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  1. Historical Seismicity of Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, E.

    2013-05-01

    Central Panama lies in the Panama microplate, neighboring seismically active regions of Costa Rica and Colombia. This region, crossed by the Panama Canal, concentrates most of the population and economic activity of the Republic of Panama. Instrumental observation of earthquakes in Panama began on 1882 by the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique de Panama and continued from 1904 to 1977 by the Panama Canal Company. From October 1997 to March 1998 the USGS deployed a temporary digital seismic network. Since 2003 this region is monitored by a digital seismic network operated by the Panama Canal Authority and I complemented by the broad band stations of the University of Panama seismic network. The seismicity in this region is very diffuse and the few events which are recorded have magnitudes less than 3.0. Historical archives and antique newspapers from Spain, Colombia, Panama and the United Sates have been searched looking for historical earthquake information which could provide a better estimate of the seismicity in this region. We find that Panama City has been shaken by two destructive earthquakes in historical times. One by a local fault (i.e. Pedro Miguel fault) on May 2, 1621 (I=Vlll MM), and a subduction event from the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB) on September 7, 1882 (I=Vll MM). To test these findings two earthquakes scenarios were generated, using SELENA, for Panama City Old Quarter. Panama City was rebuilt on January 21, 1673, on a rocky point facing the Pacific Ocean after the sack by pirate Morgan on January 28, 1671. The pattern of damage to calicanto (unreinforced colonial masonry) and wood structures for a crustal local event are higher than those for an event from the NPDB and seem to confirm that the city has not been shaken by a major local event since May 2, 1621 and a subduction event since September 7, 1882

  2. The Agua Salud Project, Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R. F.; Elsenbeer, H.; Ogden, F. L.; Hall, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal's central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. It will be the largest field experiment of its kind in the tropics aimed at quantifying the environmental services (water, carbon, and biodiversity) provided by tropical forests. The Agua Salud Watershed is our principal field site. This watershed and the headwaters of several adjacent rivers include both protected mature forests and a wide variety of land uses that are typical of rural Panama. Experiments at the scale of entire catchments will permit complete water and carbon inventories and exchanges for different landscape uses. The following questions will be addressed: (1) How do landscape treatments and management approaches affect ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water quality and quantity, dry- season water supply, and biodiversity? (2) Can management techniques be designed to optimize forest production along with ecosystem services during reforestation? (3) Do different tree planting treatments and landscape management approaches influence groundwater storage, which is thought to be critical to maintaining dry-season flow, thus insuring the full operation of the Canal during periods of reduced rainfall and severe climatic events such as El Niño. In addition we anticipate expanding this project to address biodiversity, social, and economic values of these forests.

  3. Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Panama's population characteristics, geographical features, communication system, history, government, economy, current political situation, and foreign relations are briefly described. Ethnically, Panama's population of 2,001,000 (1984) is 70% mestizo, 14% West Indian, 10% white, and 6% Indian. 93% of the population is Roman Catholic, and the official language is Spanish. The school enrollment rate is close to 100% at the primary level and 65% at the secondary level. The literacy rate is 93.7% for urban residents and 61.8% for rural residents. The infant mortality rate is 20.1, and life expectancy is 71 years. Panama is a hilly and mountainous country, and the eastern region is covered by tropical forests. In 1519, the Spanish established the old city of Panama near the isthmus, i.e., the narrowest section (52 miles) of the country separating the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, and between then and 1670s, the isthmus played a vital role in the movement of gold and silver from the New World to Spain. Ships from the western side of South American sailed to the western side of the isthmus. Their contents were unloaded, hauled across the isthmus, and reloaded on ships bound for Spain. In 1982 Panama won its independence from Spain and the following year voluntarily became a part of the Republic of Greater Colombia. Since the early 1860s, the idea of building a canal through the isthmus was entertained by various groups, and in the late 1800s a Frenchman unsuccessfully attempted the task. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia after Colombia refused to sign a treaty to allow the US to construct a canal. Panama, as an independent nation, then signed the Hay/Bunau-Varilla Treaty with the US. The treaty gave the US the right to build a canal. Panama retained sovereignty over the canal zone, i.e., a 5 mile area on each side of the canal, but the US was given all the rights in the area normally exercised by a sovereign power. The treaty was resented by

  4. Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Panama's territory is 77,381 square km or 29,762 square miles with a population of 2.4 million of whom 70% are mestizos or mixed Spanish and Indian. Literacy is 87%, infant mortality is 22/1000, and life expectancy is 72 years. Panama was part of the Spanish empire from 1538 to 1821. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia, and afterwards signed a treaty with the US to build a canal 10 miles wide. The existing 52-mile lock canal was completed in 1914. From the 1960s pressure mounted to renegotiate the treaty that was eventually accomplished in 1977. In 1989 the Noriega regime called elections and lost, but it did not accept the results, and continued repression until it was ousted by a 1989 US military action. Noriega surrendered and was indicted for drug trafficking. The economy was in disrepair after mismanagement and US sanctions. During 1990-91 the economy started to recover with the return of capital to banks, increase of exports and construction, and the decrease of government deficit and unemployment. The gross domestic product grew 3.45 in 1990 and 9.3% in 1991 with a low level of inflation. Government policies were proposed to stimulate foreign private investment, improve market conditions, and reduce tariffs and price controls. In 1992 the Endara government signed agreements with international financial institutions on credit that entailed tax, social security, and public investment reforms. The unemployment rate decreased from 35% in 1989 to 16% by 1992. The revenues from the canal have to be sustained, therefore the Panama Canal Commission approved a $200-million project to widen it over the next 20 years.

  5. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

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    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  6. Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama: Boletin Estadistico (Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama: Statistical Bulletin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge A.

    This statistical bulletin provides details on the universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC): Central American University, Rafael Landivar University, Saint John's College, University of Santa Maria La Antigua, Jose Simeon Canas University, Doctor Mariano Galvez University, and the…

  7. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

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    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  8. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

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    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of ~ 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a ~ 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc

  9. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

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    Michael Xavier Kirby

    Full Text Available Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y., having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone, is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  10. Catalogo General de Universidades, 1970-1971: Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama (General Catalog of Universities, 1970-1971: Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama).

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    Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama, Guatemala City (Guatemala).

    This document contains the 1970-1971 catalogues of five universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC). The catalogues provide information on university administrators and staff, historical background, admission requirements, degree programs, scholarships, and courses. The catalogues included…

  11. Transition from the Farallon Plate subduction to the collision between South and Central America: Geological evolution of the Panama Isthmus

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    Barat, Flore; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Sosson, Marc; Müller, Carla; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents new geological constraints on the collision of southern Central America with South America, and the resulting deformational episodes that have affected the Panama Isthmus since the Late Cretaceous. The Panama Isthmus is located in southwestern Central America, and it represents the zone of contact between the two land masses: Central America and South America. This collision event is still active today. It has resulted in regional uplift since the Late Miocene/Pliocene and is responsible for the Great American Biotic Interchange between South and North America. Depending on the methods of investigation used, and due to the lack of data available, the time when this collision began is still widely debated and poorly constrained. To better constrain this age, we have studied the rock formations and the tectonic deformations in central and eastern Panama that have occurred since the Late Cretaceous. This study presents new rock ages, field-work documentation and analyses, and seismic-line interpretations, and it is complemented by spatial images for the eastern Panama area. During the Middle Eocene, a number of changes suddenly appeared in the geological records that were synchronous with the break-up of southern Central America into two smaller blocks: Chorotega and Chocó. Our main results identify the prevalence of an extensional tectonic regime from the Middle Eocene to the Middle Miocene that caused the formation of horst and graben structures with thick sedimentary basin fills, and a synchronous clockwise block rotation. Here, we propose that these geologic events are associated with the initiation of the oblique collision of southern Central America with South America. The first contact of the southeastern extremity of Central America occurred around 40 Ma to 38 Ma, and then propagated northwestwards. We describe here this long-term collision episode in relation to the history of the Panama Isthmus.

  12. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

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    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  13. Exhumation of the Panama basement complex and basins: Implications for the closure of the Central American seaway

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    Ramírez, Diego A.; Foster, David A.; Min, Kyoungwon; Montes, Camilo; Cardona, Agustín.; Sadove, Gephen

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of the Central American isthmus occurred episodically from Eocene to Pliocene time and was caused by a series of tectonic and volcanic processes. Results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology, and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic data from sedimentary (sandstones and recent river sands) and plutonic rocks from the Azuero Peninsula and Central Panama document the exhumation and uplift history of the Panamanian basement complex. Our data support previous paleobotanical and thermochronological studies that suggest that by middle Eocene time some areas of Central Panama and Azuero Peninsula were exposed above sea level as a series of islands surrounded by shallow open marine waters. The Gatuncillo, Cobachón and Tonosí formations were deposited during this partial emergence. Transtension in the Oligocene-early Miocene produced various pull-apart basins (e.g., the Canal Basin) and local uplift that exhumed the Eocene strata (Gatuncillo and Cobachón formations). This event probably reduced circulation between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Tonosí Formation records late Miocene to Pleistocene cooling and exhumation, which may be related to uplift above the subducting Coiba Ridge. These results suggest that the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama followed a series of diachronous events that led to the final closure of the Central American seaway.

  14. Disturbance and mosquito diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of central Panama.

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    Loaiza, Jose R; Dutari, Larissa C; Rovira, Jose R; Sanjur, Oris I; Laporta, Gabriel Z; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond H; Eastwood, Gillian; Kramer, Laura D; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira

    2017-08-03

    The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) is well-known in ecology providing an explanation for the role of disturbance in the coexistence of climax and colonist species. Here, we used the IDH as a framework to describe the role of forest disturbance in shaping the mosquito community structure, and to identify the ecological processes that increase the emergence of vector-borne disease. Mosquitoes were collected in central Panama at immature stages along linear transects in colonising, mixed and climax forest habitats, representing different levels of disturbance. Species were identified taxonomically and classified into functional categories (i.e., colonist, climax, disturbance-generalist, and rare). Using the Huisman-Olff-Fresco multi-model selection approach, IDH testing was done. We did not detect a unimodal relationship between species diversity and forest disturbance expected under the IDH; instead diversity peaked in old-growth forests. Habitat complexity and constraints are two mechanisms proposed to explain this alternative postulate. Moreover, colonist mosquito species were more likely to be involved in or capable of pathogen transmission than climax species. Vector species occurrence decreased notably in undisturbed forest settings. Old-growth forest conservation in tropical rainforests is therefore a highly-recommended solution for preventing new outbreaks of arboviral and parasitic diseases in anthropic environments.

  15. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

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    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  16. Cenozoic History of Paleo-Currents through the Central American Seaway: Insights from Deep Sea Sediments and Outcrops in Panama

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    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Paleontologic, oceanographic, and ecologic studies suggest gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway between ~15 to 2 Ma that caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. This diminishing communication has been further associated with changes in surface and deep ocean currents, atmospheric flow, and ultimately regional and global climate. Recent studies of the Isthmus of Panama's exhumation history, palm phylogenies, and fossil/molecularly derived migration rates, however, suggest that the isthmus may have risen much earlier. An earlier rise scenario would call into question many accepted consequences of this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Despite considerable research on the Neogene, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined long-term changes in the adjacent oceans over the Cenozoic to evaluate the potential for earlier events in the closure history of the seaway. In this study, we extend records of bottom water circulation reconstructed from the Nd-isotopes of fish teeth from several Caribbean International Ocean Discovery Program sediment cores (ODP Sites 998, 999, 1000). These reconstructions clearly depict an increase in Pacific volcanism throughout the Cenozoic and sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean basin from ~50 to 9 Ma, although there appear to be interesting complexities within the Caribbean basin itself. We also present preliminary investigations into the potential of Nd-isotopic analyses on fossil fish teeth recovered from outcrops and exposures of marine strata across Panama to further elucidate the regional dynamics and shoaling history of the Central American Seaway.

  17. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

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    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-09-24

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range.

  18. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

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    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  19. Molecular diagnosis and species identification of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in dogs from Panama, Central America.

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    Santamaria, Annamaria; Calzada, Jose E; Saldaña, Azael; Yabsley, Michael J; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence and distribution of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were estimated in 201 symptomatic dogs from Panama by nested PCR and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 163 dogs (70.6%; 163/201) were infected with either Anaplasma or Ehrlichia. On the basis of PCR results, the majority of cases were infected with E. canis (64.2%; 129/201) followed by 21.4% (43/201) with A. platys, whereas 7.5% (15/201) had Anaplasma/Ehrlichia co-infections. Further analyses of 16S rDNA partial sequences show sequence homology with E. canis and A. platys from other countries. Hematology findings from 79 E. canis PCR-positive dogs included anemia (74.7%), thrombocytopenia (81.9%), macroplatelets (29.1%), and leukopenia (6.3%). Among 16 A. platys PCR-positive dogs with available hematology, 62.5% were anemic, 75% had thrombocytopenia, and 100% had macroplatelets. On the basis of E.canis serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) (n=92 dogs), 30 dogs that were seropositive for E. canis were also PCR-positive, whereas among seronegatives (n=62), 10 were PCR-positive for E. canis. This study provides the first characterization of canine anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis infections in Panama and is important to veterinary public health and comparative studies of these pathogens in the Americas.

  20. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

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    Coates, A.G.; Aubry, M.-P.; Berggren, W.A.; Collins, Luke S.; Kunk, M.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5-18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidities. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  1. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  2. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  3. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.

    1989-11-01

    Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Panama's open financial system, skilled labor force, adequate infrastructure, and export-oriented commercial sector give it a greater prospect for recovery from Latin America's economic crisis than other countries. Indicators such as average daily caloric rate, population per health care worker, per capita income, total fertility rate, life expectancy, and percent of population under 15 years are more favorable in Panama than neighboring countries. However, economic growth is at present being undermined by internal and external debt, unemployment, high labor costs, and a rising trade deficit. Real per capita output has stagnated since 1980 and growth in the gross domestic product stood at 4.4% in 1982. Over 60% of married women in Panama use modern contraceptive methods, making the birth rate of 28/1000 the lowest in Central America. Panama's growth rate is expected to be 1.9%/year until the year 2000, at which point the population is projected to be 3 million. The infant mortality rate was 26/1000 in 1985, comparable to that in developed countries. Of concern has been rapid urbanization. 54% of the total population in 1980 lived in urban areas, and 66% of the urban population is concentrated in Panama City. Another concern is the tremendous gap between the rich and the poor in Panama. In 1980, the poorest 20% of the population received only 2.7% of total income, while the richest 20% received 60.3%. Such inequality has been somewhat compensated for by above average health services, a national sanitation program to provide safe drinking water, and strong government support for public education. Female labor force participation rates are higher in urban areas, but tends to be concentrated in the low-paying service sector. To absorb additions to the labor force, the economy needs to grow by 7.5%/year.

  6. The demography of Atelopus decline: Harlequin frog survival and abundance in central Panama prior to and during a disease outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McCaffery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus are a species-rich genus of Neotropical toads that have experienced disproportionately severe population declines and extinctions caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. The genus Atelopus is of high conservation concern, but relatively little is known about the population dynamics and life history of the majority of species. We examined the demography of one population of Atelopus zeteki and two populations of A. varius in central Panama using three to six years of mark-recapture data collected prior to and during an outbreak of Bd. We estimated male survival probabilities prior to the arrival of Bd and sex-specific population sizes for these three populations using state-space Bayesian population models. Prior to the arrival of Bd, monthly apparent survival probabilities were higher for A. varius males than for A. zeteki males, and recaptures among years were low in both species. Abundance of both species varied over time and declined rapidly after the arrival of Bd. Male densities were generally greater than female densities, though female densities were higher or equivalent to males after the arrival of Bd. Estimates of survival and abundance over time may be explained by differences in the use of stream habitat by the two sexes and three populations, both during and between breeding seasons. These estimates provide key baseline population information that can be used to inform reintroductions from captive assurance colonies and studies of extant Atelopus populations as part of conservation and management programs.

  7. Panama Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Mossack Fonseca kept its clients largely on the right side of the law. Indeed, that’s entirely the point. This article for The Atlantic draws on my wealth management research to explain why most of what is revealed in the Panama Papers leak will not result in criminal prosecution for anyone...

  8. Panama Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Mossack Fonseca kept its clients largely on the right side of the law. Indeed, that’s entirely the point. This article for The Atlantic draws on my wealth management research to explain why most of what is revealed in the Panama Papers leak will not result in criminal prosecution for anyone...

  9. Panama Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Mossack Fonseca kept its clients largely on the right side of the law. Indeed, that’s entirely the point. This article for The Atlantic draws on my wealth management research to explain why most of what is revealed in the Panama Papers leak will not result in criminal prosecution for anyone......, and why government officials face nearly insurmountable obstacles to stopping the kind of financial games in which Mossack Fonseca and its counterparts engage....

