 and 17.5 in the villages and the city, respectively. Furthermore, about 27.4% and 27.9% of the corresponding populations were under 5 years of age. The birth rate in the urban and rural areas was about 31.2 and 33.3 per thousand live births. Mortality rate related to the immaturity and low-birth weight were two times more in villages than in the city. There is a meaningful relationship between intent’s body weight and IMR in the villages but both in the city.

  4. Characteristics of road traffic injuries in the second largest city of Iran

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    Davood Soroush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Road traffic injuries (RTIs are the second leading causes of death in Iran. One of the most important steps in the prevention of traffic-related trauma and its consequences is gaining insight into the epidemiology of injuries. We conducted this study to describe the characteristics of RTIs and to find strategies for its prevention. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study on consecutive road traffic trauma patients admitted to the emergency department (ED of the second largest trauma center in the northeast of Iran, during July to September 2013. Demographic characteristics, type of vehicle, and injured area of the body were documented for each patient. Results: Of 666 included patients, 562 (84.4% were male and 104 (15.6% were female, with a mean age of 28.89 ± 16.62 years. Most of the patients were uneducated. The highest frequency of RTIs was related to motorcyclists with an attributed risk of RTIs for motorcycles at 75.8%. The most common traumatized area was head, face, and lower extremities. Conclusion: The largest number of traumatized patients was among motorcyclists and uneducated population underscores the importance of public training about motorcycle usage and security and increase social awareness about reasons behind traffic law.

  5. Model of Cholera Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Network in Chabahar City, Iran

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    Pezeshki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cholera as an endemic disease remains a health issue in Iran despite decrease in incidence. Since forecasting epidemic diseases provides appropriate preventive actions in disease spread, different forecasting methods including artificial neural networks have been developed to study parameters involved in incidence and spread of epidemic diseases such as cholera. Objectives In this study, cholera in rural area of Chabahar, Iran was investigated to achieve a proper forecasting model. Materials and Methods Data of cholera was gathered from 465 villages, of which 104 reported cholera during ten years period of study. Logistic regression modeling and correlate bivariate were used to determine risk factors and achieve possible predictive model one-hidden-layer perception neural network with backpropagation training algorithm and the sigmoid activation function was trained and tested between the two groups of infected and non-infected villages after preprocessing. For determining validity of prediction, the ROC diagram was used. The study variables included climate conditions and geographical parameters. Results After determining significant variables of cholera incidence, the described artificial neural network model was capable of forecasting cholera event among villages of test group with accuracy up to 80%. The highest accuracy was achieved when model was trained with variables that were significant in statistical analysis describing that the two methods confirm the result of each other. Conclusions Application of artificial neural networking assists forecasting cholera for adopting protective measures. For a more accurate prediction, comprehensive information is required including data on hygienic, social and demographic parameters.

  6. Model of Cholera Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Network in Chabahar City, Iran

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    Zahra Pezeshki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera as an endemic disease remains a health issue in Iran despite decrease in incidence. Since forecasting epidemic diseases provides appropriate preventive actions in disease spread, different forecasting methods including artificial neural networks have been developed to study parameters involved in incidence and spread of epidemic diseases such as cholera. Objectives: In this study, cholera in rural area of Chabahar, Iran was investigated to achieve a proper forecasting model. Materials and Methods: Data of cholera was gathered from 465 villages, of which 104 reported cholera during ten years period of study. Logistic regression modeling and correlate bivariate were used to determine risk factors and achieve possible predictive model one-hidden-layer perception neural network with backpropagation training algorithm and the sigmoid activation function was trained and tested between the two groups of infected and non-infected villages after preprocessing. For determining validity of prediction, the ROC diagram was used. The study variables included climate conditions and geographical parameters. Results: After determining significant variables of cholera incidence, the described artificial neural network model was capable of forecasting cholera event among villages of test group with accuracy up to 80%. The highest accuracy was achieved when model was trained with variables that were significant in statistical analysis describing that the two methods confirm the result of each other. Conclusions: Application of artificial neural networking assists forecasting cholera for adopting protective measures. For a more accurate prediction, comprehensive information is required including data on hygienic, social and demographic parameters.

  7. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, Iran "n "nMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software. "n "nResults: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05. "n "nConclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  8. Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based measurements for Zanjan, a city in Northwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, A.; Khalesifard, H. R.; Bayat, A.; Moradhaseli, R.

    2013-02-01

    A ground-based sun and sky scanning radiometer, CIMEL CE 318-2 sunphotometer, has been used to study the atmosphere of Zanjan, a city in Northwest Iran (36.70°N, 48.51°E, and 1800 m above the mean sea level) in the periods of October 2006-October 2008, and January-September 2010. Direct sun and solar principal plane sky radiance measurements by the sunphotometer have been used to retrieve the optical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), single scattering albedo (SSA), refractive index, and volume size distributions. About 50 dusty days (daily averaged AOD (870) > 0.35, α < 0.5) have been recorded during the mentioned periods. Considering the different values obtained for SSA, real part of refractive index, and volume size distributions, it has been found that just dust and anthropogenic aerosols are making the atmospheric aerosols in this region. In these recordings it has been observed that AODs (Ångström exponents) were increasing (decreasing) during spring and early summer. This was accompanied by increase of SSA, real part of refractive index, and coarse mode part of volume size distributions of aerosols. This behavior could be due to transport of dust, mostly from Tigris-Euphrates basin or sometimes with lower probability from the region between Caspian and Aral seas and rarely from sources inside the Iran plateau like the Qom dry lake, especially in dry seasons. In this work NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, HYSPLIT model back trajectories, and MODIS Deep Blue AODs have been used to track the air masses and dust plumes during the recorded dust events.

  9. Universal Design and Social Sustainability in the City: The Case Study of Tehran Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Lida; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Following the proposal of Universal Design in 1974, a public society was founded in Iran in 1981, in order to aid the disabled victims of the Iran-Iraq war. Official authorities have also made legislation on this topic. During the last three decades many efforts have been made to apply this concept in public spaces. Unfortunately these have not succeeded. It means despite the existence of inherent rules and regulations and the general will to apply the principles of Universal Design in Tehran, urban spaces are still an improper environment for the independent presence and movement of people with disabilities. This problem is considered a serious threat for social sustainability in Tehran. The main goal of this research is finding solutions for increasing social interaction and greater participation of people with disabilities in public spaces by applying Universal Design. The research is seeking to answer these questions: What is causing inefficiency in the regulation of Universal Design in Tehran? Why is social participation by people with disabilities limited in Tehran? Which factors are contributing to Universal Design in Tehran? The research is based on applied theory, field research methods and a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach. In addition, and the results include both empirical and functional solutions. The consequences show that many of problems are rooted in cultural issues. The people must attend to disability as a public concern which can involve everybody. They must comprehend that all the members of the society, regardless of their physical condition, have the right to use public facilities independently. The second problem is related to lack of any integrated approach to applying Universal Design. This research proposes some solutions such as preparation a Universal Design master plan, an integrated approach for implementation project in all organizations, and public education for improving citizens' knowledge about Universal Design.

  10. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

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    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  11. Prevalence of Substance Abuse among High School Students in 2015-2016 Academic Year in Yazd City, Iran

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    Mahmood Vakili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Substance abuse is a common problem and a major public health dilemma with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, due to the increase of drug abuse in recent years, especially among young people and its complications, including loss of life, unwanted pregnancy, suicide commitment, as well as violence and given that our country has a young population, so the present study, aimed to investigate the substance abuse among the students in Yazd, a central city in Iran. Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study 1020 students studying in high school (the first period - the second period were investigated in the 2015-2016 academic year in the city of Yazd. Multi-stage sampling method using cluster and stratified sampling was used. Information were collected through a standardized questionnaire based on World Health Organization method known as Global school-based student health survey (GSHS which was translated to Persian. After completion of the questionnaire by students, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and through statistical tests of significance. Results: The results showed 18.1% of students had at least one history of drug use. 9.5% of students had a history of cannabis use, 12.5% had a history of amphetamines use, 10.8% had a history of taking psychotropic pills, 12.2% had a history of heroin use, 12.9% had a history of opium use, and finally, 9.6% had a history of crack use. There was no significant association between parents education and drug abuse in students. Conclusion: According to high prevalence and diversity of substance abuse among students, recommend educational program in school and parents supervision. Promotion of parents and teachers knowledge about symptoms of abuse is needed. Family support of adolescents is effective for prevention. 

  12. Evaluation of Combination of Natural and Artificial Lighting Condition in Primary Schools (Case Study: Baneh City of Kurdistan Province, Iran

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    Seyyed alireza Mousavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Promoting the health and safety is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools and one factor in designing and operating schools that always has been important is lighting. As students spend considerable hours in the classroom and school, lighting should be designed appropriately and in accordance with the standards, to protect them from injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the combination of natural and artificial lighting condition in primary schools of Baneh city, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It's population consisted of primary schools in the city of Baneh and 12 schools were randomly selected as samples. Measurement has been done, using observation method in those schools by completing the assessment form. Then collected data were analyzed by SPSS 19, using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Results showed that the windows to the floor area in the most of schools classes were in standard range and just in 7 classes, the windows to the floor area ratio were less than standard. ANOVA showed the mean of luminance in those schools in p≤0.05 was significant and most of classes were in range of standard luminance. Comparison of luminance in schools corridors with standard showed that corridors luminance of 3schools were less than standard range. Conclusions: The amount of luminance in all schools was not appropriate especially in old schools. Therefore, to reduce the effect of inappropriate lightning on health in some classes, it is necessary to redesign the system. Furthermore, for parsimony, the lightning system modification is required to achieve standard luminance which is important.

  13. Pediculosis capitis Among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran

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    K Hazrati Tappeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psycho­logical effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010.Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive.Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test.Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suit­able warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups.There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation.Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school chil­dren.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem

  14. Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium Determination in 17 Species of Fish Marketed in Khorramabad City, West of Iran

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    Ali Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals entrance to fish body tissues and transferring to human body systems after their consuming makes numerous undesirable effects and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury in fresh fishes marketed in Khorramabad City, west of Iran. In this descriptive study, five samples of 17 fish species with high consumption were purchased randomly in 2014. Measurement of mercury, lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. All measurements were performed three times for each sample. Lead mean levels in fish samples was in the range 0.736 -1.005 ppm, cadmium range was from 0.196 to 0.015 ppm and mean content of mercury was  0.431 - 0.107 ppm. At present mean concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in supplied fishes muscle is lower than maximum recommended levels according to WHO, EC and FDA guidelines. Based on the obtained results of this study and the importance of heavy metals in foods and their impacts on human health, continuous monitoring of heavy metals levels in foods is necessary.

  15. Association of HLA-DRB1 Alleles with Ulcerative Colitis in the City of Kerman, South Eastern Iran

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    Mojgan Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran.HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCRamplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP. The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls.HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01 among UC patients.This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.

  16. The Effectiveness of Storytelling on Improving Auditory Memory of Students with Reading Disabilities in Marivan City, Iran

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    Fatemeh Ghaderi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students with learning disabilities often encounter problems with their lessons due to the disorder in reading and writing and face to some challenging situation such as auditory and visual memory problem, sustaining attention, inhibiting impulses, motor coordination, auditory and visual perception and discrimination. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of storytelling on auditory memory of students with reading disabilities of Marivan city, Iran. Materials and Methods: The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Sampling method was replaced in this study using an available sampling method on 30 students in two groups (15 experimental and 15 control people. The experimental group test abilities were trained in 12 one-hour session. Inclusion criteria were having a learning disorder (only dyslexic, third grade elementary school and having no other abnormalities and exclusion criteria were students who did not attend the regular sessions. Digit span subtest the Wechsler figures Fourth Edition were used to collect data. Collected data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21.0 software in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics (ANCOVA. Results: The results showed that 66% of participants were female, also, according to the parents' literacy level, the results showed that the highest level of fathers’ literacy was between high school and diploma (46.7% as well as the highest level of mothers’ literacy was under diploma (50%. The results showed that storytelling had a significant impact on improving dyslexic students’ auditory memory (P

  17. Cockroaches ’ bacterial infections in wards of hospitals, Hamedan city, west of Iran

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    Nejati Jalil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between different species of cockroaches with their bacterial infection in different wards of Hamedan county hospitals, western Iran. Methods: Using sticky trap, hand collection and glass trap, 250 cockroaches were collected from 14 wards of 5 hospitals. After having their identification determined by detection key, all of them were used to isolate bacteria from cuticle and alimentary tract. Results: From four identified species, Blatella germanica were the most common in all of the wards (88.8% and next was the Periplaneta Americana (8%. 20 bacteria species isolated from cockroaches' surface and 21 from digestive organ. Escherichia coli were the most predominant bacteria isolated from external surface (26.5 % as well as alimentary tract (30.8%. The frequency of investigated bacteria on cockroaches' body surface was not significantly different between Periplaneta Americana and Blattella germanica except for Kllebsiella oxytoca (P<0.001 and Providensia Spp (P=0.035. Also, frequency of detected bacteria in cockroaches' digestive organ was not significantly different between these two species. Furthermore, the frequency of bacteria isolated from the cockroaches' external surface was not significantly different from that of digestive organ except for shigella disantery (P<0.001, Pseudomonas aeroginosa (P<0.001 and Klebsiella oxytoca (P=0.01 3. Conclusions: Since cockroaches can carry pathogenic bacteria, so their existence in the hospitals could be a serious public health problem. It is suggested to compile programs in order to control cockroaches especially in the hospitals.

  18. Investigating effective factors on improvement and development of medicinal Pants in Iran (case study Isfahan city

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    Seyed Fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using plants has a long history in treatment. Herbal medicine has always been one of the main pillars of the famous medical school in ancient civilization. Nowadays also, a high Volume of trade in the world is belongs to medicinal because of its current importance. However a very few studies have been performed in the field of medicinal plants marketing In this study we have tried to determine the factors that can help to improve and develop The market of medicinal plants in Iran. The paper is descriptive-cognition and the related Information for this scope have been collected by using library resources such as books And scientific journals, moreover for collecting necessary data in order to confirm or reject Research hypothesis a questionnaire made by researchers have been used, data analyzed with SPSS software and presumption statistical methods. Sample 57 consists of medicinal plants sellers(druggist, pharmacists and doctors choose with random sampling. The result showed that all the variables factors of the study can help to improve and expand medicinal market.

  19. Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital waters of major cities of Khuzestan province, Iran

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    Azar Dokht eKhosravi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are among the emerging pathogens in immunocompromised individuals including hospitalized patients. So, it is important to consider hospitals water supplies as a source for infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NTM in the hospital aquatic systems of Khuzestan, South west of Iran. In total, 258 hospital water samples were collected and examined. After initial sample processing, sediment of each sample were inoculated into two Lowenstein-Jensen medium. The positive cultures were studied with phenotypic tests including growth rate, colony morphology, and pigmentation, with subsequent PCR- restriction enzyme analysis (PRA and rpoB gene sequence analysis. Mycobacterial strains were isolated from 77 samples (29.8%, comprising 52 (70.1% rapid growing, and 25 (32.4% slow growing mycobacteria. Based on the overall results, M. fortuitum (44.1% was the most common mycobacterial species in hospital water samples, followed by M. gordonae (n=13,16.8% and M. senegalense (n=5, 7.7%. In conclusion, current study demonstrated the NTM strains as one of the major parts of hospital water supplies with probable potential source for nosocomial infections. This finding also help to shed light on to the dynamics of the distribution and diversity of NTM in the water system of hospitals in the region of study.

  20. Spatio-temporal analysis of urban growth from remote sensing data in Bandar Abbas city, Iran

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    Mohsen Dadras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, urban growth is a multidimensional spatial and population process in which cities and urban settlements are considered as centers of population focus owing to their specific economic and social features, which form a vital component in the development of human societies. The analysis of urban growth using spatial and attribute data of the past and present, is regarded as one of the basic requirements of urban geographical studies, future planning as well as the establishment of political policies for urban development. Mapping, modeling, and measurements of urban growth can be analyzed using GIS and remote sensing-based statistical models. In the present study, the aerial photos and satellite images of 5 periods, namely (1956–1965, 1965–1975, 1975–1987, 1987–2001, 2001–2012 were used to determine the process of expansion of the urban boundary of Bandar Abbas. Here, in order to identify the process of expanding urban boundaries with time, the circular administrative border of the city of Bandar Abbas, was divided into 32 different geographical directions. Here, Pearson’s Chi-square distribution as well as Shannon’s entropy is used in calculating the degree of freedom and the degree of sprawl for the analysis of growth and development of the cities. In addition to these models, the degree-of-goodness was also used for combining these models in the measurement and determination of urban growth. In this way, it was found that the city of Bandar Abbas has a high degree of freedom and degree of sprawl, and a negative degree of goodness in urban growth. Regardless of the results achieved, the current study indicates the capability of aerial photos and satellite imagery in the effectiveness of spatio-statistical models of urban geographical studies.

  1. Shallow subsurface geology and Vs characteristics of sedimentary units throughout Rasht City, Iran

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    Behzad Mehrabi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Manjil-Rudbar earthquake of June 1990 caused widespread damage to buildings in the city of Rasht located
    60 km from the epicenter. Seismic surveys, including refraction P-wave, S-wave and downhole tests, were
    carried out to study subsurface geology and classify materials in the city of Rasht. Rasht is built on Quaternary
    sediments consisting of old marine (Q1m, deltaic (Q2d, undivided deltaic sediments with gravel (Qdg and
    young marine (Q2m deposits. We used the variations of Vp in different materials to separate sedimentary
    boundaries. The National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP scheme was used for site classification.
    Average S-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m was used to develop site categories, based on measured Vs values
    in 35 refraction seismic profiles and 4 downhole tests. For each geological unit histograms of S-wave velocity
    were calculated. This study reveals that the Vs(30 of most of the city falls into categories D and C of NEHRP
    site classification. Average horizontal spectral amplification (AHSA in Rasht was calculated using Vs(30 . The
    AHSA map clearly indicates that the amplification factor east and north of the city are higher than those of south
    and central parts. The results show that the lateral changes and heterogeneities in Q1m sediments are significant
    and most damaged buildings in 1990 Manjil earthquake were located in this unit.

  2. Evaluation on antibiotic resistance of helicobacter pylori isolated from patients admitted to tooba medical center, Sari

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    Amin Talebi BezminAbadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 17 March, 2009; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Helicobacter pylori, which infect approximately one half of the world’s population, are an important risk factor in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is now widely recommended as the most effective treatment of peptic ulcer disease. One of the most important reasons for treatment failure is H. pylori resistance to the antimicrobials usage in therapy. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of H. pylori isolates in 6 routine anti-microbial agents in Northern Iran.Materials and methods: 125 patients from Tooba Medical Center in Sari with endoscopic evidence of dyspepsia complaints were used for obtaining gastric biopsies specimens. Biopsies were sent to the laboratory in thioglycolate broth (transport medium. Bacteria were primarily cultured on Columbia agar supplemented with 7% horse blood, 7% fetal calf serum. Urease, Catalase and Oxidase activities were used for H. pylori identification. Bacterial suspensions equivalent to 3 Mc. Farlands were spread on plates, along with antibiotic disks and placed in the diameter zone. Inhibition was measured after 3 days of incubation in micro-aerophilic condition.Results: H. pylori were isolated from 116(92.8% subjects, a total of 125 biopsy specimens. Resistance to metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, tetracycline, furazolidone and ciprofloxacin were 71%, 35%, 25%, 9%, 24% and 25%, respectively. Multiple resistance (amoxicillin-clarithromycin-metronidazole were found in (65% of the isolates.Conclusion: Comparison of our data with previous results showed that prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, furazolidone and metronidazole has increased in Iran considerably. Resistance to amoxicillin in our study was too high in comparison with foreign studies. The present study demonstrates the need for continuous monitoring of the antimicrobial

  3. Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Individuals Referred to the Medical Center Laboratories in Nahavand City, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

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    Ali Haghighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs cause serious public health problem in the world, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining frequency of intestinal parasites in referred people to the Nahavand city laboratories, Hamadan province, western Iran.Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among checkup individuals and patients referred to laboratories of Nahavand County. A total of 371 stool samples (150 from checkup individuals and 221 from patients were selected by using systematic random sampling during summer 2014.  The stool specimens were examined macroscopically, and microscopically by using direct slide smear (saline wet mount and lugol staining, formaldehyde - diethyl ether concentration, trichrome staining and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Chi-square test.Results: Ninety two patients (24.8% were infected with single or multiple intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of IPIs in checkup individuals and patients was 21.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The frequency of the observed intestinal parasites was: Blastocystis spp. 72 (19.4%, Entamoeba coli 7 (1/9%, Endolimax nana 7 (1/9%, Giardia lamblia 5 (1/3%, Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba hartmanni 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba histolitica/E. dispar 1 (0.3%, Trichomonas hominies 1 (0.3%, Chilomastix mesnili 1 (0.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1 (0.3% and Enterobius vermicularis egg l (0.3%.Conclusion: The proportion of observed protozoan parasites 91 (24.5% is higher than helminthes infection 1 (0.3%. The worm infections in Nahavand city was dramatically decreased over the past decades, induced increases in public health at the community level.  Blastocystis spp. was the predominant intestinal parasite in people referred to the Nahavand city laboratories.  Proportion of pathogenic IPIs among patients 4.07% (9 of 221 was

  4. Iran: spotlight.

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    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  5. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

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    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  6. The Determinants of Transportation Mode Choice in the Middle Eastern Cities: the Kerman Case, Iran

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    Hamid Soltanzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Having a precise understanding of the determinants of transportation mode choices and decisions can be under the influence of regional and cultural aspects. This paper outlines such determinants in the Iranian city of Kerman as a representative of the similar Middle Eastern cities located in hot-arid climates and Moslem cultures. The descriptive analysis of the results derived from a short survey that was a part of a larger study conducted in the second half of 2013 indicated that adding to accessibility to public transportation and the convenience of using it can persuade people to shift from car driving to public transit use. The main barriers to bicycling are socio-cultural aspects, while for walking the obstacles are physical and objective. Increasing the quality of pedestrian infrastructure and spaces is a stronger deterrent than personal attitudes against walking. Such findings show slight dissimilarities from the results of some of the western studies that find the built environment more effective. These findings can be a general guide for the Middle Eastern planners to promote walking, biking, and public transport use.

  7. Epidemiological Survey of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Baghmalek City of Khuzestan Province in Iran (2007-2011

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    Yahyavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still an important cause of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB and a major cause of death in the world. Extrapulmonary TB is spread almost as much as one third of pulmonary TB. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of TB and type of affected tissue in patients with extrapulmonary TB in Tuberculosis Center in Baghmalek City. Patients and Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the medical records of patients with TB referred to Tuberculosis Center in Baghmalek City over a five-year period. Data included information about age, sex, location, and affected tissue or organ. Results Among 145 patients with TB, 67 patients (12.25% were diagnosed with extrapulmonary TB including 39 males and 28 females with the age range of 15 to 64 years. Most common organ involved in the extrapulmonary TB was the lymph nodes (29% followed by TB meningitis (17%, urinary tract TB (17% each, bone TB (13%, and pleural TB (13% each. Conclusions The findings suggest that the prevalence of extrapulmonary TB was significant. Therefore, it is necessary to perform tests for extrapulmonary TB besides tests for TB.

  8. Urban Growth Modelling with Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression. Case Study: Sanandaj City, Iran

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    SASSAN MOHAMMADY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities have shown remarkable growth due to attraction, economic, social and facilities centralization in the past few decades. Population and urban expansion especially in developing countries, led to lack of resources, land use change from appropriate agricultural land to urban land use and marginalization. Under these circumstances, land use activity is a major issue and challenge for town and country planners. Different approaches have been attempted in urban expansion modelling. Artificial Neural network (ANN models are among knowledge-based models which have been used for urban growth modelling. ANNs are powerful tools that use a machine learning approach to quantify and model complex behaviour and patterns. In this research, ANN and logistic regression have been employed for interpreting urban growth modelling. Our case study is Sanandaj city and we used Landsat TM and ETM+ imageries acquired at 2000 and 2006. The dataset used includes distance to main roads, distance to the residence region, elevation, slope, and distance to green space. Percent Area Match (PAM obtained from modelling of these changes with ANN is equal to 90.47% and the accuracy achieved for urban growth modelling with Logistic Regression (LR is equal to 88.91%. Percent Correct Match (PCM and Figure of Merit for ANN method were 91.33% and 59.07% and then for LR were 90.84% and 57.07%, respectively.

  9. Groundwater Potential Assessment Using Geographic Information Systems and Ahp Method (case Study: Baft City, Kerman, Iran)

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    Zeinolabedini, M.; Esmaeily, A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to use Geographical Information Systems (GISs) for determining the best areas having ground water potential in Baft city. To achieve this objective, parameters such as precipitation, slope, fault, vegetation, land cover and lithology were used. Regarding different weight of these parameters effect, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used. After developing informational layers in GIS and weighing each of them, a model was developed. The final map of ground waters potential was calculated through the above-mentioned model. Through applying our developed model four areas having high, average, low potential and without required potential distinguished. Results of this research indicated that 0.74, 41.23 and 45.63 percent of the area had high, average and low potential, respectively. Moreover, 12.38% of this area had no potential. Obtained results can be useful in management plans of ground water resources and preventing excessive exploitation.

  10. Rediscovery of Acorus calamus (Acoraceae in Iran

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    Abbas Gholipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acorus calamus has already been reported based on a single specimen collected from Guilan province. Yet, this species has not been reported during last 50 years in Iran and thus, its herbarium specimen is not available. A sample of the species was collected from southern area of Sari during a study on aquatic plants of Mazandaran province. According to the new finding, the natural occurrence of the species was confirmed in Iran. Complementary botanical description, photographs of plant habitat and distribution map of the species were presented. Although, according to the Flora Iranica and Flora of Iran Acorus was considered as a genus of Araceae the recent phylogenetic study considered its taxonomic position in Acoraceae as a distinct family. Therefore, Acoraceae is introduced as a new family to the Flora of Iran with a single representative i. e. Acorus calamus.

  11. Assessment of oxytetracycline and tetracycline antibiotics in manure samples in different cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran.

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    Alavi, Nadali; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Tetracyclines (TCs), a class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum, are the most frequently used antibiotics in animal production. The major concern is that the widespread use of the antibiotics may lead to the emergence of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to these antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the residual levels of oxytetracycline and tetracycline in 80 animal manure samples that were collected from the livestock and poultry feedlots in Khuzestan Province. The residual levels of the antibiotics in the samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and subsequently were measured by liquid chromatography. Recoveries from the spiked poultry manure samples ranged from 65 to 113% for tetracycline and 86 to 132% for oxytetracycline. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 5.7% within the same day. Method detection limit (MDL) measured for oxytetracycline and tetracycline in the manure were 0.011 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the collected 50 chickens and 30 cow manure samples showed that the highest concentration of tetracycline was related to Behbahan City (5.36 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration was detected for Ramhormoz (0.05 mg/kg). The highest and lowest concentrations of oxytetracycline were respectively observed for Behbahan (13.77 mg/kg) and Ramhormoz (0.047 mg/kg). Based on the results, in chicken manure, there was significant statistical difference between the residual TC concentrations among five cities (p(value)  0.05).

  12. Molecular epidemiology of different hepatitis C genotypes in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in jahrom city of iran.

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    Ashrafi Hafez, Asghar; Baharlou, Rasoul; Mousavi Nasab, Seyed Dawood; Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Abbas; Shayestehpour, Mohammad; Joharinia, Negar; Ahmadi, Nayeb Ali

    2014-05-01

    The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is considered essentially hepatotropic, yet the virus compartments have also been found in important extra hepatic sites. Detection of HCV RNA in extra hepatic reservoirs such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is important for determining disease progression and treatment effectiveness. The present study aimed to determine different HCV genotypes in patients' plasma and PBMC specimens, in Jahrom city of Iran. Blood samples of 137 patients with established HCV were collected at the Honari clinic. These patients were anti-HCV and plasma HCV RNA positive. After plasma RNA extraction and obtaining a pellet of approximately 3-5 × 10(6) PBMCs, Real-time PCR was performed, using specific-genotype primers. Finally, data analysis was done by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Subtype 3 was the most common genotype in plasma (57.7%) and PBMCs (51.1%). Subtype 1a was detected in 36.5% and 30.7% of plasma samples and PBMCs, respectively whereas subtype 4 was not detected in any of the cases. There was a genotype difference between plasma and PBMCs of 12.4% of patients. In four patients no genotype was detected in their plasma but genotype 3 was detected in the PBMCs. It is suggested that determination of the target genotype by plasma subtyping for choosing the proper antiviral therapy is essential but may result in therapy failure. HCV genotyping in PBMC samples, along with plasma specimens, might be more beneficial. Therefore determining the HCV genotype in PBMCs, before beginning the therapy is useful due to the possibility of occult infection detection.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women Admitted to the Health Centers of Khorram-Abad City, Iran

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    K. Cheraghipour

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in humans that can cause abortion in pregnant women or serious damage to their fetuses. To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women of Khorram-Abad,a city in the west of Iran, a cross sectional study was performed by random cluster sampling of pregnant women admitted to rural and urban health centers of Khorram-Abad during 2006 to 2007. Materials & Methods: After recording 390 volunteers’ information in the questionnaires and preparation of the samples, prevalence of current/recent toxoplasmosis was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique for the detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM, and previous history of infection by IgG. Results: This study revealed that the IgG seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in urban and rural pregnant women of Khorram-Abad was 30.8% and 31.4%, respectively; and that of IgM seroprevalence was 7.2% and 7.9%, respectively. However, IgG antibody levels increased with age (P<0.001. Education level of women was associated with the level of both antibodies (P<0.01. No statistically significant differences were observed in the levels of antibodies in relation to other study variables. Conclusion: According to this study, 69% of the pregnant women were seronegative and consequently are susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis and subsequent injury to their fetuses. So because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, public health education is necessary for prevention of this serious opportunistic infection. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:46-51

  14. Serum Magnesium Status in Patients Subjects with Depression in the City of Yazd in Iran 2013-2014.

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    Rajizadeh, Afsaneh; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Yassini-Ardakani, Mojtaba; Dehghani, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder and involves many factors. The regulatory effects of magnesium on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channels make it a factor in the treatment of depression. The present study investigated the level of serum magnesium in subjects diagnosed with depression in the city of Yazd in Iran. This cross-sectional study was done from January 2013 to January 2014 on 650 patients with depression who agreed to participate in this study. Diagnosis was made using the Beck Depression Inventory test (BDI-II); those scoring higher than 11 were sent to the medical school laboratory for further testing of serum magnesium levels. The mean age of the patients was 34.16 ± 9.12 years. Of the 650 subjects, 195 were male (30 %) and 455 were female (70 %). The total mean serum magnesium was 2.1 ± 0.26 mg/dl. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia 13.7 %, hypermagnesemia 8.3 %, and sub-optimal magnesium levels was 26.5 %. Sub-optimal prevalence in women (28.1 %) was higher than in men (26.2 %). A significant relationship was observed between depression and serum magnesium level (p = 0.02). The results indicated that the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in subjects diagnosed with depression is high compared to non-depressed individuals. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between hypomagnesemia and intensity of depression that suggests a role for this element in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The high sub-optimal prevalence among women indicates that increased attention should be paid to this group.

  15. Prevalence of parasites in patients with gastroenteritis at East of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.