  10. An assessment of the terrestrial mammal communities in forests of Central Panama, using camera-trap surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, N.F.V.; Esser, H.J.; Moreno, R.; Langevelde, van F.; Liefting, Y.; Ros Oller, D.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Carver, A.D.; Nielsen, C.K.; Jansen, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Isthmus of Panama, part of the planet’s third largest megadiversity hotspot, and connecting the faunas of North and South America, has lost more than half of its forest due to agriculture and economicdevelopment. It is unknown to what degree the remaining forest, which is fragmented and subject

  11. An assessment of the terrestrial mammal communities in forests of Central Panama, using camera-trap surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, N.F.V.; Esser, H.J.; Moreno, R.; Langevelde, van F.; Liefting, Y.; Ros Oller, D.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Carver, A.D.; Nielsen, C.K.; Jansen, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Isthmus of Panama, part of the planet’s third largest megadiversity hotspot, and connecting the faunas of North and South America, has lost more than half of its forest due to agriculture and economicdevelopment. It is unknown to what degree the remaining forest, which is fragmented and subject

  12. Linking National Parks with its Gateway Communities for Tourism Development in Central America: Nindiri, Nicaragua, Bagazit, Costa Rica and Portobelo, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre G., J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas and national parks are becoming one of the most important forms of land use in Central America. All the projections made by the World Tourism Organization seems to agree that by 2010 Central America, maybe receiving between eight and ten millions tourists, a figure that is almost twice what the region is receiving today. A study was conducted base on 369 direct field surveys conducted in three Central American communities: Bagazit gateway community to Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica, Nindiri, gateway community to Volcan Masaya National Park, Nicaragua and Portobelo, gateway community to Por-tobelo National Park, Panama. The study found that relative to the socio-demographic variables, that there were no significance differences at the 95% probability level in all four variables, age, sex, education and monthly income of the family. Educational level seems to be the socio-demographic variables affecting more the state of relations. The perception variable being has taken into account in the decision that affects the communities and responsibility to help with community problems are present in two of the three models. The perception variables related to tourism, feel trained to take care of the tourist and existence of businesses that can caters to tourist seem to be key elements in the community perception about the state of relation. Tourism related economic activities and community participation in park decisions are today and will be in the future essential elements in the shaping of community/park relations in Central America as tourism becomes a major economic sector in the region economy.

  13. Microevolution in lower Central America: genetic characterization of the Chibcha-speaking groups of Costa Rica and Panama, and a consensus taxonomy based on genetic and linguistic affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, R; Smouse, P E; Mohrenweiser, H W; Gershowitz, H; Azofeifa, J; Arias, T D; Neel, J V

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence that Amerindians have continuously occupied the lower Central American Isthmus for as long as 10,000 years. There remains some doubt about the relationships of these original colonizers to the resident peoples of this zone at the time of European contact (approximately A.D. 1500). We present new genetic data for up to 48 genetic loci for 570 members of six Chibcha-speaking tribes of lower Central America--the Boruca, Bribri, Cabecar, and Guatuso of Costa Rica and the Kuna and Teribe of Panama--and delineate the genetic affinities among the various groups (these six tribes and the Guaymi and Bokota) of lower Central America. We convert standard genetic distance metrics into a form that is linear with the effective time since divergence, and we compare the genetic distances with linguistic distances for the same groups (r = .74, P less than .001). Geographic affinity accounts for some of the genetic divergence among groups (r = .49, P less than .084) and for some of the linguistic divergence (r = .53, P less than .037), but the correspondence between geographic position and taxonomic affinity is not high. We combine all of the genetic and linguistic data to construct a synthetic overview taxonomy of the lower Central American Chibcha. Both the genetic and linguistic data exhibit hierarchical organization of tribal groups, showing a general east-to-west pattern of grouping, with greater affinities between close neighbors. The presence of private genetic variants of some antiquity within the region and their absence outside the zone, coupled with the essential absence of the DI*A polymorphism of mongoloid origin that is widespread outside the zone, argue for a relatively isolated development of the Central American Chibcha. Our results do not support the old view of lower Central America as a frontier between more advanced cultures to the north and south. Any such explanation would require recent waves of migration from outside the region, migration

  14. Strong congruence in tree and fern community turnover in response to soils and climate in central Panama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mirkka; Ferrier, Simon; Condit, Richard

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant species turnover in central Panamanian forests has been principally attributed to the effects of dispersal limitation and a strong Caribbean to Pacific gradient in rainfall seasonality. Despite marked geological heterogeneity, the role of soil variation has not been rigorously examined. 2...

  15. Panama: Owning the Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    2010, http://www.aguasdigital.com; “Preven Una Inversion Millonaria Para Un Proyecto Turistico En Una Antigua Base de EE.UU. in Panama,” EFE Agencia...www.glp.com.pa/en/mayor-alfredo-aleman-anuncio-inicio-de-construccion-de- albrook-mall/; “Grupo Los Pueblos Completo Segunda Fase de Expansion de...Centro Comercial Albrook Mall,” Grupo Los Pueblos, February 9, 2004; “Mayor Alfedo Aleman Confirmo Tercera Fase de Albrook Mall,” Grupo Los Pueblos

  16. Panama International Merchandise Mart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Interview With Reynald H.Katz PIMM is the product of one visionary’s mind, namely that of trade special- ist and entrepreneur Reynald Henry Katz who started early as a self-made businessman trading handmade jewelry. Katz’s innovative approach and talent for sales have served him well throughout his remarkable career,a ca- reer that has taken him to the United Kingdom,the United States,the Middle East and China,before eventuaUy set- tling down in Panama,In this interview,Katz speaks about how he came up with the idea for PIMM and shares with us some of his personal

  17. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    Latin America, March 29, 2010. 24 U.N. Development Program, Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la...Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo Humano , October 2009. 25 “Panama: Drug-Fueled Violence on the Increase,” Noticen, Central American & Caribbean

  18. Something unique: The Museum for Biodiversity in Panama City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Guzmán Verri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Museum for Biodiversity in Panama City is our starting point to interrogate contemporary forms of articulation between the natural sciences, architecture, and the city. This article aims to analyze the project as a set of three powers: Gehry Partners’ architecture, Bruce Mau Design Office’s environmental graphics, and the Smithsonian Institute for Tropical Research’s scientific content in conjunction with the University of Panama. It also hopes to demonstrate part of Central America’s strategy, which is to singularize the local in the global.

  19. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Quiroz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama and Panama provinces (central Panama near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  20. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  1. Area Handbook Series: Panama: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Directorate of Statistics and Census, Estadistica Panamefia, No. 970, Panama City, March 1985, 6-7. Table 4. Indigenous Population, by Province or...970. Panama City: March 1985. -. Estadistica Panamefa, Situacidn Cultural, 511 (Educacidn). Panama City: 1983. -. Panamd en Cifas: Afios 1973-1977

  2. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  3. Rica and Portobelo, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los parques nacionales y las áreas protegidas se han convertido en una de las formas de uso de la tierra más importantes en la America Central en anos recientes. Si las proyecciones de crecimiento del turismo de la Organización Mundial de Turismo son correctas, para el ano 2010, la America Central estaria recibiendo entre 8 y 10 millones de turistas, numero que representa el doble de lo que la region recibe en la actualidad. El estudio que se reporta en este trabajo consistio de 390 encuestas en tres comunidades aledanas a tres importante parques nacionales de la region. Bagazit, aledaña al Parque Nacional Palo Verde en Costa Rica, Portobelo comunidad aledaña al Parque Nacional Portobelo en Panamá y Nindiri comunidad aledaña al Parque Nacional Volcán Masaya en Nicaragua. El estudio encontró que no había diferencias significativas al nivel de 95% entre las variables socio-demográficas: edad, sexo, educación, e ingreso mensual entre las tres comunidades. El nivel educativo del entrevistado fue identificado como las variables que al parecer mas afectaba, la opinión sobre el estado de las relaciones al tercer presente en dos de los tres modelos estandarizados estimados. Las variables que median, si el trabajo desempeñado por el entrevistado estaba relacionado o no con el turismo y si en la comunidad había suficientes negocios o no que podían servir a los turistas parecen ser elemento claves, en la determinación del nivel de percepción sobre el estado de las relaciones. El turismo y las actividades económicas relacionadas a esta actividad será en el futuro inmediato elementos esenciales en el desarrollo de las relaciones comunidades / parque en la región, en la medida que la actividad se convierta en elemento clave del desarrollo económico de la América Central.

  4. Effects of Cocos Ridge Collision on the Western Caribbean: Is there a Panama Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Chichaco, E.; Abrego M, A. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Camacho, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recognized that the subduction and collision of the Cocos Ridge, a 2 km high aseismic ridge standing on >20 km thick oceanic crust of the Cocos plate, drives upper plate deformation in southern Central America. Recent studies of Global Positioning System (GPS) derived horizontal velocities relative to the Caribbean Plate showed a radial pattern centered on the Cocos Ridge axis where Cocos-Caribbean convergence is orthogonal, and margin-parallel velocities to the northwest. Models of the full three-dimensional GPS velocity field and earthquake slip vectors demonstrate low mechanical coupling along the Middle America subduction zone in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and a broad zone of high coupling beneath the Osa Peninsula, where the Cocos Ridge intersects the margin. These results suggest that Cocos Ridge collision may be the main driver for trench-parallel motion of the fore arc to the northwest and for uplift and shortening of the outer fore arc in southern Central America, whereby thickened and hence buoyant Cocos Ridge crust acts as an indenter causing the tectonic escape of the fore arc. These studies, however, were not able to constrain well the pattern of surface deformation east-southeast of the ridge axis due to a lack of GPS stations, and Cocos Ridge collision may be responsible for the kinematics and deformation of the proposed Panama block. Recent reinforcement of the GPS network in southeastern Costa Rica and Panama has increased the spatial and temporal resolution of the network and made it possible to further investigate surface deformation of southern Central America and the Panama block. We present a new regional surface velocity field for Central America from geodetic GPS data collected at 11 recently-installed and 178 existing episodic, semi-continuous, and continuous GPS sites in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. We investigate the effects of Cocos Ridge collision on the Panama block through kinematic block modeling. Published

  5. How old is the Isthmus of Panama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony G Coates,; Stallard, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Model of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama proposes that final closure occurred at 4–3 Ma. The model is based on evidence from studies of marine stratigraphy, fossil sequences, divergent molecular phylogenies, the timing of the Great American Biological Interchange (GABI), and proxies for marine paleosalinity, paleobathymetry, productivity, and paleotemperatures. The new model uses cooling of magmas in the Cretaceous to Early Miocene Central American Volcanic arc to propose Eocene emergence of the discrete structural blocks of the arc and then U/Pb dating, paleomagnetic pole rotations, and atlantic sea-floor anomalies to reconfigure the blocks for different time slices back to 25 Ma. Closure is proposed at 15 Ma, because by this time the alignment of the blocks leaves no space for trans-isthmian marine passages. We propose that the Indonesian Australian Archipelago (IAA) provides a model for the Central American arc between 15 and 3 Ma because it accounts for the extensive marine interchange between the Pacific and Indian oceans through few and narrow passages while maintaining a complete separation of the terrestrial faunas (Wallace and Lydekker lines) of the two continental platforms of Sunda and Sahul. Using the Indonesian Volcanic arc as a model, we can now accommodate the general tectonic configuration and much of the emergence of the new model, while accounting for the marine fossil record, the molecular evidence of rapid recent speciation, and the delayed Great American Biotic Interchange that the New Model fails to explain.

  6. Panama Viejo: una experiencia exitosa de gestion patrimonial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillermo Martin, Juan; de Arango, Julieta

    2013-01-01

    Desde finales de 1995 comienza la gestion del Conjunto Historico Monumental de Panama Viejo por parte del Patronato Panama Viejo, una institucion mixta, sin fines de lucro, cuyos objetivos principales...

  7. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-31

    project known as the Puebla -Panama plan. The plan, which has the goal of spurring development in the region, will improve highways, standardize customs...as couriers who transit Panama by commercial air flights. There also has been increasing domestic drug abuse, particularly among youth. Addiction...narcotics training. Howard Air Force Base in Panama provided secure staging for detection, monitoring, and intelligence collecting assets. Panama

  8. Formation of the Isthmus of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Aaron; Aguilera, Orangel; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Cione, Alberto L.; Coates, Anthony G.; Collins, Laurel S.; Coppard, Simon E.; Cozzuol, Mario A.; de Queiroz, Alan; Duque-Caro, Herman; Eytan, Ron I.; Farris, David W.; Gasparini, German M.; Grosmman, Ethan L.; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.; Johnson, Kenneth G.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Knowlton, Nancy; Leigh, Egbert G.; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S.; Lessios, Hailaos A.; Marko, Peter B.; Norris, Richard D.; Rachello-Dolmen, Paola G.; Restrepo-Moreno, Sergio A.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Stallard, Robert F.; Todd, Jonathan A.; Vermeiju, Geerat J.; Woodburne, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the Isthmus of Panama stands as one of the greatest natural events of the Cenozoic, driving profound biotic transformations on land and in the oceans. Some recent studies suggest that the Isthmus formed many millions of years earlier than the widely recognized age of approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), a result that if true would revolutionize our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary change across the Americas. To bring clarity to the question of when the Isthmus of Panama formed, we provide an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records. These independent lines of evidence converge upon a cohesive narrative of gradually emerging land and constricting seaways, with formation of the Isthmus of Panama sensu stricto around 2.8 Ma. The evidence used to support an older isthmus is inconclusive, and we caution against the uncritical acceptance of an isthmus before the Pliocene.

  9. The Cocos Ridge drives collision of Panama with northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Govers, Rob; Mora-Paez, Hector; Geirsson, Halldor; Cmacho, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The collision of the Panamanian isthmus with northwestern South America is thought to have initiated as early as Oligocene - Miocene time (23-25 Ma) based on geologic and geophysical data and paleogeographic reconstructions. This collision was driven by eastward-directed subduction beneath northwestern South America. Cocos - Caribbean convergence along the Middle America Trench, and Nazca - Caribbean oblique convergence along the South Panama Deformed Belt have resulted in complex deformation of the southwestern Caribbean since Miocene - Pliocene time. Subduction and collision of the aseismic Cocos Ridge is thought to have initiated volcanism and uplift of the Cordillera de Talamanca; 2) Quaternary migration of the volcanic arc toward the back-arc; 3) Quaternary to present deformation within the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt; 4) Quaternary to present shortening across the fore-arc Fila Costeña fold and thrust belt and back-arc North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB); 5) Quaternary to present outer fore-arc uplift of Nicoya Peninsula above the seamount domain, and the Osa and Burica peninsulas above the ridge; and 6) Pleistocene to present northwestward motion of the Central American Fore Arc (CAFA) and northeastward motion of the Panama Region. We investigate the geodynamic effects of Cocos Ridge collision on motion of the Panama Region with a new geodynamic model. The model is compared to a new 1993-2015 GPS-derived three-dimensional velocity field for the western Caribbean and northwestern South America. Specifically, we test the hypotheses that the Cocos Ridge is the main driver for upper plate deformation in the western Caribbean. Our models indicate that Cocos Ridge collision drives northwest-directed motion of the CAFA and the northeast-directed motion of the Panama Region. The Panama Region is driven into the Caribbean across the NPDB and into northwestern South America, which is also converging with the Panama Region, pushing it toward the west

  10. WATER, DEVELOPMENT AND CONFLICT IN THE PLAN PUEBLA PANAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Isabel Martínez Fuentes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the negative factors of development in the region where was placed the precedent Puebla Panama Plan (PPP, in particular issues around the geostrategic factor of water, as an important part of the current Project of Integration and Development of Mesoamerica in connection with the Sistema de Interconexión Eléctrica de los Países de América Central (SIEPAC, hydroelectric connection from Central America to Colombia. Currently, the enterprise viability catches tensions between the local and global wills, in the context of the appropriation of natural - resources and the resistance of communities opposite to adverse effects that result of the modification of the environment, in addition to the regional and local dynamics not served in the PPP and in the current PIDM.

  11. Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Kilburn, Vanessa L; Reinert, Laura K; Voyles, Jamie; Medina, Daniel; Ibáñez, Roberto; Hyatt, Alex D; Boyle, Donna G; Pask, James D; Green, David M; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2008-09-01

    Chytridiomycosis is a globally emerging disease of amphibians and the leading cause of population declines and extirpations at species-diverse montane sites in Central America. We continued long-term monitoring efforts for the presence of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and for amphibian populations at two sites in western Panama, and we began monitoring at three new sites to the east. Population declines associated with chytridiomycosis emergence were detected at Altos de Campana National Park. We also detected Bd in three species east of the Panama Canal at Soberanía National Park, and prevalence data suggests that Bd may be enzootic in the lowlands of the park. However, no infected frogs were found further east at Tortí (prevalence amphibian communities east of the canal are at risk. Precise predictions of future disease emergence events are not possible until factors underlying disease emergence, such as dispersal, are understood. However, if the fungal pathogen spreads in a pattern consistent with previous disease events in Panama, then detection of Bd at Tortí and other areas east of the Panama Canal is imminent. Therefore, development of new management strategies and increased precautions for tourism, recreation, and biology are urgently needed.

  12. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  13. Smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes and Microbotryales, Basidiomycota in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Piepenbring

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first publication dedicated to the diversity of smut fungi in Panama bases on field work, the study of herbarium specimens, and referentes taken from literatura. It includes smuts parasitizing cultivated and wild plants. The latter are mostly found in rural vegetation. Among the 24 species cites here, 14 species are recorded for the first time for Panama. One of them, Sporisorium ovarium, is observes for the first time in Central America. Entyloma spilanthis is found on the host species Acmella papposa var. macrophylla (Asteraceae for the first time. Entyloma costaricense and Entyloma ecuadorense are considered synonyms of Entyloma compositarum and Entyloma spilanthis respectively. For the new conbination Sponsorium panamensis see note at the end of this publication. Descriptions of the species are complemented by some illustrations, a checklist, and a key.Esta es la primera publicación dedicada a la diversidad de carbones en Panamá. Tiene su base en trabajo de campo, estudio de especímenes herborizados y referencias de la literatura. Se incluyen carbones patógenos de plantas cultivadas y silvestres. Las últimas se encontraron sobre todo en zonas rurales. Entre las 24 especies citadas en este estudio, 14 especies son primeros registros para Panamá y una de éstas, Sporisorium ovarium, para América Central. Se encontró Entyloma spilanthis por primera vez en la planta hospedera Acmella papposa var.macrophylla (Asteraceac. Entyloma costaricense y Entyloma ecuadorense son sinónimos de Entyloma compositarum y Entyloma spilanthis respectivamente. "Sphacelotheca" panamensis es una especie dudosa. Se complementan las descripciones de las especies con algunas ilustraciones, una lista de especies y una clave.

  14. A revision of the Yelicones species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) from Central America, with descriptions of sixteen new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quicke, D.L.J.; Chishti, M.J.K.; Basibuyuk, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Yelicones Cameron, 1887, from North and Central America is revised. Ninteen species are recognized: Y. arizonus spec. nov. from U.S.A. (Arizona) and Mexico; Y. barroci spec. nov. from Panama; Y. bicoloripes spec. nov. from Costa Rica and Panama; Y. canalensis spec. nov. from Panama; Y. con

  15. Historical biogeography of the isthmus of panama

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    About 3million years ago (Ma), the Isthmus of Panama joined the Americas, forming a land bridge over which inhabitants of each America invaded the other-the Great American Biotic Interchange. These invasions transformed land ecosystems in South and Middle America. Humans invading from Asia over 12000years ago killed most mammals over 44kg, again transforming tropical American ecosystems. As a sea barrier, the isthmus induced divergent environmental change off its two coasts-creating contrasti...

  16. Hantavirus Fever without Pulmonary Syndrome in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions. PMID:23836565

  17. Manuel Antonio Noriega. Panama kindral liigub vanglast vanglasse / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 7. sept. lk. 13. Narkootikumide salakaubaveo, väljapressimise ja rahapesu eest USA vanglas viibiva Panama endise sõjaväejuhi Manuel Antonio Noriega vabanemisest, uuest kohtuteest Prantsusmaal, Panamas tagaselja tehtud kohtuotsusest mõrvade, inimõiguste rikkumise ja korruptsiooni eest. Panama sõjalise diktaatori eluteest, võimulepääsemisest ning USA sõjalisest invasioonist 1989. aastal, mis lõpetas kindrali võimu

  18. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    strikes. Two striking workers in the banana sector were killed in clashes with police in Bocas del Toro and hundreds were injured. The strike was...White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Fact Sheets : U.S.- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement,” April 19, 2011, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov...the-press-office/2011/ 04/19/fact- sheets -us-panama-trade-promotion-agreement. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

  19. Manuel Antonio Noriega. Panama kindral liigub vanglast vanglasse / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 7. sept. lk. 13. Narkootikumide salakaubaveo, väljapressimise ja rahapesu eest USA vanglas viibiva Panama endise sõjaväejuhi Manuel Antonio Noriega vabanemisest, uuest kohtuteest Prantsusmaal, Panamas tagaselja tehtud kohtuotsusest mõrvade, inimõiguste rikkumise ja korruptsiooni eest. Panama sõjalise diktaatori eluteest, võimulepääsemisest ning USA sõjalisest invasioonist 1989. aastal, mis lõpetas kindrali võimu

  20. Integrated Chronology, Flora and Faunas, and Paleoecology of the Alajuela Formation, Late Miocene of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.; Jones, Douglas S.; Jud, Nathan A.; Moreno-Bernal, Jorge W.; Morgan, Gary S.; Portell, Roger W.; Perez, Victor J.; Moran, Sean M.; Wood, Aaron R.

    2017-01-01

    The late Miocene was an important time to understand the geological, climatic, and biotic evolution of the ancient New World tropics and the context for the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Despite this importance, upper Miocene deposits containing diverse faunas and floras and their associated geological context are rare in Central America. We present an integrated study of the geological and paleontological context and age of a new locality from Lago Alajuela in northern Panama (Caribbean side) containing late Miocene marine and terrestrial fossils (plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates) from the Alajuela Formation. These taxa indicate predominantly estuarine and shallow marine paleoenvironments, along with terrestrial influences based on the occurrence of land mammals. Sr-isotope ratio analyses of in situ scallop shells indicate an age for the Alajuela Formation of 9.77 ± 0.22 Ma, which also equates to a latest Clarendonian (Cl3) North American Land Mammal Age. Along with the roughly contemporaneous late Miocene Gatun and Lago Bayano faunas in Panama, we now have the opportunity to reconstruct the dynamics of the Central America seaway that existed before final closure coincident with formation of the Isthmus of Panama. PMID:28107398

  1. Integrated Chronology, Flora and Faunas, and Paleoecology of the Alajuela Formation, Late Miocene of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J; Jones, Douglas S; Jud, Nathan A; Moreno-Bernal, Jorge W; Morgan, Gary S; Portell, Roger W; Perez, Victor J; Moran, Sean M; Wood, Aaron R

    2017-01-01

    The late Miocene was an important time to understand the geological, climatic, and biotic evolution of the ancient New World tropics and the context for the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Despite this importance, upper Miocene deposits containing diverse faunas and floras and their associated geological context are rare in Central America. We present an integrated study of the geological and paleontological context and age of a new locality from Lago Alajuela in northern Panama (Caribbean side) containing late Miocene marine and terrestrial fossils (plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates) from the Alajuela Formation. These taxa indicate predominantly estuarine and shallow marine paleoenvironments, along with terrestrial influences based on the occurrence of land mammals. Sr-isotope ratio analyses of in situ scallop shells indicate an age for the Alajuela Formation of 9.77 ± 0.22 Ma, which also equates to a latest Clarendonian (Cl3) North American Land Mammal Age. Along with the roughly contemporaneous late Miocene Gatun and Lago Bayano faunas in Panama, we now have the opportunity to reconstruct the dynamics of the Central America seaway that existed before final closure coincident with formation of the Isthmus of Panama.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Pile, Edwin; García, Anabel; Pérez, Alexander; Pérez, Dimas; Nguyen, Felicia K.; de la Guardia, Valli; Mcleod, Rima; Caballero, Zuleima

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water) were associated with seropositivity. PMID:28287391

  3. United States Intervention in Panama: The Battle Continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-11

    to establish a democratic system of government. Few reflected on the 12 prior U. S. interventions that proved counterproductive to U. S. and Panama’s...ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS One year following Operation Just Cause, the status of Panama’s budding democratic system and its new government are uncertain

  4. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section 550.714 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart,...

  5. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...-140; RM-11683, DA 11-1735] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of WJHG-TV, channel 7, Panama City, Florida...)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara...

  6. Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

    This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

  7. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    willing to locate in a former banana plantation. Two initiatives were controversial: a six-year moratorium on collective bargaining rights and the... Sheets : U.S.-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement, April 19, 2011. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement Congressional Research Service 31

  8. 77 FR 77035 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia... Register of December 4, 2012 regarding the U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama May 13.... Commercial Service Colombia, Tel: 57-1-2752519, Email: carlos.suarez@trade.gov ; or Enrique Tellez,...

  9. Poverty and social exclusion in the context of the Puebla- Panama plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Furlong Z

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Integration processes are a fact within the neoliberal context, and the Puebla-Panama Plan (PPP is yet to prove its worth as a mechanism to solve social inequality, where the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA and the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA have failed.- In those integration schemes, neither improving living conditions of the population in the region nor unifying Central American countries with the south of Mexico was a starting point. The incorporation of communities, peoples and civil society organizations in the design of integration processes will turn them into sustainable projects and will prevent the disintegration of communities, cultures and the loss of biodiversity.

  10. Evolution of the Ishtmus of Panama: biological, paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The rise of the Isthmus of Panama has been the product of small-scale geological processes that, however, have had worldwide repercussions. Four major events have been linked to the rise of the Isthmus including 1) the onset of the Thermohaline circulation (TCH), 2) the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, 3) the birth of the Caribbean Sea, and 4) the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The available evidence indicates that there is a strong link between the closure of Central American Seaway (CAS) and the onset of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (a precursor of THC), but at 10 Ma rather than at 3.5 Ma as it was assumed before. There are not evidences of a connection between the full emergence of the Isthmus at 3.5 Ma and the onset of the NHG. There are strong evidences that the full emergence of the Isthmus at 3.5 Ma changed the oceanography of the Caribbean Sea to its modern conditions, although the role of additional variables into Pleistocene Caribbean Sea conditions still need to be evaluated, including the changes in the climate of the Pleistocene and the cessation of the freshwater flow of several South American rivers into the Caribbean. GABI is more complex that often assumed and it seems that variables other than a continuous terrestrial Isthmus have controlled the direction, timing and speed of migrations. The building of Panamanian landscape can be summarized in four phases, 1) a late Eocene large island in central Panama and the Azuero Peninsula, 2) an early Miocene large scale generation of terrestrial landscapes in Central America that connected central Panama with North America, 3) a full closure of CAS at 10 Ma, interrupting the exchange of deep waters between Caribbean and Pacific, and generating most of the landscape across the Isthmus. Exchange of shallow waters continued until 3.5 Ma, albeit intermittently. 4) A continuous terrestrial landscape across the Isthmus over the past 3.5 Ma.

  11. Introduction of studio physics teaching in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2013-01-01

    Physics Studio teaching was recently introduced at an international and multicultural academic program of a U.S. university in Panama. The results of introducing and implementing studio-style teaching on the conceptual understanding of calculus-based introductory physics have been measured by comparing before and during studio implementation. The research was carried on over the last five years in different semesters. The measurement tool was the Force Concept Inventory. The initial learning stage of the incoming diverse students has been found to be at a significantly lower level than generally reported in the U.S. The normalized gain in conceptual understanding was significantly larger than in the former traditional system, and has become consistent in the last semesters. Multicultural aspects that may affect the entry level and performance enhancement are discussed.

  12. Panama välismajanduspoliitilised valikud / Sten Schwede

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwede, Sten

    2003-01-01

    Panama Vabariigi suhtelise isoleerituse majanduslikest põhjustest. Analüüsi aluseks on regiooni majandusintegratsioonis toimunud arengud 1960. aastast alates. Tabel: Tööstuse osakaal sisemajanduse kogutoodangust Ladina-Ameerikas aastatel 1945-1999 (%)

  13. Fish survey data from Uva Island reef, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines an eastern Pacific fish assemblage associated with a 2.5 hectare coral reef located within the boundaries of Coiba National Park, Panama. From...

  14. Panama välismajanduspoliitilised valikud / Sten Schwede

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwede, Sten

    2003-01-01

    Panama Vabariigi suhtelise isoleerituse majanduslikest põhjustest. Analüüsi aluseks on regiooni majandusintegratsioonis toimunud arengud 1960. aastast alates. Tabel: Tööstuse osakaal sisemajanduse kogutoodangust Ladina-Ameerikas aastatel 1945-1999 (%)

  15. [Syllinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta) of the Parque Nacional de Coiba, Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, M; San Martín, G; López, E

    2001-03-01

    Four expeditions were made to Coiba National Park between 1996 and 1998 to characterize this part of the poorly known Panamian Pacific polychaete fauna. The samples were collected by SCUBA diving, either by removing 4 kg blocks of dead coral (Pocillopora sp.) or scraping off 25 x 25 cm quadrats of Telesto multiflora or algae (Dyctiota cf. flavellata, Padina cf. durvillaei and another currently unidentified species). This paper deals with the Syllinae from hard substrates. Twenty-two species belonging to six genera of the subfamily Syllinae Grube, 1850 (Syllidae: Polychaeta) are reported. A new species, Syllis castroviejoi, is described. Four species are newly reported for the Eastern Pacific: Syllis beneliahuae (Campoy & Alquézar, 1982), S. botosaneanui (Hartmann-Schröder, 1973), S. corallicola Verrill, 1900 and S. garciai (Campoy, 1982), and, likewise, two species are first reports for the Central American Pacific coast: Branchiosyllis pacifica Rioja, 1941 and Syllis truncata Haswell, 1920. Two species, Syllis magna (Westheide, 1974) and S. pigmentata (Chamberlin, 1919), are newly reported for Panama.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Panama: Origin of Non-B Subtypes in Samples Collected from 2007 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Bello, Gonzalo; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A.; González, Claudia; García-Morales, Claudia; Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Pascale, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Americas is mainly dominated by HIV subtype B. However, countries of South America and the Caribbean have recently reported changes in their circulating HIV-1 genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of the HIV-1 epidemic in Panama by the analysis of 655 polymerase gene (pol) sequences that were obtained from HIV-infected Panamanians diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from recently infected, antiretroviral drug-naïve and treatment-experienced subjects since mid-2007 to 2013. Viral RNA from plasma was extracted and sequences of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase genes were obtained. Bootscanning and phylogenetic methods were used for HIV subtyping and to trace the putative origin of non-B subtype strains. Our results showed that HIV-1 infections in Panama are dominated by subtype B (98.9%). The remaining 1.1% is represented by a diverse collection of recombinant variants including: three URFs_BC, one CRF20_BG, and one CRF28/29_BF, in addition to one subtype F1 and one subtype C, none of which were previously reported in Panama. The non-B subtype variants detected in Panama were probably introduced from Brazil (subtype F1 and CRF28/29_BF), Cuba (CRF20_BG), Dominican Republic (URFs_BC) and India (subtype C). Panama is the geographical vertex that connects the North with South America and the Caribbean through trade and cultural relations, which may explain the observed introductions of non-B subtype HIV-1 variants from both the Caribbean and South America into this Central American country. PMID:24454808

  17. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Panama: origin of non-B subtypes in samples collected from 2007 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxelis Mendoza

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Americas is mainly dominated by HIV subtype B. However, countries of South America and the Caribbean have recently reported changes in their circulating HIV-1 genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of the HIV-1 epidemic in Panama by the analysis of 655 polymerase gene (pol sequences that were obtained from HIV-infected Panamanians diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from recently infected, antiretroviral drug-naïve and treatment-experienced subjects since mid-2007 to 2013. Viral RNA from plasma was extracted and sequences of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase genes were obtained. Bootscanning and phylogenetic methods were used for HIV subtyping and to trace the putative origin of non-B subtype strains. Our results showed that HIV-1 infections in Panama are dominated by subtype B (98.9%. The remaining 1.1% is represented by a diverse collection of recombinant variants including: three URFs_BC, one CRF20_BG, and one CRF28/29_BF, in addition to one subtype F1 and one subtype C, none of which were previously reported in Panama. The non-B subtype variants detected in Panama were probably introduced from Brazil (subtype F1 and CRF28/29_BF, Cuba (CRF20_BG, Dominican Republic (URFs_BC and India (subtype C. Panama is the geographical vertex that connects the North with South America and the Caribbean through trade and cultural relations, which may explain the observed introductions of non-B subtype HIV-1 variants from both the Caribbean and South America into this Central American country.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Panama: origin of non-B subtypes in samples collected from 2007 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Bello, Gonzalo; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; González, Claudia; García-Morales, Claudia; Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Pascale, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Americas is mainly dominated by HIV subtype B. However, countries of South America and the Caribbean have recently reported changes in their circulating HIV-1 genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of the HIV-1 epidemic in Panama by the analysis of 655 polymerase gene (pol) sequences that were obtained from HIV-infected Panamanians diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from recently infected, antiretroviral drug-naïve and treatment-experienced subjects since mid-2007 to 2013. Viral RNA from plasma was extracted and sequences of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase genes were obtained. Bootscanning and phylogenetic methods were used for HIV subtyping and to trace the putative origin of non-B subtype strains. Our results showed that HIV-1 infections in Panama are dominated by subtype B (98.9%). The remaining 1.1% is represented by a diverse collection of recombinant variants including: three URFs_BC, one CRF20_BG, and one CRF28/29_BF, in addition to one subtype F1 and one subtype C, none of which were previously reported in Panama. The non-B subtype variants detected in Panama were probably introduced from Brazil (subtype F1 and CRF28/29_BF), Cuba (CRF20_BG), Dominican Republic (URFs_BC) and India (subtype C). Panama is the geographical vertex that connects the North with South America and the Caribbean through trade and cultural relations, which may explain the observed introductions of non-B subtype HIV-1 variants from both the Caribbean and South America into this Central American country.

  19. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The decreased productivity levels in crop production as a consequence of disease infection have been a great concern amongst agricultural communities. A similar threat is facing the banana-cultivating community due to Panama disease. Panama disease...