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    Vahedi, Mohammad; Gohardehi, Shaban; Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    Parasitic gastrointestinal infections are one of the most important health problems in the developing countries, which lead to the onset of intestinal disease particularly diarrhoea. Due to the particular geographic situation in the Mazandaran province, individuals are infected with various intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of enteropathogenic parasites in the patients with gastroenteritis living at the east of Mazandaran province (Sari, Nekah and Joybar cities), northern Iran. This descriptive study was carried out from September 2009 to March 2010. Faecal samples were collected by randomized cluster method from 962 patients with gastroenteritis who were refered to the Health Service Centers of Sari, Neka and Joybar cities. All data about the patients were recorded in questionnaire. Stool specimens were examined by direct wet mounting, formolether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain and Auramin Phenol fluorescence (APF) method for the investigation of Cryptosporidium and Isospora. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with gender, age, and season were investigated, and the obtained data were analyzed with χ² test using the SPSS software (16.0). Out of 962 patients with gastroenteritis, overall infection was 9.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%) with the highest and Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%) with the lowest prevalence rate. Prevalence rate of other parasites were as follow: Cryptosporidium, 0.1%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.1%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.1%; Entamoeba coli, 1.2%; Blastocytis hominis, 1.8%; Trichostrongylus spp., 0.4% and Hymenolepis nana, 0.9%. Findings showed that Giardia is the most common cause of intestinal infection at the east of Mazandaran province, and could be defined as the most important parasitic agent of gastroenteritis. On the other hand, infection with enteropathogenic parasites as compared with the previous reports showed significant decline, which reveals the

  16. Correlation of gastroesophageal reflux disease with positive family history and headache in Shiraz city, Southern Iran

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    Saberi-Firoozi Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To analyze the potential correlation of a positive family history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and the history of headaches as a risk factor for and complication of the disease. Materials and Methods: Three thousand and six hundred subjects were selected by cluster random sampling from all seven districts of Shiraz city, who were invited for interview. In five months, 1956 subjects participated in this study. A questionnaire organized into three sections of demographic, signs and symptoms of GERD, headache and family history of GERD was completed for each patient. Social and demographic variables were also recorded. Results: The presence of GERD symptoms (72% had a significant correlation with a positive family history of the disease ( P = 0.000. Patients showed a variable frequency of headache, ranging from once daily (16.7%, three to five times a week (5.6%, once-twice a week (26.7%, once to three times a month (15.0% and less than once a month (8.3%. There was a significant correlation between the headaches and the GERD symptoms ( P = 0.000. Conclusion: A positive family history of GERD can be considered as a risk factor for the disease and the presence of headache at the time of diagnosis as a complication of this disease. Therefore, in the management of GERD, attention should be given to these factors.

  17. Social Responsibility of the Hospitals in Isfahan City, Iran: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Mahmoud Keyvanara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private. Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment.

  18. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. Effective Dose Radon 222 of the Tap Water in Children and Adults People; Minab City, Iran.

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    Fakhri, Yadolah; Kargosha, Morteza; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Rasouli Amirhajeloo, Leila; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    (222)Rn is a radioactive, odorless, and colorless element which has a half-life of 3.83 days. One of (222)Rn main resources are Groundwater (wells, springs, etc.). Hence, the use of groundwater with high concentration of (222)Rn can increase the risk of lung and stomach cancers. Concentration of (222)Rn in tap water of Minab city in two temperatures 5 and 15 ºC was measured by radon meter model RTM1668-2. The effective dose was calculated by equations proposed by UNSCEAR. Geometric mean concentration of (222)Rn in drinking water was found to be 0.78±0.06 and 0.46±0.04 Bq/l at 5 and 15 ̊C (p value222)Rn at 5 and 15 ̊C were estimated 0.0021 and 0.0012mSv/y, respectively. Geometric mean concentration in (222)Rn drinking water and effective dose received from drinking water and inhalation of (222)Rn is lower than WHO and EPA standard limits. Increasing temperature of drinking water will decrease the effective dose received. Annual Effective dose received from inhalation and consumption of (222)Rn in drinking water in children is more than adults.

  20. Wet deposition of hydrocarbons in the city of Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Pardakhti, Alireza; Mohajeri, Leila; Bateni, Farshid

    2010-06-01

    Air pollution in the city of Tehran has been a major problem for the past three decades. The direct effects of hydrocarbon contaminants in the air are particularly important such as their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects which can be transported to other environments via dry and wet deposition. In the present study, rainwater samples were collected and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) as well as fuel fingerprints in two ranges of gasoline (C5-C11) and diesel fuel (C12-C20) using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Mean concentrations of summation operator16 PAHs varied between 372 and 527 microg/L and for BTEX was between 87 and 188 microg/L with maximum of 36 microg/L for toluene. Both gasoline range hydrocarbons (GRH) and diesel range hydrocarbons (DRH) were also present in the collected rainwater at concentrations of 190 and 950 microg/L, respectively. Hydrocarbon transports from air to soil were determined in this wet deposition. Average hydrocarbon transportation for summation operatorPAHs, BTEX, GRH, and DRH was 2,747, 627, 1,152, and 5,733 microg/m(2), respectively.

  1. Potential Health Risk Assessment of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn for Human Population via Consumption of Commercial Spices; a Case Study of Hamedan City, Iran

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    Sobhanardakani S.* PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Spices are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the taste of food as well as affecting the digestion and metabolism. Along with that, they may also contain some substances as heavy metals, which have harmful effects on the body. The aim of present study was to assess the potential health risk of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods: 18 industrially packaged and weighted spice samples (cardamom, curry powder and turmeric belonging to 6 famous brands were bought from different supermarkets of Hamedan City, Iran, in 2015. The human health risks posed by chronic exposure to the heavy metals were assessed by computing the average daily intake of metal. The health risk index (HRI for the local population through the consumption of spice was assessed using DIM/RfD formula. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, DMS post-hoc, Tukey HSD and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests. Findings: Cr was detected in spice samples in 0.08-1.67mg/kg, Cu 0.05-1.28mg/kg, Fe 1.04-6.89mg/kg and Zn 0.40-2.25mg/kg. The mean concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn were lower than MPL. The DIM values for the examined spice samples were below the recommended values. Conclusion: The levels of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn are less than the MPL in cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran.

  2. Species diversity of phytoseiid mites on different ecosystems in Sari district

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    Javad Omidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mites of the Phytoseiidae family have been extensively studied as biological control agents of different mites and insect pests. Some species also feed on nematodes, fungal spores, pollen and exudates from plants and insects. About 2,300 phytoseiid species belonging to 90 genera have been described in this family (Chant and McMurtry 2007. Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to the collection and identification of the predaceous phytoseiid mites in Iran (Rahmani et al. 2010. Despite some studies on phytoseiid mites in Iran, our knowledge remains limited about their fauna and diversity in Mazandaran province. The data of these studies showed that until recently, only 75 species were reported from Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate the species diversity of Phytoseiidae and access to effective predatory mites for biological control of injurious mite pests in Sari, the center of Mazandaran province (Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, 35 ° 47'-36 ° 35' N, 50 ° 34'-54 ° 10' E Materials and methods Samples were taken from 80 plant species belonging to 46 plant families including forest trees, orchards and farm crops representing three types of ecosystems from September 2011 to October 2012. Harvested samples of each plant were separately collected in plastic bags and labeled with region and date of collection. The bags were transported to the laboratory on the same day and stored in a refrigerator at about 4°C for up to a week, until the materials washed for mite extraction. Samples were composed of leaves, stems and shoots of different ages and the number of leaves per sample varied between plant species. In order to assimilate the samples, a volume nearly equal mass of each sample were put in a two-liter water container. The mites were floated on water by adding 1.5 liters of tap water and a few droplets of detergent. The plant leaves and shoots were shaken for several times until the mites fall from

  3. The Effect of Dust Storm on the Microbial Quality of Ambient Air in Sanandaj: A City Located in the West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the dust storm can cause diseases such as Asthma, Pneumonia, and respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between air-borne particles with airborne microorganisms in normal and dusty days in Sanandaj, a city located in the west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Air sampling was conducted during the normal and dusty days through Andersen single-stage impactor (28.3 L/min) for 2.5 min. Air par...

  4. Relationship between Lifestyle and Quality of Life in Older Adults Yazd City, Iran

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    Hassan Rezaeipandari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent medical and health care improvement caused a remarkable increase in humans' life expand and subsequent increase in aging population. Beside life expectancy, quality of life is at the same importance, so the study aimed to explore the relation between quality of life and lifestyle among older adults in Yazd. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out on 270 elderly people over 60 years old. A cluster random sampling was used to recruit the participant from 10 selected clusters in the Yazd city with at least 27 participants from each cluster. Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 and Iranian Elderly Lifestyle Questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analyzed with descriptive frequency distribution and also &chi2, and Pearson correlation coefficient tests using SPSS software. Results: The mean score of quality of life was 69.06 ± 20.97 (range 0-100 and the mean score of lifestyle was 161.91±13.95 (range 42-211. Quality of life and lifestyle had statistically significant relation with age, sex, education level, marriage status, retirement status, having job, income source, digestive problems, depression, joint pain, osteoporosis, hypertension, fall and sleep disorder. There was also a direct association between lifestyle and quality of life. Conclusion: Results indicated that most of the participants are at a desirable level of lifestyle and quality of life. However quality of life is in relation with some demographic factors and chronic conditions that must be addressed in interventional programs aimed at increasing the quality of life among aging population.

  5. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

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    Ami Widyastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  6. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

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    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  7. Identification of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Agents by Nested Po-lymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR in Shush City, Khuzestan Province, Iran

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    M Ghasemian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease world wide. Leishmania tropica and L. major are two common cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. The aim of this study was determination of the cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shush city, Khouzestan Province, Southwest Iran"nMethods: One hundred samples were collected from patients at the age of 1-80 year with documented cutaneous leishmani¬asis referred to the health centre and a private medical diagnostic laboratory at Shush City. DNA was extracted from slid samples by phenol- chloroform- Isoemil alcohol method, and subjected to Nested-PCR as template. k DNA of the parasites were amplified by CSB1XR and CSB2XF in the first round of PCR and 13Z and Li R primers for the second round. After PCR, electrophoresis of products was performed and 750bp band from L. tropica and 560bp band from L. major were de¬tected."nResults: A total of 100 cases comprising 47 females and 53 males were studied. The highest infected age group was under 10 years with a rate of 42% and the lowest rate was 4% at the age group of above 40 years. The results of PCR electropho-resis indicated that 90(90% cases were L. major and 10 (10% L. tropica. The predominant species in this area was L. ma-jor."nConclusion: It is concluded that Nested PCR is a reliable test for diagnosis and identification of Leishmania species and can apply in epidemiological investigations.

  8. Applying a Model of Patient's Right in the State Hospital, Sari, Iran

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    Ghasem Abedi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: The charter of patient rights includes provision of appropriate and good quality health care services and information to patients, while respecting their honor and dignity. The aim of this study was to apply the model of patient's right phenomenology.Methods: The phenomenology approach was utilized in this study using three dimensional models of Kaufmman, Kuring and Janson. The relevant data were collected using open semi-structured interviews conducted in a total of 68 sessions. For data analysis, the factor analysis test was used for match and mismatch, and for identifying the structure.Results: In this study, content themes were divided into ten categories, namely: appropriate care with high quality, the right to have information, the right to confidentiality of information and secretiveness, the right to sign an informed consent, and observe patient's privacy, the right to rote independence, the right to be at peace, the right to express objections and complaints, the right to get compensation, as well as the right to enjoy the adequate resources and individual behavior.Conclusion: In the health care perspective, patient satisfaction is a combination of expectations, experiences, and needs perceived. The findings of this study offer a more comprehensive model from the patient’s point of view towards their rights.

  9. Related Factors of Physical Activity Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis Based on Health Belief Model among Teen Girls in Qom City, Iran

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    Zeynab Karimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Although osteoporosis is a disease of adulthood, it can start from childhood and adolescence. Lifestyle, especially physical activity, mobility, and proper nutrition during adolescence are among the important osteoporosis preventive factors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine related factors of physical activity preventive behavior of osteoporosis based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among teen girls in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade girl students in Qom city. The participants were selected via multistage sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire based on Health Belief Model used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results The current study, knowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a significant and positive relationship with physical activity behavior (r=0.13, P0.05. Conclusion The results of the study showed that educational interventions and programs must focus on increasing knowledge and perceived self-efficacy to enhance physical activity behavior and reduce the perceived barriers associated with osteoporosis preventive physical activity.

  10. Evaluation of Dental Status and Its Association with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children in Zahedan City, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Amirabadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors can affect the oral health-related quality of life in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental status and its relationship with the oral health-related quality of life in preschool children in Zahedan City, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 200 preschool children (5 - 6 years old were randomly selected from different areas of Zahedan city. Dental health status of children was investigated using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT questionnaire. Oral-health-related quality of life of the children and their parents was measured using the Farsi version of the early childhood oral health impact scale (F- ECOHIS index. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, statistical t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at the significant level of 0.05. Results The mean scores of F- ECOHIS and DMFT for all studied children were 10.94 ± 7.67 and 5.05 ± 4.48, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the DMFT and F- ECOHIS indices in children (r = 0.26, P = 0.563 and their parents (r = 0.16, P = 0.217. Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, there is no significant relationship between the DMFT index and the index of oral health-related quality of life. Further studies are recommended.

  11. KAJIAN HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point PENGOLAHAN JAMBU BIJI DI PILOT PLANT SARI BUAH UPT. B2PTTG – LIPI SUBANG

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    Diki Nanang Surahman

    2014-10-01

    agar dapat mengetahui efektifi tas penerapan HACCP. Penerapan HACCP yang sesuai diharapkan akan meningkatkan kualitas dan keamanan produk sari buah jambu biji. Kata kunci: Sari buah, jambu biji, HACCP

  12. PENGARUH KUALITAS PELAYANAN TERHADAP KEPUASAN DAN LOYALITAS PELANGGAN TEGAL SARI ACCOMMODATIONDI UBUD

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    Ni Putu Sawitri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know the effect of service quality towards customer satisfaction and loyalty in Tegal Sari Accommodation Ubud. Respondent of this research are foreign customer with at least 17 years oldwho remain to stay at Tegal Sari Accommodation at least twice in the last 5 years. The number of respondents on this research defined 140 respondents by using sampling technique that is purposive sampling. This research used analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with the help of AMOS program. The result of this research showed that service quality has significant impact on satisfaction, satisfaction has significant impact on loyalty, service quality has significant impact on loyalty of Tegal Sari Accommodation Ubud.

  13. Screening of Developmental Problem, Day care Centers, Sari, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kosaryan, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: There has not been enough attention towards the domains of development in pediatrics,so there are many deficiencies in monitoring the achievement of developmental milestones in our country.One of the important ways for the improvement of this problem is to use screening method. PEDS questionnaire is one of the screening tools for development. The aim of this study was to investigate about parents' evaluation of developmental status for their children.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The population included infants and children under the age of 6 in day care centers of Sari. Sampling method was clustering. The tool for data collection was PEDS questionnaire (Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status which consisted of 38 questions about demographic data and medical history of children as well as parents' concern about different developmental domains along with ''Yes'' , ''No'' and ''little'' answers. The data were analysed using SPSS11 software. Chi square and Wilcoxon were used. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Out of 829 questionnaires, 736 were returned (88.7%. The Sample age was 4.23 ± 1.32 gl . Fifty percent of participants were male. By average, in each developmental domains, 3.2% of parents had major concern and 9.5% had partial concern. The most common domains of concern were communication with others (6.4%, behavior (6.1%, speaking (4.3%, preschool and school education (3.1%, children's understanding (2.5%, the self care (2.1%, the use of fingers (1.4%, the use of legs and arms (1.1%. Parents' concern had a significant relationship with parent's education, residence and history of illness in children (P<0.05. Out of 23.4% of the infants and children who had later returned to the diagnosis center, 80% had behavioral disorder, 87.6% had speech disorder and 16.6% had hearing impairment..Conclusion: A considerable percentage of parents was concerned about developmental

  14. Assessment of suspended particulate matters and their heavy metal content in the ambient air of Mobarakeh city, Isfahan, Iran

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    Avazali Saririan Mobarakeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ambient air of Mobarakeh city is polluted by TSP. The high concentration of Fe and Ni in this area may be attributed to the nearby industrial emissions. Therefore, in industrial areas, efforts should be taken to control the atmospheric pollution in order to protect humans from hazardous health effects of these potentially toxic pollutants.

  15. Temporal profile of PM10 and associated health effects in one of the most polluted cities of the world (Ahvaz, Iran) between 2009 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Heidar; Sorooshian, Armin; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Nikfal, Amirhossein; Baneshi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Ahvaz, Iran ranks as the most polluted city of the world in terms of PM10 concentrations that lead to deleterious effects on its inhabitants. This study examines diurnal, weekly, monthly and annual fluctuations of PM10 between 2009 and 2014 in Ahvaz. Health effects of PM10 levels are also assessed using the World Health Organization AirQ software. Over the study period, the mean PM10 level in Ahvaz was 249.5 μg m-3, with maximum and minimum values in July (420.5 μg m-3) and January (154.6 μg m-3), respectively. The cumulative diurnal PM10 profile exhibits a dominant peak between 08:00-11:00 (local time) with the lowest levels in the afternoon hours. While weekend PM10 levels are not significantly reduced as compared to weekdays, an anthropogenic signature is instead observed diurnally on weekdays, which exhibit higher PM10 levels between 07:00-17:00 by an average amount of 14.2 μg m-3 as compared to weekend days. PM10 has shown a steady mean-annual decline between 2009 (315.2 μg m-3) and 2014 (143.5 μg m-3). The AirQ model predicts that mortality was a health outcome for a total of 3777 individuals between 2009 and 2014 (i.e., 630 per year). The results of this study motivate more aggressive strategies in Ahvaz and similarly polluted desert cities to reduce the health effects of the enormous ambient aerosol concentrations.

  16. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Envi-ron¬mental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, South-ern Iran

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    M Rahdar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae commonly found in the environmental sources such as water, soil, and air. This ubiquitous amoeba is the causative agent of amoebic kerati­tis (AK. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in water and soil sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, southern Iran.Methods: In general, 110 samples of water and soil were taken from different localities of Ahvaz including agricultural canals, rivers, and swimming pools. Filtration and cultivation were carried out on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA. Axenic cultivation was performed for all of positive isolates. PCR analysis was conducted on positive samples. Sequencing was done for 15 PCR products. Geno­types were identified by Blast search and homology analysis.Result: Acanthamoeba spp. was found in 43 (71.6% of samples of water and 13 (26% soil samples. Genotyping of 15 samples proved that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 (86.6%, T2 (6.6%, and T5 (6.6% genotypes.Conclusion: TYI-S-33 medium could be better than PYG medium for Acanthamoeba axenic culture.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO2-CH4 From Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in Mahdsht City (IRAN

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    Naderi M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste production is inevitable in any society and consequently waste management is one of the main roles of any municipality. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate different waste management scenarios. According to the amount and composition of the generated waste, considering environmental, economic and technical issues, several options are existed. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a decision support tool has been used in several cases to select the most appropriate option. In this paper, production of greenhouse gases (CO2-CH4 in different waste management options in Mahdasht city (Iran has been studied using IWM software and LCA application. Two scenarios has been defined, the first includes direct and complete transferring of waste to the landfill, and the second includes transferring of 76% of total waste to the landfill and recycling 20% and composting 4%. The questionnaires were fulfilled by the staffs and field surveying. The life cycle inventory cataloging was done using the IWM-1model according to environmental point of view. The amount of produced greenhouse gases in the first scenario is about 9,218 tons and in the second scenario is about 6,801 tons. Results indicate that implementing recycling and composting operation can lead to the 26% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption reduction of a waste management system.

  18. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of sari tempe formulated from import soybean (glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Andriani, Martina; Sari, Intan Indriana; Angwar, Mukhamad; Nurhayati, Rifa; Khasanah, Yuniar; Wiyono, Tri

    2017-01-01

    Tempe is traditional Indonesian food made from Rhizopus sp. fermentation of soybean. The aims of this research are to know the effect of the addition of water and CMC to nutritional and sensory characteristics of the sari tempe formulated from import soybean. The experimental design used in this study is entirely randomized design (CRD), which consists of two factors: variations addition of water with tempe (1:3, 1:5 and 1:7) and the variation of the addition of CMC concentration (0.05%; 0,10% and 0.15%). Sensory data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. If it showed significant results, then it is continued by real difference test using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance level α = 0.05. The results showed the best formula of sari tempe was F6 with 1:5 water ratio and 0.15% CMC concentration. Folate content and vitamin B6 decreased while processing sari tempe respectively 10.3 times and 2.7 times. Whereas, the vitamin B12 content is increased by 1.7 times. The best formula of sari tempe contains 90.96 % water content; 0.08 % ash content; 0.36 % fat content; 23.41 ppm vitamin B6; 337.49 ppm vitamin B12 and 17.31 ppm folate.

  19. Penerapan Standarisasi Desain untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas dan Masa Pakai Mold Di PT. Takagi Sari Multi Utama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Widodo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PT. Takagi Sari Multi Utama adalah perusahaan manufaktur yang bergerak di bidang injeksi plastik untuk produk otomotif terutama pada kendaraan bermotor. Karena begitu banyaknya pelanggan yang mempercayakan produk plastik injectionnya, maka PT. Takagi Sari Multi Utama harus memperhatikan mold yang digunakan sebagai sarana atau alat produksi memiliki kualitas yang tinggi. Karena begitu pentingnya suatu kualitas mold dan daya tahan mold terhadap penjaminan kualitas produksi, maka penulis mencari masalah utama yang terjadi PT. takagi Sari Multi Utama dengan menggunakan diagram pareto. Berdasarkan diagram terebut diperoleh data penyebap kerusakan mold paling tinggi adalah Design and Mold Structur dengan 154 Kejadian. Masalah Design and Mold Structur dipetakan dalam fishbone diagram untuk mengetahui permasalahan apa saja yang menyebapkan. Permasalahan yang ditemukan dilakukan analisa menggunakan FMEA (Failure Mode and Efect Analisis sebagai landasan melakukan perbaikan. Dengan metoda FMEA (Failure Mode and Efect Analisis diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa buruknya desain dan kontruksi mold dikarenakan tidak adanya standar desain yang digunakan sebagai acuhan proses desain dan pemeriksaan mold saat proses manufacturing dengan nilai RPN 567. Oleh karena itu proses perbaikan dilakukan dengan membuat standar desain mold di PT. Takagi Sari Multi Utama kemudian mencoba menerapkannya pada desain mold Cover Side 3/4.

  20. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in City Water, Dental Units' Water, and Bottled Mineral Water in Isfahan, Iran

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    Ahmad Reza Bahrami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection in human is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via water. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in tap water, dental units' water, and bottled mineral water in Iran. In the present study, totally 200 water samples were collected in Isfahan province and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR by the detection of the ureC (glmM gene. Using cultural method totally 5 cultures were positive. Two out of 50 tap water samples (4%, 2 out of 35 dental units' water (5.8% samples, and 1 out of 40 (2.5% from water cooler in public places were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 14 (7% of water samples including 5 tap water (10%, 4 dental units' water (11.4%, 1 refrigerated water with filtration, and 4 (10% water cooler in public places samples. This may be due to the coccoid form of bacteria which is detected by PCR method.

  1. A Scrutiny of Feasibility of Recycling Materials from Municipal Solid Waste: A Case Study of Hamedan City, Iran

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    Jahangir Jafari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the amount of daily production of waste material, its physical analysis in four divided districts of Hamedan city by municipality along the four seasons of the year as well as contribution of citizens in recycling programs. For the purpose of determining the daily average amount of waste material, a weight-volume method was carried out as well as randomized quota method to determine physical analysis. During the four seasons of the year and one week a season, 5 samples, totally 20 samples of 0.5 m3 volume, were chosen. Besides, density and humidity weight percentage were calculated to be prepared for analyzing by SAS software. In order to determine contribution of citizens in recycling programs, 500 questionnaires were distributed in the four districts and were completed using personal interview. Results showed an average production of 482.93 tons/day waste material having a density of 268.96 kg/m3, a density of 46.76% and 0.96 kg per capita of w aste material in Hamedan city. The results of municipal waste physical analysis also revealed that approximately 72.76 tons/year (15.07% of total daily production of waste material included recyclable materials like plastic, metal, glass, paper and etc., while 379.93 tons/year (78.97% were compostable organic materials. Results of the carried out survey also show ed that 84% of Hamedan citizens had acquaintance with the issue of recycling, 89% tended the program to operate and 90% were ready to cooperate with the recycling program.

  2. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Relationship between Occupational Noise Exposure and Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL in Small-Scale Industries: A Case Study in the City of Damavand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Exposure to the excessive levels of occupational noise is one of the principal harmful agents affecting the workers’ health. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the occupational noise exposure and the hearing loss caused by working in small-scale service industries in the city of Damavand, close to the metropolitan capital city of Tehran, Iran. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study investigated the occupational noise levels within the 90 small-scale industries (mainly service industries and workshops working under the supervision of Damavand healthcare network governed by the Iranian ministry of health and medical education. A sound level meter (Bruel and Kjær 2250 was employed to determine the noise exposure levels based on the dB A, and according to the standard ISO 9612: 2009. The audiometric exam tests were performed by an audiometer (model MEVOX SA-900. The obtained data were then analysed by SPSS 16, using linear regression and t-test. Results The highest measured 8-hour equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leqs were associated with auto body mechanics (89.2 dB A, foundry and casting workers (88.8 dB A, aluminium products fabrication workers (86.32 dB A, blacksmiths and forging (85.8 dB A carpenters (84.93 dB A, and cabinet manufacturers, respectively (84 dB A. Results from the hearing threshold shifts of the workers from the studied occupational groups revealed that the highest work-related hearing loss associated with the right ear occurred among the auto body mechanics, aluminium products fabrication workers and carpenters. However, the most significant work-related hearing loss associated with the left ear was noticed among carpenters, aluminium products fabrication workers, and auto body mechanics, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient was tested between Leqs, work experience and hearing loss, and the results implied that the progress of workers’ hearing loss was correlated

  4. Statistical analysis of arsenic contamination in drinking water in a city of Iran and its modeling using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nasseri, Simin; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yunesian, Masud; Mesdaghinia, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    In this research, probable arsenic contamination in drinking water in the city of Ardabil was studied in 163 samples during four seasons. In each season, sampling was carried out randomly in the study area. Results were analyzed statistically applying SPSS 19 software, and the data was also modeled by Arc GIS 10.1 software. The maximum permissible arsenic concentration in drinking water defined by the World Health Organization and Iranian national standard is 10 μg/L. Statistical analysis showed 75, 88, 47, and 69% of samples in autumn, winter, spring, and summer, respectively, had concentrations higher than the national standard. The mean concentrations of arsenic in autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 19.89, 15.9, 10.87, and 14.6 μg/L, respectively, and the overall average in all samples through the year was 15.32 μg/L. Although GIS outputs indicated that the concentration distribution profiles changed in four consecutive seasons, variance analysis of the results showed that statistically there is no significant difference in arsenic levels in four seasons.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, A; Shemshad, K; Sayyadi, M; Biglarian, A; Vahabi, B; Sayyad, S; Shemshad, M; Rafinejad, J

    2012-06-01

    Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area.

  6. Locating of Rural Health Centers Equipped with Telehealth using GIS: A Case Study on Khorramabad City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdari Reza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residents of the rural and remote area always having limitations on accessing properly required service providers. In such condition, the establishment of rural health centers equipped with telehealth, and also the use of GIS for optimal site selection to the centers, would play an important role in facilitating the achievement of quality health services in desired time factor. This study intended to find the optimal sites for building the Rural Health Centers Equipped with remote health facilities in, Khorramabad City, using GIS. During the pilot study, we identified few effective locating criteria and sub-criteria for rural health centers equipped with telehealth, the priorities was also determined in that descriptive study. Further, we prepared a special layer for each criterion on the site selection, and by integrating such layers based on specified rules and patterns, about the spatial analysis , (like distance and density analysis were done. For such methods, we used Arc Map, Arc Catalog and Arc toolbox environments of Arc GIS (version 9.3. Finally, a map was prepared that indicated the possibility of appropriateness for establishing the centers in the study area. Considering a large number of areas, the research team selected the areas which were the appropriate location for build rural health centers which could be equipped with Telehealth.

  7. Supervisi Kepala Ruangan dan Kepatuhan Perawat dalam Pencegahan Infeksi Nosokomial di Rumah Sakit Sari Mutiara Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Laia, Teorida

    2015-01-01

    Supervision is periodic observations made by ward manager which includes planning, organizing, directing, monitoring and record-keeping. Obedience is obedience in doing an act based on the standard to avoid the incidence of nosocomial infections including hand-washing action and installation of infusion. This research aims to know the supervision of ward manager and compliance of nursing in the prevention of nosocomial infections in RSU Sari Mutiara Medan. The research design used was descrip...

  8. Arab Higher Education and Research post–2011. An Interview with Sari Hanafi

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Rohde; Ines Braune

    2015-01-01

    The upheavals of 2011 and subsequent developments in the MENA region have had substantial effects on universities and research centers within Arab world and in other neighboring countries where similar developments are taking shape (security issues, stricter political control/lesser levels of political control and repression, changing levels of funding, changing focus of donors etc.). META had the opportunity to talk with American University of Beirut’s Prof. Sari Hanafi about the repercussio...

  9. Evaluation of trends for iron and manganese concentrations in wells, reservoirs, and water distribution networks, Qom city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluated trends for iron and manganese concentrations in wells, reservoirs, and water distribution networks in Qom city during the summer of 2012. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The studied scopes consisted of groundwater (60 wells, reservoirs (10 tanks, and water distribution network (33 points. One sample was taken from each source monthly. Statistical tests used included post hoc tests (Tukey HSD. Finally, the results were compared with drinking water standards. Results: The average concentrations of iron in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 0.09, 0.07, and 0.07 mg/l, respectively. The average concentrations of manganese in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 0.15, 0.09, and 0.1 mg/l, respectively. The turbidity averages in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 0.58, 0.6, and 0.52 NTU, respectively. The average concentrations of free chlorine residual in water reservoirs and distribution networks were 1.74 and 1.06 mg/l, respectively. The pH averages in groundwater, reservoirs, and distribution networks were 7.4, 7.7, and 7.5, respectively. The amounts of iron, manganese, turbidity, free chlorine residual, and pH in the investigated resources had no significant differences (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The amounts of iron, manganese, turbidity, free chlorine residual and pH in groundwater, reservoirs, and water distribution networks of Qom are within permissible limits of national standards and EPA guidelines. Only the amount of manganese was higher than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA permissible limit.

  10. Investigation of Fungal Bioaerosols and Particulate Matter in the Teaching-Medical Hospitals of Khorramabad City, Iran During 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepahvand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The presence of fungal bioaerosols in hospitals indoor environments have affected the health of patients with the defect in immunity system. Therefore, determination of the rate and species of these agents is essential. This study aimed to investigate association between fungi contamination and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in the main indoor wards and outdoor environment and to determine I/O ratio in two educational-medical hospitals of Khorramabad City. Materials and Methods: In this description-analytical study, the concentration of fungal bioaerosols and particulate matter was measured in 10 indoor parts and 2 outdoor stations over 6 mounts. The sampling was conducted using Quick Take-30 at an airflow rate of 28.3 L/min and sampling period of 2.5 min onto Sabouraud dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. The particulate matters were measured using Monitor Dust-Trak 8520. Moreover, the relative humidity and temperature were recorded using digital TES-1360. Results: Analysis of 288 fungi samples and 864 particulate matter samples showed that the average of fungi accumulation was 59.75 CFU/m3 and the mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in the indoor environment was  27.3, 23, and 20.2 µg/m3 respectively. In addition, in ambient air the mean concentration was 135.3 CFU/m3 for fungal bioaerosols and 40.2, 35.7, and 29.8 µg/m3 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 respectively. At the total of fungi samples, 12.5% were negative and 87.5% were positive. Having 101.7%, Infection ward was the most contaminated ward. The operation ward in both hospitals showed the minimum fungal contamination. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that at all of the samplings the ratio of I/O was lower than one. It was noticed the dominancy of fungal bioaerosols and particulate matter of outdoor source on the indoor environment. In addition, a significant correlation (P < 0.001( was found between

  11. Soil Contamination With Free-Living Amoeba in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaghegh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Free-living amoebas are very abundant in nature, especially in water and soil. Some species of amoebas cause serious and sometimes fatal infections such a keratitis in people with normal and suppressed immune systems. Based on the prevalence of amoebic keratitis in Iran, it is important to consider the free-living amoeba. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. in soil samples of Sari, North of Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 96 soil samples from three areas of Sari were collected to be examined for soil contamination with Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. Soil samples were investigated for the presence of these parasites by Sheather’s flotation technique and Gimsa staining method. The identification of Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. at the genus level in this study was based on distinctive features of double walled cysts. Results Of the 96 studied samples, from different environmental locations in Sari, 38 (39.6% Acanthamoeba and 5 (5.2% Hartmannella species were identified. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed that soil resources of these areas were contaminated with opportunistic amoebas such as Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. and this may lead to severe diseases in high-risk people, such as immunocompromised patients.

  12. Iran and Strategic Power Projection: The Iran-Iraq War as a Foundation of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    political vacuum in Lebanon and the chaos and opportunity it inspired, was prime real estate for the newly minted Islamic Republic of Iran. As a student...Theory of International Relations, ( Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1973), p. 325; quoted in R.K. Ramazani, Revolutionary Iran, 20. 21 Nikki R

  13. PENENTUAN KEUNTUNGAN MAKSIMUM PADA PENJUALAN OLAHAN TAPE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE LAGRANGE (Studi Kasus: UD. Sari Madu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEMY AYU ASTITI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization problems can be solved by various methods, such as Lagrange Method.   This  method can be used to find the solution. Using Lagrange method, the extreme value can be obtained, so that the optimal solution can be found. In this research, the maximum revenue of UD. Sari Madu is a limited by several constraints. After the objective function and constraint function being model, than maximum revenue is found. From first until fourth quarterly, the maximum revenue is found Rp. 9.701.333, Rp. 10.064.148, 9.793.272 and Rp. 9.397.730 respectively.