  20. Bird communities of natural and modified habitats in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, L.J.; Petit, D.R.; Christian, D.G.; Powell, H.D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Only a small proportion of land can realistically be protected as nature reserves and thus conservation efforts also must focus on the ecological value of agroecosystems and developed areas surrounding nature reserves. In this study, avian communities were surveyed in 11 habitat types in central Panama, across a gradient from extensive forest to intensive agricultural land uses, to examine patterns of species richness and abundance and community composition. Wooded habitats, including extensive and fragmented forests, shade coffee plantations, and residential areas supported the most species and individuals. Nearctic-Neotropical migratory species were most numerous in lowland forest fragments, shade coffee, and residential areas. Introduced Pinus caribbea and sugar cane plantations supported the fewest species compared to all other habitats. Cattle pastures left fallow for less than two years supported more than twice as many total species as actively grazed pastures, such that species richness in fallow pastures was similar to that found in wooded habitats. Community similarities were relatively low among all habitat types (none exceeding the observed 65% similarity between extensive and fragmented lowland forests), but communities in shade coffee and residential areas were 43% and 54% similar to lowland forest fragments, respectively. Fallow pastures and residential areas shared 60% of their species. Bird communities in shade coffee and residential areas were characterized by higher proportions of frugivorous and nectarivorous species than in native forests. These same guilds also were better represented in fallow than in grazed pastures. Raptors and piscivorous species were most prevalent in cattle pastures and rice fields. These results, though based upon only species richness and abundance, demonstrate that many human-altered habitats have potential ecological value for birds, and conservation efforts in tropical areas should focus greater attention on

  1. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement--Panama (DFARS Case 2012-D044) AGENCY... implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade... Panama Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The FTA provides for-- Waiver of the applicability of the Buy American...

  2. 77 FR 69723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Panama AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... implement the United States-- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free... Promotion Agreement is designated in the FAR as the Panama Free Trade Agreement (FTA). This FTA provides for...

  3. 78 FR 37695 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... 9000-AM43 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama AGENCY: Department of... Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non... Panama to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country'' in multiple locations in the FAR. The Panama...

  4. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  5. [Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gracia, Carlos; O'Dea, Aaron; Rodríguez, Félix; D'Croz, Luis

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of the marine communities along the Pacific coast of Central America, may have changed in response to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. To evaluate the effect of the Aseismic Cocos Ridge (DAC) subduction on the marine benthic communities, we reconstructed benthic assemblages from Neogene fossiliferous formations in Burica and Nicoya peninsulas of Panama and Costa Rica. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions were reconstructed by comparing community structure from bulk fossil samples with dredge collections from modern Tropical American seas, using principal component analysis. Our results indicate that during the early Pliocene, before the closing of the Isthmus, some oceanic islands existed with moderate upwelling in the Burica region. After the closure, during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene the collision of the DAC caused an uplift of the seafloor, where water depth of 2 300m became shallow waters of less than 40m depth. Meanwhile, upwelling intensified in the open ocean the uplift that had formed small islands in coastal areas of Burica, creating protected areas and limiting the upwelling effect that was given in open ocean. The subduction of the DAC continued until the islands were joined to the mainland and gradually disappeared, allowing the return of the upwelling. During the middle Pleistocene a second process of accelerated uplift with speeds of 8m/1000 years provoked again the elevation of the seafloor and later the elevation of the Talamanca Range. The new range formed a barrier that blocked the passage of the Trade winds, created new ecological conditions and optimized and allowed the growth of the best coral reefs in the coasts of the tropical Eastern Pacific (POT) between Panama and Costa Rica.

  6. The role of temperature and humidity on seasonal influenza in tropical areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina P Soebiyanto

    Full Text Available The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama.Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009. Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31 and 1.32 (1.08-1.63 and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93 and 1.97 (1.34-2.93, but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86 and 0.79 (0.69-0.91. Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91 whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09 and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14. In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9.The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific humidity that were lower than the

  7. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  8. Questing Amblyomma mixtum and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (Acari: Ixodidae) Infected with Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" from the Natural Environment in Panama Canal Basin, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, Angélica M Castro; S, Gleidys G García; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Aguilar, Ana; Castillo, Juan; Gabster, Amanda; Trejos, Diomedes; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Bermúdez C, Sergio E

    2015-12-01

    This work emphasizes the detection of Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" in questing Haemaphysalis juxtakochi and Amblyomma mixtum. From February 2009 to December 2012, questing ticks were collected from the vegetation and leaf-litter of four protected forests and two grassy areas around the Panama Canal basin. DNA was extracted from Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma pecarium, Amblyomma tapirellum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, and unidentified immature Amblyomma. Specific primers of citrate synthase gene gltA were used to detect and identify the rickettsiae. Amplicons with the expected band size were purified and sequenced. DNA of C. "R. amblyommii" was found in A. mixtum, H. juxtakochi and Amblyomma immatures. To our knowledge, these finding represent the first report of C. "R. amblyommii" in free-living ticks in the wilderness of Central America.

  9. Epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama. III. Endemic persistence of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1976-01-01

    Endemic persistence of cutaneous leishmaniasis is described in El Aguacate, a community established in the forest of central Panama about 75 years ago. Physiographic pecularities partially isolate El Aguacate from other villages in the region. Some of the original forest environment has been preserved and man-biting species of phlebotomine sandflies were abundant as was the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni, the principal reservoir host of Leishmania braziliensis in Panama. The inhabitants, as well as their dogs, were examined for natural leishmaniasis in 1969 and 1973. Mammals and phlebotomine sandflies were collected from 1968 to 1973 in a search for reservoir hosts and potential vectors of the disease. Similar studies were undertaken in two nearby villages during 1968 and 1969. L. braziliensis has persisted for many years in El Aguacate, and infection is acquired during childhood. Dogs also were found naturally infected, and the two-toed sloth showed yearly infection rates up to 47.8%. Parasites were demonstrated from a night monkey, Aotus trivirgatus.

  10. Ark and Archive: Making a Place for Long-Term Research on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Megan

    2015-12-01

    Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, may be the most studied tropical forest in the world. A 1,560-hectare island created by the flooding of the Panama Canal, BCI became a nature reserve and biological research station in 1923. Contemporaries saw the island as an "ark" preserving a sample of primeval tropical nature for scientific study. BCI was not simply "set aside," however. The project of making it a place for science significantly reshaped the island through the twentieth century. This essay demonstrates that BCI was constructed specifically to allow long-term observation of tropical organisms--their complex behaviors, life histories, population dynamics, and changing species composition. An evolving system of monitoring and information technology transformed the island into a living scientific "archive," in which the landscape became both an object and a repository of scientific knowledge. As a research site, BCI enabled a long-term, place-based form of collective empiricism, focused on the study of the ecology of a single tropical island. This essay articulates tropical ecology as a "science of the archive" in order to examine the origins of practices of environmental surveillance that have become central to debates about global change and conservation.

  11. 76 FR 52544 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 30303- 30305, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0002) a proposal \\1... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD16 Importation of Peppers From... peppers from Panama into the United States without treatment. Conditions of entry to which the...

  12. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  13. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  14. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  15. Evidence of Multiple Flank Collapse at Volcan Baru, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J. A.; Rose, W. I.

    2009-12-01

    Michigan Tech's Peace Corps Master's International program (PCMI) in Geological Hazards has enabled several long-term investigations of active volcanoes in Latin America. To contribute to volcanic hazard assessments in Panama and achieve the goals defined by the PCMI program, we developed this debris avalanche project to address outstanding questions regarding Volcan Baru's most devastating event - massive slope failure of the western flank. Relying on basic mapping tools as well as the 2007 USGS Open-File Report focusing on hazard assessments of Panama's youngest and potentially active volcano, identification of the debris avalanche deposits (DAD) required detailed field investigations to determine the limits of the units. Extending across an area larger than 600 km2, field strategies were developed based on outcrop exposures within drainages and road-cuts. Aerial photos and DEMs of Baru's nested craters were interpreted by earlier scientists as the remains of two collapsed flanks. The results from in-depth field traverses provide several important discoveries: paleosols and sharp contacts within the stratigraphy indicate multiple DAD, deeply weathered hummocks red-flag the deposits more than 50-km away from Baru's crater, and high-quality radiocarbon samples (up to 45-cm long fragments of entrained wood) lie in the distal reaches of the debris flow area. During the 2008-2009 field seasons, we received assistance from the University of Panama, Civil Protection, and Panama's National Institute of Geography. Support from local experts and feedback from professional scientists of the Smithsonian Institution and Costa Rica's Institute of Electricity were invaluable. The 2-year investment in volcanic hazard studies has brought together resources from several countries as well as fresh data that will benefit the residents and emergency management officials of Panama. Jigsaw fractured clasts lie within Volcan Baru's debris avalanche deposits more than 28 km south of the

  16. Historical biogeography of the Isthmus of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Egbert G; O'Dea, Aaron; Vermeij, Geerat J

    2014-02-01

    About 3 million years ago (Ma), the Isthmus of Panama joined the Americas, forming a land bridge over which inhabitants of each America invaded the other-the Great American Biotic Interchange. These invasions transformed land ecosystems in South and Middle America. Humans invading from Asia over 12000 years ago killed most mammals over 44 kg, again transforming tropical American ecosystems. As a sea barrier, the isthmus induced divergent environmental change off its two coasts-creating contrasting ecosystems through differential extinction and diversification. Approximately 65 Ma invading marsupials and ungulates of North American ancestry, and xenarthrans of uncertain provenance replaced nearly all South America's non-volant mammals. There is no geological evidence for a land bridge at that time. Together with rodents and primates crossing from Africa 42 to 30 Ma, South America's mammals evolved in isolation until the interchange's first heralds less than 10 Ma. Its carnivores were ineffective marsupials. Meanwhile, North America was invaded by more competitive Eurasian mammals. The Americas had comparable expanses of tropical forest 55 Ma; later, climate change confined North American tropical forest to a far smaller area. When the isthmus formed, North American carnivores replaced their marsupial counterparts. Although invaders crossed in both directions, North American mammals spread widely, diversified greatly, and steadily replaced South American open-country counterparts, unused to effective predators. Invading South American mammals were less successful. South America's birds, bats, and smaller rainforest mammals, equally isolated, mostly survived invasion. Its vegetation, enriched by many overseas invaders, remained intact. This vegetation resists herbivory effectively. When climate permitted, South America's rainforest, with its bats, birds and mammals, spread to Mexico. Present-day tropical American vegetation is largely zoned by trade

  17. 77 FR 71778 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogotá, Columbia and Panama City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... airport modernization, sea and river port developments, and rail line upgrades. In addition, most major... and/or site visits. Panama and Bogota, Colombia. Travel to Bogota in late afternoon/early evening. Wednesday, May 15, 2013, Bogota, Market Briefing. Colombia. Matchmaking appointments. Networking...

  18. [Little epidemic caused by Salmonella panama (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M; Licht, W; Richter, M

    1977-05-01

    Between 8. 1. 1976 and 10. 8. 1976 16 new or premature born children got a gastroenteritis due to salmonella panama. All these children were together in one pediatric ward of the hospital. Most of them came directly for the labour ward or from the newborn-ward. They had antibiotic therapy due to the indication of the mother or the child. It was impossible to fine the source of the salmonella infection, therefore, finally the ward was closed. After radical desinfection new patients came to the ward. Again they were infected with salmonella panama. Now it became clear that contaminated milk (Humanan-Heilnahrung) was the source of infections. Most papers mention a mild benign course of the infections. In contrary we could see severe conditions dependent on the pre-damage of the child or his reduced immunity. The minimal number of germs of dietic food products needs to be examinated.

  19. Genetic composition and connectivity of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hunter, Margaret; Guzmán, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama was studied using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (D’loop). No genetic information has been published to date for Panamanian populations. Due to the secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N=20), carcass tissue (N=4) and bone (N=4) samples. However, after DNA processing only 10 samples provided good quality DNA for sequencing (3 fecal, 4 tissue and 3 bone samples). We found three haplotypes in total; two of these haplotypes are reported for the first time, J02 (N=3) and J03 (N=4), and one J01 was previously published (N=3). Genetic diversity showed similar values to previous studies conducted in other Caribbean regions with moderate values of nucleotide diversity (π= 0.00152) and haplotipic diversity (Hd= 0.57). Connectivity assessment was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance and genetic differentiation between San San population and other manatee populations previously studied. The J01 haplotype found in the Panamanian population is shared with populations in the Caribbean mainland and the Gulf of Mexico showing a reduced differentiation corroborated with Fst value between HSSPS and this region of 0.0094. In contrast, comparisons between our sequences and populations in the Eastern Caribbean (South American populations) and North Western Caribbean showed fewer similarities (Fst =0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate Panamanian populations into the Belize and Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings will be a baseline for future studies and comparisons with manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results should be considered to inform management decisions

  20. Adoption of Maize Conservation Tillage in Azuero, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    de Herrera, Adys Pereira; Sain, Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    An aggressive research and validation program launched in 1984 in Azuero, Panama, yielded a recommendation advocating zero tillage for maize production. Ten years later, maize farmers in Azuero used three land preparation methods: conventional tillage, zero tillage, and minimum tillage (an adaptation of the zero tillage technology). This study aimed to quantify the adoption of zero and minimum tillage for maize in Azuero; identify factors influencing adoption of the different land preparation...

  1. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  2. "Estoy viejo" [I'm old]: internalized ageism as self-referential, negative, ageist speech in the Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Irma D; Stripling, Ashley M; Heesacker, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Ageism is a form of discrimination that anyone may experience at some point in life (Palmore 2004). Yet ageism is rarely the focus of behavioral research (Nelson 2005). Age can be understood as a social construct that reflects social norms (Lemus and Exposito 2005). Based on our review of the published literature, there were two studies on perceptions of aging among Latina/os in the United States (Beyene et al. 2002; Sarkisian et al. 2006). These studies investigated perceptions and expectations of aging among older Latina/o adults rather than direct experiences of ageism. It is important to note that Latina/os are not a homogenous group and that there are within-group differences. For this reason, this study explored internalized, negative ageism specifically in the Republic of Panama. Although Panama has unique characteristics, it also reflects Central American culture and therefore should provide initial insights regarding Central American self-referential, negative, ageist talk, which we labeled "Estoy viejo." Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique was used to access and understand participants' (ages 18-65) negative ageist talk (n=159). Participants who reported engaging in "Estoy viejo." (46.3% of those sampled) were significantly younger than participants who did not (p< .05). One potential explanation is that younger participants may have been more influenced by North American culture and its strongly negative ageist stereotypes than older participants, who may have identified primarily with Central American culture.

  3. Panama Canal Zone. Cerro Tigre, Fort Gulick, Gamboa Met Van No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the following meteorological data collected at sites within Fort Gulick and Cerro Tigre , Panama during December 1970: Atmospheric precipitation; Atmospheric temperature; Wind; Atmospheric pressure.

  4. Quaternary outer fore-arc deformation and uplift inboard of the Panama Triple Junction, Burica Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; La Femina, Peter; Davidson, Daniel; Teletzke, Allison

    2011-05-01

    The Panama Triple Junction (Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean) represents the point that abruptly separates the thick and rapidly subducting Cocos plate to the northwest from the thin and obliquely subducting Nazca plate to the southeast along the Central American convergent margin. New structural and geomorphic analyses on the Burica Peninsula, an outer fore-arc peninsula located only ˜100 km inboard the Panama Triple Junction, reveal that the peninsula is dominated primarily by contractional deformation along three listric thrust faults that root in the underlying plate boundary. The geometry and spatial distribution of these thrusts indicate that this deformation occurs primarily in response to the change in crustal thickness occurring as a result of eastern migration of the flank of the Cocos Ridge coeval with migration of the Panama Triple Junction at a rate of ˜55 mm/yr to the southeast. Mapping and detailed elevation surveys reveal eight marine terraces on the peninsula with a distribution of inner edge elevations indicating that uplift is spatially uniform from north to south along strike in this area. However, terraces along the northwest part of the peninsula are offset across major thrust faults. Age control provided by 14C, OSL and soil chronosequences indicate that the terraces within the easternmost portion of the peninsula range in age from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 to Holocene, a result that indicates that this portion of the peninsula is younger than ˜60 ka. Time-averaged uplift rates calculated from marine terraces and other Quaternary marine deposits yield consistent uplift rates that range between 2.1 ± 0.1 and 7.7 ± 0.5 mm/yr for samples older than 1 ka and between 6.9 ± 1.0 and 19.3 ± 8.0 mm/yr for samples younger than 1 ka. We interpret this temporal distribution in uplift rates to suggest that the eight terraces preserved on the peninsula are produced coseismically wherein the anomalously high uplift rates calculated from the youngest samples

  5. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  6. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects...