  14. The South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) Update and Meeting Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Land Use/Cover Change (LU/CC) is one of the most important types of environmental change in South and Southeast Asian countries. Several studies suggest that LU/CC in these countries is in large part driven by population growth and economic development. In the region, changes that are most common include urban expansion, agricultural land loss, land abandonment, deforestation, logging, reforestation, etc. To address the research needs and priorities in the region, a regional initiative entitled South Southeast Asia Regional Initiative (SARI) has been developed involving US and regional scientists. The initiative is funded by NASA Land Cover, Land Use Change program. The goal of SARI is to integrate state-of-the-art remote sensing, natural sciences, engineering and social sciences to enrich LU/CC science in South Southeast Asian countries. In the presentation, LU/CC change research in SARI countries will be highlighted including the drivers of change. For example, in South Asia, forest cover has been increasing in countries like India, Nepal and Bhutan due to sustainable afforestation measures; whereas, large-scale deforestation in Southeast Asian countries is still continuing, due to oil palm plantation expansion driven by the international market demand in Malaysia and Indonesia. With respect to urbanization, South and Southeast Asian countries contain 23 megacities, each with more than 10 million people. Rapid urbanization is driving agricultural land loss and agricultural intensification has been increasing due to less availability of land for growing food crops such as in India, Vietnam, and Thailand. The drivers of LUCC vary widely in the region and include such factors as land tenure, local economic development, government policies, inappropriate land management, land speculation, improved road networks, etc. In addition, variability in the weather, climate, and socioeconomic factors also drive LU/CC resulting in disruptions of biogeochemical cycles

  15. PENENTUAN KEUNTUNGAN MAKSIMUM PADA PENJUALAN OLAHAN TAPE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE LAGRANGE (Studi Kasus: UD. Sari Madu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEMY AYU ASTITI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization problems can be solved by various methods, such as Lagrange Method.   This  method can be used to find the solution. Using Lagrange method, the extreme value can be obtained, so that the optimal solution can be found. In this research, the maximum revenue of UD. Sari Madu is a limited by several constraints. After the objective function and constraint function being model, than maximum revenue is found. From first until fourth quarterly, the maximum revenue is found Rp. 9.701.333, Rp. 10.064.148, 9.793.272 and Rp. 9.397.730 respectively.

  16. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    nuclear technology to Iran and expanding provisions of the USA Patriot Act (P.L. 107-56) to curb money- laundering for use to further WMD programs. Iran...identifying Iran as a “jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern”33 under Section 311 of the USA Patriot Act (31 U.S.C. 5318A). The Department...Sanctions Act , might not be inconsistent with the JCPOA. Other legislation, such as that to prevent finalization of a major U.S. sale of passenger aircraft

  17. Irans atomprogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Det er nu utænkeligt at USA vil angribe Iran, og vi kan ikke længere forhindre iranerne i at nå et stadium, hvor de potentielt kan få atomvåben, mener Gary Sick, en af verdens førende Iran-eksperter. Udgivelsesdato: 10/10......Det er nu utænkeligt at USA vil angribe Iran, og vi kan ikke længere forhindre iranerne i at nå et stadium, hvor de potentielt kan få atomvåben, mener Gary Sick, en af verdens førende Iran-eksperter. Udgivelsesdato: 10/10...

  18. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-13/ pdf /2012-27642. pdf . 19 Other ISA amendments under that law included recommending against U.S. nuclear agreements with...1929) Prohibits transfer to Iran of nuclear , missile, and dual use items to Iran, except for use in light-water reactors (1737 and 1747). Resolution...including centrifuge development and heavy water research: By State - Nuclear Reactor Fuels Company; Noor Afzar Gostar Company; Fulmen Group; Yasa Part

  19. Understanding Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    national character.” And although national character analysis is out of vogue in the United States, I attribute the use of the term to the...also notable counter-examples of resource benefactions: for example, Norway, Britain , and North Sea oil and gas deposits. 124 Understanding Iran...English, Farsi, Italian, and Spanish. Sadjadpour’s recent commentary, articles, and testimony include “ Britain -Iran Standoff ,” PBS’s Newshour with

  20. MENGETAHUI KEAMANAN JAMU MADURA "SARI RAPAT" MELALUI UJI MIKROSKOPIS DAN TOKSISITAS SUB AKUT PADA BINATANG COBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Handayani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ''Jamu Sari Rapat" made in Madura is a famous traditional medicine especially after promoted at television cable. A cut utilition of the "jamu" was safe, it was provided by no complain from consumers. The problem is how the effect of "jamu" in the longterm consumption. A chosen famous "jamu Sari Rapat'' was taken to be examined. Microscopic examinations were done to know the herbs composition and contamination to patogen bacteries. A sub a cut toxicity exami­nation was done  to find out the safety of "jamu'' to the consumer because of the longterm consumption. The result showed that the ''jamu" was consisted of 9 herbs those were Caryophylli Flos, Kaemferiae rotundae Rhizoma, Curcuma domesticae Rhizoma, Paramcriae Cort ex, Theae Folium, Guazumae Folium, Arecae Semen, Glycyrrhi­ zae Radix and Psidii Folium. A herb (Gallae was written in the label but actually it did not find in microcopic test. It was found that Most Probable Number colliform were contaminated the "jamu" and the Total Plate Count Bacterial number was bigger than standard. Toxicity test showed that there was no toxic effect after 3 month intervention to 54 mice. The conclusion of this study: the "jamu" was safe to be consume in the longterm (more or less 3 months but it might cause illness to the consumers because of patogen bacteries. The production process should be improved to solve those problem.

  1. Arab Higher Education and Research post–2011. An Interview with Sari Hanafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Rohde

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upheavals of 2011 and subsequent developments in the MENA region have had substantial effects on universities and research centers within Arab world and in other neighboring countries where similar developments are taking shape (security issues, stricter political control/lesser levels of political control and repression, changing levels of funding, changing focus of donors etc.. META had the opportunity to talk with American University of Beirut’s Prof. Sari Hanafi about the repercussions of these developments for scholarly work within the MENA region. Sari Hanafi is currently a Professor of Sociology and chair of the department of sociology, anthropology and media studies at the American University of Beirut. He is also the editor of Idafat: the Arab Journal of Sociology (Arabic. He is the Vice President of the International Sociological Association (ISA and Vice President of the board of the Arab Council of Social Science. He is the author of numerous journal articles and book chapters on the political and economic sociology of the Palestinian diaspora and refugees; sociology of migration; transnationalism; politics of scientific research; civil society and elite formation and transitional justice. His last book is Arab Research and Knowledge Society: New Critical Perspective (with R. Arvanitis (in Arabic, Beirut: CAUS and forthcoming in English with Routledge.

  2. Indonesian Muslim killings: revisiting the forgotten Talang Sari tragedy (1989 and its impact in post authoritarian regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Akmaliah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the Talang Sari tragedy as a part of the representation of Indonesian Muslim oppression during the authoritarian regime, it is relatively lesser known for Indonesian public. The avoidance of the most Indonesian Muslim who did not support it is one of those facts. Indeed, they did a less attention to talk and to articulate the case to the public. This paper intends to revisit the case of the Talang Sari as one of the unsolved human rights violation during the authoritarian regime. It is not only exploring the case and also examining the context of violence, but also tracing dynamic of the case during and post of authoritarian regime by the emergence of Islah agreement as cultural impu- nity to forget the past for many victims. The questions deals with in this paper are following: what kind of conditions that made the Talang Sari was happen- ing in East Lampung in 1989, South Sumatra during the Suharto presidency? How did the Suharto regime control the discourse of the tragedy in Indone- sian public that eventually encourage most Indonesian Muslim did not actively respond the killings? Although the reformasi era gives an opportunity break silences by asking justice to the current Indonesian government on hu- man rights violation, why those cases, especially the Talang Sari, are unsolved? This paper divided into three parts to answering the questions. Firstly, it is to understand the case of Talang Sari by discussing the context of the New Order’s policy on Indonesian Muslim and its political ideology. Secondly, it is to read deeply mass media in making discourse on the case as one of the triggers for most Indonesian Muslim did not respond it. Thirdly, it is to analyze the Islah agreement (reconciliation in Islamic term as the primary factor that contrib- uted why cultural impunity has seemingly embedded to bring justice to the victims of violence generally in the post of Suharto regime. Meskipun Peristiwa Talang Sari sebagai bagian dari

  3. A social work study on quality on quality of physical education programs in primary schools: A case study of governmental and non-for-profit schools in city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Arabmomeni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is one of the most important parts of schoolchildren studies and it could influence of social and academic performance of children, significantly. This paper studies physical education among schoolchildren who attend elementary schools in city of Esfahan, Iran over for the educational calendar of 2010-2011. The study selects 52 schools as sample, 18 non-for-profit and 34 governmental schools and half of them belong to female students. The results of this study indicate that physical education has a somewhat better quality in non-for-profit educational system compared with governmental ones although this difference is not statistically significance (P<0.05. In our survey, ten percent of time, physical education was performed poorly, twenty five percent was in average condition, forty eight percent was in good condition and seventeen percent was in excellent condition.

  4. The Past and Future Trends of Heat Stress Based On Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Outdoor Environment of Tehran City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid HABIBI MOHRAZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran.Methods: The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test.Results: The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961-2009 has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran.Conclusion: Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person's exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming. Keywords: Climate change, Heat stress, WBGT, Global warming

  5. SCREENING DAN KARAKTERISASI PEKTINESTERASE SEBAGAI ENZIM POTENSIAL DALAM KLARIFIKASI SARI BUAH JERUK KEPROK GARUT (Citrus nobilis var.chrysocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohula Utami

    2015-11-01

    6, dan KK 2 berturut-turut adalah 1,218; 0,826; 0,969; dan 1,080 U/ml. Enzim pektinesterase isolat KK 2 memiliki karakteristik yang paling sesuai untuk aplikasi dalam klarifikasi sari buah jeruk keprok garut dibandingkan dengan enzim pektinesterase isolat lainnya. Kata kunci: Enzim, klarifikasi, pektin, pektinesterase, jeruk keprok garut

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Helycobacter pylori isolated from patients admitted to Imam Hospital, Sari, IRAN, 2002-2003

    OpenAIRE

    F. Naghshvar; H. Tirgar fakheri; Zh. Torabizadeh; O. Emadian; E. Maleki; Zare, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose : -Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative spiral bacilus which infects gastric mucosa and causes a wide range of gastro intestinal diseases.Unfortunately the prevalence of the infection by this organism in developing countries is high and despite numerous existing drug regimens, treatment fails to eradicate the organism in many occasions. To reach an effective and curative regimen, invitro determination of suscepibility and resistance of the organism, to various antimi...

  7. A Study on Specific IgE Against Candida Albicans in Atopic Dermatitis Patients Referred to Boali Hospital, Sari- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Mohammadpour, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Candida albicans (C. albicans as a micro flora of the human could be responsible for a continuous release of allergen and may be responsible for chronic atopic dermatitis (AD in sensitive patients. Thus, in this study, we analyzed AD patients for total IgE and specific IgE, against C. albicans.Materials and Methods: A total of 120 AD patients (male 52 and female 68 were introduced in this study. The age range varied from 4 months to 60 years (mean about 12.9 years. Serum total IgE was assayed by ELISA kit (RADIM. Solid phase was captured by sandwich ELISA assay, using a micro well format for the determination of serum specific IgE to C. Albicans was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions, (ALerCHEK Allergen specific human IgE.Results: Of the 120 AD patients, 37 subjects (30.8% had total IgE higher than 100 IU/mL, 44 subjects (63.7 % 20-100IU/mL and 39 subjects (32.5% less than 20 IU/mL. 9 (7.5% of the patients had specific IgE against C. albicans. Among the patients who were positive for specific IgE to C. albicans, 6 (66.7% were women.Conclusion: The result of our study on serum total IgE in AD patients is concordant with other studies from different countries. In comparison to other studies, our AD patients showed less frequency of specific IgE against Candida albicans. The explanations for the variation in the results obtained in various studies could be due to the age of patients, severity of disease, difference in the antigen preparation, different methods for IgE analysis and total IgE level.

  8. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Infection and Associated Factors in Addicts Imprisoned at Khezrabad Prison, Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abdolmanafi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though incarcerated populations are at a high risk of developing hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, prisoners are not routinely screened for HCV infection. Approximately, 1 in 4 of the nearly 2 million prisoners in the U.S. is infected with HCV. Injection drug abusers are currently the main risk group. Among intravenous drug abusers over the world, the prevalence of HCV varies from 50-90% with an annual incidence of 10-30%. Prisons are a high risk environment for hepatitis C infection because of high incidence of drug abuse and high risk sexual activities. Serologic evidences show that HCV infection is present in one out of every three prisoners. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C infection and its associated factors among addicted prisoners in Khezrabad prison of Sari. Methodss: This was a cross – sectional study done in September 2001 at the Khezrabad prison for addicts in Sari. 312 addicts participated in the study and were selected by simple random sampling method. Their blood samples were tested by third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3: sensitivity 100%, specificity 100% at Sari's blood transfusion center. The data was collected via a questionnaire and interview. 230 prisoners (74% completed the questionnaires. Associated factors of Hepatitis C infection were compared in 82 anti-HCV positive addicts (the affected group and 148 anti-HCV negative addicts (the unaffected group. There were no significant differences about confounding variables between the two groups. Statistical analysis was done by , t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 312 addicted prisoners, 96 (30.8% were anti-HCV positive. Major associated factors with Hepatitis C infection in the affected group included; duration of addiction (mean 174 months, duration of imprisonment (mean 48 months, methods of drug usage (injection 82% and intranasal 44%, length of alcohol consumption for more

  9. Origin and evolution of Sariñena Lake (central Ebro Basin): A piping-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Carmen; Javier Gracia, F.; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; Desir, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    The origin and nature of the numerous lakes in the central Ebro Basin have been interpreted according to the prevailing arid or semiarid conditions, the easily-eroded materials and the solubility of the gypsum- and/or carbonate-rich Tertiary/Cenozoic substratum, involving important dissolution (karstic) and/or aeolian deflation. However, the origin of Sariñena Lake, the largest in the central Ebro Basin, remains unknown since the typical lake-generating processes in the region are not applicable. This work provides significant clues to the genesis and evolution of Sariñena Lake in a regional context. The combination of geomorphological mapping and high resolution LiDAR data together with sedimentological observations, the characterisation of soils and sediments around the lake, and the application of high-resolution geophysical techniques suggest that piping is the major genetic process driving the evolution of the Sariñena depression and lake. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering. Sariñena Lake is located within a deep endorheic depression excavated from Na-rich Tertiary materials. This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially-originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. The Quaternary evolution of the Sariñena lacustrine basin was then controlled by successive water table fluctuations, linked to different phases of incision and alluvial deposition in the surrounding fluvial systems. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of

  10. PENGARUH PERCEIVED VALUE AND PERCEIVED QUALITY TERHADAP KEPERCAYAAN KONSUMEN DI RUMAH SAKIT KARTIKA SARI

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    Glory Budi Dharma

    2012-07-01

    The objective (s of this research was identifying the effect perceived value and perceived quality toward consumer’s trust honesty and consumer’s trust benevolence. The design of this research applies hypothesis testing to examine all hypotheses in this study. The method used in this study is multiple regressions between independent variables and dependent variable. Data analysis used in this research was collected by distributing questionnaires which were distributed on 110 respondents at Kartika Sari Hospital. There were 107 responses of which 100 completed and usable for analyzed by multiple regressions. The result of this research conclude that the professionalism, perceived quality, value monetary costs, value non monetary costs have positive and significant impact on consumer’s trust honesty dan consumer’s trust benevolence. Keywords : Sonsumer loyalty, Perceived value, Perceived quality, Satisfaction

  11. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Congressional Research Service 49 • An Irish subsidiary of the Coca Cola Company, which provides syrup for the U.S.-brand soft drink to an Iranian...military power by hampering its acquisition of foreign technology and weaponry. U.S. assessments indicate mixed success in these efforts. Sanctions on Iran...Laundering Jurisdiction ................................................................. 28 Promoting Divestment

  12. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    flight 655), for which the United States paid Iran $61.8 million in compensation ($300,000 per wage -earning victim, $150,000 per nonwage earner) for...barrels per day) and again to implement the JCPOA (to remove any ceiling on Iran’s exports of oil). Implementation: Exemptions Issued The lack of

  13. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    and Sanctions Exemptions to Support Democratic Change/Civil Society in Iran ........ 32 Expanding Internet and Communications Freedoms...Reserves “Lock Up” Provision of ITRSHRA ..................................... 22 Weapons of Mass Destruction, Missile, and Conventional Arms Sanctions... Communications by Iranians ..................................................................................................................... 33 Measures to

  14. Transplantation activities in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2005-06-01

    Iran is a tropical country with a land area of 1,648,000 square kilometers and a population of 68,100,000. Iran has a recorded history that dates back 2553 years. Its earliest medical school was Pasargad. Jondi Chapour University was founded 1753 years ago during the Sassanid dynasty as a center for higher education in medicine, philosophy, and pharmacology. Indeed, the idea of xenotransplantation dates back to days of Achaemenidae (Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), the great Iranian physician, performed the first nerve repair. Transplantation progress in Iran follows roughly the same pattern as that of the rest of the world, with some 10-20 years' delay. Modern organ transplantation dates back to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The first living-related kidney transplantation performed at Shiraz University Hospital dates back to 1968. The first bone marrow transplant was performed at Dr. Shariaati's Hospital in Tehran. The first heart transplant was performed 1993 in Tabriz, Iran. The first liver transplant was performed in 1993 in Shiraz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran. In late 1985, the renal transplantation program was officially started in a major university hospital in Tehran and was poised to carry out 2 to 4 transplantations each week. Soon, another large center initiated a similar program. Both of these centers accepted surgical, medical, and nursing teams from other academic medical centers for training in kidney transplantation. Since 2002, Iran has grown to include 23 active renal, 68 cornea, 2 liver, 4 heart, 2 lung, and 2 bone marrow transplantation centers in different cities. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the

  15. Cryptococcal meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans genotype AFLP1/VNI in Iran: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, Hamid; Alian, Shahriar; Fakhim, Hamed; Falahatinejad, Mahsa; Moradi, Ali; Mohammad Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F

    2015-12-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is the most important opportunistic fungal infection with a high mortality in HIV-patients in less developed regions. Here, we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis in a 49-year-old HIV-positive female due to Cryptococcus neoformans (serotype A, mating-type alpha, genotype AFLP1/VNI) in Sari, Iran. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed MICs of isavuconazole (0.016 μg ml(-1) ), voriconazole (0.031 μg ml(-1) ), posaconazole (0.031 μg ml(-1) ), itraconazole (0.063 μg ml(-1) ), amphotericin B (0.125 μg ml(-1) ) and fluconazole (8 μg ml(-1) ). Despite immediate antifungal therapy, the patient died 4 days later due to respiratory failure. Cryptococcal infections have been infrequently reported from Iran and therefore we analysed all published cases of cryptococcosis in Iran since the first reported case from 1969.

  16. Assessment of radiographic film repeats rate and its related causes within hospitals in Sari during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Fallah Mohamadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 8 April, 2009 ; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Radiographic film repeat rate assessment is performed to appropriate profiting of existence resources in therapeutic wards. Multiple exposures of x-ray generators due to repeated radiographic examination can lead to amortization of the radiographic facilities and decrease their longevity and also increases the cost of facilities repair. On the other hand, its therapeutic services are necessary to be carried out for patients as soon as possible. Recognition of radiographic film repeat rate and its related causes will help to eliminate the problems and are cost effective.Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, samples were garnered with data collection and non random model during three months in eight radiographic rooms and four darkrooms belonging to four governmental hospitals, namely Imam Khomeini, Booali Sina, Fatemh Zahra and Zare in Sari. All rejected radiographic films were seen by resident experts in each center and information was entered into designed forms. Radiographic repeat rates were calculated through data available from all recipients and the number of used films. In this article, related causes responsible for repeated radiographic examination including errors in selection of exposure factors (over exposure and under exposure, positioning, centering, film size, equipment, processing or darkroom, movement and others were assessed.Results: In four hospitals, 36,758 films were received during investigation and the number of repeated films was 2,155 (5.9 % were estimated as radiographic repeat rate. The maximum repeat rate belonged to Booali sina Hospital (7.2 % and the minimum one was Zare Hospital (0.7 %. The most important causes were due to over exposure selection (1.4 % and the least one was due to improper selection of film size (0.08 %. The percentage of other factors include, under exposure selection (1.12%, centering (0.92%, others (0

  17. Penentuan Umur Simpan Lengkuas dengan Model Arrhenius Berdasarkan Kadar Air dan Kadar Sari Larut dalam Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Khathir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Lengkuas (Alpinia galanga adalah salah satu tanaman penting bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Tanaman ini dapat digunakan untuk bumbu masakan dan obat herbal. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menduga umur simpan lengkuas segar dengan menggunakan model Arrhenius. Lengkuas segar yang baru dipanen dibersihkan dan dipotong-potong dengan ukuran 2cm, kemudian disimpan pada suhu 5, 10 dan 28°C. Evaluasi dilakukan oleh 25 orang panelis dengan menggunakan skala hedonic dari sangat suka sampai sangat tidak suka terhadap warna, kesegaran, aroma dan tekstur. Parameter yang diamati adalah kadar air dan kadar sari larut dalam air. Parameter tersebut diamati dalam interval 3 hari selama 21 hari atau sampai sampel dinyatakan tidak disukai oleh panelis pada salah satu kriteria hedoniknya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pad asuhu 28°C, lengkuas dapat disimpan selama 3 hari, sedangkan pada suhu 10 dan 5°C, lengkuas dapat disimpan selama 12 dan 21 hari. Energi aktivasi (EA dan tingkat perubahan mutu (Q10 karena kadar sari larut dalam air lebih besar dari energi aktivasi (EA dan tingkat perubahan mutu (Q10 karena kadar air lengkuas. Namun demikian, kedua parameter tersebut tidak tepat digunakan untuk menduga umur simpan lengkuas.   Shelf-Life Prediction of Galanga by Using Arrhenius Model Based on Its Moisture and Water Soluble Extract Content Abstract. Galanga (Alpinia galanga is one of important plants for Indonesian people. It can be used as spices and also as herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to predict the shelf-life of fresh galanga by using Arrhenius model. Fresh harvested galanga, which was cleaned and chopped at width about 2 cm, was stored at temperatures 5, 10, and 28°C. The evaluation was done by 25 respondents by using hedonic scale from the range of like very much until dislike very much. This hedonic evaluation was assessed, based on colour, freshness, aroma, and texture. Parameters observed were moisture and water soluble extract

  18. Prevalence of elimination dysfunction, among primary school age children in Sari

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    M. Basiri,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Elimination dysfunction is referred to have various difficulties in urination and defecation, such as urinary frequency, delayed with difficulty in voiding or defecation. The prevalence of elimination dysfunction has been varied in different studies, as 21% of children experience elimination dysfunction during their childhood period. Presently, there are no studies pertaining to this difficulty in our country. Therefore, we carried out a descriptive study in primary schools from the Sari Township, regarding voiding and defecation dysfunction among children, and also we identified the epidemiology of the disease, in order to solve problems by implementing teaching programs and screening methods.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on Primary school age students in the Sari Township, during 2007 through 2008. Considering the prevalence of elimination dysfunction (15-25%, confidence coefficient 95%, SE 10%, and the sample size of 2,200 were randomly and equally selected from different parts of the township among the two-sex groups. A standard questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 10 questions on voiding status, in addition to 19 questions regarding defecation status was prepared. Questionnaires were distributed to the students by responsible school personnel and then referred to parents for completion. Data was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive statistics (Frequency, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Chi Square test (χ² and Student T-test were used to compare the Means. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Of 2201 primary school age students, 48.7% were girls. The mean age was 8.96±1.43 year. Voiding and defecation dysfunction was reported in 38.4% and 29% of the cases respectively. There was no significant relationship between prevalence of voiding dysfunction and other factors such as mean age, sex and level of education; however, there was a significant

  19. Tourism SMEs and Organizational Learning in a Competitive Environment: A Longitudinal Research on Organizational Learning in Travel and Tourism Agencies Located in the City of Ahvaz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkhoo, Mohammad Hossein Imani; Nadalipour, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the impact of increasing number of competitors on the organisational learning (OL) in tourism small and medium-sized enterprises. The focus of this study is the tourism and travel agencies (TTAs) of the City of Ahvaz where the OL was studied within TTAs insofar as increasing the number of competitors is concerned.…

  20. Tourism SMEs and Organizational Learning in a Competitive Environment: A Longitudinal Research on Organizational Learning in Travel and Tourism Agencies Located in the City of Ahvaz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkhoo, Mohammad Hossein Imani; Nadalipour, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the impact of increasing number of competitors on the organisational learning (OL) in tourism small and medium-sized enterprises. The focus of this study is the tourism and travel agencies (TTAs) of the City of Ahvaz where the OL was studied within TTAs insofar as increasing the number of competitors is concerned.…

  1. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Quantity and Quality of Sleep Among Elderly People Referring to Health Centers of Lar City, Southern of Iran; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Seddigh, Maryam; Jahanbin, Iran; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep. 50% of senior citizens living in the community and 70% of those living in nursing homes suffer from sleep disorders. Moreover, insomnia increases the risk of mortality and morbidity in older adults. We aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on quantity and quality of sleep among the elderly people referring to health centers of Lar city, southern Iran. We enrolled 60 elderly people whose age range was 60-75 years and (mean ±SD) age was (64.8±5.2). Participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 30 each (case group= 30 and control group=30). The patients in the case group participated in exercise trainings consisted of three one-hour sessions per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Sleep quantity and quantity in the participants was evaluated before and after intervention using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Independent t-test showed that sleep quality score was improved by 44.46% in the case group (pexercise program could improve the sleep quality and quantity in the elderly. It could also be used as a cost effective and long lasting method of therapy with no side effect which could be used for the treatment of insomnia in older people.

  2. Student Day in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12......Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12...

  3. Utilization Pattern of Antibiotics in Different Wards of Sari Imam Khomeini Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Due to an increase in cases of irrational drug prescription and it's health and economic consequences, evaluation of the rational use of drugs seemed necessary. Among drug groups antibiotics are greatly significant.Materials and Methods: Utilization pattern of antibiotics in different wards of Sari Imam Khomeini teaching hospital in the first half of 2000 and 2005 were reviewed. ATC/DDD (Anatomic, Therapeutic, Chemical/ Defined Daily Dose methodology was used.Results: Data showed, use of antibiotics jumped from 95.4 DBDs (DDD per patient’s bed-days to 124 DBDs. Distribution of different class of anti-microbial, showed the highest increase in use of vancomycin and clindamycin. Use of cotrimoxazole and aminoglycosides remained fairly unchanged, howerrs consumption of Penicillin G dropped. In year 2005, ICU ward followed by gynecology, were among the University Hospital departments with the highest consumption of antibiotics. Cefazolin was the most prescribed antibiotics during this study.Conclusion: It appers that there is a need for more national drug policities and drug education program for health care professionals. Evaluation of drug distribution in hospitals seems to be necessary.Key words:

  4. Investigation of the industrial clusters in Islamic Republic of Iran (Case Study of Yazd city usinglocal production systems method &Industry Perception Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Valiollah MirHosseini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All countries hope to achieve increasingly developments which grow fast. Nowadays many developed countries are using strategy of industrial clusters development because they influence the competitiveness of industrial clusters in the country as well as beyond national borders and show new ways of thinking about the place of dealing and earning. Industrial clusters influence competition through increasing of productivity based on settlement of companies and providing quick guidelines for development and innovation and encouraging of new business. Industrial cluster is one of new combined methods of various theories such as theory of economic geography, regional economics, national innovation system, transmitting knowledge theories, social capital theories and social networks .Recently this method in Iran attracted many attentions based on industries compatible with mentioned method which attempts to provide a better and competitive market place for the country, region and the world. In this study literature of industrial clusters is initially reviewed and then data analysis methods, used model and eventually results of this paper will be dealt with.

  5. Microbial Quality and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Traditional Ice Cream in Hamadan City, West of Iran

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    Ghadimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Foodborne diseases are one of the most major public health concerns in the world. Ice cream flavors, especially the traditional ones, have a high potential for the transmission of the pathogenic bacteria. Objectives The aim of the current study is to investigate the microbiological status and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from traditional ice cream. Methods A total of 114 traditional ice creams were randomly collected from retail stores in Hamadan, Iran. Samples were investigated for the total bacteria count (TBC and contamination with the coliform, Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella as well as the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results The count of Enterobacteriaceae (89.47%, mold and yeast (50%, coliform (40.35% and TBC (28.07% of samples was higher than Iran’s standard. Salmonella was not found in all samples. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed in 50% and 37.72% of samples, respectively. Collected Escherichia coli had the highest antibiotic resistance to ampicillin 67.44%, nalidixic acid 39.53% and co-amoxyclav 37.21%. Staphylococcus aureus showed a higher antibiotic resistance to penicillin (82.46% of isolates and oxacillin (38% of isolates. Conclusions The results showed high contamination levels of traditional ice cream with spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as considerable resistance of isolated Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to common antibiotics. Therefore, good hygienic practice during processing and personal hygiene should be considered to improve the quality of ice cream. In addition, it is necessary that the regulatory authorities carry out more control on the production centers of traditional ice cream.

  6. Study on Flood Management Plan in Surabaya City

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    Anton Dharma Pusaka Mas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The area alongside the Gunung Sari Channel has an important meaning to the development of Surabaya City. The rising development in this area which causes the increase of flood events induces negative impacts on the growth of Surabaya City. The flood management plan in Gunung Sari Channel has been conducted by Brantas Project since 1988. This planning was reviewed in 1993 and 1999. This research was conducted to analyze the performance of flood management plan by Brantas Project. It was constructively done by HEC-FDA Software which can develop risk analysis by including economic consideration. Hydro-Economy approach integrated with the HEC-FDA analysis can yield the indicator of flood management plan performance in the form of total cost and risk cost (Expected Annual Damage/EAD. The best total cost yielded from the analysis was Rp. 893,692,230, while the risk cost was Rp. 384,238,410/year. It is expected that this research result can used for achieving best performance for floods management in Gunung Sari Channel.

  7. A survey of death anxiety among personnel of a hospital in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Masoudzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 12 Jun, 2008; Accepted 12 Nov, 2008 Abstract Background and purpose: Death anxiety is defined as anxiety caused by conscious and unconscious fear of death that has relations with several variables. The aim for this study is to estimate the prevalence of death anxiety among a hospital staff in SariMaterials and methods: This is a descriptive study and data was collected through a questionnaire. The number of cases was 576. The questionnaire (Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale includes 15 True-False questions. After data collection processing was done through spss.16 and analyzing performed through T-test and Chi-square test.Results: The age range was 20-53. 42.2% of cases had low death anxiety and 57.8% had high death anxiety. The mean of scores achieved by cases through questionnaire was 7.70 ± 3.133 by women and 6.19 ± 2.552 by men. The degree of death anxiety has had significant correlation with variable of sex while has had no relation with age, marriage condition, having or lack of child, level of graduation and career condition.Conclusion: The results of this study shows that the most cases have had high degrees of death anxiety that can be because of the special condition of working or the combination of cases's sex and age. With caution to results, it is recommended to Mental Health interventions to the same population to improve the mental health Quality additionally perform more comprehensive studies in more generally populations. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(67: 84-90 (Persian

  8. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

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    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking water and 2 water storage tanks during 6 months in Nurabad. So that, heavy metal parameters such as copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese were measured using an atomic absorption device and also electrical conductivity, sulfate, chloride and total dissolved solids were also measured in accordance with standard methods. Results: Results indicated that the concentration of studied metals in water sources was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard, and in the water supply system the concentration of some metals was more than standard level. Moreover, the results showed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were more in winter than in autumn. Conclusion: Generally, in the water resources of Nurabad city the concentration of studied heavy metals was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard and there are not problems for water consumers. However, due to public health and the presence of a high concentration of these metals in the distribution supply, the heavy metal concentration in drinking water of this region should be monitored regularly by responsible organizations.

  9. Prevalence of CTX-M Genes in Bacterial Strain Isolated from Patients Hospitalized in ICUs in The City of Qom, Iran

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    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic bacteria because of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes are dangerous to society. This resistance due to ESBL genes, plasmids and transposons that by receiving or mutation occurs. The most important factor beta-lactam antibiotic resistance is beta lactamase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hospital opportunistic pathogenic bacteria producing ESBL and CTX-M genes identified are molecular methods.Methods : In this study, 500 isolates from patients in the ICU of hospitals in the city of Qom was diagnosed by standard biochemical tests. Combined disk test for isolated resistant strains of ESBL was performed in order to identify. Then, strains producing ESBL, DNA extraction and CTX-M genes were detected by PCR.Results : A total of 500 strains isolated, 20 strains (51.28% of P. aeruginosa strains, 40 strains(62.5% of E. coli strains, 38 strains (48.1% of K. pneumoniae strains, 8 strains (33.33% A.baumannii bacteria strains and 4 strains (23.52% of the strains of Enterobacter were carrying CTX-M genes.Conclusions : This study represents a high percentage of beta-lactamase resistance among hospital opportunistic pathogens bacteria. Due to the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance carried out detailed antibiogram tests in infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms is necessary.  

  10. Evaluation of the Problems of General Dental Practitioners in the Usage of Composite Materials in Posterior Teeth in the City of Isfahan-Iran in 2010

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    Parvin Mirzakoucheki Boroujeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Posterior composite restorations are the one of the most usual dental treatments among patients. The goal of this study was determining dentists’ problems during and after treatment of posterior – composite restorations in the city of Isfahan.Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, we used a questionnaire including questions about the problems of posterior composite treatments during and after operation among dentists in Isfahan in 2009-2010. The data were analysed by chi-Square test.Results: The most frequent problem during composite restoration was achieving good proximal contact (30.8% and after it, sensitivity of teeth while chewing which would not be repaired by correct occlusion (34.8%. Most of the dentists pushed the matrix strip toward the adjacent teeth while polymerization, applied the composite in different layer, did the company instructions for bonding layer and used wet polishing during restoration. Most of the dentists (55.8% used two step total etch dentinal bonding and selected the composite because of its ability in making isolation and good restoration (42.5%.Conclusion: Providing correct education for the dentists and increasing their knowledge about these restorations result in reduction of associated problems during and after the operation.

  11. Personality Traits and Their Relationship to Demographic Features in Addicts Referring to a Drug Rehabilitation Center in the City of Isfahan, Iran.

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    Hamed Alaghemandan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is one of the most serious social damages and due to its progressive nature in all aspects, adversely affects people's physical and psychological health. Hence, this paper investigates the characteristics of drug addicts in a drug rehabilitation center in the city of Isfahan.In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, the population consisted of all addicts that referred to Shefa Drug Rehabilitation Center. A sample of 201 individuals was selected randomly. Two questionnaires were drawn up to collect data; the first questionnaire examined demographic characteristics and the second was the 71-item Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory short form. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used in SPSS20 to analyze the data.Overall, 98% of participants were men, 65.7% were married, and 13.3% were unemployed. Depression and hypomania were respectively the most and the least prevalent disorders among individuals with high-risk psychological profiles of clinical scales respectively. Psychopathic deviation and schizophrenia were seen among the unemployed more than the employed ones.Considering the fact that depression was the most common personality disorder among the addicts participating, it is recommended that this disorder be given priority in investigations in the treatment programs of these patients. In addition, the scales of disorder, schizophrenia, mental infirmity, mental deviation, and paranoia had a significant relationship to aggression, delirium and hallucination, which must be taken into consideration in the treatment of such patients.

  12. More Pressure on Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the UN Security Council adopts a new resolution to pressure Iran over its nuclear activities, the country maintains a tough stance On March 24, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a new resolution imposing tougher sanctions against Iran to

  13. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  14. What Will Iran Do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Iran's response to a UN resolution requiring it to halt its nuclear program looms large,experts sayWith the halt in fighting between Israel and the Lebanon-based Hezbollah militant group, the world's attention is again turning to the Iran nuclear issue. The international community had been waiting for Iran's response to the package of economic, political and security incentives

  15. Survey of Susceptibility of Cockroaches To Pyrethroids Insecticides in sari Hospital in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati, Ph.D

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: The medical importance of cockroaches is much greater than what has generally been realized. They are known to carry pathogenic viruses and bacteria such as escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella species including S.typhi and S.typhimurium. As a result, their eradication is very important.Materials and Methods: One of the best and effective ways of controlling cockoaches is thought to be the chemical method, which is performed by insecticides. It should be stated that the chemical treatment must be combined with enviromental sanitation, otherwise, the results will not be satisfactory. This study was carried out by using four different insecticides like: Permethrin 0.92% Deltamethrin 0.98% and Supermithrin 0.92% to evaluate their susceptibility and resistance.In this study, the cockroaches were collected from Imam Khomeini and Boo Ali Hospitals in Sari and were tested by different cocentrations of above -mentioned insecticides. Susecptibility of cockroaches was performed according to the standards of World Health Organization (W.H.O.Results: In this study, all the strains of cockroaches were exposed to the concentration of the above-mentioned insecticides through surface contact method. Imam Khomeini strain showed the LT50 of 20/24, 19/30, 19/64 minutes and Boo Ali hospitals 19/87, 17/6, 18/66 minutes. For susceptible strain, 8/89, 8/8, 8/64 minutes were obtained to Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Sumithrin respectively. On the other hand, LT90 for Imam Khomeini strain were 42/91, 41/21, 37/38 minutes and Boo Ali hospitals 42/59, 40/88, 34/05 minutes. For susceptible strain, 17/58, 18/43, 17/28 minutes were obtained to Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Supermithrin respectively. In surface contact, the resistance ratio (RR to pyrethroids insecticides (Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Supermithrin of BoAli hospitals strain was 2/23, 2 and 2/15 respectively, while this ratio for Imam Khomeini strain was 2/2, 2

  16. Survey of health beliefs of women about performing mammography in thehealth servic centers of Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abedian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Breast cancer is one of the most important non contagious disease with high incidence and mortality in females. It is the most commonly reported cancer and consists 18.9% of all reported cancer cases. Screening is a very important method for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Considering the important role of beliefs in performing as the most effective available method in diagnosis, this study was designed and done about the health beliefs of women towards mammography.Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 400 randomly selected women above 40 years of age referring to the health service centers in Sari. Their health beliefs about mammography was assessed by a questionnaire using Champion method. The obtained data were analyzed by inferential and descriptive statistical methods.Results: Majority of the women (69.5% did not practice mammography until the time of this study but 13.9% of their first family members did it. About 55.8% of them accepted that mammography insures individuals of their breast health. About 41.6% of them believed that early diagnosis of breast cancer prevents mastectomy. The most common obstacle of mammography was the concept that lack of any mass observation in breast self examination rejects requirement for mammography. About 34.5% of the patients, agreed that breast cancer affects their job activity and 34.7% agreed that breast cancer may lead to masteatomy. Statistical analysis did not reveal any relation between the occupation of the women and their beliefs about benefit of mammography and their vulnerability to breast cancer and its severity. Statistically significant relationship was observed between the education and the concepts of the women about the benefit and barrier of mammography (p<0.05.Conclusion: Despite positive concept, about mammography, it is not routinely performed in the society. Hence, it is recommended to encourage women to take advantage of this

  17. Investigating the Relationship of Organizational Commitment and Clinical Competence (Case study: Nurses Working in Montazeri Hospital, City of Najafabad, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Khodadadei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources committed to the organization not only reduces absence, delay, and replacement, but also causes the increase of organizational performance, employees’ mental freshness, better attainment to organizational excellent goals, and achieving individual’s objectives. Hence, organizational commitment has special importance among the employees of hospital. The nurses’ competence is an important criterion required for providing patients’ health-cares. The change in nurses’ roles and duties has changed the job to a complicated one and requires having various skills, and has caused the clinical competence to be considered more. The present study was performed with the aim of investigating the relationship of organizational commitment and clinical competence in nurses. The research was descriptive correlation type, and the statistical population was all nurses (176 persons working in Montazeri Hospital, Najafabad city, selected by Census method and 135 persons were investigated. The data collection tool included three questionnaires of personal information, Allen and Meyer’s questionnaire of organizational commitment, and questionnaire of clinical competence, that their validity and reliability were confirmed. Data was analyzed with independent t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient using the software SPSS 17. The average score of organizational commitment was 91± 10.76, and at medium level. The average score of clinical competence was 74.42±11.69, and at good level. There was no significant relationship between organizational commitment and clinical competence in the nurses. Only, the emotional commitment dimension had significant relationship with the quality assurance area of clinical competence (P<0.05. Organizational commitment of nurses did not have significant relationship with demographic variables under investigation, while their clinical competence had significant relationship with age

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2016-12-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  20. Trichinella Infection in Wildlife of Northeast of Iran

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    E Pozio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of Trichinella in some carnivores of Mashhad in northeast of Iran and to identify Trichinella species circulating in this area.Methods: The present study was carried out using muscle tissue collected from 120 stray dogs, 26 wild boars, 25 rodents, two foxes and two hyenas captured in Mashhad City, province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran.Results: Trichinella larvae were detected in three stray dogs by artificial digestion and compression. All larvae were identified as T. britovi using multiplex PCR.Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of T. britovi in stray dog in Iran.

  1. Iran - waiting and watching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, T. C.

    2007-07-01

    Global oil companies are reported to be divided on the issue of possible energy deals in Iran. Some companies may adopt wait and watch policy before singing a fresh deal with Iran, but there are some oil companies, those are still interested to sign a deal with Iran, despite the risks, even as Tehran decided to expand its uranium enrichment programme rather than complying with a UN Security Council ultimatum to freeze it, which clears the path for further harsher sanctions (author) (ml)

  2. Parental body mass index is associated with adolescent overweight and obesity in Mashhad, Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafaghi, Khosro; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Jabbari, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children aged 12 to 14 years in the city of Mashhad, Iran and its association...

  3. Floristic study of Kiasar National Park, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Ghahremaninejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiyasar National Park is a mountainous region in Mazandaran province, Kiyasar district, 70 kilometers far from Sari city, with an area of approximately 9530 hectares. The altitude of the area ranges from 883 m to 2775 m in Shahdeg pick. This park is located in the central Alborz. The mean annual rainfall is 650 mm and the mean annual temperature is 12˚C. Based on classical methods of regional floristic studies, approximately 720 specimens were collected during 2007 through 2008. The total number of 378 identified plant species belonged to 321 genera and 73 families. The dicots with 320 species were the richest group, following by monocots with 49 species, gymnosperms with 4 species and pteridophytes with 5 species respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (43 species, Lamiaceae (33 species, and the most diverse genera included Astragalus, Salvia and Stachys. There were 11 endemic species among the plants of the area. The life form of all plant species was determined via Raunkier,s method. Hemicryptophytes constituting 37% of the biological types were dominant, followed by therophytes and cryphtophytes with 31% and 16% respectively. The largest chorotype was Irano-Turanian, with 120 species.

  4. All Eyes on Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10......Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10...

  5. A hospital base epidemiology and pattern of acute adult poisoning across Iran: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Malihe; Ghaemi, Kazem; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poisoning is one of the most important health issues in the world. There is no exact statistic regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Iran. The aim of this systematic review was to study the epidemiology of poisoning of adults in Iran. Methods All the published papers regarding the epidemiology and patterns of adult poisonings in different parts of Iran were reviewed in bibliographical databases, including SID, Iran Medex, Medlib, Magiran and Embase, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar, without time limitation up to March 21, 2016. We searched for the terms poisoning, Iran, and epidemiology. After the final analysis, 38 articles that fulfilled all the required conditions were selected. Result In this article, we show that in most Iranian cities, except Ahvaz, pharmaceutical drugs, especially psychiatric pharmaceutical drugs, are the most common cause of poisoning in adults. In the Southwest region of Iran, poisoning due to envenomation is a very common. Although pesticide and opioid poisonings are less common, they are an important cause of death due to poisoning in Iran. Conclusion Pharmaceutical drugs are the most common cause of poisoning in most Iranian cities and it is recommended not to store pharmaceutical drugs at home and to set special rules regarding proper description of pharmaceutical drugs. More public health instruction is essential in the Southwest cities of Iran in order to reduce animal poisonings. PMID:27790337

  6. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East......, and its brand of Shi‘ism  has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  7. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  8. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East......, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  9. Inhibition of janus kinase 2 by compound AG490 suppresses the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells via up-regulating SARI (suppressor of AP-1, regulated by IFN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Xia; Yan, Li; Liu, Guang-Yu; Chen, Wen-Jun; Gong, Wei-Hong; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-06-01

    The Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathway (JAK/STAT pathway) play an important role in proliferation of breast cancer cells. Previous data showed that inhibition of STAT3 suppresses the growth of breast cancer cells, but the associated mechanisms are not well understood. This study aims to investigate the effect and associated mechanisms of JAK/STAT pathway inhibitor AG490 on proliferation and suppression of breast cancer cells. CCK-8 assay and trypan blue exclusion assay were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of AG490 to MDA-MB-231 cells. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA level of SARI (suppressor of AP-1, regulated by IFN). Western blot was used to analyze the protein levels of SARI, phospho-STAT3 and total STAT3. Luciferase reporter assay was adopted to explore the mechanism of SARI mRNA upregulation. AG490 suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. AG490 significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of SARI in MDA-MB-231 cells. Knockdown of SARI obviously attenuated AG490-induced growth suppression effect in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, AG490 dramatically enhanced the transcription activity of SARI promoter. But the transcription activity of truncated SARI promoter, which does not contain STAT3 binding site, cannot be activated by AG490 treatment. We demonstrate in this study that AG490 suppresses the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells through transcriptional activation of SARI.

  10. Community Genetic Services in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Atri Barzanjeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to report a description of the primary, secondary, and tertiary level services available for genetic disorders in Iran. For the purpose of this study, essential data were collected from every facility providing community genetic services in Tabriz city of Iran using a prestructured checklist. Technical information was filled in the predesigned forms using diagnostic records of each client/patient. Information was also gathered from community genetic services clients through a face-to-face interview at these facilities to assess the quality of services provided. Primary prevention measures were available in 80 percent of centres in the study population. Diagnostic techniques were fully available in the study area both in public and private sectors. Screening of congenital hypothyroidism and thalassemia has been successfully performed across the country by the Ministry of Health. Other screening programs have also been initiated by the country health authorities for neural tube defects, Down syndrome, and phenylketonuria. The high cost of genetic services at secondary and tertiary levels does not allow many people to get access to these services despite their needs. Governments will therefore need to allocate necessary resources to make the essential genetic services available for everyone needing these in the community.

  11. Karakteristik Minuman Laktat Sari Buah Durian Lay (Durio kutejensis yang Disuplementasi dengan Kultur Lactobacillus selama Penyimpanan pada Suhu Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neti Yuliana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the durian lay juices supplemented by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB  culture during cold storage. The LAB cultures consisted of Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC-0265, Lactobacillus acidophillus FNCC-0051 and combination of these LABs. After being inoculated with a 24 h – old culture starters, durian lay juice was incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours and kept at 4 °C for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Changes in pH, total lactic acid, and sugar content, viable cell counts of LAB, total soluble solid, viability of LAB, and sensory characteristic during fermentation were measured. The results revealed that pH decreased from 4.79 to 4.20; sugar content reduced from 4.52 to 0.75 %; total soluble solid reduced from 8.93 to 7.97 °Bx, and sensory score reduced from 3.71 (like to 3.40 (moderate like; while  the total lactic acid increased from 0.33 to 0.69 %; viable cell counts of LAB increased from 8.86  to 9.14 log CFU/ml; and % viability of LAB decreased from 100 to 95.90, during storage. Combination of Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC-0265 and Lactobacillus acidophillus FNCC-0051 cultures at two weeks cold storage period was the best treatment, based on the sensory and viable cell counts of LAB. The characteristics of this durian lay juice probiotic were pH 4.46, total lactic acid 0.59 %, sugar content 2.13 %, viable cell counts of LAB 9.33 log CFU/mL, total soluble solid 9.60 °Bx, and carbohydrate 45,05 %. This durian lay juice contained oxalate (107.56 mg/L, malic (527.895 mg/L, lactic (4381.49 mg/L and citric (351.245 mg/L acid. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji karakteristik minuman laktat sari durian lay yang disuplementasi dengan kultur bakteri asam laktat (BAL selama penyimpanan pada suhu rendah. Kultur BAL terdiri dari Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC-0265, Lactobacillus acidophillus FNCC-0051, dan campuran keduanya.  Sari buah durian lay diinokulasi dengan kultur berumur 24 jam lalu diinkubasi pada

  12. Analysis of the outcome of Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction surgery on knee in athletes from Sari, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmaeel Shafiei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 3 November, 2009 ; Accepted 11 May, 2010AbstractBackground and purpose: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is one of the four major ligaments of the knee and also the most important knee stabilizer. Since the incidence of ACL tearing is especially high in young athletes, and reconstruction surgery and a prolonged rehabilitation may be rtequired, understanding the outcome of the ACL reconstruction surgery and preventive measures such as physiotherapy and muscle supporting exercises, could improve the outcome of the ACL reconstruction surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate and recognize the outcome of ACL reconstruction surgery in athletes from Sari in 2007-2008.Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 57 male athletes (mean age: 26.56 ± 6.17 years referred to several hospitals in sari during 2007-2008 were assessed after ACL reconstruction surgery. The assessment for the outcome of the ACL reconstruction surgery was done by physical examination, such as range of motion (ROM and performing stability tests (lachman test, anterior drawer test. Data were analyzed using statistical tests; ANOVA, χ2 and t -test.Results: Mean age of the patients was 26.56 ± 6.17 years (17-51. Mean duration after surgery was 18.4 ± 10.57(5-35. The most common cause of tearing was playing soccer (63.2%. The right knee was affected in 35 players (61.4% compared with the left knee in 22 (38.6%. Thirty three (57.9% right knees were dominant in comparison with 24(42.1% left knees. Type of trauma in 17 subjects (29.8% was contact and 40 (70.2% was non-contact. There were three (5.3% patients with movement limitation (10-30˚ and five (8.8% with knee instability. There was no significant relationship between mean duration after surgery and limitations in movements (P=0.412, knee stability (P=0.999, and patients satisfaction (P=0.412. There was a significant relation between dominant knee and stability (P=0.046.Conclusion: According to the results

  13. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sample to the laboratory was done on ice in a cooler, and physiochemical analysis was conducted immediately within one day. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was determined by a TOC analyzer. Irradiation experiments were conducted in a series of 25 mL glass serum bottles with Teflon septa. The present study adopts an orthogonal design. The design involved irradiation with UV at a UV/DOC ratio of 0.5–3.0 and incubating (headspace-free storage for 5–25 sec. A 1 mM phosphate buffer maintained the pH at 6, 7, or 8 respectively, and an incubator maintained the temperature (Temp at 15, 20, or 25 °C respectively. The development of empirical models for DBPs formation used a multivariate regression procedure (stepwise which applied the SPSS System for Windows (Version 16.0. Results:  The results showed that the total DBPs formation ranged between 12.3 and 67.4 mg/l and that control of the levels was primarily due to the reaction time and the dissolved organic carbon level (DOC in the water. Conclusions:  Reaction time and level of DOC concentrations in water exerted a dominant influence on the formation of DBPs during the UV irradiation of water from the Tajan River. The relationships between the measured and predicted values were satisfactory with R 2 values ranging from 0.89 (for Octanal–0.92 (for Formaldehydes. The DOC level in water is the key factor in controlling DBPs formation.

  14. The study of hospital bavage solution and calorie and protein in take. For patients needs from the special care unit at Imam Khomeini hospital, Sari, Iran during 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Malnutrition is a major problem within intensive care units (ICU affecting the outcome of patients. In Imam Khomeini Hospital, patients were fed with gavage solutions prepared in the kitchen of hospitals, however, its' nutritional value has not been studied at present time. The aim of this study was to analyze the gavage solution and to compare the calculated nutritional demand with the provided values.Materials and Methods: The amount of carbohydrate, lipid and protein of gavage solution has been determined with Leen ion, Gerber and Kejeldal methods, respectively. In this study, 30 patients with at least 5 days in the ICU were included. Daily metabolic needs were calculated with Harris-Benedict equation and then, calculated calorie and protein values were compared with the provided values.Results: The carbohydrate, lipid, protein and energy contents of gavage solutions were 0.035 ±0.002 g/ml, 0.0225±0.017 g/ml, 0.012 ± 0.002 g/ml, and 0.39 ± 0.164 Kcal/ml. The calorie and protein provided by the hospital solution, in comparison to the standard enteral solutions, were 32.5% and 16% respectively. Total energy expenditure (TEE at the time of admission to ICU was 2302 ± 633 Kcal/ per day. During week 1, 2, and 3, TEE was 2301±634, 2283 ± 661 and 2228 ± 790 respectively. Maximum provided energy was 600 ± 632 Kcal/ per day. Maximum protein was provided in week 3 and equal to 22.9% of patient’s needs.Conclusion: The gavage solution provided by hospitals can not meet the calorie and protein needs of patients. It is necessary to prepare solutions with enough contents of carbohydrate, lipid and protein or to provide them with standard enteral nutritional solutions.Key words: Gavage, Intensive care unit, Malnutrition, Calorie, ProteinJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(64: 81-85 (Persian

  15. SELLING CANANG SARI (As an Alternative of Effort in Informal Sector to overcome household economics problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Nilakusmawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in family income represent an impact of economic pressures, as an effect of economic crisis. Other side, the existing problems that extension of the job opportunity in the urban area with existence of development in the various sector do not absorb entire labour force which is progressively growing larger its amount.Economic problem force woman of lower economic class to involved take part in earning for increase family income by working beyond domestic sectors. Involvement of woman in labor market trigered by family’s economic problems, besides existence of the job opportunity factor. Alternative effort being carried out is by selling canang.Increasing of urban community activities in Denpasar City makes them have no time to make banten or canang. To find an easier way to overcome this situation, many people tend to buy canang/banten which is ready to use, also more practical and spent less time than the time spent when they make by themselves . This phenomenon gives a chance to canang sellers to get income additional. In the difficult condition of the economics problem, many woman have to take part to overcome economic problems which they face. One of the alternative is involved into labour market, and involve in trade is one of the choice. Because of the existence of opportunity as explained above, many women overcome their economic problems and try to give contribution to their family income by selling the canang.Phenomenon more and more canang sellers which are spread alongside the road side in Denpasar City shown that the informal sector have a great role to maintaining and also improving household economics. The effort as the canang seller can represent an alternative of effort in informal sector to overcome economics problem in the household level. Roles of woman as a subject of this informal sector, have a big contribution in maintaining household economics.

  16. Acrostichum, a Pioneering Fern of Floodplain Areas from the Late Oligocene Sariñena Formation of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Javier; Diez, José B.

    2016-01-01

    Acrostichum is considered today an opportunistic fern in disturbed areas, which indicates the first stages of colonisation of such zones. However, in the fossil record, Acrostichum appears related to fluvio-lacustrine environments, freshwater marshes and mangrove deposits. We report here for first time fossil evidence of Acrostichum that reveals a pioneering behaviour of this fern in the colonisation of perturbed communities in Europe, which corroborates previous assumptions about the paleobiology of Acrostichum. Plant remains were collected from the Chattian (late Oligocene) La Val fossil site (Estadilla, Huesca, northeastern Spain) belonging to the Sariñena Formation, which mainly embraces crevasse splays, levees and floodplain deposits. Evidence shows that Acrostichum grew within the levee’s vegetal community or close to/on the river banks as well as on floodplain areas and closer to/on the shores of ephemeral ponds. But most importantly, the observed co-existence of Equisetum and Acrostichum remains in the same beds indicates that such strata represent short-lived inundated terrains, e.g., floodplains where the water table was temporarily stagnant. Evidence shows wetland environments dominated by pioneering taxa, implying a pioneering role for Acrostichum during the late Oligocene in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:27631099

  17. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  18. Iran approaches CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Members of Parliament from the Islamic Republic of Iran visit SM18. From left to right : Ali Mojtahed-Shabestari, Deputy Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Geneva, Diether Blechschmidt, from CERN, Abdol-Rahim Baharvand and Hossain Amiri, from the Iranian Parliament, Norbert Siegel, from CERN, Hossain Afarideh, Rasool Seddighi and Ahmad Shirzad from the Iranian Parliament. Five members of the Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran visited CERN for three days at the beginning of May. All of them have PhD's in Physics, as well as holding their job in politics. They are involved in legislation for science, research and education funding in Iran. Apart from their interest in CERN in general, they were especially attracted to the CMS detector, since an Iranian contribution to the LHC is now starting through a collaboration with the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics in Tehran.

  19. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS: We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS: We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS: Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior.

  20. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior.

  1. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Samira; Zamani, Nasim; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis) is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide) has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important. PMID:28761199

  2. Selecting Proper Plant Species for Mine Reclamation Using Fuzzy AHP Approach (Case Study: Chadormaloo Iron Mine of Iran)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arash Ebrahimabadi

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an effective approach to select suitable plant species for reclamation of mined lands in Chadormaloo iron mine which is located in central part of Iran, near the city of Bafgh in Yazd province. After...

  3. The Diet and Sexual Differences of the Caspian Bent-Toed Gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius (Squamata: Gekkonidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Hojati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius, is one of the most common nocturnal lizards of Iran with widespread distribution especially in the northern provinces. This research was done in order to study the diet and sexual dimorphism of this species in Sari County from 5 May to 20 October. During this research, 40 specimens of them including 20 males and 20 females were studied for diet and 140 specimens including 70 adult males and 70 adult females were studied for sexual dimorphism. Prey items identified were insects that belong to 15 species of 8 families and 6 orders. The most common prey items were Culex pipiens and Musca domestica. There is no significant difference between diets of males and females. Results show that the adult males in addition of having the apparent femoral and preanal pores are heavier than females and have larger body, head, and tail length.

  4. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Management of Risk for the Rice Cultivating Women in Sari Town with LISREL Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. charmchian Langerodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agriculture relies on nature and farmers face environmental, social, financial and legal issues that makes farming to be consistently and strongly associated with risk. Agriculture can be considered to be the most risky economic venture. Ahmadi (1 listed several main sources of risk that farmers face. Economic risk includes price fluctuations for raw materials such as seed and fertilizer and for machinery at the pre-market delivery stage, difficulty obtaining bank credit and loans, price volatility for products in the post market delivery stage, inconsistent government policies for products and global fluctuations in the price of products. Social risk includes theft of crops, production and agricultural machinery and war. Nature-related risk includes natural disasters, climate change, agricultural pests and diseases. Market risk includes changes in the price of raw materials and products and increasing interest rates. Given that the range of agricultural activities having critical risk are diverse and the climate can vary widely, more sophisticated services are needed to meet the demands, cope with hazards and decrease risk. Understanding how women rice farmers deal with risk is essential for educators, and agriculture-related industries such as insurance, and policymakers. If the attitudes of these women towards risk are accurately recognized, risk management strategies, risk-related educational programs and risk strategies can be designed to meet their needs. The overallaim of this research isto investigate factors affecting risk management, and proposing and designing a model among rice cultivating women in Sari. Materials and Methods: The population of the study comprised 1677rice cultivating women in Sari of whom 248 were selected through stratified random sampling. A combination of quantitative, and descriptive-inferential statistics served as the methodology for the study and SPSS 16 and LISREL were applied for data analysis

  5. Chemical constituents of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza GOLPARVAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. are aromatic plants belonging to Lamiaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical components of D. kotschyi and D. moldavica from Iran. The aerial parts of D. kotschyi were collected from (Kamu Mountain Isfahan province and the aerial parts of D. moldavica were collected from Sari (Mazandaran province North of Iran, during 2014. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In total, 32 and 24 compounds were identified in the essential oil from the aerial parts D. kotschyi and D. moldavica, respectively. The results obtained in our study indicated that the major components in the oil D. kotschyi were limonene (23.56 %, carvacrol (14.65 %, γ-terpinene (12.99 %, α -pinene (12.62 %, 2-methyl-1-octen-3-yne (9.73 %, camphene (4.66 %, myrcene (3.65 % and α -terpinene (3.12 %. The major constituents of the oil D. moldavica were geranyl acetate (36.62 %, geraniol (24.31 %, neral (16.25 % and geranial (11.21 %. D. kotschyi is one of the important sources of limonene and D. moldavica is one of the important sources of geranyl acetate.

  6. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional

  7. Evaluation of ocular defects and its relevant factors in patients with beta thalassemia major in Sari Boo Ali Sina hospital, (2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Karami

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: As There is not accurate information about ocular defects in Thalassemia Major (TM patients in Mazandaran province ,this study was designed to assess the prevalence of ophtalmopathies in thalassemic patients and also recognize its relevant factors in Sari Boo Ali Sina hospital. Sari. Materials and Methods: This descriptive Cross-sectional was Carried out on 60 TM patients in Thalassemia center at Sari Boo Ali Sina hospital. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling. After gathering demographic data , patients were evaluated about their illness and its complications from their medical records. Their visual acuity was assessed using Snell chart by an optometrist. Evaluation of retina was done by our ophthalmologist colleague. Visual evoked potential (VEP was assessed by TOENEES instrument made in Italy which had the ability to assess both VEP and P300 . Findings were analyzed by SPSS13 software and Chi square and Mann-whitney tests. Results: 60 patients underwen this study that 33 of them (55% were male. 4 of them (6.6% had problems in visual acuity . 3 of these became normal after refractive correction. 3 patients (5% had Inferior Posterior Cortical Cataract. 2 of them (3.3% had punctuate lens cortical opacity and one (1.7% had mild nuclear sclerosis. 4 patients( 6.7% had macular pigmentation and one (1.7% had left optic nerve head pit. No abnormal finding was detected in VEP, such as latency in voltage. Conclusion: Totally 20 patients had ocular complications. These defects can be a result of desferal toxicity or Iron toxicity and drug effects on binding to cupper and zinc and removing them from retinal cells or extramedulary hematopoesis. So based on the results, ophthalmologic evaluation of TM patients and tight desferal dose adjustment in these patients seems necessary.

  8. Subsidence Detection Using InSAR and Geodetic Measurements in the North-West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Morteza

    2010-05-01

    The subsidence of the Earth surface is a phenomenon that occurs in some places in the world which overuse underground sources of water. As Iran has semi-arid and arid climate and the rate of rainfall is lower than the mean rate in the world then nowadays we are encountered by over-exploitation of groundwater in agricultural areas and also for extending the cities and industrial areas. Geodetic measurements i.e., repeated leveling measurements of first order leveling network of Iran and continuous GPS measurements of Iranian Permanent GPS Network of Iran (IPGN), showed that there are subsidence areas in the north-west of Iran. In this paper we try to find the area and rate of subsidence in the north-west of Iran using InSAR and geodetic techniques. The result of InSAR technique shows a better understanding on this phenomenon in these areas and has a good consistency with accurate geodetic measurements.

  9. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  10. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  11. In vitro isotopic determination of diffusion volumes by transferrin labelled with indium 111. study of the correlation with SARI 125; Determination isotopique in vitro de volumes de diffusion par la transferrine marquee a l'indium 111. Etude de la correlation avec la SARI 125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porot, C.L. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, Service de medecine nucleaire, 25 - Besancon (France); Angoue, O.R. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, laboratoire de biophysique et statistiques, 25 - Besancon (France); Berthetc, L.O. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, 25 - Besancon (France); Ungureanu, C.O.; Boulahdour, H.A.

    2010-07-01

    Serum albumin labeled with iodine 125 (S.A.R.I. 125) is the reference tracer used in measuring isotopic plasma volume. It has been causing a suspension of manufacturing leading to a supply disruption and resulting in the search for an alternative to measure plasma volume under consideration for measuring blood volume. Plasma transferrin labeled with indium-111 (Tf-{sup 111}In) is a potentially useful marker. To this end, we assessed the level of activity to be administered to determine a volume of distribution. The study of the correlation between the volume of distribution values obtained with S.A.R.I. 125 and Tf-{sup 111}In was then performed. Tf is an autologous protein which the labelling is easy and stable. Tf-{sup 111}In is a valid alternative to the S.A.R.I. 125 for measuring the plasma volume. The activity required for this examination shall not exceed 100 micro curies. (N.C.)