  7. A Variationist Account of Voice Onset Time among Bilingual West Indians in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Delano Sydney

    2012-01-01

    The present study is concerned with language contact between Creole English and Spanish spoken by bilingual West Indians who live in Panama City, Panama. The goal of this study is to examine the speech patterns of monolinguals of Creole English and Spanish and Spanish-Creole English bilinguals in the local communities of this region, by employing…

  8. Acanthaster: effect on coral reef growth in panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P W

    1973-05-04

    Analysis of data on coral abundance and growth, and the population size (26 individuals per hectare) and feeding rate of Acanthaster indicates that Pocillopora reefs on the Pacific coast of Panama are undergoing vigorous growth in the presence of this predator. Prediction of the effects of a population increase in Acanthaster to plague proportions (2.5 times that presently observed) suggests that reefs could still maintain a positive growth. However, Acanthaster at ten times the present population density would lead to rapid destruction of reefs. It is argued that coral destruction due to Acanthaster represents only one of several factors affecting coral reef progression.

  9. The Media and Operation Just Cause in Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Wassim Daghrir

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the Cold War was ‘agonizing’ and the ‘new world order’ taking a life of its own, the government of the US found new arguments in favor of its December 1989 invasion of Panama. Like any other military action, operation ‘Just Cause’ was preceded by a well-orchestrated public relations campaign meant to gain the support of the US Congress, press, and public opinion and, thus, to generate a national consensus over the administration’s most crucial decisions. As far as the press of ...

  10. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  11. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction..., International Trade Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador... from the USFCS, including in Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador. Each trade mission stop...

  12. 78 FR 15346 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Appointments. Amcham or other Luncheon Speech. Panama City, Panama Commercial Opportunity Overview. Panama.... Commercial Setting Brazil The Federative Republic of Brazil is Latin America's biggest economy and is the..., Business development mission Orientation. Brazil. U.S Government Trade Finance Briefing. Brazil...

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics and development of the Changuinola peat deposit of northwestern Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.; Ramirez, A.

    1987-08-01

    A peat deposit occupying over 80 square kilometers, and averaging 8 meters in thickness, was discovered on the Caribbean coast of northwestern Panama near the town of Changuinola. This deposit occurs inland (behind) the present beach-barrier shoreline. It is thickest in the center and thins toward all edges (as if domed). The surface vegetation in the central regions consists primarily of ombrotrophic plants (especially sedges, grasses, Sphagnum, Sagittaria, and various scattered shrubs). Toward the edges, the deposit has a surface cover of more minerotrophic plants (such as swamp-forest trees, ferns, and palms). Petrographic/botanical analysis of the deposit with depth reveals the presence of five peat types (swamp-forest, sedge-grass-fern, Sagittaria et al., Nymphaea et al., and Rhizophora). Typically peats of the thick, central portions of the deposit are very low in ash and sulfur (less than 2% ash and 0.3% sulfur). Ash contents tend to increase abruptly at the base and more gradually toward the edges of the deposit and sulfur contents increasing gradually toward the ocean and bay. Vertical and lateral variations in botanical, chemical, and physical properties of this deposit can be related to factors that have controlled: (1) the surrounding rocks and water chemistry; (2) the source vegetation; and (3) the environments in which these source ingredients were deposited. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Enzootic Arbovirus Surveillance in Forest Habitat and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel Isolates of Gamboa Virus in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Gillian; Loaiza, Jose R; Pongsiri, Montira J; Sanjur, Oris I; Pecor, James E; Auguste, Albert J; Kramer, Laura D

    2016-04-01

    Landscape changes occurring in Panama, a country whose geographic location and climate have historically supported arbovirus transmission, prompted the hypothesis that arbovirus prevalence increases with degradation of tropical forest habitats. Investigations at four variably degraded sites revealed a diverse array of potential mosquito vectors, several of which are known vectors of arbovirus pathogens. Overall, 675 pools consisting of 25,787 mosquitoes and representing 29 species from nine genera (collected at ground and canopy height across all habitats) were screened for cytopathic viruses on Vero cells. We detected four isolates of Gamboa virus (family:Bunyaviridae; genus:Orthobunyavirus) from pools of Aedeomyia squamipennis captured at canopy level in November 2012. Phylogenetic characterization of complete genome sequences shows the new isolates to be closely related to each other with strong evidence of reassortment among the M segment of Panamanian Gamboa isolates and several other viruses of this group. At the site yielding viruses, Soberanía National Park in central Panama, 18 mosquito species were identified, and the predominant taxa included A. squamipennis,Coquillettidia nigricans, and Mansonia titillans.

  15. Strong Input and Removal of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Affect Dissolved Nd Isotope Composition of Seawater in the Panama Basin and the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Bosse, L. M.; Grasse, P.; Pahnke, K.; Hathorne, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distributions of dissolved REEs and Nd isotopes are controlled by inputs from land and water mass mixing. We present new data from the Panama Basin in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) extending previous studies in the frame of the German SFB 754 project. The samples were taken following GEOTRACES protocols along a section from close to the Panamanian coast into the deep Panama Basin during FS Meteor cruise M90 in October/November 2012. Elevated Nd concentrations near 13 pmol/kg are found at the surface, which rapidly decrease to a subsurface minimum of 8 pmol/kg near 100m depth and then increase with water depth reaching maximum values of 18 pmol/kg at 3000 m water depth. However, these deep water concentrations are more than a factor of 2 lower than observed for North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW), which is the prevailing Pacific deep water mass at the sampling locations. All the REEs are depleted compared to NPDW suggesting that efficient uptake and scavenging dominate compared to release from remineralized particles. The surface waters show the most radiogenic Nd isotope values (ɛNd = +4.3) so far obtained globally. In combination with the Nd concentration maxima at the surface this suggests riverine dissolved and fine grained particulate inputs from southern Panama and Colombia where highly radiogenic volcanic rocks are exposed. Elevated ɛNd values above -1 in the entire water column are more radiogenic than in NPDW in the Central Pacific and in waters further south in the EEP, which confirms that release of REEs from the sinking volcanogenic material affects the entire water column. These data clearly document that significant inputs from land combined with efficient scavenging and removal in surface and deep waters control the distribution of REEs and Nd isotopes in the Panama Basin and the adjacent EEP (Grasse et al., 2012), which also has important implications for the distribution of other trace metals.

  16. Long-Period Cultural Noise: The Panama Canal Seiche

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Hutt, C. R.; Ringler, A.; Gee, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, the spectral composition of human generated or “cultural” seismic noise is dominated by short-period (SP) energy (Canal. The LP seismic energy has a strong diurnal signal, with highest power during the daytime when traffic through the Panama Canal is the heaviest, ~1 ship every 10 minutes. The lowest power occurs during the late-night/early-morning hours, when container ship traffic slows to ~1 ship every hour. Spectral power observations are corroborated with data recorded by a water-level meter located approximately 80m from the seismic station, indicating that water waves are the primary source of the LP seismic signal. We show that the observed water waves are a “seiche” induced by the wakes of container ship traffic in the canal. As passing ships disturb the water surface, standing waves are induced by the summation of propagating waves, traveling in opposite directions, due to reflections off the opposite shorelines of the Panama Canal. Vertical harmonic motion results as gravity seeks to restore the horizontal surface of the body of water to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. The longest natural-period of a seiche in an enclosed body of water is a function of basin depth and length and can be computed by a common oceanographic relationship, known as the Merian formula. For a reasonable range of Panama Canal dimensions in the vicinity of BCI, (depths from 15 to 30m and lengths from 700 to 1500m), the predicted dominant period of a seiche is between 100-200s, consistent with our seismic spectral power observations. Small rhythmic seiches are always present in disturbed enclosed bodies of water and are most often caused by either meteorological effects (wind and atmospheric pressure variations), and/or seismic activity (earthquakes, tsunamis). Historical accounts of anomalously large seiches in enclosed bodies of water such as harbors (Galveston, TX), lakes (Great Lakes, Lake Baikal), and inland seas (Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea

  17. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment, 1986-1991 (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  18. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment 1986-1991, (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  19. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study and the America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series of public listening sessions...

  20. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamental civil, human, and indigenous rights at the permitting and construction stages. We analyse two large-scale Panamanian dams with persistent disrespect for indigenous land tenure. Free, prior, and informed consent was sidestepped even though each dam required or will require Ngöbe, Emberá, or Kuna villages to relocate. When populations protested, additional human rights violations occurred, including state-sponsored violence. International bodies are slowly identifying and denouncing this abuse of power. Simultaneously, many nongovernmental organisations (NGOs seek change in Panama consistent with WCD’s good-practice guidelines. A number of NGOs have tied hydro projects to unethical greenhouse gas (GHG emissions trade. As private and state institutions market formerly collective water and carbon resources for profit, these Panamanian cases have become central to a public debate over equitable and green hydro development. Media communication feeds disputes through frontline coverage of cooperation and confrontation.

  1. Panamá: paraíso imperfecto Panama: Imperfect Paradise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARA INÉS LUNA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2008 estuvo marcado por la continuación de un proceso electoral interno en los partidos políticos, que se prolongó largamente y que se libró sin cuartel, presagiando el tono de los comicios generales de mayo de 2009. También ha sido un año especial por la inusual inflación que movilizó a importantes sectores para exigir mejoras salariales, más subsidios e, incluso, control de precios. No obstante, el país siguió creciendo a tasas muy por encima del promedio latinoamericano y registró una importante caída en la pobreza y la indigencia. Desde afuera Panamá puede parecer un paraíso, pero su evidente imperfección corre el riesgo de profundizarse.2008 was marked by the continuation of an internal election process within political parties, which lasted long and was fought without quarter, presaging the tone of the general elections of May 2009. It has also been a special year because an unusual inflation that mobilized union members, medical associations, carriers, educators and retirees, demanding better incomes, more benefits and even price controls, to the central government. However, the country continued to grow at rates well above the average for Latin America and recorded a significant decline in poverty and indigence. Panama from the outside may seem like a paradise, but its obvious imperfection risk further.

  2. Understanding adaptation and transformation through indigenous practice: the case of the Guna of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina J. Apgar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is emerging as a promising vehicle for improving management of social-ecological systems that can potentially lead to more sustainable arrangements between environmental and social spheres. Central to an understanding of how to support resilience is the need to understand social change and its links with adaptation and transformation. Our aim is to contribute to insights about and understanding of underlying social dynamics at play in social-ecological systems. We argue that longstanding indigenous practices provide opportunities for investigating processes of adaptation and transformation. We use in-depth analysis of adaptation and transformation through engagement in participatory action research, focusing on the role of cultural and social practices among the Guna indigenous peoples in Panama. Our findings reveal that cultural practices facilitating leadership development, personhood development, and social networking are critical for enabling both adaptation and transformation. Further, we argue that Guna ritual practice builds additional skills, such as critical self-reflection and creative innovation, that are important for supporting the deeper changes required by transformation.

  3. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4 Section 4.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels...

  4. Upper Cretaceous to Miocene tectonostratigraphy of the Azuero area (Panama) and the discontinuous accretion and subduction erosion along the Middle American margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, David M.; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Flores, Kennet; Bandini, Alexandre N.

    2011-11-01

    The Central American forearc allows insight into the long-term evolution of the Middle American margin and possible shifts between accretionary and erosive periods of subduction. We present a revised tectonostratigraphic subdivision of the Azuero area based on new field observations and biochronologic data, and a synthesis of previous age, geochemical and stratigraphic data. The basement of the area is composed of an autochtonous oceanic plateau, the early Central American arc and accreted seamounts, which are unconformably overlain by forearc sediments. The nature and spatial arrangement of basement units combined with patterns of uplift and subsidence recorded in overlapping sediments allow reconstruction of the local evolution of subduction tectonics between the Upper Cretaceous and Miocene. Comparison of this evolution with that formerly proposed for the south Costa Rican margin based on a similar approach (Buchs et al., 2009, 2010) provides an insight into temporal and along-strike changes of subduction tectonics along a ~ 500 km-long segment of the Middle American margin. We find that subduction erosion (or non-accretion), punctuated by seamount accretion, was the dominant process along the margin between the late Campanian and Middle Eocene. In the Middle Eocene, uplift of the Central American forearc, initiation of a volcanic front retreat in Panama and a pulse of seamount accretion between south Costa Rica and west Panama are likely to relate to a reorganization of plate tectonics in the Pacific. A contrasted evolution occurred in south Costa Rica and Panama afterwards, with continued subduction erosion in the Azuero area and net accretion of olistostromal and hemipelagic sediments in south Costa Rica at least until the Middle Miocene. Our results show that tectononstratigraphic observations in the forearc may represent a valuable complement to offshore drilling and geophysical studies to understand modern subduction tectonics along the Middle American

  5. Lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by Wolbachia and an exotic Leishmania species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azpurua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the genus Lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the New World. Within the watershed of the Panama Canal, the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis is a continuous health threat for residents, tourists and members of an international research community. Here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both Leishmania and a microbe that can potentially serve in vector population control, the cytoplasmically transmitted rickettsia, Wolbachia pipientis. Knowing accurately which Lutzomyia species are present, what their evolutionary relationships are, and how they are infected by strains of both Leishmania and Wolbachia is of critical value for building strategies to mitigate the impact of this disease in humans. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We collected, sorted and then used DNA sequences to determine the diversity and probable phylogenetic relationships of the Phlebotominae occurring in the understory of Barro Colorado Island in the Republic of Panama. Sequence from CO1, the DNA barcoding gene, supported 18 morphology-based species determinations while revealing the presence of two possible "cryptic" species, one (Lu. sp. nr vespertilionis within the Vespertilionis group, the other (Lu. gomezi within the Lutzomyia-cruciata series. Using ITS-1 and "minicircle" primers we detected Leishmania DNA in 43.3% of Lu. trapidoi, 26.3% of Lu. gomezi individuals and in 0% of the other 18 sand fly species. Identical ITS-1 sequence was obtained from the Leishmania infecting Lu. trapidoi and Lu. gomezi, sequence which was 93% similar to Leishmania (viannia naiffi in GenBank, a species previously unknown in Panama, but recognized as a type of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored broadly across northern and central South America. Distinct strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia were detected in three of 20

  6. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  7. U.S. - Panama Relations in the 1990’s: Developing a Post-Noriega Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-08

    Latin America Daily Report, 22 December 1989, p. 28. 22. "Foreign Minister Linares Outlines Foreign Policy," Panama City Circuito RPC Television (Channel...Daily Report 2 May 1989: 20. "Endara Says U.S. Forces To Leave in 1 Month." Panama City Circuito RPC TV (Channel 4) 23 December 1989, reported in FBIS...America Dai Report 12 January 1990: 29. "Foreign Minister Linares Outlines Foreign Policy." Panama City Circuito RPC Television (Channel 4) 25 December

  8. Systematics of the Rhinella margaritifera complex (Anura, Bufonidae) from western Ecuador and Panama with insights in the biogeography of Rhinella alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sueny P.; Ibáñez, Roberto; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rhinella margaritifera species group consists of 17 species of toads distributed in tropical and subtropical South America and eastern Central America. The identity of some of its species is poorly understood and there are numerous undescribed cryptic species. Among them, the status of Rhinella margaritifera is one of the most problematic. Its range includes lowland rainforests separated by the Andes, the Chocoan rainforest to the west and the Amazonian rainforest to the east. This distribution is puzzling because the Andes are an old and formidable barrier to gene flow and therefore should generate vicariant speciation between disjunct lowland populations. Herein we clarify the taxonomy of populations of the Rhinella margaritifera complex from Central America and the Chocó region of South America. The morphological and genetic variation of Rhinella margaritifera was examined from 39 populations from Chocó, 24 from the upper Amazon region of Ecuador, and 37 from Panama, including the holotype of the Panamanian Rhinella alata. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the nuclear gene Tyrosinase (Tyr). The genetic and morphological data show that Panamanian and Chocoan populations are conspecific. In the phylogeny, populations from Chocó and Panama form a well-supported clade. The morphology of the holotype of Rhinella alata falls within the variation range of Panamanian and Chocoan populations. Based on all this evidence, we assign the populations from western Ecuador and Panama to Rhinella alata and demonstrate that the unusual distribution pattern of “Rhinella margaritifera” on both sides of the Andes was an artifact of incorrectly defined species boundaries. PMID:25987881

  9. Reduced Mtdna Diversity in the Ngobe Amerinds of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, C. J.; Bermingham, E.; Cooke, R.; Ward, R. H.; Arias, T. D.; Guionneau-Sinclair, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity was determined for 46 Ngobe Amerinds sampled widely across their geographic range in western Panama. The Ngobe data were compared with mtDNA control region I sequences from two additional Amerind groups located at the northern and southern extremes of Amerind distribution, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest and the Chilean Mapuche and from one Na-Dene group, the Haida of the Pacific Northwest. The Ngobe exhibit the lowest mtDNA control region sequence diversity yet reported for an Amerind group. Moreover, they carry only two of the four Amerind founding lineages first described by Wallace and coworkers. We posit that the Ngobe passed through a population bottleneck caused by ethnogenesis from a small founding population and/or European conquest and colonization. Dating of the Ngobe population expansion using the HARPENDING et al. approach to the analysis of pairwise genetic differences indicates a Ngobe expansion at roughly 6800 years before present (range: 1850-14,000 years before present), a date more consistent with a bottleneck at Chibcha ethnogenesis than a conquest-based event. PMID:7635293

  10. The Media and Operation Just Cause in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the Cold War was ‘agonizing’ and the ‘new world order’ taking a life of its own, the government of the US found new arguments in favor of its December 1989 invasion of Panama. Like any other military action, operation ‘Just Cause’ was preceded by a well-orchestrated public relations campaign meant to gain the support of the US Congress, press, and public opinion and, thus, to generate a national consensus over the administration’s most crucial decisions. As far as the press of such a democratic political system is concerned, one would expect it to act independently of the government’s will by putting the official pretexts and objectives for invasion under serious questioning -before accepting or rebutting them- looking for alternative sources of information, and instituting the conditions for a fair debate -by offering the opportunity to several conflicting opinions to argue and debate and then come out with the most convincing conclusions. In order to check if the US mainstream media acted as an independent organ during the Panamanian episode, I will examine their treatment of the official objectives for intervention, their coverage of the military operation, and their assessment of the invasion with regard to international law.