  12. Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus among blood donors in Arak, central province of Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eslamifar; Amitis Ramezani; Mohammad Banifazl; Masoomeh Sofian; Fatemeh-Alsadat Mahdaviani; Farhad Yaghmaie; Arezoo Aghakhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Tetanus and diphtheria are vaccine-preventable, infectious diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Immunization by the diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (DT) has been applied in Iran for almost 50 years. However, there are very few data about the rate of immunity to these diseases in the adult population. the humoral immunity to tetanus and diphtheria among blood donors in Arak city, central provice of Iran were investigated. Patients & Methods A total of 530 ...

  13. Emergency evacuation of Tehran city: simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    Joueiai, M.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Pouya, N.

    2014-01-01

    Tehran is capital of Iran in wide metropolitan area. Large-scale disasters such as earthquakes in such a city cause many casualties and economical damage. One of the most effective risk mitigation actions in such disasters is emergency evacuation. This paper evaluates the dynamics of the vehicular traffic of Tehran under an evacuation condition. The main arterials of the city of Tehran are simulated by a macroscopic traffic flow simulation model (FastLane). The dynamics of traffic in the netw...

  14. Contra lo discreto: Mauro Césari y las poéticas de desreferenciabilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Federico Berti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2013v9n2p183 Desde la reflexión sobre la ciencia y la técnica del filósofo Bernard Stiegler, introducimos el concepto de estándar como la base del progreso de la sociedad hiperindustrial contemporánea. A partir de una aproximación a las consideraciones de Stiegler sobre la incidencia del estándar en los regímenes de atención y memoria, es decir, en el rol activo que los objetos técnicos asumen en la constitución de las identidades particulares y en la configuración de ciertas obras de arte, se discute la obra del poeta experimental argentino Mauro Césari. Su obra permite proponer el concepto de “poéticas da desrreferenciabilización” para explicar prácticas artísticas por las que un texto, pierde esa posibilidad por la acción deliberada de su autor, para volverse imagen técnica. El efecto es la destrucción del estándar precedente poniendo de relieve el aspecto material del texto, su visualidad y su presencia como imagen a ser vista y no necesariamente como texto a ser leído. La poética de desrreferenciabilización atenta contra la reproducción seriada de las experiencias de lectura propiciando no sólo obras singulares sino también la elaboración de nuevas categorías que las tornen legibles. La práctica de desrreferenciabilización tiene la potencia de lo que Stiegler llama “invención categorial”. El artículo concluye con una propuesta de obras en las que se difumina el límite entre las distintas artes y el modo en el que éstas permiten discutir las delimitaciones y los problemas que se plantean en la ciencia y la técnica contemporáneas que pueden ser abordadas desde nuestra propuesta teórica.

  15. Assessment of starch dietary regimen regarding pre-menstrual syndrome among high school students in Sari during 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abedian Kasgari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS is one of the abnormalities associated with pre-menstrual cycles. Approximately 85% to 97% of women are suffering from psycho-somatic of physiological and behavioral symptoms from PMS, prior to menstruation. The most common PMS symptoms include: flatulence, stress anxiety, breast tenderness, depression, fatigue, unknown irritability, anger, poor concentration, and some degree in extremities edema. There are several therapeutic methods for PMS such as: oral contraceptive pills, GnRH antagonisms, diazole, use of Calcium and vitamin supplements, and dietary modification in which there is a controversy regarding type of diet. We assessed the effect of third- hour starch dietary regimen on pre-menstrual syndrome among high school students.Materials and Methods: This randomized quasi- experimental study was performed on students in grade 2 and 3 in Private and Governmental high schools in Sari. The sample size was calculated using randomize numbers table (478 participants. A questionnaire composed of two parts was prepared. The first part included demographic characteristics, while the second part consisted of data related to history of menstrual cycle, pervious diseases and use of drugs. The symptoms of PMS were assessed at the beginning of the study and also at the end of the first, second and third month after beginning of the third-hours starch regimen. Data was gathered by self-reporting technique, analyzed by descriptive and comprehensive statistical techniques.Results: The age range of participants was 14 to 19 years of age (16.891.12. The mean of menstrual cycle was 28.872.1 days, and the mean of menstrual duration was 6.321.8. PMS symptoms score was 12.858.01 prior to dietary regimen, and at the end of one, two and three months, following dietary regimen in-take were 11.037.59, 12.477.79 and 11.136.71 respectively. This study indicated that there was significant

  16. Emergency evacuation of Tehran city: simulation results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joueiai, M.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Pouya, N.

    2014-01-01

    Tehran is capital of Iran in wide metropolitan area. Large-scale disasters such as earthquakes in such a city cause many casualties and economical damage. One of the most effective risk mitigation actions in such disasters is emergency evacuation. This paper evaluates the dynamics of the vehicular

  17. Vil USA angribe Iran?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2007-01-01

    Sammen med Mogens Lykketoft, Søren Espersen og Herbert Pundik stilles Rasmus Chr. Elling en række spørgsmål om hvordan Vesten bør handle ift. Irans atomenergiprogram og om faren for et amerikansk angreb på den islamiske republik....

  18. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  19. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  20. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  1. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  2. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  3. Ilmunud on : Sari "Elavik"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Lühitutvustused sarjas "Elavik" ilminud raamatutele: Tüdruk helesinises kleidis : valik Villem Kapi kirju / koostaja Tiiu Tosso. Tants Kalevipoja ümber : Helmi Tohvelmani päevaraamat / koostaja Iivi Lepik. Heino Eller in modo mixolydio / peatoimetaja Hedi Rosma. Gustav Ernesaks : mu isamaa on minu arm... / koostajad Sirje Endre, Ene Kuljus jt. Kõik raamatud ilmunud Tallinnas, Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi ja Kirjastuse SE & JS koostöös aastal 2008

  4. PLANNING STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF SMALL TOWNS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kashiripoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning structure of cities plays an important role in shaping their sustainable development while elaborating urban planning documentation (master plans and detailed plan projects. The existing studies of small towns in Iran reveal issues of architectural heritage and do not touch upon such peculiar features of small town planning as shape of their plan, network of streets, their configuration. It has not been established how a planning structure of a small city influences on its sustainable development.An inspection of 16 small towns of Iran has shown that the majority of the cities have a compact planning form which is due to flat relief, as well as the need for efficient use of valuable agricultural land. At the same time the paper demonstrates that territory development for building construction within city boundaries has unequal character. It has been determined that cities have very few green areas. Undeveloped wastelands owned by private individuals are often located close to densely developed areas. Such situation is due to specific features of the Iranian legislation that does not specify time terms for territory development. Parameters of urban road-street networks (width in red lines, presence of such transverse profile elements as landscaping along roadways do not correspond to the existing recommendations in Iran. Mixed or free system of streets is considered as the most common one and it is due to changes in urban conditions during the long process of development. Frequent network of narrow streets forms a system of small blocks of various shapes and needs to be improved. The majority of the inspected cities do not have bypass roads for freight transport, and there is also a transit transport through their historic centers.

  5. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied.

  6. Iran funds dam completion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Iran has signed a contract with unnamed foreign financiers for US$300M to fund two half-finished dam schemes, according to Tehran radio. The schemes are the Ostur dam in Mianeh in East Azerbaijan province and the Molla Sadra dam in Fars province. The Ostur dam will have a storage capacity of 2B m3 and a 160 MW hydro power station.

  7. Conceiving IVF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tremayne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 19th century the Iranian state has been concerned with the size of its population, and policies directed to its increase or decrease have been closely involved with the purpose of nation building. None of these policies have been particularly successful, except for the effective family planning campaign of the 1980s that led to a remarkable drop in population growth, which currently stands at 1.3 per annum, below the replacement level. However, all the policies have failed to address the issue of infertility, which is widespread in Iran. It was against the background of such oversight that, from 1987, some pioneering physicians introduced IVF practices to the country and engaged with the Islamic jurists, whose endorsement of infertility treatment through IVF was deemed crucial to give the practices legitimacy. This article explores the process by which assisted reproductive technologies were legitimized in Iran in all their forms and which have placed the country in the lead among the Muslim countries in the Middle East in this respect. Within Iran, following the state’s latest pronatalist policies, assisted reproductive technologies have been acknowledged as a means to help the state meet its new ambition of higher population growth.

  8. Astronomy in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  9. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  10. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    2010-01-01

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers in

  11. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  12. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  13. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  14. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  15. Ingen panik - Iran kan balanceres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran anses af mange som en voksende magtfaktor i Mellemøsten, der i stigende grad truer den regionale og endda globale sikkerhed. Irans hårde magt (atomprogrammet) og bløde magt (den politiske shi’a islam) betragtes som fundamentet til udviklingen af Irans stormagtsstatus og dets indflydelse....../trussel i regionen. Dette fundament er imidlertid skrøbeligt, og der er ingen grund til panik. Selv et Iran med atomvåben kan inddæmmes og balanceres og Iran’s bløde magt er meget begrænset. At bombe Iran vil derfor være en stor fejltagelse....

  16. An investigation into the former consulate of Britain as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Parsaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bushehr city (Iran had been the center of attention in different historical periods by foreign countries and central government due to political and economic strategic position in Persian Gulf. The situation and condition of Bushehr, especially in Qajar era, caused that the city encountered the changes and reformations as a result of both inner and outer factors. So, the modernism process occurred in this city not long after it had emerged in Europe. So that, some buildings were built in the city which contained the features of modernism. This research, at first, introduces the former consulate of Britain (Sabzabad edifice and discovers when the building was built based on a historical-interpretative method. After that, the principals of modern architecture are explained from the different theorists’ stand point and also the characteristics of early modern architecture in Iran are explained. Finally, by describing the Bushehr condition in the early arrival of modernism, a qualitative and adaptive comparison has been done between Sabzabad architectural mechanism and the principals of modern architecture and its features in Iran. Thus, Sabzabad edifice is regarded as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran. The results of this research demonstrate the political, economic and also the architectural status of Bushehr city in the process of modernism in Iran which has been neglected by researchers and historians thus far.

  17. Human rabies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Fayaz, Ahmad; Howaizi, Nader; Biglari, Peyvand; Gholami, Alirez

    2014-10-01

    Like most Asian and African countries, Iran is highly endemic for rabies, which is a preventable disease with the timely utilisation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). With the availability of affordable vaccination in Iran, there are still several rabies deaths which are assumed misdiagnosed or received ineffective PEP. We reviewed the files of 16 human rabies deaths, consisting of two groups: 1, ineffective treatment; and 2, erroneous PEP. Most of the studied cases were male and were from rural areas. Stray dogs were found to be the common biting animal (68.75%). Of the patients, 10/16 (62.5%) who had injuries on their head and/or face demonstrated shorter incubation periods. The incubation period was longer in a 4-year-old boy who sustained injuries in his abdomen and back. All the patients in group 1 received four doses of vaccine and administration of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG), and death occurred with the mean of 49 days after the bite. This mean was 27 days in three patients in group 2, who received vaccine without administration of HRIG. In a total of 1,188,579 cases of PEP given in Iran during: 2002-2011, it is not known whether all PEPs were correctly administered by World Health Organization standards. Extending rabies awareness programmes and timely PEP education in the community in accordance with the implementation of rabies control measures might lead to a decrease in these unfortunate scenarios and heavy financial burden of vaccination required due to the prevalence of rabies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Preliminary identification of hemoglobin q-iran in an Iranian family from central province of Iran by globin chain analysis on HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Shohreh; Najmabadi, Hossein; Rouhi, Soghra; Mirzazadeh, Roghieh; Bayat, Parastoo; Sadeghi, Sedigheh

    2013-12-01

    Many abnormal α-chain hemoglobins (Hbs) are caused by single nucleotide mutations in α1- or α2-goblin genes. One of these Hbs is Hb Q-Iran which is resulted from a point mutation at codon 75 of the α1-globin gene (Asp→His). The identification of Hb Q-Iran was observed in two members of a family from the Central Province of Iran. In this study, Globin chain analysis on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA sequencing were applied. An unusual Hb variant, like HbS on alkaline pH electrophoresis was identified from samples of a father and his son from Arak city in the Central Province of Iran. The variant was further characterized by globin chain analysis and DNA sequencing methods. Globin chain analysis revealed an unknown globin chain peak after α-globin chain peak with a different retention time from βs-globin chain, as the control in both samples. Genetic analysis led to the identification of an unknown Hb variant, Hb Q-Iran. Globin chain analysis showed the presence of an unknown globin chain, and likewise DNA sequencing revealed HbQ-Iran. In other words, Globin chain analysis procedure could preliminarily detect an unknown globin chain.

  19. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Babol, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Babol, one of big cities in north of Iran. Many destructive earthquakes happened in Iran in the last centuries. It comes from historical references that at least many times; Babol has been destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes. In this paper, the peak horizontal ground acceleration over the bedrock (PGA is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA. For this reason, at first, a collected catalogue, containing both historical and instrumental events that occurred in a radius of 200 km of Babol city and covering the period from 874 to 2004 have been gathered. Then, seismic sources are modeled and recur¬rence relationship is established. After elimination of the aftershocks and foreshocks, the main earthquakes were taken into consideration to calculate the seismic parameters (SP by Kijko method. The calculations were performed using the logic tree method and four weighted attenuation relationships Ghodrati, 0.35, Khademi, 0.25, Ambraseys and Simpson, 0.2, and Sarma and Srbulov, 0.2. Seismic hazard assessment is then carried out for 8 horizontal by 7 vertical lines grid points using SEISRISK III. Finally, two seismic hazard maps of the studied area based on Peak Horizontal Ground Acceleration (PGA over bedrock for 2 and 10% probability of ex¬ceedance in one life cycles of 50 year are presented. These calculations have been performed by the Poisson distribution of two hazard levels. The results showed that the PGA ranges from 0.32 to 0.33 g for a return period of 475 years and from 0.507 to 0.527 g for a return period of 2475 years. Since population is very dense in Babol and vulnerability of buildings is high, the risk of future earthquakes will be very significant.

  20. Factors Associated with Incidence of Induced Abortion in Hamedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hatam; Erfani, Amir; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    There is limited reliable information on abortion in Iran, where abortion is illegal and many women of reproductive age seek clandestine abortion to end their unintended pregnancy. This study aims to examine the determinants of induced abortion in the city of Hamedan, Iran. The study utilizes recent data from the 2015 Hamedan Survey of Fertility, conducted in a representative sample of 3,000 married women aged 15-49 years in the city of Hamedan, Iran. Binary logistic regression models are used to examine factors associated with the incidence of abortion. Overall, 3.8% of respondents reported having had an induced abortion in their life. Multivariate results showed that the incidence of abortion was strongly associated with women's education, type of contraceptive and family income level, after controlling for confounding factors. Women using long-acting contraceptive methods, those educated under high school diploma or postsecondary education, and those with high level of income were more likely to report having an induced abortion. The high incidence of abortion among less or more educated women and those with high income level signifies unmet family planning needs among these women, which must be addressed by focused reproductive health and family planning programs.

  1. Trichinellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahdavi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nTrichinellosis is both of veterinary and medical importance in countries where pig breeding and pork consumption exists. In Iran, people are forbidden to consume pork because of the religious regulations. Therefore, there have not been any human cases over the past decades except a doubtful case based on serological test. Although there are some sylvatic trichinellosis in wild life in different parts of Iran, but a little is known about the current prevalence in wild animals. To date, some cases of Trichinella nelsoni  in  golden jackals from Khuzestan Province; Trichinella spiralis  in wild boars, brown bears, golden  jack­als, jungle cat, from Mazandaran Province and stray dogs, Jackals, red fox, hyena, Meriones percicus in Isfahan; finally T.spiralis nelsoni in Herpestes auropuntatus from Khuzestan were reported. Based on these data  and consumption of ani­mal derived food products among some local hunters,  and not a safe and insure rodent control,  trichinellosis could be con­cern as an emerging disease, so more investigation and clinical awareness are needed in this regard.

  2. Molecular identification of Candidatus Phytoplasma spp. associated with Sophora yellow stunt in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdi Touhid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, sophora (Sophora alopecuroides L. plants showing symptoms of leaf yellowing, little leaves and stunting were observed in Firooz-kuh (Tehran province, Sari (Mazandaran province and Urmia (West Azerbaijan province in Iran. Symptomatic plants from the three locations were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify 16SrRNA using primer pair P1/P7 followed by primer pair R16F2n/R16R2. The amplicons were purified, sequenced and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed by virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. The phytoplasmas associated with the yellows disease were identified as members of the 16SrIX group (Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium and the 16SrXII group (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani. The two phytoplasmas were placed in 16SrIX-C and 16SrXII-A subgroups, respectively, in constructed phylogenetic trees. This is the first report on sophora yellows associated with Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium.

  3. Plants Species Diversity in Hyrcanian Hardwood Forests, Northern Iran (Case Study: Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abrari Vajari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand and manage forest ecosystems, it is important to study the relationship between environmental factors and plants in these ecosystems. We investigated plant species diversity of three hardwood forest stands in the Hyrcanian forests, Sari, northern Iran. Our aim was to determine the effect of forest stand type on the diversity of plant species. One plot 150 × 150 m established at the center of each forest stand and in each plot, nine subplots 50 × 50 m were selected. Diversity values (Richness, diversity and evenness indices were measured in five sample areas 0.01 ha per 50 × 50 m quadrates by estimating cover percentage of each species. The results showed that Geophytes (43.33% had the highest life form spectrum among species. JACCARD'S similarity index revealed that the highest values exist between Parrotia-Carpinus and Carpinus stands. All herb layer species diversity indices varied significantly among different forest stands. Cover percentage significantly positively correlated with diversity indices in Parrotia-Carpinus stand. Diversity and richness indices of herb-layers plants were significantly negatively correlated with cover percentage in Fagus stand. Correlation analysis between all diversity measures and cover percentage in Carpinus stand wasn't significant. The result of the present study revealed that species diversity in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest was significantly influenced by forest stand type

  4. Application of Two-Valued and Fuzzy Logics Teaching in Understanding the Precise and Approximate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayekolaei, Mehraneh Delaviz; Nor, Norjoharuddeen Bin Mohd; Sohaei, Reza; Berneti, Abdul Karim Maleki; Zerafat, Romina; Saravi, Hanieh Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to examine the application of two-valued and fuzzy logics teaching in better understanding the precise approximate concepts of chapter 4 of Sixth grade mathematics. Participants of this study were 30 Sixth grade mathematics students from an elementary school in Sari (a city in the north of Iran) in the academic year of…

  5. Hypersensitivity to house dust mite and cockroach is the most common allergy in north of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Khademloo, Mohammad; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Rafiei, Alireza; Masiha, Farzad

    2010-12-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are among the most common diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to detect, by skin prick test, aeroallergens in allergic patients in Sari, Mazandaran in north of Iran. This is a prospective study of skin prick test of aeroallergens in asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination with clinical diagnosis. Three hundred and seventy five cases aged between 5 to 50 years, were referred to Tooba and Boo-Ali allergic centers of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences between December 2006 and July 2009. The aeroallergens studied included house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), cockroaches, feather, aspergillus, Alternaria, pigweed, nettle, oak and maple. Of the studied individuals, 175 cases were males (46.7%) and 200 were females (53.3%), of which 156 (n=41.5%) reacted to allergen extracts. In asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination, the respective positive percentages were 26.6%, 22.9%, and 32.6% for Dermatophagoides farinae; 26.6%, 25.3%, and 23.3% for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 12.7%, 17.4%, and 11.6% for cockroaches and 16.5%, 4.7%, and 7.0% for the feather. Other allergens were positive up to 5 percent. Total IgE levels were elevated in 56.4%, 53% and 60.5% of asthmatic, allergic rhinitis and the combination group, respectively. Eosinophils count was elevated in 40.5%, 33.2% and 37.2% of the same groups, respectively. The hypersensitivity to house dust mites is very common in north of Iran which may be attributed to the warm and humid weather of this area.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Arcobacter species isolated from poultry meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Arcobacter spp. isolated from different species of retail poultry meat in Iran. 2. From August 2012 to April 2013, a total of 540 raw poultry meat samples from chicken (n = 100), turkey (n = 100), quail (n = 100), partridge (n = 80), duck (n = 50), ostrich (n = 60) and geese (n = 50) were purchased from randomly selected retail outlets in Shahrekord, Isfahan, Sari and Rasht, Iran. 3. Using culture techniques, 71 of 540 poultry meat samples (13.1%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Arcobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (28.0%), followed by quail (12.0%), duck (11.4%), turkey (11.0%), geese (8.0%), partridge (7.5%) and ostrich (3.3%) meat. The number of A. butzleri isolated from poultry meat samples (90.1%) was significantly higher than A. cryaerophilus (7.1%) and A. skirrowii (2.8%). Significantly more poultry meat samples were found to contain Arcobacter spp. by the PCR assay than by the culture method. 4. Susceptibilities of Arcobacter isolates were determined for 14 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion method. All of the 71 Arcobacter isolates tested were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to cephalothin and vancomycin (95.8%) was the most common finding, followed by resistance to methicillin, azithromycin and ampicillin. All Arcobacter isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracyclin and kanamycin. 5. The results of this study indicated the importance of poultry meat, especially chicken meat, as potential sources of Arcobacter spp. infection in people. Furthermore, the strains indicated resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics.

  7. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  8. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  9. Can Iran take Russia's place?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural exports. Sales of European farm products to Russia have collapsed. Could there be an alternative market for our agricultural goods in Iran? Demand is growing there for processed foods as well as unprocessed commodities and feeds.

  10. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  11. Synteserapport & 1. Indenrigspolitiske forhold i Den Islamiske Republik Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik......Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik...

  12. Iran’s Security Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    see William 0. Beeman , "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in Iran...Books, 1984. Beeman , William 0., "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in...University Press, 1986. Wilber, Donald N., Iran: Past and Present, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981. Woodward, Bob, veil, New York: Simon and

  13. PENERAPAN PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD PADA PASTEURISASI SARI BUAH APEL VARIETAS ANA: KAJIAN KARAKTERISTIK NILAI GIZI, SIFAT FISIK, SIFAT KIMIAWI DAN MIKROBIA TOTAL Application of Pulsed Electric Field in Pasteurization of Apple Juice of Ana Cultivar : Study on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Choviya Hawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, extracted from apple of ana cultivar , was pasteurized using a pulsed electric field (PEF method. The aimof this research was to analyze the changes on nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes from apple juice after pasteurization. The research was conducted from July until Oktober 2009 located in Malang. The PEF treatment was carried out using treatment time variation for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds. Several parameters of vitamin A and C, water content, density, pH, total soluable solid and total microbes were observed. The results showed that PEF treatment did not significantly change nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes after pasteurization with PEF in compared with no treatment pasteurization. The highest degradation was found in treatment time for 60 seconds, i.e. 93.53 %. ABSTRAK Sari buah apel, yang diekstrak dari apel varietas ana, dipasteurisasi dengan metode pulsed electric field (PEF. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perubahan karakteristik nilai gizi, sifat fisik, kimiawi dan total mikrobia sari buah apel sesudah dipasteurisasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Juli sampai dengan Oktober 2009 di Malang. Penelitian ini menggunakan variasi waktu pengolahan 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 dan 60 detik. Parameter pengamatan yaitu vitamin A dan C, kadar air, berat jenis, pH, total padatan terlarut dan total mikrobia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai gizi, sifat fisik dan kimiawi dari sari apel  tidak mengalami perubahan signifikan dibandingkan sari apel tanpa perlakuan PEF. Penurunan total mikrobia terbesar pada waktu perlakuan 60 detik dengan efektivitas pembunuhan sebesar 93,53%.

  14. Konstruksi Berita Pengerusakan Lingkungan Kawasan Danau Toba Oleh Perusahaan Di Media Cetak (Analisis Framing Berita Pengerusakan Lingkungan Kawasan Danau Toba Oleh PT Gorga Duma Sari, PT Aqua Farm dan PT Allegrindo Nusantara di Harian Sinar Indonesia Baru).

    OpenAIRE

    Sinambela, Debora Blandina

    2015-01-01

    This research aim to know how the group, cultural claim, also media activities that Sinar Indonesia Baru Newspaper use to construct destroyed Toba Lake enviroment news by PT Gorga Duma Sari, PT Aqua Farm, and PT Allegrindo Nusantara. Subject of this research are collections of published news SIB newspaper related to destroyed activities since 2012 until 2013. Then news analysis will be done using Gamson and Mondigliani as analysis knife. Gamson see the media discourse (especially news) arr...

  15. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  16. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  17. Spider Bite in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation.

  18. CONSANGUINITY IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D.Farhud

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8641 married couples were investigated from 28 Iranian populations for consanguineous marriages and coefficient of inbreeding. The results showed considerable differences in the rate and kind of consanguineous matings among the various urban, rural, tribal, and religious populations studied. The observed frequencies of the consanguineous matings in the populations of Iran are higher than those reported previously for the Middle Eastern populations. First cousin matings occurred more than second cousin matings among most of the groups studied. Uncle-niece matings occurred only among the Jews. The observed results were expected, considering the cultural, ethnic, and religious differences, and also the ecological and geographical conditions of the populations studied.

  19. Neonatal survival rate and its related causes in NICU of private and governmental hospitals in Sari by survival analysis technique during 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabaghi, Bs.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Many children younger than 1 year old (about 4/000/000 are dying annually around the world, that three quarters of this mortality is related to neonatal period (4 weeks after birth. Several factors such as environmental conditions, social and genetic factors are causes of decreasing neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the neonatal survival rate and its related causes in NICU of private and governmental hospitals in Sari.Materials and Methods: This survival analysis was a descriptive study of 500 neonates who were admitted into NICU of private and governmental hospitals (Booali Sina, Nimeyeh Shaban, Amir-Mazandarani, and Shafa Hospitals in Sari during 2005 to 2007. Data was gathered by using Self-making Informational Form (validity and availability was confirmed by content validity and α- kronbach. Information were obtained by interview with mothers, study of patient's chart, observation of the neonates, or phone interviews, after being discharged from the hospital. Statistical analysis of data was done by using Kaplan-Mayer survival analysis technique, and survival tables. Furthermore, risk factors were determined by logistic regression.Results: Three-hundred twenty six neonates (65.2% were the first rank of birth. Sixty-three mothers (12.6% experienced previous neonatal mortality. 217 of mothers (43.4% were illiterate and 85 (17% had diplomas or higher education. 119 neonates (23.85 died within 28 days of life. There was a relationship between higher education level of mothers, polyhydraminous (over production of amniotic fluid according to sonography report, and delivery method, neonatal weight at birth, congenital anomalies, and neonatal survival rate. Eighty-seven expired neonates (73.1% had birth weight lower than 2500gr, and 21 (16.8% had gestational age lower than 36 weeks. The survival rate was higher among neonates within 21 and 22 days of life. The mortality rate among neonates

  20. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  1. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-02-15

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components

  2. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

  3. Britiske søfolk splitter Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    2007-01-01

    Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts......Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts...

  4. An Analysis Credit Rating Factors of Steel Distributors from Customer Perspective in Iran\\\\\\'s Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Moshabbaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study with aim of investigation and identification of most important determinant criteria in significant distributors selecting by retailer customers did in Iran steel market and Arvin steel distributor selected as case of study. This research is of survey type and for data collect, a questionnaire was developed from various sources in the literature, used. Sample of 107 customers of Arvin steel distributor in Tehran city was selected. Also, Structure Equation Modeling (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and two software package "SPSS and LISREL" are used for analyzing the data. in total, nine variable "managerial capability", "marketing capability", "relationship intensity", "logistics capability", "financial capability", "physical facilities", "market cover", "product line" and "reputation" of distributor identified as main determinant factors in distributor selecting. Study findings show that the effect of "managerial capability", "marketing capability", "Relationship intensity", "Logistics capability", "financial capability", "Physical facilities", "Market cover" and "reputation" on distributor choice were statistically significant.

  5. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  6. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports...

  7. Amoebic keratitis in Iran (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Rahimi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amoebic keratitis introduced as a painful corneal infection which sometimes lead to poor vision and blind-ness. The main goal of this study was to report amoebic keratitis during ten years from 1997-2007 in patients who was sus-pected to have amoebic keratitis and referred to Parasitology laboratory, School of Public Health, Tehran Univer¬sity of Medical Sciences, Iran. Other aim was to assess the major risk factor for developing this sight-threatening disease. Comparison of lens culture and corneal scrapes culture also was performed. "nMethods: During 1997-2007, 142 patients referred to Dept. of Medical Parasitology, School of Public Health, Tehran Uni-versity of Medical Sciences, Iran. Details of each patient such as age, sex, history of contact lens wear, type of contact lens, clinical symptoms were recorded in questioners. Keratitis was diagnosed on the basis of culture of lenses and/or corneal scrapes on non-nutrient agar overlaid with Escherichia coli and direct microscopy of lenses and/or corneal scrapes. "nResults: Among 142 patients, 49 (34.5% had amoebic keratitis. 73.46% of these patients were from Tehran but there were a few cases from other cities. The commonest age was between 15-25 yr (75.5% and more female (37:12 were identified then male. It is worth to mention that 44 patients (89.79% were contact lens wearers who among them 41 patients (93.18% wore soft contact lens and only three patients suffer from amoebic keratitis because of wearing hard contact lens. Other finding of this study demonstrated that the most common sign of the patients was severe pain combined with photophobia. "nConclusion: This study indicates that Acanthamoeba keratitis continue to rise in Iran. This is due to increase frequency of lens wearers as well as consideration of ophthalmologist to Acanthamoeba as an agent of keratitis and improvement of labo¬ratory methods. Another finding of this research was the confirmation of soft contact lens

  8. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  9. Leading Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    and technical engineering; Smart Cities) is very prominent in the traditional mass media discourse, in PR / PA of tech companies and traditional municipal administrations; whereas the second one (participation; Livable Cities) is mostly enacted in social media, (local) initiatives, movements, (virtual......) communities, new forms of urban governance in municipal administration and co-competitive city networks. Both forms seem to struggle for getting voice and power in the discourses, negotiations, struggles, and conflicts in Urban Governance about the question how to manage or lead (in) a city. Talking about...

  10. Health Observatories in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shad­pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  11. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  12. Homeopathy satisfaction in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudian, Ahmad; Sadri, Gholamhosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patient satisfaction is a key indicator of the quality and effectiveness of a therapeutic method. Assessing the satisfaction of patients undergoing homeopathic therapy is essential in the early steps of educating the community, if suitable outcomes are to be achieved. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 on 125 patients from the city of Isfahan. Patients aged above 15 years who had referred to the homeopathic practitioners and receive...

  13. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  14. Pathology of Iran tourism Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    helya barezani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Destination branding is one the most challenging and attractive discussions place marketing and in the field of tourism marketing nowadays. Considering the plethora of advantages of branding concepts and activities for countries around the globe and high potentials of Islamic Republic of Iran as a tourism destination, in this paper authors have tried to assess the current situation of tourism brand and the effectiveness of branding activities in Iran based on Hankinson model (2004. To achieve the objectives of this research 102 members of Iranian DMO consisting of managers and experts in the respected subject have been questioned. Collected data were analyzed with mean comparing methods. Findings implicate that Core brand of Iran (including, brand personality, brand positioning and brand reality has serious problems and the degree of attention to branding activities and concepts is respectively too low. Based on our findings managerial and marketing recommends are presented.

  15. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  16. Aging in Place within Elderly People in the Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Fani Saberi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran and its aged society are facing some issues that significantly impact the current social structures in Iran. It will continue to do so on their growing as elderly with negative impacts on communal relations and unjust distribution of resources based on a gender basis that will affect the aging in place (AiP. The study aims to investigate the AiP within aged people and modifying role of the gender variables within it. Methods: This study describes the current AiP of the aged people in Ahwaz city in the southwest Iran from a gender perspective. The population available for the study was citizens 60 years of age and older (N=51594 in Ahwaz city. Sampling method was cluster-ratio based on municipal zones, ethnicity, and gender with sample size 382 (195 male and 187 female. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics, F-test and geographical information system. Results: Economically poor situation of the aged samples especially aged women, and their health status was moderated by low quality of nutrition and high prevalence of chronic conditions. For example, Arabs, Persian and Lor received low mean scores of 59.41, (SD= 7.332, 58.09 (SD= 11.963, and 57.02, (SD= 7.963 respectively in the health status. AiP characteristics are poor and discrimination was especially significantly prominent among elderly females. Multiple regression were found to modify AiP at the first step. The GLM reported that gender-ethnic discrimination directly affected AiP and high prevalent amongst elderly minority females. Conclusion: The current urban environment, in the southwest Iran, seems is unable to meet healthy needs of aged people. It needs to adjust upon gender and other relevant characteristics to monitor equality of outcomes for aged and minorities. The future research needs to focus on effect of ethnicity and gender-related issues on AiP, especially in developing countries like Iran. sure activities and mental health, provides evidence for

  17. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  18. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  19. Hospital waste management status in Iran: a case study in the teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Moradi, Arash; Mohammadi, Mojtaba Shah; Jorfi, Sahand

    2009-06-01

    Hospital waste materials pose a wide variety of health and safety hazards for patients and healthcare workers. Many of hospitals in Iran have neither a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The main objective of this research was to investigate the solid waste management in the eight teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, the main stages of hospital waste management including generation, separation, collection, storage, and disposal of waste materials were assessed in these hospitals, located in Tehran city. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. The data obtained was converted to a quantitative measure to evaluate the different management components. The results showed that the waste generation rate was 2.5 to 3.01 kg bed(-1) day(-1), which included 85 to 90% of domestic waste and 10 to 15% of infectious waste. The lack of separation between hazardous and non-hazardous waste, an absence of the necessary rules and regulations applying to the collection of waste from hospital wards and on-site transport to a temporary storage location, a lack of proper waste treatment, and disposal of hospital waste along with municipal garbage, were the main findings. In order to improve the existing conditions, some extensive research to assess the present situation in the hospitals of Iran, the compilation of rules and establishment of standards and effective training for the personnel are actions that are recommended.