  11. Clonal outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum infection in eastern Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Baro, Nicholas K; Calzada, Jose E; Santamaria, Ana M; Daniels, Rachel; Wong, Wesley; Chang, Hsiao-Han; Hamilton, Elizabeth J; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Wirth, Dyann F; Hartl, Daniel L; Marti, Matthias; Volkman, Sarah K

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the source of resurgent parasites is paramount to a strategic, successful intervention for malaria elimination. Although the malaria incidence in Panama is low, a recent outbreak resulted in a 6-fold increase in reported cases. We hypothesized that parasites sampled from this epidemic might be related and exhibit a clonal population structure. We tested the genetic relatedness of parasites, using informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms and drug resistance loci. We found that parasites were clustered into 3 clonal subpopulations and were related to parasites from Colombia. Two clusters of Panamanian parasites shared identical drug resistance haplotypes, and all clusters shared a chloroquine-resistance genotype matching the pfcrt haplotype of Colombian origin. Our findings suggest these resurgent parasite populations are highly clonal and that the high clonality likely resulted from epidemic expansion of imported or vestigial cases. Malaria outbreak investigations that use genetic tools can illuminate potential sources of epidemic malaria and guide strategies to prevent further resurgence in areas where malaria has been eliminated.

  12. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerón-Souza Ivania

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002, and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2 than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5 and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8 genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle, coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure.

  13. Neogene reef coral assemblages of the Bocas del Toro region, Panama: the rise of Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J. S.; McNeill, D. F.; Budd, A. F.; Coates, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    Temporal patterns are evaluated in Neogene reef coral assemblages from the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama in order to understand how reef ecosystems respond to long-term environmental change. Analyses are based on a total of 1,702 zooxanthellate coral specimens collected from six coral-bearing units ranging in age from the earliest Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene: (1) Valiente Formation (12-11 Ma), (2) Fish Hole Member of the Old Bank Formation (5.8-5.6 Ma), (3) La Gruta Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (4) Ground Creek Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (5) Mimitimbi Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma), and (6) Hill Point Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma). Over 100 coral species occur in the six units, with faunal assemblages ranging from less than 10% extant taxa (Valiente Formation) to over 85% extant taxa (Ground Creek Member). The collections provide new temporal constraints on the emergence of modern Caribbean reefs, with the La Gruta Member containing the earliest occurrence of large monospecific stands of the dominant Caribbean reef coral Acropora palmata, and the Urracá Formation containing the last fossil occurrences of 15 regionally extinct taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis of 41 Late Miocene to Recent reef coral assemblages from the Caribbean region suggests changes in community structure coincident with effective oceanic closure of the Central American Seaway (~3.5 Ma). These changes, including increased Acropora dominance, may have contributed to a protracted period of elevated extinction debt prior to the major peak in regional coral extinctions (~2-1 Ma).

  14. 75 FR 34687 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... issuing permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh false coriander from... noxious weeds via the importation of fresh false coriander from Panama. EFFECTIVE DATE: June 18, 2010....

  15. The Public Good, the Market, and Academic Capitalism: U.S. Cross-Border Higher Education in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoto, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. colleges and universities have begun to extend their international presence through different models of cross-border higher education. This research explores three models of U.S. higher education in Panama City, Panama: a branch campus, a franchise model and merger/acquisition models. Using a qualitative approach, this study…

  16. Prevalence of HIV, Syphilis, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among MSM from Three Cities in Panama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hakre, Shilpa; Arteaga, Griselda B; Núñez, Aurelio E; Arambu, Nelson; Aumakhan, Bulbulgul; Liu, Michelle; Peel, Sheila A; Pascale, Juan M; Scott, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    ... % confidence intervals) were: HIV—David 6.6 % (2.2–11.4 %), Panama 29.4 % (19.7–39.7 %), and Colon 32.6 % (18.0–47.8 %); active syphilis—David 16.0 % (8.9–24.2 %), Panama 24.7 % (16.7–32.9 %), Colon 31.6 % (14.8–47.5 %); resolved HBV infection...

  17. Questing Amblyomma mixtum and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (Acari: Ixodidae) Infected with Candidatus “Rickettsia amblyommii” from the Natural Environment in Panama Canal Basin, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    D., Angélica M. Castro; S., Gleidys G. García; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Aguilar, Ana; Castillo,Juan; Gabster, Amanda; Trejos, Diomedes; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Bermúdez C., Sergio E.

    2015-01-01

    This work emphasizes the detection of Candidatus “Rickettsia amblyommii” in questing Haemaphysalis juxtakochi and Amblyomma mixtum. From February 2009 to December 2012, questing ticks were collected from the vegetation and leaf-litter of four protected forests and two grassy areas around the Panama Canal basin. DNA was extracted from Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma pecarium, Amblyomma tapirellum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, and unidentified immature A...

  18. Seizing the Lodgment: Forcible Entry Lessons from Panama and the Falklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    January 1990, 112-113, 175-176. 86 Robert K. Brown, “U.S. Warriors Topple Panamanian Thugs: “We Came, We Saw, We Kicked Ass” – 82nd Airborne Graffiti ...Saw, We Kicked Ass” – 82nd Airborne Graffiti , Balboa, Panama.” Soldier of Fortune (April 1990): 56­ 60,86. Clapp, Michael and Ewen Southby-Tailyour

  19. 78 FR 16470 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... media, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups... International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States...

  20. 78 FR 6810 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ....gov/trademissions --and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct... International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States...

  1. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ....html ) and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, broadcast fax, notices... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description...

  2. Manipulating the banana rhizosphere microbiome for biological control of Panama disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Penton, C Ryan; Shen, Zongzhuan; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Li, Rong; Ruan, Yunze; Shen, Qirong

    2015-08-05

    Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection on banana is devastating banana plantations worldwide. Biological control has been proposed to suppress Panama disease, though the stability and survival of bio-control microorganisms in field setting is largely unknown. In order to develop a bio-control strategy for this disease, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial community of a disease-suppressive soil. Bacillus was identified as the dominant bacterial group in the suppressive soil. For this reason, B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from the suppressive soil was selected as a potential bio-control agent. A bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), formulated by combining this isolate with compost, was applied in nursery pots to assess the bio-control of Panama disease. Results showed that BIO significantly decreased disease incidence by 68.5%, resulting in a doubled yield. Moreover, bacterial community structure was significantly correlated to disease incidence and yield and Bacillus colonization was negatively correlated with pathogen abundance and disease incidence, but positively correlated to yield. In total, the application of BIO altered the rhizo-bacterial community by establishing beneficial strains that dominated the microbial community and decreased pathogen colonization in the banana rhizosphere, which plays an important role in the management of Panama disease.

  3. The Fog of Peace: Planning and Executing The Restoration of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    tank farm near the town of Arraijan on the west bank of the Panama Canal. During the first of these incidents a U.S. Marine was accidentally killed by...supuestas vlnlaclones. 4. Me opondrd a sobornos, exigir coinida, hebida o serviclos sin pagan (1.q 5. Cumnpliri rml trabajo sin amcna/u.ar Intimtidar u

  4. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  5. Epidemic and Non-Epidemic Hot Spots of Malaria Transmission Occur in Indigenous Comarcas of Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lainhart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2002-2005, Panama experienced a malaria epidemic that has been associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation weather patterns, decreased funding for malaria control, and landscape modification. Case numbers quickly decreased afterward, and Panama is now in the pre-elimination stage of malaria eradication. To achieve this new goal, the characterization of epidemiological risk factors, foci of transmission, and important anopheline vectors is needed. Of the 24,681 reported cases in these analyses (2000-2014, ~62% occurred in epidemic years and ~44% in indigenous comarcas (5.9% of Panama's population. Sub-analyses comparing overall numbers of cases in epidemic and non-epidemic years identified females, comarcas and some 5-year age categories as those disproportionately affected by malaria during epidemic years. Annual parasites indices (APIs; number of cases per 1,000 persons for Plasmodium vivax were higher in comarcas compared to provinces for all study years, though P. falciparum APIs were only higher in comarcas during epidemic years. Interestingly, two comarcas report increasing numbers of cases annually, despite national annual decreases. Inclusion of these comarcas within identified foci of malaria transmission confirmed their roles in continued transmission. Comparison of species distribution models for two important anophelines with Plasmodium case distribution suggest An. albimanus is the primary malaria vector in Panama, confirmed by identification of nine P. vivax-infected specimen pools. Future malaria eradication strategies in Panama should focus on indigenous comarcas and include both active surveillance for cases and comprehensive anopheline vector surveys.

  6. A bird's eye survey of central american planorbid molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of two trips to Central America (June 1967 and JulyAugust 1976 I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Planorbis nicaraguanus Morelet, 1849, anatomically defined in this paper, and of P. yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879, the identity of the latter with Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835 is confirmed. The following planorbid species were also found: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Belize; H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879 in Costa Rica; Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835 in Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and El Salvador; B. kuhniana (Clessin, 1883 in Panama; B. obstructa (Morelet,1849 in Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador; B. straminea (Dunker, 1848 in Costa Rica; B. subprona (Martens, 1899 in Guatemala; D. anatinum (Orbigny,1835 in Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; D. depressissimum (Moricand,1839 in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839 in Guatemala, Belize and Nicaragua; D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884 in Costa Rica and Panama; and Gyraulus percarinatus sp. n. in Panama. The occurrence of B. kuhniana and D. surinamense is first recorded in Central America, and Gyraulus percarinatus is the first representative of the genus provenly occurring in the American continent south of the United States. The following synonymy is proposed: Planorbis declivis Tate, 1870 = Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835; Planorbis isthmicus Pilsbry, 1920 = Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883; Planorbis cannarum Morelet, 1849 and Segmentina donbilli Tristram, 1861 = Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849; and Planorbis yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879 = Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835, confirming Aguayo (1933.

  7. The Panama Canal: Writings of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Officers Who Conceived and Built It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    201) Rainfall comparable to areas of the United States near the Gulf of Mexico. The Weather Bureau issued, as a separate designated W. B. No. 201, a...03. Supplemental to May 1899 article. Updates rainfall figures to 1899. _____. “ Meteorology of Panama.” Monthly Weather Review 27 (October 1899...463. More rainfall and temperature data for 1899. _____. “Contributions to the Meteorology of Panama.” Monthly Weather Review 28 January

  8. Miocene Mammals and Central American Seaways: Fauna of the Canal Zone indicates separation of Central and South America during most of the Tertiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, F C; Stewart, R H

    1965-04-09

    The presence of Miocene mammals of North American affinity in the Panama Canal Zone indicates that Central America was attached to North America. That this attachment was a broad and stable land mass is shown by the close relation of the Panama Miocene herbivores to the widely distributed Miocene herbivore fauna of North America. A continuous connection existed probably throughout the Tertiary, to the west and north of the isthmian region, but the tectonically active isthmus probably was broken up into an archipelago during most of Tertiary time. Between the islands ran the Strait of Panama; from time to time parts of the isthmian area were connected to the stable land to the west, allowing eastward migration of land animals. The mammals of North American affinity in the Cucaracha Formation were found only a few kilometers from the western end of the San Blas Area, a stable land mass in eastern Panama that was separated from South America by the Bolivar Trough during most of the interval between Oligocene and Pliocene time (16). The Strait of Panama was a less stable barrier than the Bolivar Trough; this being so, it is likely that the San Blas Area was inhabited by land animals of North American rather than South American affinity. Thus, the disappearance of the Bolivar seaway in Pliocene time would have allowed, probably for the first time, mingling of the North and South American mammal faunas.

  9. A new species and a new record of Diatrypaceae from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Santiago; Dörge, Dorian; Weisenborn, Jascha; Piepenbring, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Based on opportunistic collections of fungi in Panama, two species of Diatrypaceae (Xylariales) are described and illustrated. One of them, Eutypella semicircularis, found twice on branches probably belonging to Alnus acuminata, is new to science. It differs from known species of Eutypella and Peroneutypa with strongly allantoid or semicircular ascospores, such as E. crustata and P. curvispora, in having larger ascospores that sometimes almost form a circle and broader stromata, among other differences. Molecular data of the ITS rDNA region show that the new species is a sister taxon of Eutypella cerviculata, the type species of the genus Eutypella. Diatrype bermudensis on stems of Guadua angustifolia is reported from Panama for the first time, being known up to now apparently only from Bermuda.

  10. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan Colon Container Terminal (CCT) Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Report on the Operational Testing and Evaluation to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the Second Line of Defense (SLD) mission requirements. An SLD system is defined as the detection technology and associated equipment, the system operators from the host country, the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and other elements such as training and maintenance which support long-term system sustainment. To this end, the activities conducted during the OT&E phase must demonstrate that the Megaports System can be operated effectively in real-time by Panama Direccion General de Aduanas (DGA Panama Customs) personnel to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA).

  11. Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio E Sousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Most of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6% asymptomatic and 17 acute (65.4% including 5 (19.2% fatal cases, 2 under 5 years old and 3 adults. A multiplex-PCR assay based on the amplification of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene was performed. All stocks of T. cruzi included in the study were found to correspond to Tc I group. This result supports the predominance of T. cruzi-I in the transmission cycles affecting the human population in the Republic of Panama.

  12. Epidemic and Non-Epidemic Hot Spots of Malaria Transmission Occur in Indigenous Comarcas of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutari, Larissa C.; Rovira, Jose R.; Sucupira, Izis M. C.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Conn, Jan E.; Loaiza, Jose R.

    2016-01-01

    From 2002–2005, Panama experienced a malaria epidemic that has been associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation weather patterns, decreased funding for malaria control, and landscape modification. Case numbers quickly decreased afterward, and Panama is now in the pre-elimination stage of malaria eradication. To achieve this new goal, the characterization of epidemiological risk factors, foci of transmission, and important anopheline vectors is needed. Of the 24,681 reported cases in these analyses (2000–2014), ~62% occurred in epidemic years and ~44% in indigenous comarcas (5.9% of Panama’s population). Sub-analyses comparing overall numbers of cases in epidemic and non-epidemic years identified females, comarcas and some 5-year age categories as those disproportionately affected by malaria during epidemic years. Annual parasites indices (APIs; number of cases per 1,000 persons) for Plasmodium vivax were higher in comarcas compared to provinces for all study years, though P. falciparum APIs were only higher in comarcas during epidemic years. Interestingly, two comarcas report increasing numbers of cases annually, despite national annual decreases. Inclusion of these comarcas within identified foci of malaria transmission confirmed their roles in continued transmission. Comparison of species distribution models for two important anophelines with Plasmodium case distribution suggest An. albimanus is the primary malaria vector in Panama, confirmed by identification of nine P. vivax-infected specimen pools. Future malaria eradication strategies in Panama should focus on indigenous comarcas and include both active surveillance for cases and comprehensive anopheline vector surveys. PMID:27182773

  13. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  14. Parasitological Evaluation of a Foodhandler Population Cohort in Panama: Risk Factors for Intestinal Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    A nonconcurrent, prospective intestinal parasitic disease study in is estimated that the pathogen Giardia lamblia was responsi- a group of 200...with acquisition of opathogens and suggest procedures for their medical screen- Giardia lamblia and other protozoan/helminthic intestinal para- ing...dining facility, club, day care, and tions (85% in both groups). The appropriateness of mass therapy mobile food service operations in the Panama Canal

  15. Tourism sector in Panama : regional economic impacts and the potential to benefit the poor

    OpenAIRE

    Klytchnikova, Irina; Dorosh, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is one of Latin America's fastest growing industries but the impact of tourism on the poor and the effects on lagging regions are under debate. Many studies have evaluated the growth impacts of the tourism sector but few have analyzed the impact of tourism on the economy and poverty at the subnational level in developing countries. As a country marked by a "dual economy," Panama sh...

  16. Notes on the Genus Cololejeunea (Lejeuneaceae in Panama. C. cingens (New Record and C. tamasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Adriel M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cololejeunea cingens (Herzog Bernecker & Pócs is recorded for the first time from Panama, extending its distribution in the Neotropics. Additional descriptions based on Panamanian material are provided for C. cingens and for C. tamasii Schäf.-Verw., a species only known from the type, for which dimorphic leaves and gynoecial bracts are first described. We therefore view subgen. Pedinolejeunea Benedix ex Mizut. as a better subgeneric placement for C. tamasii than subgen. Cololejeunea.

  17. Biodiversity of Asterina species on Neotropical host plants: new species and records from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, T A; Piepenbring, M

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Asterina are described from living leaves collected in provinces Chiriquí and Bocas del Toro in western Panama. Asterina alloplecti on Alloplectus ichtyoderma (Gesneriaceae) differs from other Asterina on Gesneriaceae by its stalked appressoria and host relationship. Asterina compsoneurae on Compsoneura sprucei (Myristicaceae) can be distinguished from other members of Asterina on Myristicaceae by its larger ascomata, larger, prominently spinose ascospores and host relationship. New records for Panama are Asterina corallopoda from a new host plant species (Solanum trizygum, Solanaceae), A. diplopoda, A. ekmanii from a new host plant species (Gonzalagunia rudis, Rubiaceae), A. siphocampyli from a new host plant genus and species (Burmeistera vulgaris, Campanulaceae) and A. styracina from a new host-plant species (Styrax argenteus, Styracaceae). This study increases the number of species of Asterina known for Panama from 12 to 19 and the number of Asterinaceae from 14 to 21. Asterina corallopoda, A. diplopoda, A. ekmanii, A. siphocampyli and A. styracina are illustrated for the first time. A phylogeny inferred from the analysis of LSU rDNA sequences of species of Asterina is presented. The diversity and host-plant patterns of known Neotropical species of Asterina are discussed.

  18. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  19. [Intake of dietary fiber in the Central American isthmus: nutritional implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, E; Bressani, R

    1989-09-01

    Mean intakes of dietary fiber (DF) were estimated in the population of Central America and Panama, using the results of dietary surveys conducted in 1969 and 1986 both in rural and urban areas, as well as data on the DF content of foods as consumed in the region. Data on preschool children were also estimated. The results indicated that DF intake in urban areas is lower than that of rural areas, particularly in Costa Rica and Panama. In 1969, intake varied from 32g in El Salvador to 15g in Panama in urban areas, while in rural areas intake was from 45g in El Salvador to 13g in Panama. The foods which contributed most to the total intake in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras were tortillas and beans, while in Costa Rica and Panama, beans provided the largest intake. In preeschool children, intake was 12.5g in El Salvador and 5.4g in Costa Rica in 1969, which is the same tendency as that found for adults. From more recent data on food intake, it was found that DF intake had decreased in the rural areas of El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica, being between 4 and 9% in the first two countries and 12% in Costa Rica. In the urban area of the latter, from 1969 to 1986 a decrease in DF intake of around 20% has taken place.

  20. Geologic Evolution of the eastern Panama Isthmus from biostratigraphic, tectonic and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Sosson, M.; Müller, C.

    2012-04-01

    Panama is located at the junction of Nazca, Cocos, Caribbean and South America Plates, and reflects a complex geological history: the isthmus is mainly an island arc, formed by the convergence between the oceanic Farallon and Caribbean Plates during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene, deformed by extension from the beginning of the Miocene, and shortened during the Middle Miocene collision of the Panama-Choco block with the South America Plate. We focused our researches on the eastern part of Panama, mainly in the Darien province, the least explored territory of the country, combining field work data, remote sensing analyses (SAR images) and geophysical data in order to better constrain the geological history of Panama since the Late Cretaceous. New field observations and detailed biostratigraphic data (nannoflora) allow us to precise the stratigraphic units of eastern Panama. We recognize from bottom to top: (1) the Upper Cretaceous basement of the Caribbean plate consists of basalts, pillow basalts, with minor intercalations of radiolarian cherts, outcropping in the Gulf of San Miguel, San Blas Massif and Sapo Massif; (2) an early volcanic arc, Upper Cretaceous in age, composed by breccias, basalts, intrusive volcanic rocks, limestones and siliceous tuffs, outcropping in the Portobelo Peninsula and San Blas-Darien Massif, attributed to the Ocù formation; (3) a Paleocene-Middle Eocene island-arc magmatic rock suite, outcropping in the Massifs of San Blas-Darien, Mahé and Sapo, attributed to the San Blas Formation; (4) a thick package of Lower-Middle Eocene-Oligocene epiclastic volcanosedimentary rocks, tuffs, with few basaltic lavas, observed in the Mahé Massif, attributed to the Darien Formation; (5) Several sedimentary formations, composed by carbonated and siliceous fine sediments and conglomerates, Upper Middle Eocene to Upper Miocene in age, which outcrop in the basins of Chucunaque-Tuira and Sambu (Porcona, Clarita, Tapaliza, Tuira, Chucunaque formations). We also

  1. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  2. Neogene-quaternary Ostracoda and paleoenvironments, of the Limón basin, Costa Rica, and Bocas del Toro basin, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, P.F.; Cronin, T. M.; Hazel, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Tropical marine ostracodes from Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the Central American Caribbean region have been the subject of biostratigraphic, ecological, taxonomic, and evolutionary studies. As part of the Panama Paleontology Project (PPP), Neogene and Quaternary ostracodes are being studied from the Central American region. The overall goal of this research is to evaluate the impact of the emergence of the Central American Isthmus as a land barrier between the Caribbean/tropical Atlantic and the Pacific oceans on marine ostracode biodiversity and the oceanic environments in which extant ostracodes evolved. Due to the ecological specificity of many living tropical ostracode species, they are ideally suited for reconstructing paleoenvironments on the basis of their occurrence in fossil assemblages, which in turn can lead to a better understanding of the tropical climatic and tectonic history of Central America. The principal aims of this chapter are: (a) to document the composition of the ostracode assemblages from the Limón Basin of Costa Rica and the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama, two areas yielding extensive ma rine ostracode assemblages; (b) to describe the environments of deposition within these basins; and (c) to document the stratigraphic distribution of potentially agediagnostic ostracode species in the Limón and Bocas del Toro basins in order to enhance their use in Central American biostratigraphy. A secondary, but none-the-less important goal is to assemble a database on the distribution of modem ostracode species in the Caribbean and adjacent areas as a basis for comparison with fossil assemblages. Although the ecological, biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental conclusions presented here will improve as additional material is studied, these fossil and modem ostracode databases constitute the foundation for future evolutionary and geochernical studies of tropical Caribbean and eastern Pacific Ocean ostracodes. Moreover, we present here evidence

  3. Effect of Wildfire on Hydrological Processes in a Monoculture Invasive Grass Catchment within the Panama Canal Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to watershed management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One question posed by this project concerns the hydrologic role of fire in tropical environments. Within the Panama Canal Watershed, fire has seen widespread use among agriculturalists. This study focused on a monoculture invasive grass (Saccharum spontaneum) catchment. Specifically, the effects of significant wildfire events on hydrological processes in the catchment were analyzed. The catchment is within Panama's protected Soberania National Park, which is part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Installed instrumentation includes a rain gauge cluster, a two-stage v-notch weir, atmometer and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across the catchment is available from 2009-2013. Various hydrologic characteristics, such as runoff ratio, peak flow per unit area, time to peak, runoff duration, and leaf area index, from before and after the events were compared. These characteristics are related to rates of ground water recharge and the occurrence of flash floods. This study provides a baseline from which the potential impacts of fire on hydrological processes in tropical environments can be analyzed.

  4. The United States’ “Realist” Foreign Policy: Operation Just Cause in Panama as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The US 1989 invasion of Panama corresponded to a symbolic event. It was the first American use of force since 1945 that was unrelated to the Cold War. It occurred at a time when the world’s structure was changing and when the ideological and strategic grounds behind US previous interventions were evaporating. Therefore, the US invasion of Panama opened a new episode of the inter-American relations. It was the very first American use of force of what would soon be called the post-Cold War era. Why, then, in the absence of Cold War considerations did the US deem it necessary to rely on a large-scale military intervention? To answer this question, I will first briefly examine the history of the US-Noriega relations and then deal in more detail with the official explanations issued by the Bush Administration to justify its December 1989 invasion of Panama.

  5. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Cotton 124.8 2.2% Returned Meat & Poultry 5.3 2.1% Food Preparations 116.8 2.1% Coffee Extract 3.7 1.5% Fresh Oranges 90.2 1.6% Bean Cake & Stick...the chairmen and ranking members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees, the American Farm Bureau Federation on January 29, 2010...called upon these committees to expedite the approval of pending free trade agreements (FTAs) with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea. The Farm

  6. Preliminary Hybrid Modeling of the Panama Canal: Operations and Salinity Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the initial modeling of water salinity and its diffusion into the lakes during lock operation on the Panama Canal. A hybrid operational model was implemented using the AnyLogic software simulation environment. This was accomplished by generating an operational discrete-event simulation model and a continuous simulation model based on differential equations, which modeled the salinity diffusion in the lakes. This paper presents that unique application and includes the effective integration of lock operations and its impact on the environment.

  7. Feeding Habits and Trophic Level of the Panama Grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an Important Bycatch Species from the Shrimp Trawl Fishery in the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rodríguez-Preciado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the southeastern Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results indicate that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences among grunt were not found according to size, diet, or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt has a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa as crustaceans. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  8. Feeding habits and trophic level of the Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an important bycatch species from the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Preciado, Jose A.; Amezcua-Martinez, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-10-14

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the SE Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results show that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences were not found according to size, diet or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt have a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  9. The United States’ “Realist” Foreign Policy: Operation Just Cause in Panama as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wassim Daghrir

    2016-01-01

    The US 1989 invasion of Panama corresponded to a symbolic event. It was the first American use of force since 1945 that was unrelated to the Cold War. It occurred at a time when the world’s structure was changing and when the ideological and strategic grounds behind US previous interventions were evaporating. Therefore, the US invasion of Panama opened a new episode of the inter-American relations. It was the very first American use of force of what would soon be called the post-Cold War era....

  10. Corrosion study of steels exposed over five years to the humid tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaén, Juan A., E-mail: juan.jaen@up.ac.pa [Departamento de Química Física, Edificio de Laboratorios Científicos-VIP (Panama); Iglesias, Josefina [Laboratorio de Análisis Industriales y Ciencias Ambientales (Panama)

    2017-11-15

    The results of assessing five-year corrosion of low-carbon and conventional weathering steels exposed to the Panamanian tropical atmosphere is presented. Two different test sites, one in Panama City: 5 km from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean, and another in the marine environment of Fort Sherman, Caribbean coast of Panama; namely, Fort Sherman Coastal site: 100 m from coastline. The corrosion products, formed in the skyward and earthward faces in the studied tropical environment, were mainly identified using room temperature and low temperature (15 K) Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR. In all samples, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the main constituents. Some maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was also identified in Tocumen by Mössbauer spectroscopy and traces of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) using ATR-FTIR. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in light of the atmospheric exposure conditions and atmospheric pollutants.

  11. The effect of habitat fragmentation and species diversity loss on hantavirus prevalence in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzán, Gerardo; Marcé, Erika; Giermakowski, J Tomasz; Armién, Blas; Pascale, Juan; Mills, James; Ceballos, Gerardo; Gómez, Andres; Aguirre, A Alonso; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Armién, Anibal; Parmenter, Robert; Yates, Terry

    2008-12-01

    Habitat fragmentation and diversity loss due to increased conversion of natural habitats to agricultural uses influence the distribution and abundance of wildlife species and thus may change the ecology of pathogen transmission. We used hantaviruses in Panama as a research model to determine whether anthropogenic environmental change is associated with changes in the dynamics of viral transmission. Specifically, we wanted to determine whether hantavirus infection was correlated with spatial attributes of the landscape at both large and small scales or whether these changes are mediated by changes in community composition. When analyzed at coarse spatial scales, hantavirus reservoirs were more commonly found in disturbed habitats and edge habitats than in forested areas. At local scales, reservoir species dominance was significantly correlated with the slope of the terrain. To evaluate the effect of small-mammal diversity loss on infection dynamics, we implemented an experiment with selective species removal at experimental sites. Seroprevalence of hantavirus was higher in the community of small mammals and increased through time in the experimental sites. The higher seroprevalence in experimental plots suggests that greater diversity likely reduces encounter rates between infected and susceptible hosts. Our studies suggest that habitat loss and fragmentation and species diversity loss are altering hantavirus infection dynamics in Panama. Our work represents a multidisciplinary approach toward disease research that includes biodiversity concerns such as environmental change and degradation, human settlement patterns, and the ecology of host and nonhost species, work that may be especially important in tropical countries.

  12. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Sergio E; Gottdenker, Nicole; Krishnvajhala, Aparna; Fox, Amy; Wilder, Hannah K; González, Kadir; Smith, Diorene; López, Marielena; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; Montilla, Santiago; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Caballero, Carlos M; Lopez, Job E

    2017-01-01

    Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25%) and 27 (43%) opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama.

  13. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruziexposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruziinfection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzivector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruziserological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence. Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruziseropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog’s household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescenswith an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog’s peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

  14. Building Participation in Large-scale Conservation: Lessons from Belize and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Guite Hastings

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by biogeography and a desire for alignment with the funding priorities of donors, the twenty-first century has seen big international NGOs shifting towards a large-scale conservation approach. This shift has meant that even before stakeholders at the national and local scale are involved, conservation programmes often have their objectives defined and funding allocated. This paper uses the experiences of Conservation International′s Marine Management Area Science (MMAS programme in Belize and Panama to explore how to build participation at the national and local scale while working within the bounds of the current conservation paradigm. Qualitative data about MMAS was gathered through a multi-sited ethnographic research process, utilising document review, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews with 82 informants in Belize, Panama, and the United States of America. Results indicate that while a large-scale approach to conservation disadvantages early national and local stakeholder participation, this effect can be mediated through focusing engagement efforts, paying attention to context, building horizontal and vertical partnerships, and using deliberative processes that promote learning. While explicit consideration of geopolitics and local complexity alongside biogeography in the planning phase of a large-scale conservation programme is ideal, actions taken by programme managers during implementation can still have a substantial impact on conservation outcomes.

  15. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Sergio E.; Gottdenker, Nicole; Krishnvajhala, Aparna; Fox, Amy; Wilder, Hannah K.; González, Kadir; Smith, Diorene; López, Marielena; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; Montilla, Santiago; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Caballero, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25%) and 27 (43%) opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama. PMID:28060928

  16. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

  17. Distribution of ectoparasites of Canis lupus familiaris L. (Carnivora: Canidae from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miranda C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the distribution of ectoparasites in dogs in Panama. Materials and methods. There were surveyed 720 canines belonging to 57 communities. Results. The results showed that 84% of the dogs were infested with at least one species of ectoparasite. Dogs from lowlands showed a higher percentage of parasitism and a greater biodiversity of parasites than dogs from highlands. There were found seven species of ticks, four species of fleas, two species of lice, and one specie of botfly. The ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, A. ovale and the flea Ctenocephalides felis were widespread; however Ixodes boliviensis and Pulex simulans showed a much narrower geographic distribution and they were found only in dogs from highlands. The flea species Rhopalopsyllus cacicus and the tick Haemaphysalis juxtakochi were found for the first time in panamanian dogs. Conclusions. The environmental situation in Panama, can encourage that wildlife ectoparasites parasitized dogs in absence of their native hosts. This condition may increase transmission risk of some diseases where the ticks and fleas are vectors.

  18. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section 334.760 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...

  19. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...

  20. 5 CFR 315.609 - Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. 315.609 Section 315.609 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment Under...

  1. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  2. 77 FR 66505 - To Implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes By the President of the United States of America A...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (the ``Implementation Act'') (Public Law 112-43, 125... preferential tariff treatment provided for under the Agreement. I have determined that it is necessary...

  3. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ..., and provide the opportunity for an experienced biologist to collect data on marine mammal behavior... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 RIN 0648-AW80 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division Mission Activities AGENCY: National Marine...

  4. 75 FR 5761 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; November 15-18, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; November 15- 18, 2010... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service is organizing a Trade...

  5. Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum on the Caribbean coast of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Cubit, J. D.; Robertson, D. R.; Shulman, M. J.; Parker, M. R.; Garrity, S. D.; Levings, S. C.