  20. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  2. Cyclical mastalgia: Prevalence and associated determinants in Hamadan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Most of women with breast discomfort suffered cyclical mastalgia which severity can be determined by advanced age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome, but inversely by oral contraceptive use and exercise activity.

  3. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs....

  4. Integrating cellular automata, artificial neural network and fuzzy set theory to simulate threatened orchards: Application to Maragheh, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azari, M; Tayyebi, A; Helbich, M; Ahadnejad Reveshty, M

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes challenge the growth of orchards areas in many cities in Iran. In Maragheh orchards are crucial ecological, economical, and tourist sources. To explore orchards threatened by urban expansion, this study aims, first, to develop a new model by coupling cellular automata and arti

  5. Evaluation of Clinical Manifestations and Therapeutic and Diagnostic Progression of Dyspepsia in Children Referred to Boo-Ali Hospital of Sari in 2005-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karami, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Chronic abdominal pain is a common clinical problem in children. Apleys reported the incidence of 10-15% of chronic abdominal pain in school age children, but recent studies reported 20% of that type of pain. The aim of this study was determining the spectrum of clinical manifestations of dyspeptic children and to identify the relation between some clinical symptoms, organic or functional dyspepsia, and long term follow up of functional type.Materials and Methods: This descriptive case series study was done on 232 children between 4 and 18 years of age complaining about chronic abdominal pain chiefly who had referred to pediatric gastroenterology department of Boo-Ali Hospital of sari in 2005-2006. A checklist composed of patient demographic criteria and pain characteristics was prepared. Physical exam and laboratory tests such as AST, ALT, U/A, U/C, S/E, ESR, CBC were performed for all patients. If there were any alarming signs of organic abdominal pain-persistence or recurrence of symptoms and severe disability despite the use of H-blockers-upper GI endoscopies was indicated. Recorded data were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi- square tests.Results: 102 of 232 patients had dyspepsia; 59 were girls (9.2y/o, and 43 were boys (7.5y/o. 65 out of 102 patients had dominant abdominal pain and the rest had flatulence, vomiting and early fullness. 64 of them went under UGI endoscopies. 28 of 64 had mucosal erosion.Conclusion: Because the functional or organic abdominal pain has not unique diagnostic criteria, and the data about pathological change in children are fewer than that of adults we recommend the clinical findings and biochemical change of mucosa for differential diagnosis in children.

  6. Effect of zinc supplementation in children with asthma: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in northern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, J; Khalilian, A; Salehifar, E; Khorasani, E; Rezaii, M S

    2014-06-18

    There are conflicting reports about the benefits of zinc supplements in childhood asthma. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation in children with asthma attending an outpatient clinic in Sari, Islamic Republic of Iran. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over 8 weeks, 284 children on inhaled steroids were allocated to receive zinc supplements (50 mg/day) (n = 144) or placebo (n = 140). Cases and controls had low initial serum zinc concentrations [61.8 (SD 7.3) μg/dL and 60.9 (SD 4.3) μg/dL]. After treatment, mean serum zinc level in the case group was significantly higher [129 (SD 20.4) μg/dL] than in the controls [63 (SD 8.6) μg/dL]. There were no significant differences in IgE levels before and after treatment. The case group showed significant improvements in clinical symptoms such as cough, wheezing and dyspnoea and in all spirometry parameters (FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC).

  7. Isolation and identification of a phosphate solubilising fungus from soil of a phosphate mine in Chaluse, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Jamshidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of phosphorus from insoluble phosphates is an environmental friendly and cost effective approach in sustainable soil management. Introducing the indigenous microorganisms to soil requires shorter adaptation period and causes fewer ecological distortions than exogenous microorganisms. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the indigenous fungi for phosphate solubilisation in Mazandaran, Iran. A potent phosphate solubilising fungus was isolated from an Iranian phosphate mine and selected for solubilisation of rock phosphate (RP. The identified fungus was characterised by calmodulin-based polymerase chain reaction method as Aspergillus tubingensis SANRU (Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. The phosphate solubilisation ability of the fungal strain was carried out in shake-flask leaching experiments containing various concentrations of RP (1%, 2%, 4%, or 8% w/v. The maximum P solubilisation rate of 347 mg/l was achieved at 1% of RP concentration on day 9. The regression analysis indicated that the P solubilised mainly through acidification. This study shows the possibility of using A. tubingensis SANRU for application in the management of P fertilisation.

  8. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    . This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art......Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction...

  9. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  10. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing......-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships....

  11. Dermatophytosis in Karaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakshir Keyvan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytosis is an infection of skin, hair and nails of the human and animals which is caused by a large group of the fungi named dermatophytes. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and causative agents of dermatophytosis in Karaj city. Materials and Methods: During five years, a total of 3475 patients clinically suspected to dermatomycoses referred to Ebnesina Diagnostic Medical Laboratory in Karaj city entered our study and samples were taken from the infected area of the skin and appendages. Results: 887 cases of dermatophytosis (806 culture proved were diagnosed among the suspected cases. The species of dermatophytes were identified as Epidermophyton floccosum 311 (38.6%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 197 (24.5%, Trichophyton verrucosum 125 (15.5%, Trichophyton rubrum 48 (5.9%, Trichophyton violaceum 34 (4.2%, Microsporum canis 29 (3.6%, Microsporum gypseum 26 (3.2%, Trichophyton tonsurans 20 (2.5%, Trichophyton schoenleinii 3 (0.4% and unknown dermatophytes 13 (1.6%. Epidermophyton floccosum and tinea cruris were the most common etiological agents and clinical types of dermatophytosis, respectively. Conclusion: Dermatophyte species could transmit to human by direct or indirect contact with infected human and animals and their subjects. Promotion of public health care and self-hygiene may play an important role to control this disease.

  12. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). March 17, 2016. 55 For detailed information on Iran-Kuwait relations , see CRS Report RS21513, Kuwait...pipeline-plans. 124 For detail on India’s foreign policy and relations with the United States, see CRS Report R42823, India -U.S. Security Relations ...45 India

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available objectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This articlereviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, reviewand editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.

  14. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    Petrobras (Brazil) $34 million ? Oct. 2004 Yadavaran (oil). Finalized December 9, 2007 Sinopec (China) $2 billion 185,000 bpd (by 2011) June...2006 Gamsar block (oil) Sinopec (China) $20 million ? Sept. 2006 Khorramabad block (oil) Norsk Hydro (Norway) $49 million ? The Iran Sanctions Act

  15. Iran: Soviet Interests, US Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    progress- ing onward toward Zanjan, Qazvin , and ultimately to the western approaches to Tehran. Another two-pronged attack was launched simultaneously...their control over northern Iran, Russian forces occupied Tabriz in 1908 and ultimately marched as far south as Qazvin in the west and Mashhad in the

  16. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  17. Identification and prioritization of food insecurity and vulnerability indices in iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Abolhassani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize major indices for determining food insecurity in Iran.Descriptive study using the Delphi method was conducted through an email-delivered questionnaire. Forty-three senior experts at national or provincial level were selected based on their work experience and educational background through study panel consultation and snowballing from Tehran and other cities of Iran. During two rounds of Delphi, participants were asked to identify priority indicators for food security at provincial level in Iran.Sixty five percent of Delphi panel participated in the first round and eighty-nine percent of them participated in the second round of Delphi. Initially, 243 indices were identified through review of literature; after excluding indictors, which was not available or measurable at provincial level in Iran, 103 indictors remained. The results of study showed that experts identified "percentage of individuals receiving less than 70% of daily energy requirement" with a median score of 90, as the most influential index for determining food insecurity. "Food expenses as a proportion of the overall expenses of the family", "per capita of dietary energy supply", and "provision of micro-nutrient supply requirement per capita" with median of 80 were in the second rank of food security priority indicators.Out of 243 identified indicators for food security, 38 indicators were selected as the most priority indicators for food security at provincial level in Iran.

  18. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  19. Risk Factors of Domestic Violence in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoulian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In this study, we have evaluated the lifetime and past-year prevalence of exposure to physical violence among married women in the city of Tehran and urban and rural areas of Hashtgerd. Methods. The target population were noninstitutionalized female citizens, aged 15 years or older, who have at least one history of marriage and who resided in the capital city of Tehran or Hashtgerd County from the summer of 2008 to fall of 2010. We used a multistage sampling method. Tehran’s District Six, a central district in Tehran, was selected as a representative cluster of all municipal districts in Tehran. A total of fifty blocks were randomly selected from this district, from which 1,000 married women aged 15 years or older were interviewed using a cross-sectional design. Data was gathered face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence, past-year prevalence, and related factors of domestic violence were measured. SPSS version 11.5 was used for the analyses. Results. Figures for lifetime prevalence and past-year prevalence were measured to be 38.7% and 6.6%, respectively. The independent effects of marital status and location and type of residency for women, along with education and smoking habits of their spouses, were statistically significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion. Domestic violence is a public health concern in Iran. Based on our findings, we propose that empowering women through education, and improving their ability to find employment and income, along with increasing public awareness of human rights issues through education could lower the prevalence of domestic violence.

  20. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  1. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  2. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

  3. Identification and Prioritization of Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Indices in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Abolhassani; Fariba Kolahdooz; Reza Majdzadeh; Mohammadreza Eshraghian; Mahboubeh Shaneshin; Se Lim Jang; Abolghasem Djazayery

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food security is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize major indices for determining food insecurity in Iran. Methods: Descriptive study using the Delphi method was conducted through an email-delivered questionnaire. Forty-three senior experts at national or provincial level were selected based on their work experience and educational background through study panel consultation and snowballing from Tehran and other cities of Ira...

  4. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted ...

  5. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Sahar Amiri Baghni; Maryam Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were an...

  6. Influence Of Economic Islamization:Economic Mismanagement and Human Rights Abuses In Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Jefferson,” BBC Persia , 11 March 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-21938247. The Cyrus Cylinder is a baked clay...cylinder, created by the Persian king, Cyrus the Great, after he conquered the ancient city of Babylon in 539 BC. According to the Iran Chamber...Cyrus Cylinder: How a Persian Monarch Inspired Jefferson.” BBC Persia , 11 March 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney

  7. The Iran Nuclear Issue and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since August 2005, Iran on one side and the United States and the European countries on the other have been locked in a rangle over the Iran nuclear issue and tension has steadily escalated to a critical point as both sides stick to an uncompromising position. In earlier June 2006, in order to break the deadlock, the EU, with U.S. blessing, once again offered Iran a new package of incentives in an

  8. Heterogeneity of the internal transcribed spacer region in Leishmania tropica isolates from southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatee, Mohammad Amin; Sharifi, Iraj; Kuhls, Katrin; Kanannejad, Zahra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; de Almeida, Marcos E; Hatam, Gholamreza; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2014-09-01

    Most of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in only 7 countries, including Iran. Leishmania tropica is the main cause of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. In order to study the heterogeneity and phylogeny of L. tropica in southern Iran, a total of 61 isolates were obtained from Bam district and the cities Kerman and Shiraz. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from the ribosomal DNA locus was amplified and then analysed by sequencing. Analysis of the ITS sequences showed four haplotypes in the isolates, including 3 haplotypes among the 58 isolates from the south eastern region, including Bam district and Kerman city, and 2 haplotypes among the 3 isolates from Shiraz city. The results showed a monophyletic structure for the south eastern population. In comparison to GenBank sequences of L. tropica from different countries, most of the southeast Iranian and Indian isolates are comprised in one cluster, while isolates from other countries and few other Iranian isolates group in a different cluster. Analysis of ITS sequences of south eastern L. tropica showed a homogeneous population which could be the basis for other molecular epidemiology studies using more discriminative markers and tracing possible changes in the population structure of L. tropica.

  9. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  10. Studies on mental health in Kurdistan - Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mofidi, Naser

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to carry out an epidemiological study on mental health related issues in the Kurdish population of Iran. This part of Iran suffered directly during the Iran-Iraq war 1980-1988. Iran is an Islamic republic with strict adherence to Islamic traditions, which has implications for the way of life and gender issues. Suicide is prohibited according to Islamic teaching, but still there is a rather high suicide incidence especially among young women, who burn themselves to d...

  11. Evaluation of radiologic findings in neonates with hirschprung's disease, referred to Boo-Ali Sina Hospital in Sari between 2008 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Alaee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 9 September, 2009 ; Accepted 9 November, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Diagnosis of Hirschprung's disease is one of the most important problems of pediatric surgeons and leaving it without treatment has its own complications. Early diagnosis in younger age with special attention to clinical and radiological findings can reduce these complications. The aim of this study was to compare the findings of plain abdominal radiography and contrast enema in neonates with Hirschprung's disease.Materials and methods: Twenty seven neonates referred to Boo-Ali Sina Hospital, in Sari (2007-2009 for Hirschprung's disease underwent abdominal X-ray and barium enema, and the findings were evaluated followed by rectal biopsy was. In all cases, radiological and barium enema findings were seen by a radiologist, and in each view presence of serration in colon, distention of colon, absence of gas in colon, small intestinal distention, soap bubble and mottling in RLQ of abdomen, delay on barium transit, recto-sigmoid index, absence or present of TZ (Transitional Zone were assessed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Chi-Square test and descriptive statistical methods were used for comparing abdominal X-ray and barium enema effectiveness for differentiating patients with Hirschprung's disease.Results: The findings in plain abdominal radiography were: colonic distention and TZ (82.59%, absence of gas in rectum (48.15%, small bowel distention (7.41%, soap bubble pattern (3.7% and mottling in RLQ (3.7%. In contrast the findings of enema of neonates were: distention (70.3%, delayed barium transition (59.2%, transitional zone (55.5%, barium-fecal mixing (22.2%, micro colon (7.4% and serration (3.7%.Conclusion: A plain abdominal radiography is reliable and useful in diagnosis of the disease in patients with failed contrast enema. Key words: Hirschprung's disease, neonate, plain abdominal radiography and contrast enema J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 20

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Ra 226 is proved and measured by radiom emanation-method in waters and food products of North , North West and North – East of Iran. A total of 126 water, 249 food and 22 air samples have been examined. The concertration of Ra 226 in waters found to be 0.01 to 1.104 Pci/1 and in food products from 0.01 to Pci/gr. Ash.The amount found in due ranges from 0.003 to 0.227 Pci/m 3.It is concluded that the presence of higher than normal activity in some parts of Northern Iran is due to radiationanomalies in subsurface strata, where these mineral waters pass. Further investigattions are recommended.

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  14. Effects of forest road clearings on understory diversity beneath Alnus subcordata L. stands in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Darab Kola forest which is located east of Sari city. After confirming the identity of Alder trees (Alnus subcordata L., Betulaceae at the edge of forest roads, the cross section geometry was classified into without earth works and with earth works. Road clearing limits were divided into less than 10 metres and 10-15 metres. The understory density and canopy cover underneath Alder stands were measured in 20 micro plots. The diversity of woody and herbaceous plant species was calculated by the Simpson index. The results indicated that the canopy cover at the edge of cross sections without earth works was greater than that of sections with earth works at a probability level of 5%. In both classes, the percentage of Rubus hyrcanus L. canopy cover on filled slopes was more than that on cut slopes, whereas the percentage of canopy cover of this species and of bare soil was similar, as well as the biodiversity indices for both sides of cross sections without earth works.

  15. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Islamic-governed society will act. These are the sort of issues with which St. Augustine, St. Thomas of Aquinas , Hobbes, Locke, and others struggled...and Attitudes, Thomas L. Friedman identifies three American schools of thought regarding policy toward Iran; those who advocate rolling back the...issue. In his book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas L. Friedman offers the following passage: “...my old two-dimensional view of the world was

  16. Congenital rubella syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar Hasan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not clear. The prevalence of CRS in the pre-vaccine period can be estimated by evaluating the proportion of children in the population with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. Methods This was a case-control study to estimate prevalence of CRS in Tehran (Iran by evaluating the proportion of children with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. The study used rubella antibody titer as an indicator, and compared the prevalence of rubella antibody between children with and without sensorineural hearing loss. Using these findings, the proportion of cases of sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella was estimated. Results A total of 225 children aged 1 to 4 years were entered into the study (113 cases and 112 controls. There was a significant difference between cases and controls with regard to rubella antibody seropositivity (19.5% vs. 8.9%, respectively, odds ratio = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.04–5.97. The proportion of sensorineural hearing loss cases attributable to rubella was found to be 12%, corresponding to a CRS prevalence of 0.2/1000. Conclusion The prevalence of CRS was approximately 0.2/1000 before rubella vaccination in Iran, Moreover; the results suggest that implementation of appropriate rubella vaccination programs could potentially prevent about 12% of cases of sensorineural hearing loss in Iranian children. This data could potentially be used as baseline data, which in conjunction with an appropriate method, to establish a surveillance system for rubella vaccination in Iran. An appropriate surveillance system is needed, because the introduction of a rubella vaccine without epidemiological data and an adequate monitoring program could result in the shifting of rubella cases to higher

  17. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  18. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  19. Unhappy Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Gottlieb, Joshua D.; Ziv, Oren

    2016-01-01

    There are persistent differences in self-reported subjective well-being across US metropolitan areas, and residents of declining cities appear less happy than others. Yet some people continue to move to these areas, and newer residents appear to be as unhappy as longer-term residents. While historical data on happiness are limited, the available facts suggest that cities that are now declining were also unhappy in their more prosperous past. These facts support the view that individuals do not maximize happiness alone but include it in the utility function along with other arguments. People may trade off happiness against other competing objectives. PMID:27546979

  20. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  1. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  2. Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharouni Kardani, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-06-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes.

  3. Health Care Challenges in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Davari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available All health systems across the world have faced new challenges, which is primarily referable to increasing the cost of health care services as well as growing demands for new and expensive health technologies. The aim of this study is to analyse the main challenges facing the Iranian health system. A review of available governmental and relevant publications about Iranian health care system was undertaken to assess the direction of future healthcare policy. Electronic news agencies, newspapers, and parliament’s electronic news also reviewed to realise policy-makers points of view about the health system. Healthcare services in Iran have had a great success in primary healthcare services in last 25 years, which is mainly attributable to National Health Networks policy. Between 1979 and 2003, average life expectancy at birth increased from 57 to 70 and infant mortality rate fell from 104 to 26 per thousand live births. Active vaccination system, very good distribution and coverage, free end point services, family planning, maternal teaching, and primary referral system are of strong advantages of health networks in Iran. However, the healthcare system is now subject to a range of new pressures that must be addressed. Many of these pressures are common to all health services (rising consumer demands and expectations for expensive new technologies, changing disease patterns, and resources shortage, but some are largely specific to Iran. Financial fairness contribution of the population to health system, responsiveness of health system, overusing new technologies, inadequate integration of health services, and inequitable distribution of the resources are of the main challenges of health system in Iran. In addition, considering demographic changes of the Iranian population in recent decades, which made Iranian population young, potential pressures due to an aging population will reveal in coming years. Many of these pressures relate to policies and

  4. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  5. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  6. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  7. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  8. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  9. Ancient Iran, the Origin Land of Wind Catcher in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Pirhayati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wind catcher originality has been investigated and their ancient kinds in Iran were characterized. Iranian vernacular architecture is full of creativity and innovation which indicate the intelligence and ability. Unbearable heat, especially in the central plateau of Iran, is one of the factors which sometimes can be unbearable and create serious threats for most of the individuals' life in the absence of necessary arrangements. Wind catcher is an engineering architectural masterpiece of earth to deal with this unbearable heat. Wind catcher is among the manifestations and symbols of Persian civilization. It is not exactly obvious that in which city the first wind catcher is built, but medieval travel writers have frequently talked about desert wind catchers in Yazd. History and background of using the wind catcher is unknown due to its position at the highest level of structure and because is the first place at the risk of damage. The wind catcher, belonged to the eighth century AH is the oldest wind catcher which has kept safe from the harmful events in Iran. Architects and designers of this architectural element have applied this element in their designs with understanding the principles of thermodynamics, aerodynamics, heat transfer, material strength and thermal human comfort. However, the historical evidence certainly indicates the use of wind catcher in Iran before the Arabs and the Persian Gulf area. This study seeks to answer the questions such as the identity and origin of wind catcher, the construction technology and its types, as well as proving the Iranian identity of wind catcher and providing the appropriate and scientific responses for the researchers such as Hassan Fathy (famous Egyptian architect and Abdel Moneim EL Shorbagy (UAE researcher, each of whom have attributed the background of wind catcher to the locations except Iran, by the study of available historical resources and exploring the history of wind

  10. Desert and desertification in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental concerns in Iran as in other arid and semiarid countries is the transformation of once productive, or marginally productive, land to deteriorated land and soil unable to support plants and animals. Because the land becomes barren and dry, the process is described as desertification, which occurs as a sequence of events. The area of deserts in Iran is about 340,000 Km2 (less than one fifth of its total area), of which 100,000 Km2 is being used for some cultivation, 120,000 Km2 is subjected to moving sands about 40 % of which is active sand dunes. Most of features and processes usual in world famous deserts are also observed in Iran: low precipitation, high evaporation, poor or lack of vegetation, saline and alkaline soils, low population and small and sparse oases. The deserts of Iran are generally classified in the subtropical, warm, arid and semiarid group, but the effect and presence of some geographical and geoclimatical factors such as height, vicinity to Indian Ocean and so on do some changes in climatic conditions and geographical features causing some local and regional differences in them. Geographically, two groups of deserts have been known in Iran: (1) Coastal deserts which, like a ribbon with variable width, stretch from extreme southeast to extreme southwest, at the north parts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. One important feature of these deserts is relatively high humidity which differentiates them from other deserts. This causes an increase in vegetation coverage and hence a decrease in eolian erosion and also a dominance of chemical weathering to that of physical. (2) internal deserts, which rest in central, eastern and southeastern plateau of the country and in independent and semi dependent depressions. This situation, which is due to the surrounding high mountains, blocks humidity entry and causes the aridity of these deserts. Wind as a dominant process in the area causes deflated features such as Reg (desert

  11. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... pursuant to an international agreement. The term Iranian means pertaining to Iran as defined in...

  12. The Right US Strategy for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    struck several familiar chords . “I cannot express the sorrow I feel in my heart…our dignity has been trampled underfoot …all American military...a vocal minority views Iran in much less hopeful terms, and lumps the entirety of Iran into the same category as its leaders without any distinction

  13. The state of the environment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekavat, S M

    1997-06-01

    This article describes environmental conditions in Iran including air pollution, pesticide pollution, soil depletion and erosion, water pollution, natural resource loss, lack of appropriate waste management, lead poisoning, and desertification. Environmental policy and implementation is described under the Shah and the Islamic Republic. Iran is beset with interrelated problems of environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, and population growth. Sustainability is being undermined at the cost of future generations. In 1995, Iran had a population of 67 million and a growth rate of 3.6%. Population is expected to exceed 100 million by the year 2000. The country is having difficulty in maintaining its current infrastructure, housing, food, and educational facilities. Competition for admission in higher education discourages women. Women with lower levels of education results in continued supremacy of men over women, more polygamy, and a lower quality of life for women. Iran was food self-sufficient in 1970, and exported its surplus. Today, Iran may be permanently dependent on food imports. Iran has abundant oil reserves, natural gas, copper, lead, and marketable items. Exchanging natural resources for food and technology has time and resource limits. Iran needs monetary assistance from wealthy nations. Population growth leads to increased demand for infrastructure and resources. Iran has signed many international environmental agreements and has enacted detailed environmental policies and regulations, but actual enforcement is lacking.

  14. Reflections on Foreign Language Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhady, Hossein; Hezaveh, Fattaneh Sajadi; Hedayati, Hora

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects upon foreign-language education in Iran. Contrary to its political and historical reputation in the world, Iran has not been well presented regarding its educational system in general and its foreign-language education in particular. Of course, a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the Iranian education…

  15. Leishmania tropica in Stray Dogs in Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi BAMOROVAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL caused by Leishmania tropica is endemic in Kerman, southeastern Iran. While dogs have long been implicated as the main domestic reservoirs of L. infantum, etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL, they can also carry L. tropica infection. The objective of the present study was to determine molecular identity and to evaluate histopathological changes due to CL in dogs in a well-known focus of anthroponotic CL (ACL in Kerman, southeastern Iran.Methods: This study was carried out in three prospective series from 1994 to 2013 on dogs. Tissue samples were taken from 471 stray dogs. Pathological specimens including skin, spleen, liver and lymph nodes were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning and staining for further histopathological examination. PCR amplification of kDNA was performed to identify the causative agent and sequencing. Overall, two out of 471 stray dogs were infected with L. tropica. Hyperplasia of red pulp by the proliferation of histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and cytoplasm of histiocytes collection of amastigotes was noted.Results: Based on the results of PCR products and sequencing analysis, the parasites isolated from the lesions of two dogs were characterized as L. tropica, corresponding to a band of 830 bp Conclusion: This finding revealed infection with L. tropica in stray dogs in the city and suburbs of Kerman. This information is essential for public health concerns and planning effective future control programs. The role of dogs as potentional reservoir in the epidemiology of ACL needs further investigation. Keywords: Leishmania tropica, Dog, Histopathology, Molecular, Epidemiology, Iran

  16. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  17. Fritillaria (Liliaceae in Iran: distribution and Nnomenclature

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    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genus Fritilaria comprises 18 species including two recently described species in Iran. Despite of new reports published and new taxa described available information on vegetation locations, status of their natural populations and taxonomy are not updated since publication of Flora iranica. Taxonomic status of the genus in Iran is reviewed here, and the floristic inventories during 24 years and the localities reported by Flora iranica are used along with available literature as well as our recent collections, in order to update the distribution maps of Fritillaria species in Iran. Fritillaria crassifolia subsp. polunini (from Kurdistan and F. pinardii (from W-Azerbayjan are reported as new records for Iran. Suggestions are made for conservation of some Fritillaria species based on the status of their distribution in Iran.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  19. Haemodialysis services in the northeastern region of Iran

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    Behzad Kiani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is growing and the current estimated global prevalence exceeds 13%. As the use of haemodialysis machines for patients with end stage renal disease increases survival considerably, it is critical to plan correctly for the allocation of these machines. This study aimed to develop a geographical information systems (GIS-based approach to predict the need for this service in the northeastern region of Iran taking into account where patients live and where haemodialysis is the most needed and identifying areas with poor access to haemodialysis centres. Patients were interviewed to obtain self-reported actual travel time and the inverse distance-weighting algorithm was used to determine access in each area. The prediction is based on the domestic growth rate for haemodialysis services and the estimated active hours of machine use for the next five years. We estimate that six new haemodialysis machines are required in northeastern Iran at the present time with 50 machines required over the next five years. Ashkhane City was identified to have the least access to haemodialysis centres in the study area. Our GIS-based model can be used to investigate not only the need for new haemodialysis machines but also to examine geographic disparities in the allocation of haemodialysis centres and to identify areas most in need of this service. It is important that policymakers consider both spatial and non-spatial dimensions of access to enable better allocation of haemodialysis services ensuring they are targeted to reach those in need.

  20. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  1. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  2. MANPOWER FOR PRIMARY MEDICAL CARE IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Motameni

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a large country with a total area of 1,645,000 square kilometers. The country’s population is estimated at about 31 millions. There is an uneven distribution of the population, varying from 2 to 50 per square kilometer. Sixty per cent of the total population (18 millions is living in nearly 66,000 small and large village’s scattered throughout the country. A total of 10,000 physicians provide the main source of medical manpower, however more than 40% of these physicians are located in the capital city of Teheran. The physician to population ratio for the country is about 1 per 3,000 and the figure reaches 100,000 in some rural areas. Each year a total of 600 graduates is added to the health manpower , but technical and socio-economic handicapping factors make the rural and low-income areas less attractive to the new graduates. In this paper the reconstruction of health services around the concept of Primary Medical Care has been reposed for the country’s health development. Taking into consideration the country’s special geographical and demographic features, two levels of primary care workers have been suggested; the first group with 4 year’s training in curative and preventive services, and the second group at grade 9 level in education. It is foreseen that the two afore-mentioned groups will form a network of auxiliaries to the physicians in extending health services to the remote areas of the country.

  3. A comparative study of total quality management of health care system in India and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Gorji Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total quality management (TQM has a great potential to address quality problems in a wide range of industries and improve the organizational performance. The growing need to take initiatives by hospitals in countries like India and Iran to improve the service quality and reduce wastage of resources has inspired the authors to develop a survey instrument to measure health care quality and performance in the two countries. Methods Based on the Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals in pursuit of excellence, compared health care services in three countries. The data are collected from the capital cities and their nearby places in India and Iran. Using ANOVAs, three groups in quality planning and performance have been compared. Result Results showed there is significantly difference between groups and in no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks. The average scores of Indian and Iranian hospitals on different constructs of the IHCQPM model are compared with the major results achieved by the recipients of the MBNQ award. Conclusion In no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks (Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals. These results suggested to health care services more attempt to achieve high quality in management and performance.

  4. Parental willingness to pay for child safety seats in Mashad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbakhsh Mojgan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic crash death rates throughout the world and road traffic injuries are the leading cause of years of life lost in the country. Using child car safety seats is not mandatory by law in Iran. The purpose of this research was to determine the parental willingness to pay (WTP for child restraints in Mashad, the second most populated city in Iran with one of the highest rates of road traffic-related deaths. Methods We surveyed 590 car-owner parents of kindergarten children who were willing to participate in the study in the year 2009. We asked them about the maximum amount of money they were willing to pay for car safety seats using contingent valuation method. Results The mean age of children was 33.5 months. The median parental WTP for CSS was about $15. Considering the real price of CSSs in Iran, only 12 percent of responders could be categorized as being willing to pay for it. Family income level was the main predictor of being willing to pay. Conclusions The median parental WTP was much lower than the actual price of the safety seats, and those who were of lower socio-economic class were less willing to pay. Interventions to increase low-income families' access to child safety seats such as providing free of charge or subsidized seats, renting or health insurance coverage should be considered.

  5. Helminth Parasites of Eastern European Hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor in Northern Iran.

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    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a high tendency among exotic pet owners for keeping hedgehogs. This mammal can transfer some significant zoonotic pathogens to human. Hence, the present study was conducted for the first time to prepare a list of helminth parasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in North of Iran.Ten (four males and six females road killed hedgehogs were collected during April to January 2011 in rural areas of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. All of internal organs were scrutinized for helminth burden. The extracted specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and then cleared in Lacto-phenol solution. Helminth identification was carried out according to available systematic keys.All the examined hedgehogs (100% were infected with parasitic helminth as following: two hedgehogs (20% were infected with Crenosoma striatum, four hedgehogs (40% harbored Physaloptera clausa, one (10% host had Hymenolepis erinacei and three (30% of them were infected with Nephridiacanthus major.This is noteworthy that the current survey is the first report of helminth parasites fauna of Eastern European Hedgehog in Iran. Since, this is the first such investigation in our country, more researches are required to perform on unexplored areas of Iran in order to increase our knowledge regarding hedgehog parasitic diseases.

  6. First molecular detection of Theileria ovis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Vasoukolaei Nasibeh; Yaghoobi Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Babamahmoudi Farhang; Mohtarami Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine tick infestation of domestic ruminants and their infection to ovine theileriosis in northern Iran. Methods:About 425 domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr city in northern Iran were inspected for tick infestations. Twenty tick specimens (13 females and 7 males) of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus), the most common tick in the study area, were tested by PCR amplification against 18s rRNA genome of Theileria spp using specie specific primers and then the PCR products were sequenced for species identification by comparison with data base available in GenBank. Results:About 323 ticks were collected from 102 animals (88 sheep, 12 goats and 2 cattle). The prevalence of ticks infesting animals was R. sanguineus (82.35%), Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa) (0.3%), Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) (15.2%), Boophilus annulatus (B. annulatus) (1.2%), Haemaphysalis punctata (H. punctata) (0.3%) and Haemaphysalis numidiana (H. numidiana) (0.6%). Eleven (55%) tick specimens were PCR positive against genome of Theileria ovis (T. ovis). Sequence analysis of the PCR products confirmed presence of T. ovis in one R. sanguinus. Conclusions:This is the first report of tick infection to T. ovis in Iran. Due to dominant prevalence of R. sanguineus as well as its infection to T. ovis, it is postulated this tick is the main vector of ovine theileriosis in northern Iran.

  7. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Helminths of Native Turkeys in Amol, Iran

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    RanjbarBahadory Sh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Native turkeys are kept as domestic bird in rural environments and can be infected with bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Capillaria and Ascaridia are nematodes of small intestines of domestic birds such as turkey. Small intestine trematod of birds like echinostomiasis need intermediate hosts for evolution. Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida are parasites in small intestines of birds. These parasites can cause economic loss and create problems for turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the genus and species, frequency and severity of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Gastrointestinal of 60 slaughtered turkeys of Amol city were necropsied and examined. 25% of the samples were not contaminated and 75% of samples were infected with nematode, cestode and trematode. Prevalence and parasite species, including: 20% Capillaria, 51% A. gali, 8% R. tetragona, 8% R. echinobothrida and 11% Echinostoma. The results indicated that the highest prevalence of helminth parasites in turkeys of Amol and north of Iran was nematode.

  8. Immigrants: Potential Menace for Measles Elimination Target in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious disease. By the end of 2013, 84% of children had received at least a single dose of measles vaccine by their second birthday, and 148 countries had included a second dose as part of routine immunization. In 2002, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education developed a comprehensive strategy to eliminate Measles including mass immunization campaign for people aged 5-25 years (1. Suburban areas where residents usually are nomads or migrants with low socio-economic status (SES, pose a serious threat to the success of any prevention program(2 . There are a huge yet unknown number of Iranian immigrants and illegal refugees living in suburbs of large cities in Iran, where low participation of families in vaccination services might be a challenge (3. In this report, we try to highlight the importance of migrants and immigrants on the success of Measles vaccination programs.

  9. Radon Concentration in the Drinking Water of Aliabad Katoul, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinehvand, Karim; Sahebnasagh, Amin; Hashemi-Tilehnoee, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the world health organization, radon is a leading cause of cancer in various internal organs and should be regarded with concern. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentration of soluble radon in the drinking water of the city of Aliabad Katoul, Iran. Materials and Methods The radon concentration was measured by using a radon meter, SARADTM model RTM 1688-2, according to accepted standards of evaluation. Results The mean radon concentration in the drinking water of Aliabad Katoul is 2.90 ± 0.57 Bq/L. Conclusions The radon concentration in Aliabad Katoul is below the limit for hazardous levels, but some precautions will make conditions even safer for the local populace. PMID:27651948

  10. The Clerical Establishment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    clerics as teachers of religion and related subjects in Iran’s public educational system. A.~ d 22 various seminaries in Qom, Mashad , Tabriz, Shiraz...under wax. One copy of the new document was again handed to Meshkini and the other hand delivered to Mashad to be deposited in the tomb of Imam Reza...urban centers as Qom, Mashad , Yazd, and Ker- man seem to be their primary centers of support. Hoseyn Ali Montazeri was born in 1922 in the township of

  11. Appraisal the potential of central iran, in the context of health tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Ladan; Pourahmad, Ahmad; Moteiey Langroudi, Mohammad Hassan; Rezaeiy Mahmoudi, Mehdi; Heidarzadeh, Najmeh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to appraisal the prose and cone of Shiraz City in terms of its potential in the context of health tourism. The statistical sample included medical and health tourism sector in the city of Shiraz in the northwest of Fars Province, south of Iran. The efficient authorities on the topic were identified through the hospitals engaging in medical tourism. The research was based on theoretical sampling through which the experienced people of extensive knowledge on medical tourism were interviewed. Active hospitals on attraction foreign patients averagely admit 15 and 50 foreign patients monthly and annually, respectively. Arab countries in the Persian Gulf were detected as the main marketing for Shiraz medical tourism. Oman encompassed the highest rate with 20% of admitted patients. Eye treatments with 30% and orthopedic with 6% were demonstrated as the highest and lowest rates in terms of foreign patients' needs, respectively. Closeness of cultural and religious beliefs and familial relationships on one hand and trusting to Iranian physicians on the other hand were amongst the most reasons for selecting Iran as a destination for medical tourism by patients. Implementing 4 strategies on monitoring medical tourism would result into significant improvement of attracting more foreigner patients not only into Shiraz but all around Iran. These items have been discussed in the text.

  12. Appraisal the Potential of Central Iran, in the Context of Health Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Rokni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to appraisal the prose and cone of Shiraz City in terms of its potential in the context of health tourism.Methods: The statistical sample included medical and health tourism sector in the city of Shiraz in the northwest of Fars Province, south of Iran. The efficient authorities on the topic were identified through the hospitals engaging in medical tourism. The research was based on theoretical sampling through which the experienced people of extensive knowledge on medical tourism were interviewed.Results: Active hospitals on attraction foreign patients averagely admit 15 and 50 foreign patients monthly and annually, respectively. Arab countries in the Persian Gulf were detected as the main marketing for Shiraz medical tourism. Oman encompassed the highest rate with 20% of admitted patients. Eye treatments with 30% and orthopedic with 6% were demonstrated as the highest and lowest rates in terms of foreign patients’ needs, respectively. Closeness of cultural and religious beliefs and familial relationships on one hand and trusting to Iranian physicians on the other hand were amongst the most reasons for selecting Iran as a destination for medical tourism by patients.Conclusion: Implementing 4 strategies on monitoring medical tourism would result into significant improvement of attracting more foreigner patients not only into Shiraz but all around Iran. These items have been discussed in the text.

  13. A five-year study on the epidemiological approaches to cholera in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi, Moharam; Goya, Mohammad Mahdi; Hajia, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholera is considered a key indicator of social development but still is reported in various cities of Iran. The present study aimed to analyze the available information regarding cholera outbreaks since 2010 in Iran. Methods: All cases reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ministry of Health and Education who had been confirmed as cholera cases by the Health Reference Laboratory, were entered into this study since 2010. A specific spreadsheet was designed to ensure the safe keeping of the patient records. Results: A total of 1522 patients were clinically diagnosed as cholera with laboratory confirmation over the study period. Cholera was detected in 26 Provinces and 115 cities during this period. Mean age of the patients was 35.1±17, both the Inaba and Ogawa strains were isolated. The highest mortality and the morbidity rate was 1.98% in 2013. The most cholera prevalent provinces in order of frequency were Baluchistan, Alborz, Gilan, Golestan and Qom, as well as Tehran. Inaba serotype was the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in 2013. Conclusion: These findings indicate significant outbreaks of cholera in some of the provinces of Iran and warrant appropriate treatment and preventive measures. PMID:27757199

  14. Ten years of snakebites in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2014-11-01

    Many species of venomous snakes are found in Iran. The most medically important species which are responsible for the most snakebite incidents in Iran belong to the Viperidae family, including Vipera lebetina, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes persicus, Vipera albicornuta and the Elapidae family, especially Naja naja oxiana. At least one kind of venomous snake is found in each of the 31 provinces, and many provinces have more than one venomous species. As a result, snakebite is a considerable health hazard in Iran, especially in the rural area of south and south-west of Iran. A retrospective, descriptive study of snakebite in Iran during 2002-2011 was carried out in order based on data collected from medical records of bite victims admitted to hospitals and health centers. From 2002 to 2011, 53,787 cases of snake bites were reported by medical centers in Iran. The annual incidence of snake bites in 100,000 of population varied from 4.5 to 9.1 during this decade and the number of recorded deaths were about 67 cases. The highest rate of snakebite was found in provinces of south and southwest of Iran. We suggest that people, especially in the rural areas, need to be trained and educated about venomous snakes, their hazards, prevention of bite and the importance of early hospital referral and treatment of victims. Also adequate antivenins as the main life saving medicine should be made available based on the recorded numbers of victims in each area of the country.

  15. Patient's rights charter in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Parsapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of patient's rights in healthcare, special attention has been given to the concept of patient's rights by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran. Iranian patient's rights charter has been compiled with a novel and comprehensive approach. This charter aims to elucidate rights of recipients of health services as well as observing ethical standards in medicine. This paper presents the Iranian patient's rights charter. Based on a study done from 2007 to 2009, the charter has been finalized through an extensive consultation involving all stakeholders, patients, physicians, nurses, lawyers, patient associations and health policy makers. The developed charter was adopted by the Ministry of Health in December 2009. Iranian patient's rights charter has been formulated in the framework of 5 chapters and 37 articles including vision and an explanatory note. The five chapters concern right to receiving appropriate services, right to access desired and enough information, right to choose and decide freely about receiving healthcare, right to privacy and confidentiality, and finally right to access an efficient system of dealing with complaints which have been explained in 14, 9, 7, 4 and 3 articles, respectively.  The paper concludes that, adopting the patient's rights charter is a valuable measure to meet patient's rights; however, a serious challenge is how to implement and acculturate observing patient's rights in practice in our healthcare system in Iran.

  16. Trauma care system in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Zargar; Sarah Ganji; Mahmoud Khodabandeh; Shahab Abdollahi Far; Morteza Abdollahi; Mohammad Reza Zarei; Seyed Mohammad Reza Kalantar Motamedi; Mojgan Karbakhsh; Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar; Farzad Panahi; Soheil Saadat; Ali Khaji; Seyed Mahdi Davachi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The high burden of injuries in Iran necessitates the establishment of a comprehensive trauma care system. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of trauma system regarding the components and function. Methods: The current status of trauma system in all components of a trauma system was described through expert panels and semi-structured interviews with trauma specialists and policy makers.Results: Currently, various organizations are involved in prevention, management and rehabilitation of injuries,but an integrative system approach to trauma is rather deficient. There has been ongoing progress in areas of public education through media, traffic regulation reinforcement,hospital care and prehospital services. Meanwhile, there are gaps regarding financing, legislations and education of high risk groups. The issues on education and training standards of the front line medical team and continuing education and evaluation are yet to be addressed. Trauma registry has been piloted in some provinces, but as it needs the well-developed infrastructure (regarding staff, maintenance,financial resources), it is not yet established in our system of trauma care.Conclusions: It seems that one of the problems with trauma care in Iran is lack of coordination among trauma system organizations. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries necessitates an organized approach to prevention and management of trauma in the context of a trauma system.

  17. An introduction to flora, life form, and distribution of plants in two protected lowland forests, Semeskandeh and Dasht-e Naz, Mazandaran N. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Ghahremaninejad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semeskandeh and Dasht-e Naz are protected as wildlife refuges with the aim of conservation and revival of the remaining plant and animal populations of the Caspian lowland forests in Mazandaran (Sari. Based on a floristic study, 223 plant species from 175 genera belonging to 69 families were identified. The richest families were Poaceae with 36 species (16%, Asteraceae with 23 species (10.3%, Lamiaceae with 14 species (6.3% and Rosaceae with 13 species (5.8%, respectively. Carex with 7 species, Euphorbia with 6 species and Geranium with 5 species constituted the largest genera. Considering life form spectrum, the highest proportion of life forms belonged to therophytes (34%, hemicryptophytes (24%, geophytes (22% and phanerophytes (15%, respectively. Likewise, the highest proportion of chorotypes belonged to pluriregional elements (32%, followed by Euro-Siberian elements (19%, Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean elements (13%. Moreover, four percent of these plants were endemic of Iran. Since the studied forests in the current investigation are considered as remnants of lowland Caspian forests which had been dominated by Quercus castaneifolia and Buxus hyrcana, conservation policies are quite necessary to protect these very important vulnerable and sensitive ecosystems and to eliminate all dangers and pollutions threatening them.

  18. Characterization of medical waste from hospitals in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad

    2009-02-15

    Medical waste has not received enough attention in recent decades in Iran, as is the case in most economically developing countries. Medical waste is still handled and disposed of together with domestic waste, creating great health risks to health-care stuff, municipal workers, the public, and the environment. A fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any medical waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate information about the quantities and composition of the waste generated. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity, generation rate, quality, and composition of medial waste generated in the major city northwest of Iran in Tabriz. Among the 25 active hospitals in the city, 10 hospitals of different size, specializations, and categories (i.e., governmental, educational, university, private, non-governmental organization (NGO), and military) were selected to participate in the survey. Each hospital was analyzed for a week to capture the daily variations of quantity and quality. The results indicated that the average (weighted mean) of total medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste generation rates in Tabriz city is 3.48, 1.039 and, 2.439 kg/bed-day, respectively. In the hospital waste studied, 70.11% consisted of general waste, 29.44% of hazardous-infectious waste, and 0.45% of sharps waste (total hazardous-infectious waste 29.89%). Of the maximum average daily medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste were associated with N.G.O and private hospitals, respectively. The average composition of hazardous-infectious waste was determined to be 35.72% plastics, 20.84% textiles, 16.70% liquids, 11.36% paper/cardboard, 7.17% glass, 1.35% sharps, and 6.86% others. The average composition of general waste was determined to be 46.87% food waste, 16.40% plastics, 13.33% paper/cardboard, 7.65% liquids, 6.05% textiles, 2.60% glass, 0.92% metals, and 6.18% others. The average

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, S T; Hoseinzadeh, A; Ghaffarpasand, F; Hedjazi, A; Zarenezhad, M; Moafian, G; Aghabeigi, M R; Foroutan, A; Sarikhani, Y; Peymani, P; Ahmadi, S M; Joulaei, H; Dehghankhalili, M; Lankarani, K B

    2013-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran. This cross-sectional study included 3642 traffic accident deaths in Fars province, Iran between November 2009 and November 2011. The data source was the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry, which covers the entire province. According to Iranian law, all deaths resulting from injuries or accidents must be investigated to determine the exact cause of death by autopsy. All such deaths are referred to forensic medicine centres in each city, and all data are sent to the main centre in Shiraz, the capital city of Fars province. Males accounted for 78.3% of the decedents (sex ratio of almost 3.6:1), and the mean ± standard deviation age of all decedents was 32.2 ± 20.3 years. Autopsy reports indicated that head trauma was the most common cause of death. Most collisions were vehicle-vehicle crashes (52.3%), with cars and motorcycles being the most prevalent modes of transport (39.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Fatal accidents were most common during the summer. Most fatal injuries (61.4%) occurred on outer-city roads and 27.4% occurred on inner-city roads. Significant associations were found between decedent's status (car driver, motorcycle driver or passenger, pedestrian or passenger) and interval between injury and death, light conditions at the scene of the accident, place of death, site of injury and cause of death. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in Iran, coordination between trauma system organizations is required to decrease the burden of injuries. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contamination of soil and grass to Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks of Qazvin, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saraei M; Zakilo M; Tavazoei Y; Jahanihashemi H; Shahnazi M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To define contamination of parks to Toxocara eggs in Qazvin city which is the nearest province center to Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: A total of 180 soil and grass samples were collected from three city parks and examined for Toxocara spp. eggs by sedimentation-flotation method. Results: Overall, 5.8% of samples were positive for Toxocara spp. eggs with contamination rate of 3.15% and 8.42% for soil and grass samples (P>0.05), respectively. The frequency of egg numbers in positive samples was between 1 to 5 and all unembryonated.Conclusions:It seems that the low frequency of pet dogs is the main cause of low contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in this city.

  1. Marriage Patterns and Childbearing: Results From a Quantitative Study in North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas

    2015-09-22

    Social changes have rapidly removed arranged marriages and it seems the change in marriage pattern has played a role in childbearing. On the other hand, there is a great reduction in population in many countries which requires a comprehensive policy to manage the considerable drop in population. To achieve this goal, initially, the factors affecting fertility must be precisely identified. This study aims to examine the role of marriage patterns in childbearing. In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 880 married women 15-49 years old, living in the north of Iran were studied using a cluster sampling strategy. The results showed that there are no significant differences in reproductive behaviors of three patterns of marriage in Bobol city of Iran. It seems there is a convergence in childbearing due to the different patterns of marriage and Policymakers should pay attention to other determinants of reproductive behaviors in demographic planning.

  2. The Rock Paintings of Kuh-e-Donbeh in Esfahan, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great number of petroglyphs have been identified in Iran, only a few rock painting sites have been found. Despite this, a considerable number of rock paintings have been discovered in Kuh-e-Donbeh, which is a mountain located to the south-west of the city of Esfahan in central Iran. The paintings can be found on the rims of seasonal water channels on this mountain. All the depictions are painted with red pigment sourced from the immediate region. The motifs depicted include zoomorphs, anthropomorphs, horse-riding scenes, and some unknown shapes, etc. A farming theme is also prevalent in the corpus. The paintings are located in five areas and, in some cases, have been subject to intense weathering.  Some of the rock paintings may date to the historic period, but reliable dating is not currently possible. So, analysis of the pigments for more secure scientific dating will be required.

  3. The Impact of Human Resource Deliberating TQM Practice and Employees Job Satisfaction in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faculty of Management, Shahrood Islamic Azad University Iran, Islamic Republic of

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between human resource practices focused on Total Quality Management (TQM and employees satisfaction at small and medium organizations in Iran. TQM that deliver quality services cannot be achieved without the satisfaction of employees of the organization. Most corporate of TQM practices were selected from the available literature; empowerment, training, appraisal system and compensation for this study. The questionnaire includes 24 items, including demographic factors of employee, TQM practices and employee satisfaction. The study sample of this study was comprised of 112 respondents working at small and medium organizations in Tehran (capital city of Iran. Data was analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 software. Results of this study provide a strong relationship among TQM practices and employee satisfaction.

  4. Risk Mapping and Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Central Iran: A GIS-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Astaneh, Fatemeh; Hajjaran, Homa; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is among the top 10 infectious disease priorities in the world, and the leading cause of morbidity in Iran. The present study was conducted to assess the risk of CL, and to determine some epidemiological features of the disease in endemic areas of Qom Province in Central Iran during 2009 to 2013. Data regarding human cases of the disease were obtained from the Qom Province Health Center, prepared and stored in a spatial database created in ArcGIS10.3. A total of 9 out of 212 Leishmania spp. positive slides taken in 2013 from patients residing in Qom city were examined using molecular methods and the species of Leishmania was identified by PCR-RFLP. Those 9 patients had no history of travel outside the city. Spatial analysis and clustering methods were applied to find major hot spots and susceptible areas for the establishment of novel foci of the disease. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistical application, and for the clustering of high or low values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics. During the period of study, a total of 1767 CL cases were passively reported in the area, out of which were 65% males and 35% females. The highest and lowest numbers of cases were reported in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Importantly, 979 cases were reported from urban areas, while the remainder came from rural areas. Leishmania major was detected as the causative agent of CL in the city of Qom. Remarkably, most patients recorded in Qom city were associated with a history of travel to the endemic areas of CL within the province, or to other endemic areas of the disease in Iran. Spatial distribution of CL cases revealed northeastern and southwestern quarters of the city were the major hot spots of the disease (Panalysis across the province indicated that more than 40 villages were located in high and very high risk areas of CL transmission. Due to the existence of hot spots (P<0.05) of CL in

  5. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  6. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  7. IRAN THE BEATING HEART OF ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  8. Iran. The Literacy Corps at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Mrs. J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Reviewing the activities of the Literacy Corps in Iran, the article examines the national service organization which has done much to combat illiteracy in rural areas and lower the national rate of illiteracy. (MW)

  9. Earthquake Damage, Northern Iran, June 21, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990. The event, the largest...

  10. Surficial geology of Iran (geo2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  11. A Key to the Anophelines of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene R. Shahgudian

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Keys for identification of adult females and fourth instar larvae of Anopheline Mosquitoes of Iran with brief review of important literature on the Iranian Anopheline Fauna are given in this paper

  12. Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Pingree

    2014-01-01

    ... scholar to the erroneous conclusion that Sasanian Iran played a crucial role in the introduction of Greek and Babylonian astronomy and astrology to India and in the development of Indian planetary theory...

  13. Major faults in Iran (flt2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  14. L'Iran mobilise des scientifiques

    CERN Multimedia

    Brouet, Anne-Muriel

    2005-01-01

    An Open Letter to the General Secretary of UNO circulates in the laboratories of CERN. This letter is to protest against the tension between Iran from one part, and USA and Europe on the other part (½ page)

  15. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  16. A Systematic Review on Status of Lead Pollution and Toxicity in Iran; Guidance for Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Karrari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers,and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been amajor of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea,Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted andindustrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studiesevaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  17. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrari, Parissa; Mehrpour, Omid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  18. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Zahra ABDOLLAHI

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nu...

  19. A Scale of Business Ethics in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee; Mohammad Ali Nasimi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore a scale of business ethical dimensions in Iran. It reviews the extant business ethics literature on Iran, collects data on ethical conduct from an Iranian company, and analyzes the data to examine emerging trends. Factor analysis and multi dimensional scaling are applied to an established survey instrument after reliability is confirmed. The present research brings out the importance of business ethics dimensions in the continuity of interactions with c...

  20. A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    the previous three but has been met with reluctance , especially on the part of Russia. This resistance is due in part to their economic ties to Iran...transformative dangers of living with a nuclear- armed Iran.”34 This is doubly true in the current economic context. With the clock ticking and...need to be fed into a continuously updated target planning process to maximize the effectiveness of a strike on Iranian nuclear capability

  1. The Pathology of Iran Tourism Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Zargham; Helya Barezani

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, destination branding is one the most challenging and attractive discussions in thefield of place marketing and tourism marketing. Considering the plethora of advantages ofbranding concepts and activities for countries around the globe and high potentials of IslamicRepublic of Iran as a tourism destination, in this paper authors have tried to assess the currentsituation of tourism brand and the effectiveness of branding activities in Iran based onHankinson model (2004). To achieve th...

  2. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera) of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh; TIRGARI, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids ar...

  3. Iran and Latin America: Strategic Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    America Latina ," Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla (Spain), Jihad Monitor Occasional Paper No. 1, October 17, 2006. In a 2006 statement, the group...CHIEF I PHONE: DIRECTORATE I DIRECTOR /PHONE ENTERPRISE I OFFICE I PHONE: ICAFFAIRS: John Bynl 703.767 5£;---··-~ ~---~ Iran and latin America ...be published on the ASCO website and distributed as needed. DTRA Form 58 (Aug 1 0) (Adobe LiveCycle ES) Page 1 of2 Iran and Latin America

  4. Neuroimaging in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ali Hossein-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNeuroimaging allows noninvasive evaluation of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the brain. It is widely used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment evaluation of neurological disorders as well as understanding functions of the brain in health and disease. Neuroimaging modalities include X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET, electroencephalography (EEG, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. This paper presents an overview of the neuroimaging research in Iran in recent years, partitioned into three categories: anatomical imaging; anatomical image analysis; and functional imaging and analysis. Published papers reflect considerable progress in development of neuroimaging infrastructure, hardware installation and software development. However, group work and research collaborations among engineers, scientists, and clinicians need significant enhancement to optimize utility of the resources and maximize productivity. This is a challenge that cannot be solved without specific plans, policies, and funding.

  5. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  6. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2013-10-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country's 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease.

  7. Trauma care system in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar Moussa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The high burden of injuries in Iran necessitates the establishment of a comprehensive trauma care system. The purpose of this paper is to de- scribe the current status of trauma system regarding the components and function. Methods: The current status of trauma system in all components of a trauma system was described through ex- pert panels and semi-structured interviews with trauma spe- cialists and policy makers. Results: Currently, various organizations are involved in prevention, management and rehabilitation of injuries, but an integrative system approach to trauma is rather deficient. There has been ongoing progress in areas of pub- lic education through media, traffic regulation reinforcement, hospital care and prehospital services. Meanwhile, there are gaps regarding financing, legislations and education of high risk groups. The issues on education and training stan- dards of the front line medical team and continuing educa- tion and evaluation are yet to be addressed. Trauma regis- try has been piloted in some provinces, but as it needs the well-developed infrastructure (regarding staff, maintenance, financial resources, it is not yet established in our system of trauma care. Conclusions: It seems that one of the problems with trauma care in Iran is lack of coordination among trauma system organizations. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries necessitates an organized approach to prevention and management of trauma in the context of a trauma system. Key words: Emergency medical services; Trauma centers; Wounds and injuries

  8. A COMBINED FUZZY MCDM APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING THE SUITABLE LANDS FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT: AN EXAMPLE FROM BANDAR ABBS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dadras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the suitable lands for urban dev elopment in Bandar Abbas city based on its real world use regarding specific crite ria and sub-criteria. The city of Bandar Abbas is considered as the most important commer cial and economic city of Iran. It is also considered as one of the major cities of Iran which has played a pivotal role in the country's development and progress in recen t years especially after the end of Iran-Iraq war owing to its embracing the country's m ain commercial ports. This process has caused the immigration rate into the city to rise significantly over the past 20 years. Thus, the development of the city is meanwhile c onsidered as a high priority. Bandar Abbas city does not have a rich capacity for g rowth and development due to its special geographical situation being located in coastal border. Among the limitations placed in the city's development way, natural limit ations (heights and sea shore in the northern and southern parts of the city and struc tural limitations (military centers in the east and west sides of the city may be referred . Therefore, identifying the suitable lands for urban development within Bandar Abbas city l imits is becoming an essential priority. Therefore, d ifferent quantitative and quali tative criteria have been studied in order to select and identify these lands. The struct ures of qualitative criteria for most parts involve ambiguities and vagueness. This leads us to use Fuzzy logic in this study as a natural method for determining the solutions fo r problems of Multi- criteria decision making (MCDM. In the current research, a com bination of MCDM methods has been presented for analysis. To assignee weights of the criteria Fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process is used for land selection and Fuzzy TOPSIS (method for order priority by similarity to ideal solution is utilized to choose the alternative that is the most appropriate through these criteria weights. The

  9. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  10. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  11. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  12. An Association Between Air Quality and COPD in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Ahvaz, capital city of Khuzestan province, with a population of more than 1 million people is very famous in standpoint of air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide is emitted from vehicles and industries which can have short and long term effects on citizens. Evidence Acquisition Data were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment (ADoE. Stations were Naderi, Behdasht Ghadim, Havashenasi, and Mohitzist. The COPD attributed to nitrogen dioxide in Ahvaz city, Iran, in 2011 were calculated by utilizing relative risk and baseline incidence related to health end point nitrogen dioxide. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver 16. Results The highest and lowest annually average nitrogen dioxide concentrations during 2011 were 70 and 21 μg/m3, respectively. The Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and head office of ADoE “Mohitzist” had the highest and the lowest nitrogen dioxide concentrations during 2011, respectively. Approximately 4% of the hospital admission for COPD happened when the nitrogen dioxide concentration was > 10 μg/m3. Low percentage of the observed health endpoints was associated with low concentration of measured nitrogen dioxide. Conclusions Using alternative energy sources, such as solar cooking and electrical heating is effective, as is using fuels such as kerosene or coal rather than biomass. Higher relative risk value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality. The lower level of relative risk value may be achieved if some control strategies for reducing nitrogen dioxide emission are used.

  13. Bacteriological quality of raw cow milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Fadaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of contamination with Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk from Shahrekord city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 raw milk samples were collected randomly from five regions, namely northeast, east, southeast, south, and southwest regions of Shahrekord city according to stratified random sampling design. Samples were analyzed for Total plate count (TPC, Staphylococcus aureus, coliform, and E. coli. Results: Out of 300 samples of raw milk, contamination with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus was observed in 237 (79%, 207 (69% and 125 (41.66% samples, respectively. The highest rate of contamination was in the samples from southwest region with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus were present in 30 (100%, 29 (96.66%, and19 (63.33% samples, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusions: Considering the high rate of raw milk contamination with S. aureus, E. Coli, and coliforms, sanitary practice during collecting, transporting, and storage especially in the summer season is recommended.

  14. Environmental health problems and indicators in tabriz, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Naddafi, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Health Indicators (EHIs) are the most important criteria for evaluation of efficiency and effectiveness of the activities of the health sector. The operations and situation of the health system can be analyzed through surveying the indicators and comparing them during different times. The present study aimed to study the EHIs of Tabriz, using the common environmental health processes and national EHIs of the Ministry of Health. The required information for determination of EHIs was collected from different sources, including mainly the Environmental Health Department of the Health Center of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran and other organizations. We found some important desirable and undesirable EHIs in Tabriz,including high percentage of households with access to safe and reliable drinking water, high safety in microbiological and chemical quality of drinking water, acceptable level of BOD5 and COD in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WTP), lack of complete municipal wastewater collection and treatment, relatively poor sanitation and health of food markets and public places, undesirable collection,transportation and disposal of municipal solid waste, low EHIs of some school classrooms, unacceptable disposal of medical waste in some hospitals, and finally high level of noise pollution in the city. Considering the poor condition of some EHIs of Tabriz, implementing proper actions for promotion of the indicators especially development of municipal wastewater collection, improvement of solid waste management,environmental health of some schools and mosques, and finally the noise pollution level of the city is recommended.

  15. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  16. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  17. Situational Analysis of Human Resources in Family Physician Program: Survey from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhor, Rohollah; Azmal, Mohammad; Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria; Eslamian, Maryam; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Jafari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family physician is the increasing efforts to promote physician and other human resources in the health care systems. Goal: Investigate Human resources situation of the family physician program in six pilot cities in Khuzestan province in the southwest of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the family physician program in 2011. In this study, 15 healthcare teams in six pilot cities in Iran were assessed. Data was compiled from family physician officer document in vice treatment of Ahwaz University of medical sciences. National instructions of family physician was used to identify current gaps. Results: The survey findings indicated that there is a doctor’s shortage about 36% in the health team that deployed in the first level of referral system. Also on the team, the 34% shortage of nurses and 60% shortages of nutrition personnel are seen. Specialists with offices in cities of second referral level, there have not welcomed the program. Conclusions: It seems that to facilitate patient access to physicians under contract with family physician program and the referral system in level two and level three, adopting arrangements to attract specialists and improving their maintenance is necessary. PMID:25126016

  18. Molecular typing of the actin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by PCR-RFLP in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Zohreh; Sadraei, Javid; Kazemi, Bahram; Dalimi, Abdolhossein

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen that causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral, parasitic sexually transmitted infection in the world. At present, little is known regarding the degree of strain variability of T. vaginalis. A classification method for T. vaginalis strains would be a useful tool in the study of the epidemiology, drug resistance, pathogenesis and transmission of T. vaginalis. Eight different types of actin genes have been identified by PCR-RFLP in T. vaginalis; the purpose of this study is to determine the genotypes of this parasite in Karaj city, Iran. Forty-five clinical T. vaginalis isolates from vaginal secretions and urine sediment were collected from Karaj city from 2012 through 2014. DNA was extracted and the actin gene was amplified by nested-PCR; all samples were positive. To determine the genetic differences, sequencing on seven samples was conducted. Then, all PCR products were digested with HindII, MseI, and RsaI restriction enzymes. Of 45 isolates, 23 samples (51.1%) were of actin genotype G, 11 samples (24.4%) of genotype E, six samples (13.3%) of genotype H, three samples (6.6%) of genotype I, and two samples (4.4%) were mixed genotypes of G and E. Genetic diversity of T. vaginalis isolates is notable. The actin genotype G may be the dominant genotype in Karaj city, Iran.

  19. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  20. Review of the Freshwater Sharks of Iran (Family Carcharhinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Coad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematics, morphology, distribution, biology, economic importance and conservation of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas in Iran are described, the species is illustrated, and a bibliography on this fish in Iran is provided.

  1. Cancer Incidence in Parsabad-e-Moghan City (2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Elmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today according to the latest statistical and epidemiological studies in Iran, cancer is the third case of mortality after heart-vascular disease and accidents [1]. It is reported that 10 million new cancer cases have diagnosed and near 7 million annually. Cancer is one of the most health problems in Iran. This study aimed to register all cases of Parsabad city in a four years period, and survey has done about amount of cancer outbreak according to age, sex and topography distribution [2].

  2. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-22

    financing for exports to Iran or to process dollar transactions for Iranian banks. Among those that have pulled out of Iran are UBS and Credit Suisse ...investment, and credits to Iran; and to convince foreign banks not to do business with Iran, began to weaken Iran’s economy, compounding the effect...business owners say the difficulty obtaining credit from foreign banks is hurting their ability to operate. Students have conducted several high-profile

  3. First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938 in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Zaheri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the ces­todes as Taenia acinonyxi.

  4. STUDY ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITES IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE (NORTHERN OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Khousheh-Mehri

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are widely distributed and cause many diseases in humans and domestic animals. In this study in order to find prevalent species of intestinal parasites in Mazandaran province (northern Iran, four cities including Pol-sephid, Aliabad-Katoul, Amol and Babolsar were studied during 1991-1996. Stool samples were preserved in 10% formalin prior to examination by formol-ether concentration method. For diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis scotch tape method was used. Among helminthtic infections, E.vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana and among protozoa Giardaia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most prevalent species.

  5. Iran With Nuclear Weapons: Anticipating the Consequences for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    case-by-case basis, support for civil authorities. The JSOC was established on December 15, 1980, after the failed hostage rescue mission in Iran. 135...Bonus Books, Inc., 2005). 128 Columbia’s FARC may be in the throes of defeat, after the successful Hostage rescue of French-Columbian human rights...deterrence relationship with the United States and/or Israel. However, if this were Iran’s objective, it would be able to hold U.S. cities hostage , or

  6. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

  7. Measuring Radionuclides Concentration in Rice Field Soils Using Gamma Spectroscopy in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MZ Zareh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few elements of soil are radioactive. Soil can transfer radionuclide into plants feeding human. Sometimes their levels are as high as to be concern of human healthy. Rice has an important share for Iranian foods especially in north of Iran. Therefore we decided to obtain radionuclides concentration emitting g rays in Lahijan City (Northern Iran rice fields using g spectroscopy.Methods: Twenty eight samples from rice field's soils and 12 samples from superficial soils were collected at a square of 10*10 m2 to get 2kg weight. To make dry samples were put into oven at 105oC for 24h. Then they were milled and 950 gr of each sample was transferred to Marinelli container with 1000cc volume, sealed and left for 40 days to get secular equilibrium. After measuring Ph, Electric conductivity and organic carbon, g spectroscopy was done to get sample gamma spectrum at 2000-6000 sec using HpGe detector.Results: It was found 226Ra activity in rice fields of 29.273±0.72 Bqkg-1 and city soil of 31.02±1.1 Bqkg-1 and also 232Th activity of 37.47±1.12 Bqkg-1 for rice fields' soils and 40.47±1.68 Bqkg-1 for city soil were in standard mode.Conclusion: 40K activities mean value according to UNSCEAR; 2000 was found a little greater than standard. A little value of 137Cs was found in Lahijan rice fields and city soils that could be as a result of Chernobyl accident. In except of 137Cs, for three other under studied city soil elements, activities were greater than that of rice fields.

  8. Health benefits of PM10 reduction in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Moradi, Mahsa; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Akbaripoor, Shayan; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Sheikhi, Reza; Kermani, Majid; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Gholami, Moeen; Mozhdehi, Saeed Pourkarim; Esmaeili, Mehdi; Barari, Kian

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has wide spectrum of adverse health effects. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the potential health impacts or benefits due to any changes in annual PM10 level in four major megacities of Iran. The required data of PM10 for AirQ software was collected from air quality monitoring stations in four megacities of Iran. The preprocessing was carried out using macro coding in excel environment. The relationship between different presumptive scenarios and health impacts was determined. We also assessed the health benefits of reducing PM10 to WHO Air Quality Guidelines (WHO-AQGs) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) levels with regard to the rate of mortality and morbidity in studied cities. We found that the 10 μg/m3 increase in annual PM10 concentration is responsible for seven (95% CI 6-8) cases increase in total number of deaths per 2 × 105 person. We also found that 10.7, 7.2, 5.7, and 5.3% of total death is attributable to short-term exposure to air pollution for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. We found that by attaining the WHO's proposed value for PM10, the potential health benefits of 89, 84, 79, and 78% were obtained in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. The results also indicated that 27, 10, 3, and 1% of health impacts were attributed to dust storm days for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively.

  9. Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis in Ilam Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Abdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease of global prevalence. It causes considerable health problems and economic losses throughout the world, including Iran. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of echinococco­sis/hydatidosis in the province of Ilam (western Iran. Methods: From April to September 2011, 65 stray dogs were collected from urban and rural areas of Ilam City. Parasites were isolated from the dogs and stained with carmine. A taxonomic study was carried out by measuring different parts of hel­minths. Meat inspection documents from slaughterhouses in Ilam were used to assess the prevalence of hydatidosis during a 3-year period in sheep, cattle, and goats. ELISA test was used to detect the presence of antibodies to hydatidosis in human sera. Clinical records from 2000 to 2010 of either treated or diagnosed pa­tients from public hospitals of this province were reviewed. Results: The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in stray dogs was 9%. A total of 81,726 animals were assessed for hydatidosis; 2.94% (2403 cases had liver hydatidosis and 2.34% (1918 cases had lung hydatidosis. Within a 10-year period, 140 patients (91 females and 49 males were treated for hydatidosis. Of 1200 hu­man sera, 2.25% (27 patients were seropositive for hydatidosis. Conclusion: Hydatidosis is endemic in Ilam Province especially in rural area. The health and economic losses caused by the disease are significant; thus, our efforts need to be focused on the control of this disease.

  10. Iran’s Political, Demographic, and Economic Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the region of Mashad. The founda- tion owns other assets, including universities and a Coca -Cola bottling plant.28 Ayatollah Vaez-Tabazi’s influence...highly nationalistic Iran of Mosaddeq and the early years of the Iran-Iraq War or the more-divided Iran that emerged at the tail end of World War

  11. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... service. (4) The total cost and length of the contract. (5) Justification, with market research... the Iran Sanctions Act. These sanctioned activities are in the areas of development of the petroleum resources of Iran, production of refined petroleum products in Iran, sale and provision of refined...

  12. Smart Power: The United States, Iran, and a Nuclear Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    long-term nuclear agreement. 92Kenneth Katzman, Iran Sanctions (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013), 1. 93Faith Karimi , “20... Karimi , Faith. “20 questions about the Iran nuclear deal: What it says, what’s at stake, what’s next,” CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/24/world/meast/iran

  13. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    Gates said Iran is “playing a double game ” in Afghanistan. Iran is particularly interested in restoring some of its traditional sway in eastern, central...Shah of Iran.69 The newly appointed Broadcasting Board of Governors (as of June 2010) has formed a “PNN subcommittee,” headed by Governor Enders

  14. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  15. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries....

  16. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  17. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  18. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  19. IRAN: interferometric remapped array nulling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh; Abe, Lyu; Belu, Adrian; Lopez, Bruno; Lanteri, Henri; Schutz, A.; Menut, Jean-Luc

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a method of beam-combination in the so-called hypertelescope imaging technique recently introduced by Labeyrie in optical interferometry. The method we propose is an alternative to the Michelson pupil reconfiguration that suffers from the loss of the classical object-image convolution relation. From elementary theory of Fourier optics we demonstrate that this problem can be solved by observing in a combined pupil plane instead of an image plane. The point-source intensity distribution (PSID) of this interferometric "image" tends towards a psuedo Airy disc (similar to that of a giant monolithic telescope) for a sufficiently large number of telescopes. Our method is applicable to snap-shot imaging of extended sources with a field comparable to the Airy pattern of single telescopes operated in a co-phased multi-aperture interferometric array. It thus allows to apply conveniently pupil plane coronagraphy. Our technique called Interferometric Remapped Array Nulling (IRAN) is particularly suitable for high dynamic imaging of extra-solar planetary companions, circumstellar nebulosities or extra-galactic objects where long baseline interferometry would closely probe the central regions of AGNs for instance.

  20. Trichoderma species collected from Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doostmorad Zafari

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to identify Trichoderma species isolated from Iran, Trichoderma selective media and malt extract agar (MEA) were used to isolate Trichoderma species from the soil samples. All the cultures were purified on 2% water agar by hyphal tip method prior to morphological examination.Morphological observations were carried out on the cultures grown on 2% MEA and oat meal agar at 20℃ under ambient laboratory conditions. Macroscopic features of colony and microscopic features of conidiophore, phialid and conidium including position of phialids on conidiophore and shape and size of phialids and conidia were studied and recorded 3-5 days after inoculation. Out of 36 tested isolates, using morphological features and molecular data obtained from ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S regions fourteen species were identified as follow: T. atroviride, T. ghanense, T. spirale, T. erinaceum, T. citrinoviride, T. saturnisporum,T. longibrachiatum , T. hamatum , T. harzianum, T. inhamatum , T. tomentosum , T.virens, T. asperellum, T. koningii. Among the species T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were the most frequent species. In addition of the mentioned species two Tichoderma sp. were collected from walnut rhizospher that they are not fit to any described species so far. Although one of them are T. brevicumpactum introduced informally.

  1. 78 FR 21183 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran Threat... persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 5(a)(8) of the Iran Sanctions Act of...''), that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 212 of the...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  3. Prevalence of ruminants fascioliasis and their economic effects in Kashan, center of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Khoramian; Mohsen Arbabi; Mahmood Mahami Osqoi; Mahdi Delavari; Hossein Hooshyar; Mohammarreza Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and economic losses of Fasciola spp. isolates and costs incurred due to liver condemnation from ruminants in Kashan region, center of Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total number of 251325 slaughtered sheep, goats and cattle (88939 sheep, 151924 goats and 10462 cattle) were examined via necropsy for fasciolasis in industrial Kashan abattoirs located in center of Iran. The average weight was calculated as 1000 g for sheep, 900 g for goat and 5000 g for cattle in this study region. Based on market value, the average price of a kilo gram of normal liver at Kashan city during the study period was 8 USD. The amount of main nutrients and vitamins elimination in liver contaminated to fascioliasis was determined.Results:Overall 3.28% of the livers were found to be infected. For total number of sheep, goats and cattle slaughtered annually in region study, it was estimated that 7505 livers were infected and total annual economic losses of fascioliasis of studied animals was 41 784 USD (based on market prices in study period). Of this, 23360 USD, 30240 USD and 15400 USD were associated with the fascioliasis of sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that the Fasciola sp. clearly remains prevalent and causes considerable economic losses in study region in sheep, goats and cattle and presumably, other areas and hosts of Iran, providing baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic infection in the country.

  4. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  5. Ethnopharmacological review of plants traditionally used in Darab (south of Iran

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    Mahmoodreza Moein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical information have been known as effective tools for drug discovery. Iran is a location with long medical history. Darab is one of the cities in Iran which can be important in regard of ethnopharmacological aspects. Current paper documented the folk medical information by Darab inhabitants. Therefore, field studies on this area were conducted from March to July 2012 and May to July 2013 under supervision of one local person. A questionnaire was utilized in this study and was filled by local inhabitants. In total, 58 species belonging to 27 plant families were documented in management of 53 ailments. The most cited plant family was Asteraceae which was followed by Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Papilionaceae. Herbs were applied for gynecologic and genitourinary, respiratory, central nervous system, infectious and cardiovascular ailments as well as musculoskeletal and skin disorders, respectively. This study can indicate the folk knowledge of a region in south of Iran. Moreover, the effectiveness of unexamined plants can be evaluated according to informants’ claims. Therefore, such investigations may be indeed, a useful way to search for drug discovery as well as keeping ethnopharmacological information alive.

  6. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran

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    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Hoshmand K. 2012. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 130-134. Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world’s land surface. Iran has over 250 wetlands measuring about 2.5 million hectares. Zarivar wetland (ZW is the only natural aquatic ecosystem in Kurdistan province in Iran. The present research was carried out during 2009 through 2010 with the aim of recognizing the capabilities and limitations of ZW through documentary, extensive field visits and also direct field observations during the years of study. Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to evaluate the land as a main tool. The results of this research showed that ZW has a great talent regarding diversity of bird species and the ecological status of wetland has caused the said wetland welcome numerous species of birds. The results of this research showed that industrial pollutions are not considered as threats to the wetland but evacuation of agricultural runoff and development of Marivan city toward the wetland and the resulting pollution load could be introduced as an important part of the wetland threats. It is recommended to make necessary studies in the field of various physical and biological parameters of the wetland, and also the facing threats and opportunities.

  7. Iran’s Role in Iraq: Room for U.S.-Iran Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Perspective Expert insights on a timely policy issueC O R P O R A T I O N Iran’s Role in Iraq Room for U.S.- Iran Cooperation? Alireza Nader The rise of...Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has led to argu- ments in favor of U.S.- Iran cooperation in combating the group, as immediate American and...the-ground presence in Iraq. While the United States and Iran ultimately have divergent long-term goals for Iraq, and face disagreements on many other

  8. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot

  9. Spatial outline of malaria transmission in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Barati; Hossein Keshavarz-valian; Majid Habibi-nokhandan; Ahmad Raeisi; Leyla Faraji; Abdoreza Salahi-moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct for modeling spatial distribution of malaria transmission in Iran. Methods: Records of all malaria cases from the period 2008-2010 in Iran were retrieved for malaria control department, MOH&ME. Metrological data including annual rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, altitude, demographic, districts border shapefiles, and NDVI images received from Iranian Climatologic Research Center. Data arranged in ArcGIS. Results:Results: 99.65%of malaria transmission cases were focused in southeast part of Iran. These transmissions had statistically correlation with altitude (650 m), maximum (30℃), minimum (20℃) and average temperature (25.3℃). Statistical correlation and overall relationship between NDVI (118.81), relative humidity (≥45%) and rainfall in southeast area was defined and explained in this study. Conclusions: According to ecological condition and mentioned cut-off points, predictive map was generated using cokriging method.

  10. Incidence of Phenylketonuria in Southern Iran

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    Asadollah Habib

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Phenylketonuria is a hereditary, autosomal recessivedisorder caused by deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylaseor its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. The purpose ofthe present study was to evaluate the incidence of this disorderin southern Iran.Methods: All the neonates born between 22/Dec/2004 and7/Sep/2007 were screened and their blood samples were testedby colorimetric and high performance liquid chromatographymethods to obtain a diagnosis of phenylketonuria.Results: Of the screened newborns (87091 females and 88143males 15 female and 13 male neonates were diagnosed definitelyas having phenylketonuria.Conclusion: The incidence of phenylketonuria in girls andboys was 1.7 in 10000 and 1.5 in 10000, respectively (mean:1.6 in 10000 in southern Iran (Fars province.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 137-139.

  11. A study on the genus Digitaria (Poaceae in Iran

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    Mohammad Amini Rad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In current research, the genus Digitaria has been studied in Iran. As a results, D. ischaemum, D. sanguinalis, D. sabulosa, D. ciliaris, D. nodosa with D. violascens which is reported for the first time from Iran here, are confirmed for the flora of Iran. In addition, the record of D. stricta from Iran is rejected as referable to D. violascens after the studying their specimens. Finally, a key to all species of the genus Digitaria in Iran along with morphological descriptions of species are provided.

  12. A checklist of the leafhoppers of Iran (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    A list of Cicadellidae (leafhoppers) of Iran is provided based primarily on literature records from 1902 to the present. In total 390 species are recorded from 13 subfamilies. Ninety three of the recorded species are considered to be endemic to Iran. The current accepted name is given for each species together with synonyms and literature citations relating to Iran. Selenocephalus darei is recognized as a published misspelling for Selenocephalus dareicus Dlabola, 1981. There is no evidence that the Nearctic species Empoasca fabae (Harris, 1841) and Erythroneura comes (Say, 1825) have been found in Iran; previous records appear to have been based on misidentifications. A brief distribution of species within Iran is provided.

  13. The Impact of Culture: Communicating with Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    RESEARCH PROJECT THE IMPACT OF CULTURE: COMMUNICATING WITH IRAN by Colonel Eric J. Winkie United States Army Dr. Richard Meinhart Project Adviser This...St ra te gy Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t THE IMPACT OF CULTURE: COMMUNICATING WITH IRAN BY COLONEL ERIC J. WINKIE United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT...position of the Department of the Army , Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050 USAWC CLASS

  14. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.

  15. Mapping Statistical Characteristics of Frosts in Iran

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    P. Mahmoudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To model and map the statistical characteristics of frost in Iran, the data related to the minimum daily temperature for a 15-year period (1990–2005 was obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. Then using multivariate regression models, the relationship among five statistical characteristics, i.e. the mean Julian day of the first frost, mean Julian day of the last frost, mean number of frost days per year, mean length of the frost period and mean length of growing season were modeled by three geo – climate factors: elevation, longitude and latitude. The precision of each model was explored using four hypotheses: linearity of the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable, normality of errors, constancy of error variance and lake of correlation of errors were tested, and their precisions were confirmed. At the second stage, contour lines resulting from STRM were converted to the point features class. Altogether, 661 474 points were gathered from all over Iran. Then, the studied five frost characteristics were generalized to 661 474 points; then, the regionalization maps of statistical characteristics of frost were obtained for Iran using Kriging interpolation method. The results showed that the temperature of highland areas above 4200 m above sea level always was at least zero and below zero during the year, and also the coastal strip of southern Iran had no frost. Elevation was the most effective factor in the spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of Julian day of the first frost. The most effective factors in spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of Julian day of the last frost, length of frost period and length of growing season were elevation and latitude. Finally, spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of the frost days was also a function of three factors of elevation, longitude and latitude. The dominant role of elevation in spatial arrangement for the

  16. Restoring sanitation services after an earthquake: field experience in Bam, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinera, Jean-François; Reed, Robert A; Njiru, Cyrus

    2005-09-01

    A powerful earthquake hit the city of Bam in southeast Iran on 26 December 2003. In its aftermath, a number of international relief agencies, including Oxfam, assisted in providing emergency sanitation services. Oxfam's programme consisted of constructing and repairing toilets and showers in villages located outside of the city. In contrast with other organisations, Oxfam opted for brick-work structures, using local materials and human resources rather than prefabricated cubicles. The choice illustrates the dilemmas faced by agencies involved in emergency sanitation: responding to needs in a manner consistent with international standards and offering assistance in a timely fashion while involving beneficiaries. Following a preliminary survey, Oxfam concluded that the provision of showers and latrines, in addition to utilisation of local materials and human resources, was essential for ensuring well-being, empowerment and dignity among members of the affected population, thereby maximising the benefits.

  17. The prevalence of amblyopia in 7-year-old schoolchildren in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbasali; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Eshrati, Babak; Mohazzab-Torabi, Saman; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in schoolchildren aged 7 years in Iran, its relation with refractive errors, and its determinants. In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling was done from elementary school students in 7 cities in Iran. In all schools, an optometrist conducted all tests, including measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, and cover test. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity 20/30 or less or a 2-line interocular optotype acuity difference with no pathology. Of the 4157 students selected for the study, 3675 participated and final analyses were done with data from 3547 children. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.88% (95% CI: 1.24-2.52) (n=63). The prevalence was 1.91% (95% CI: 0.85-2.97) in boys and 1.85% (95% CI: 1.12-2.58) in girls (p=0.92). Among these cases, 60.30% (n=38) were unilateral. Also, 61.9% were strabismic, 27.0% were anisometropic, 9.5% were isometropic, and one case (1.6%) was due to congenital cataracts. Amblyopic individuals were more hypermetropic and the mean cylinder error was significantly higher. Necessary attention should be paid to amblyopia, although its prevalence in Iran is mid-range when compared with other countries. Amblyopia is more common in hyperopic and astigmatic individuals and therefore it is important to pay more attention to this refractive error during childhood. Since strabismus is the most common cause of amblyopia in Iran, children need to be checked for strabismus before the age of 5 years.

  18. Determining precipitable water in the atmosphere of Iran based on GPS zenith tropospheric delays

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    Elaheh Sadeghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitable water (PW is considered as one of the most important weather parameters in meteorology. Moreover, moisture affects the propagation of the Global Positioning System’s (GPS signals. Using four different models, the current paper tries to identify the best relationship between the atmospheric error known as zenith wet delay (ZWD and PW. For that matter, based on 54,330 radiosonde profiles from 11 stations, two different models i.e. linear and quadratic have been derived for Iran. For analyzing the accuracy of these models, ZWDs of three permanent GPS stations located in the cities of Tehran, Ahvaz and Tabriz have been used. Applying the aforementioned models as well as those already developed for Europe and the U.S., PWs are derived at the position of these stations in Iran. Further, in this research, root mean square error (RMSE and bias are the measures for selecting the optimal model. Here, the bias and the RMSE (between GPS and radiosonde derived PWs for the proposed linear model for Iran is 1.44 mm and 4.42 mm, and for quadratic model 2.18 mm and 4.74 mm respectively while, the bias and the RMSE for Bevis’ linear model is 2.63 mm and 4.98 mm and for Emardson and Derk’s quadratic models are 2.80 mm and 5.08 mm respectively. As such, it is observed that the bias of the proposed linear model for Iran is 1.19 mm and 1.36 mm less than the Bevis’ and Emardson and Derk’s models. In addition, the RMSE of the proposed linear model is 0.56 and 0.66 mm less than the RMSE of the later ones. This emphasizes that the estimation of the model coefficients must be based on regional meteorological measurements.

  19. Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from soil samples in North-Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyyati, Maryam; Karamati, Seyed Ahmad; Lorenzo Morales, Jacob; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-02-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoebae (FLA) which has been reported as the causative agent of the fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE). Currently, the transmission dynamics of this pathogen remain poorly understood although the organism has been associated with soils, and thus, soil exposure has been identified as a risk factor for this pathogenic amoeba. Nevertheless, environmental isolation of B. mandrillaris is a rare event and strains of this amoebic species have been isolated from soil and dust sources only in seven previous reports (Iran, Mexico, USA, Peru, Costa Rica, Guinea Bissau, and Jamaica). In Iran, a previous study reported the isolation of B. mandrillaris from dust collected in the city of Tehran and free of known infectious involvement. Therefore, in this work, 55 soil samples collected from public and recreational areas of East Azerbaijan, North-Western Iran, were investigated for the presence of this pathogen. Samples were cultured in 2% non-nutrient agar plates and were monitored for the presence of B. mandrillaris-like trophozoites and/or cysts. Those samples that were positive for these amoebae by microscopic criteria were then confirmed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of B. mandrillaris. The obtained results revealed the presence of this emerging pathogen in 5 of 55 samples included in the study. Homology analysis of the obtained DNA sequences revealed high similarity with previously isolated strains from clinical and environmental sources. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris from soil sources in Iran related to human activity and the second time that this pathogen is isolated from the environment in this country.

  20. Pharmacy Education Development In Iran

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    Payam Peymani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in 1922, a pharmacy division was set up atthe school of medicine. In 1926, the first union of Iranianpharmacy students who had graduated in France and returnedto Iran. Duration of this course was 3 years. In 1939 this coursechanges to 4-years program and 140 Credits. After that TehranUniversity changed the Pharmacy degree from Masters todoctorate (Pharm.D. and the duration of the study wasincreased to 5 years [1, 2].During all these years pharmacy department were belongto faculty of medicine. In 1956 the first faculty of pharmacywas established. Then, in 1973 each academic year waschanged into two semesters. After this modification, Pharmacystudents would get their Pharm.D degree after writing thesesand taking an oath [1]. Graduates need to present and defendtheir theses in different fields of pharmacy and this addsanother year to their studies and generally after 6 yearsstudents can graduate as Doctor in Pharmacy. The Pharm.Ddegree program requires at least 2-years of specific preprofessional(undergraduate coursework followed by 4-academic years of professional study. Pharmacy colleges andschools accept students directly from high school for Pharm.Dprogram [3].When Iranian students finished eight years of primaryschool and four years of high school in natural sciences(Experimental Sciences Diploma, can attend a nationalentrance exam for universities. At now, we have 16 faculty ofpharmacy in university of medical sciences. After Fivesemesters which is equal to 90-100 credits of general and basicsciences study, students entrance National test named “thebasic sciences exam” which is held for pharmacy students[3].

  1. Burden of Osteoporosis in Iran

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    F Abolhassani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. In addition to morbidity, osteoporotic fractures also increase mortality risk in affected patients. Enough evidence is not available to indicate that, like western countries, osteoporosis is a public health problem in Iran. Therefore EMRC planned to estimate the burden of osteoporotic fractures in year 2001 based on existing sources of data. The EMRC study on bone density, the MOH study on unintentional injuries, and international literature on mortality risk following osteoporotic fractures were the main sources of information used for this study. To estimate burden of osteoporotic fractures, the prevalence of osteoporosis, the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, and the relative risk of mortality following these fractures were approximated. The mean duration of disability following major osteoporotic fractures was estimated through epidemiologic modeling. Assumptions on the disability weights of morbid conditions resulting from osteoporotic fractures were made through comparing these conditions with similar ones in Global Burden of Disease Study. Based on mortality and incidence rates, mean durations of disability, and disability weights; the DALYs indicator was calculated for Spine, Hip, and Forearm fractures. In women hip, spine, and forearm fractures were responsible for 15880, 1269, and 121 mortality- and morbidity-related lost years of life respectively. Similar figures in men were 16495, 2225, and 37 years. Collectively osteoporosis deprived Iranian population from 36026 healthy years of life (18757 in men and 17270 in women in 2001. Higher burden of osteoporosis in men, mainly results from higher risk of mortality following fractures in male sex. The national study on unintentional injuries indicates that the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Iranian population is much less than other populations. Higher bone mineral density and other probable differences between Iranians

  2. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  3. The roles of some scorpions, Hemiscorpius lepturus and Androctonus crassicauda, in a scorpionism focus in Ramhormorz, southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Alireza; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Hossienzadeh, Mohsen; Salehcheh, Maryam; Moradi, Azra; Moravvej, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a common and important health problem in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern Iran, including the province of Khuzestan. In the area of Khuzestan near the city of Ramhormoz, Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpioiidae) and Androctonus crassicauda (Buthidae) are present. Ramhormoz is in southwestern Iran and is one of the most important foci of the scorpion sting problem. The current study was carried out to gain both epidemiological and medical information about scorpion stings in and around the city of Ramhormoz. In total, 179 people who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Ramhormoz Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2008 and 2009 after being stung by scorpions were monitored. Epidemiological and medical parameters including sex of the victim; the part of the body stung; the month when stung; the biochemical parameters comprising blood sugar (BS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CR); hematological parameters including white blood cells (WBC), count blood cells (CBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT); and urine analysis including hemoglobinuria were recorded. The current study showed that most of the victims were stung by H. lepturus, while very few were stung by A. crassicaud, but in over half of the cases the species was not known. Stings were most common from May to Aguust. 73% of the victims were female. The limbs were the part of the body most likely to be stung. Hemogobinuria was very common in H. lepturus victims.

  4. Working Conditions in Carpet Weaving Workshops and Muscu-loskeletal Complaints among Workers in Tabriz - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nazari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Carpet weaving operations usualy involve poor working conditions that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This study investigated MSDs among car-pet weavers in relation to working conditions from workers' view in Tabriz City, Northwest Iran.Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in city of Tabriz, Iran. Data were col-lected using interviews and questionnaires. The study population consisted of 200 randomly selected healthy weavers from twenty five active carpet weaving workshops.Results: The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among the study population. The most commonly affected body areas were neck, lower back, ankles/feet, hands/wrists, upper back, shoulders and knees, respectively. More than half of the weavers were not satisfied with the thermal con-dition, noise level and cleanliness of the air in the workshops. The result indicated a significant relation-ship between upper back symptoms and daily working time and between lower back symptoms and the numbers of rows of knots woven in a day. Weavers' satisfaction with hand tools shape and thermal condi-tion of the workshops were associated with lower back symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weaving looms were associated with upper back complaints.Conclusion: The poor working condition of hand-woven carpet workshops such as environmental conditionsand work station design and tools should be the subject of ergonomics interventions.

  5. Working Conditions in Carpet Weaving Workshops and Muscu-loskeletal Complaints among Workers in Tabriz - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Jalil; Mahmoudi, Nader; Dianat, Iman; Graveling, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carpet weaving operations usualy involve poor working conditions that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study investigated MSDs among car¬pet weavers in relation to working conditions from workers' view in Tabriz City, Northwest Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in city of Tabriz, Iran. Data were col¬lected using interviews and questionnaires. The study population consisted of 200 randomly selected healthy weavers from twenty five active carpet weaving workshops. Results: The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among the study population. The most commonly affected body areas were neck, lower back, ankles/feet, hands/wrists, upper back, shoulders and knees, respectively. More than half of the weavers were not satisfied with the thermal con¬dition, noise level and cleanliness of the air in the workshops. The result indicated a significant relation¬ship between upper back symptoms and daily working time and between lower back symptoms and the numbers of rows of knots woven in a day. Weavers' satisfaction with hand tools shape and thermal condi¬tion of the workshops were associated with lower back symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weaving looms were associated with upper back complaints. Conclusion: The poor working condition of hand-woven carpet workshops such as environmental con¬ditions and work station design and tools should be the subject of ergonomics interventions. PMID:24688943

  6. Seasonal Distribution Of Wind In Iran

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    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study an attempt has been made to evaluate long-term average variation and fluctuation of Seasonal wind in Iran. For this purpose wind database network was initially formed over Iran. Then data from the base of a 30-year period the daily period of 1011982 to 31122012 was supposed as the basis of the present study and a cell with dimensions of 15 15 km of the studied area was spread. In order to achieve the wind seasonal changes in Iran modern methods of spatial statistics such as Moran global spatial autocorrelation Moran Local insulin index and Hot spots by using of programming in GIS environment were accomplished. The results of this study showed that the spatial distribution of wind in Iran has the cluster pattern. In the meantime based on Moran local index and Hot spots wind patterns in the South South-East East South West and North West have spatial autocorrelation positive pattern and parts of the Caspian Sea coast north and center of the country have negative spatial autocorrelation. During the study period a large part of the country almost half of the total area had a significant pattern or spatial autocorrelation.

  7. Venomous Animals; Are They Important in Iran?

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    Dehghani R.* PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many reports have indicated the medical importance of animal poisons in Iran. The significance numbers of Iranians are injured from high endemic to sporadic, by venomous snakes, scorpions, wasps, bees, fire and velvet ants, spiders and backswimmer bugs, so their nuisance prevention is an important task.

  8. Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-06

    47 India .................................................................................................................................. 48...3 Khamene’i: “U.S. Would Overthrow Iranian Government If It Could— Media .” Reuters, February 8, 2014. 4 Erik Slavin. “Iran Emphasizes Nuclear...U.S.-based confederate allegedly in conjunction with a Mexican drug cartel. February 13, 2012 Wife of Israeli diplomat wounded in Delhi, India

  9. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Einollahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study.Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives.Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability.

  10. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, A; Javadi, MA; Einollahi, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010 Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study. Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives. Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability. PMID:23113125

  11. Research Priority of Clinical Linguistics in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadi MR

    2016-01-01

    Background Study in clinical linguistics can reflect and requirements of this area, and can contribute to effective and useful changes in this area. Objectives Since there have been a few studies in the field of clinical linguistics in Iran, this research can pave the way to find research priorities of clinical linguistics in our country. Materials and Methods Studies related to l...

  12. Patient rights in Iran: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    A significant development for conducting research on patient rights has been made in Iran over the past decade. This study is conducted in order to review and analyze the previous studies that have been made, so far, concerning patient rights in Iran. This is a comprehensive review study conducted by searching the Iranian databases, Scientific Information Database, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology, Iran Medex and Google using the Persian equivalent of keywords for 'awareness', 'attitude', and 'patient rights'. For pertinent Iranian papers published in English, scientific databases PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keyword 'patient rights' and 'Iran'. A total of 41 Persian and five English articles were found for these keywords, only 26 of which fulfilled the objective of our study. The increasing number of papers published indicates that from 1999 onwards, this subject has begun to draw the attention of Iranian researchers in a progressive fashion and Iranian papers in English have also been compiled and published in international sources.

  13. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  14. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  15. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Reconstruction [Tehran Radio] ................................................................ 18 Pars Aluminum Company Increases Production [JOMHURI- YE ESLAMI 29...of market of that port. This merchant added: "Considering alumina powder used in aluminum industries. Last night, that the valuable handwoven Iranian...The Iran powder metallurgy plant was commis- Islamic Republic Shipping Company (IRSC) is to purchase sioned in Alborz industrial estate in Qazvin this

  17. China-Iran Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The meeting of the First Council of the China-Iran Friendship Association (CIFA) and the inaugural meeting of the CIFA were held in Beijing on December 23, 2008. The Council Meeting The meeting of the First Council of the CIFA was held in the auditorium of the CPAFFC on December 23, 2008.

  18. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  19. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  20. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)