    1984-12-01

    The ecologically important sea urchin Diadema antillarum suffered mass mortalities in 1983, first noted in Panama and then reported from the rest of the Caribbean. We documented the effects of this mortality at two localities on the Atlantic coast of Panama, Punta Galeta and the San Blas Archipelago. At Punta Galeta, affected by the mortality in January 1983, the numbers of D. antillarum changed from an estimated 14,000 per ha in June 1982 to 0.5 per ha in May 1983; by February 1984 they had increased to 38 per ha. In the San Blas, where mass mortality started in April 1983, the number of D. antillarum in permanent quadrats on 8 reefs was reduced by an average of 94.2%. The average reduction in population density measured in transects on nine reefs was 98.9%. Data taken in permanent quadrats on four reefs in 1978, 1979 and 1980 indicate that population fluctuations of D. antillarum are normally much smaller, justifying the labeling of the 1983 event as “mass mortality”. Size structure of the San Blas populations was also affected; mean test diameter of D. antillarum on four reefs was reduced from 48.6 mm to 25.0 mm. Other echinoids ( Echinometra viridis, E. lucunter, Lytechinus variegatus, L. williamsi, Eucidaris tribuloides, Tripneustes ventricosus, Clypeaster rosaceus and Echinoneus cyclostomus) suffered no ill effects at either Galeta or the San Blas; their population densities remained stable or increased. Density determinations of Diadema mexicanum at the island of Taboguilla on the Pacific side of Panama indicate that Diadema mass mortality did not extend to the eastern Pacific. Sea surface temperatures, tidal levels, rainfall and salinity showed no abnormal fluctuations during the time of D. antillarum mass mortality at Galeta, suggesting that mortality was not due to physical stress. The wide geographical spread and species-specificity of the mortality suggest a water-borne pathogen as the most likely causative agent. Recovery of D. antillarum

  6. Grain Size Biasing of 230Th-derived Focusing Factors in the Panama Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveley, M. R.; Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Ibrahim, R.; Wang, J. K.; Hertzberg, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to understand how differing grain size classes in Panama Basin sediments may create biasing of 230Th as a constant-flux proxy. Greater amounts of 230Th are contained in fine grained particles, which, if fractionated from coarser grained counterparts may lead to biasing of 230Th-derived mass accumulation rates (MARs) and sediment focusing factors. We examined sediments that span the past 25 kyr from four new sediment cores retrieved from two different localities close to the ridges that bound the Panama Basin. Each locality contained paired sites that were seismically interpreted to have undergone sediment redistribution, i.e., thick focused sites versus thin winnowed sites. Two sediment cores were retrieved from the northern part of the Panama basin, Cocos Ridge, (MV1014-01-"4JC", 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; MV1014-01-"8JC", 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the southern part of the basin, Carnegie Ridge, (MV1014-02-"11JC", 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; MV1014-02-"17JC" 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Cores 4JC and 11JC lie closer to the ridge tops of the Cocos and Carnegie Ridges, respectively, and have thin sediment drapes, while deeper cores, 8JC (Cocos) and 17JC (Carnegie), have thicker sediment drapes and lie downslope from the ridge top cores. Age-model-derived sand MARs, which likely represent the vertical rain of particles that cannot be transported by bottom currents, are similar at each of the paired sites in Holocene and glacial time slices. However, 230Th-normalized MARs are about 50% lower, on average at each of the paired sites during the same time slices. Both Holocene and glacial samples from "thin" cores (4,11JC) contain, surprisingly, significant amounts (up to 50%) of the 230Th within the coarse grained (>63 μm) fraction which makes up 40-70% of the bulk samples analyzed. On the contrary, Holocene and glacial samples from "thick" cores, (8,17JC), contain the

  7. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  8. Study of the corrosion products formed on carbon steels in the tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J. A.; Villalaz, M. S. de; Araque, L. de; Hernandez, C.; Bosquez, A. de

    2003-07-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (in selected samples) have been used to characterize corrosion products on carbon steels after atmospheric exposure to the tropical Panamanian locations of Panama and Colon, classified according to ISO 9233 as C3 and C5, respectively. Goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) of intermediate particle size (20-100 nm), lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), a spinel phase consisting of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe{sub 3}-xO{sub 4}) and/or maghemita ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and nano-sized particles were identified in the corrosion products. The spinel phase is related to short term atmospheric exposure transforms in time to other corrosion products. The corrosion resistance increased with fraction of goethite following a saturation-type behavior. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Genesis of an indigenous social-ecological landscape in eastern Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the interplay between ecological and social influences in the context of land-use decision-making is sparse. To help fill this gap, we conducted participatory land-cover mapping in an indigenous territory of eastern Panama to identify factors that influenced household land-use decisions. The map illustrated a mosaic of land cover dominated by pasture. Primary discourse on influences from 35 semistructured interviews with landowners, women, and youth emphasized economic concerns, such as subsistence, and social-cultural factors, such as reticence to abandon traditional agriculture. Multivariate analysis showed that timing of family settlement helped determine proportion of forest cover, and place of origin helped determine proportion of short fallow for agriculture. Cultural norms and economic opportunities inform gendered perspectives; women perceived internal social-cultural influences and men perceived external and ecological influences on the land. Giving consideration to subsistence, traditional land uses, social organization, and women's perspectives could inform future communal reforestation.

  10. Spread of epidemic Clostridium difficile NAP1/027 in Latin America: case reports in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Miranda, Erick; Fonseca, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2014-02-01

    The rate and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been linked to the emergence and spread of the hypervirulent toxigenic strain NAP1/027. This strain has been responsible for large outbreaks in healthcare facilities in North America and Europe and most recently in Latin America. This is the first report of the NAP1 strain in Panama. It suggests that the spread of C. difficile NAP1 throughout Latin America could be a possibility as evidenced in the following case reports. Five isolates typed as NAP1 had tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin gene cdtB and tcdC deletion. All isolates were resistant to clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin. Under this scenario, surveillance programmes for CDI should be implemented in public health facilities in Latin America and diagnosis of CDI should be considered, especially in patients with predisposing factors.

  11. 3D inversion of aeromagnetic Data on Las Tablas District, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Rodríguez, José A.; Caballero, Alberto; Pérez-Flores, Marco A.; Almaguer-Carmenates, Yuri

    2017-03-01

    We present a 3D model of Las Tablas District, Panama, obtained from the 3D inversion of aeromagnetic data, and constrained with information from surface geology, water wells and topography. The 3D model suggests the location, boundary, shape and depths of the sedimentary basin where the Mensabé and Salados rivers hydrogeological sub-basin is located. The model shows the connections between tectonics and the sedimentary basin, suggesting the probable areas for aquifers, the relations between them, their zone of recharge and discharge, and the probable zone of pollution. The inferred faults in the model may be the main recharge and discharge conduits for the groundwater and anthropogenic pollution. The geological and geometric characteristics shown in the 3D model are fundamental data for further hydrogeological and geophysical studies such as the location for future drinking water wells.

  12. A new species of Lophostoma d'Orbigny, 1836 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new species of Lophostoma from Panama, which we name L. kalkoae. This new species resembles L. carrikeri and L. yasuni in possessing a white venter, but is distinguishable from both by external and cranial characteristics. The new species is similar in size to L. carrikeri and L. schulzi. Lophostoma sp. nov. can be most easily recognized by its combination of white venter, postauricular patches connected by a thin line of pale hair to the white fur on the chest, elongated clitoris and swollen labia, less strongly developed lateral projection of mastoid processes, well-marked indentation on the lingual cingulum of the upper canine, well-developed P3, well-developed posterior lingual cusp on the cingulum of P4, and parastyle absent on M1 and M2. We present a dichotomous key for the genus Lophostoma and a map showing all the localities where white-bellied Lophostoma have been recorded.

  13. Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2012-06-01

    Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Evolving protected-area impacts in Panama: impact shifts show that plans require anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Akiko; Pfaff, Alexander; van den Ende, Sander; Joppa, Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are the leading forest conservation policy, so accurate evaluation of future PA impact is critical in conservation planning. Yet by necessity impact evaluations use past data. Here we argue that forward-looking plans should blend such evaluations with anticipation of shifts in threats. Applying improved methods to evaluate past impact, we provide rigorous support for that conceptual approach by showing that PAs’ impacts on deforestation shifted with land use. We study the Republic of Panama, where species-dense tropical forest faces real pressure. Facing variation in deforestation pressure, the PAs’ impacts varied across space and time. Thus, if shifts in pressure levels and patterns could be anticipated, that could raise impact.

  15. Diagnosis of contagious ecthyma in goats in a quarantine station in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Magaña Ch.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an outbreak of contagious ecthyma (CE in a herd of goats at Paso Canoas quarantine station, Panama. The goats were adult intact females. Visible clinical signs became apparent from day 13 after the start of quarantine. We performed clinical examination. Serum biopsy and scabs were collected from crusted lesions in the epithelium of the lips, nose and eyelid corners. Samples were studied by histopathology,complement fixation test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, DAS-ELISA, viral isolationand nucleic acid amplification tests. Histopathology revealed ortho and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, viral inclusion bodies, keratinocytes with balonoid degeneration, vesicles with neutrophils and degenerated cells, in superficial dermis there is marked neovascularization. Complement fixation test, DAS-ELISA and nucleic acid amplification tests resulted positive for contagious ecthyma. TEM showed viral particles, consistent with Parapoxvirus. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with poxvirus infection in the quarantine goat herd.

  16. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae) fishery in Pacific Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Héctor M; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Vega, Angel J; Robles, Yolany A

    2015-09-01

    The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippunis) is a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE) over a four-year period (2006-2009). Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1,715 mm (average, 1010.85 mm; n = 10,459). Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD). Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of θ = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus (3.95-4.70). The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (700 - 1400 mm). Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE) per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama.

  17. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark megalodon from the Miocene of Panama.

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    Catalina Pimiento

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories.

  18. Historical, Demographic, and Economic Correlates of Land-Use Change in the Republic of Panama

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    Mirna Julieta. Samaniego

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Panama recently experienced a limited forest transition. After five decades of decline, the total forest cover increased by 0.36% yr-1 between 1992 and 2000; however, mature forest cover simultaneously decreased by 1.3% yr-1. This limited forest transition at the national scale comprised two distinctly different patterns of recent forest-cover change related to historical land use. Districts that were largely deforested when the first national survey of forest cover was completed in 1947 experienced a strong forest transition between 1992 and 2000. In these, the proportion of the population employed in agriculture decreased by an average of 31% and natural secondary forest succession increased the total forest cover by an average of 85% between 1992 and 2000. In contrast, no forest transition was evident for districts that were largely forested in 1947. In these, the absolute number of people employed in agriculture remained constant, old-growth forest cover decreased by 8% on average, and natural secondary forest succession increased, so that the total forest cover tended to be static between 1992 and 2000. Historical land use, an index of human poverty, and the population density of agricultural workers explained 61% of the among-district variation in forest cover in 2000, with forest concentrated in areas where populations were small and poor. Historical land use and gross income per hectare from agriculture explained 23.5% of the among-district variation in forest-cover change between 1992 and 2000. The early history of forest loss, an uneven distribution of people, and disparities in farm income contributed to the limited forest transition observed in Panama.

  19. Space partitioning among damselfishes in the Caribbean coast of Panama: the role of habitat preferences

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    Laís de Carvalho Teixeira Chaves

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess abundance and habitat use by juvenile and adult damselfishes, as much as the benthic cover of different reefs on Isla Colon, Bocas del Toro, Panama. Reefs were selected considering different levels of wave exposure and depths. Damselfish and benthic communities were distinct between reefs. The most abundant species in the sheltered deeper reef was Stegastes planifrons followed by S. leucostictus, and they were also recorded in the sheltered shallower reef. Low densities of S. partitus and S. variabilis were also observed in the sheltered deeper reef, as these species are apparently restricted to higher depths. Additionally, these reefs presented patches with high cover of live and dead massive coral. Shallow depths presented high abundances of S. adustus, indicating a preference of this species for shallow habitats and exhibiting a two-fold increase in abundance at higher wave surge. Also, Microspathodon chrysurus reached higher numbers in shallow depths. Furthermore, the exposed reef presented a high cover (% of algae groups and the fire-coral Millepora alcicornis, acknowledged as a preferred habitat for M. chrysurus and other reef fish. In this study, distinct habitat uses were observed, with patterns regulated by depth and/or wave exposure levels and/or availability of specific benthic cover. For site-attached species as damselfish, habitat specialization, competition and/or non-random recruitment patterns have been found to rule distributional patterns. Similar results for damselfish relative abundances were found compared to studies conducted within Panama and other reefs throughout the Caribbean region over three decades ago, indicating strong habitat affinity for the most abundant species. However, severe reductions of habitat availability following coral mass-mortality events may have disrupted their distributional patterns.

  20. Desiccation resistance in tropical insects: causes and mechanisms underlying variability in a Panama ant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujan, Jelena; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Kaspari, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Desiccation resistance, the ability of an organism to reduce water loss, is an essential trait in arid habitats. Drought frequency in tropical regions is predicted to increase with climate change, and small ectotherms are often under a strong desiccation risk. We tested hypotheses regarding the underexplored desiccation potential of tropical insects. We measured desiccation resistance in 82 ant species from a Panama rainforest by recording the time ants can survive desiccation stress. Species' desiccation resistance ranged from 0.7 h to 97.9 h. We tested the desiccation adaptation hypothesis, which predicts higher desiccation resistance in habitats with higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) - the drying power of the air. In a Panama rainforest, canopy microclimates averaged a VPD of 0.43 kPa, compared to a VPD of 0.05 kPa in the understory. Canopy ants averaged desiccation resistances 2.8 times higher than the understory ants. We tested a number of mechanisms to account for desiccation resistance. Smaller insects should desiccate faster given their higher surface area to volume ratio. Desiccation resistance increased with ant mass, and canopy ants averaged 16% heavier than the understory ants. A second way to increase desiccation resistance is to carry more water. Water content was on average 2.5% higher in canopy ants, but total water content was not a good predictor of ant desiccation resistance or critical thermal maximum (CT max), a measure of an ant's thermal tolerance. In canopy ants, desiccation resistance and CT max were inversely related, suggesting a tradeoff, while the two were positively correlated in understory ants. This is the first community level test of desiccation adaptation hypothesis in tropical insects. Tropical forests do contain desiccation-resistant species, and while we cannot predict those simply based on their body size, high levels of desiccation resistance are always associated with the tropical canopy.

  1. PANAMÁ 2009: ELECCIONES, CRISIS MUNDIAL Y MOVIMIENTOS SOCIALES Panama 2009: Elections, Global Crisis and Social Movements

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    MARCO A GANDÁSEGUI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2009 Panamá se enfrentó a la crisis económica mundial y, a pesar de ella, continuó ejecutando las obras de ampliación del Canal de Panamá que representa una inversión total de US$ 5.250 millones. La crisis logró abollar el crecimiento económico. Al mismo tiempo los indicadores sociales desmejoraron. A la vez, las políticas públicas continuaron generando más protestas sociales y una tasa de criminalidad ascendente. Se eligió un nuevo Presidente de la República, quien cuestionó con éxito la estructura política tradicional bipartidista. El Presidente Martinelli inició su gestión anunciando la habilitación de 11 bases aeronavales con el fin de "combatir el narcotráfico". La falta de experiencia y cultura política del equipo del Presidente Martinelli pueden ser señales de un debilitamiento de las instituciones democráticas.In 2009, Panama had to deal with the global economic recession and, at the same time, continue widening the Panamá Canal at a cost of US$ 5.25 billion. The Global recession was able to slow down Panama's economic growth. Meanwhile public policies spurred popular protests and a growing crime rate. Panamá elected a new President in 2009 who was able to bring down with success what seemed to be shaping up to be a two-party political structure. On the international front, President Martinelli inaugurated his mandate setting-up 11 air and naval bases to "combat drug trafficking." President Martinelli's administration lack of political culture and experience can be signs of a weakening of democratic institutions.

  2. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Populations in Panama.

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    Celestino Martínez

    Full Text Available Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection, could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not variation in the native range.

  3. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M T; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range.

  4. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M. T.; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range. PMID:26863538

  5. Soil nutrient-landscape relationships in a lowland tropical rainforest in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, F.K.; Stallard, R.F.; Elsenbeer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Soils play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles as spatially distributed sources and sinks of nutrients. Any spatial patterns depend on soil forming processes, our understanding of which is still limited, especially in regards to tropical rainforests. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of landscape properties, with an emphasis on the geometry of the land surface, on the spatial heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, and to test the suitability of soil-landscape modeling as an appropriate technique to predict the spatial variability of exchangeable K and Mg in a humid tropical forest in Panama. We used a design-based, stratified sampling scheme to collect soil samples at 108 sites on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Stratifying variables are lithology, vegetation and topography. Topographic variables were generated from high-resolution digital elevation models with a grid size of 5 m. We took samples from five depths down to 1 m, and analyzed for total and exchangeable K and Mg. We used simple explorative data analysis techniques to elucidate the importance of lithology for soil total and exchangeable K and Mg. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were adopted to investigate importance of topography, lithology and vegetation for the spatial distribution of exchangeable K and Mg and with the intention to develop models that regionalize the point observations using digital terrain data as explanatory variables. Our results suggest that topography and vegetation do not control the spatial distribution of the selected soil chemical properties at a landscape scale and lithology is important to some degree. Exchangeable K is distributed equally across the study area indicating that other than landscape processes, e.g. biogeochemical processes, are responsible for its spatial distribution. Lithology contributes to the spatial variation of exchangeable Mg but controlling variables could not be detected. The spatial variation of soil total K

  6. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  7. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region--Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armién, Blas; Ortiz, Paulo Lazaro; Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km(2) and the total study area was 6.43 km(2) (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial

  8. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region - Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the

  9. Three new species of Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773 from the Southeastern USA, Belize and Panama are described using computer tomography (CT (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae

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    Adrienne Jochum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773, Carychium hardiei Jochum & Weigand, sp. n., Carychium belizeense Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. and Carychium zarzaae Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. are described from the Southeastern United States, Belize and Panama, respectively. In two consecutive molecular phylogenetic studies of worldwide members of Carychiidae, the North and Central American morphospecies Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 and Carychium costaricanum E. von Martens, 1898 were found to consist of several evolutionary lineages. Although the related lineages were found to be molecularly distinct from the two nominal species, the consequential morphological and taxonomic assessment of these lineages is still lacking. In the present paper, the shells of these uncovered Carychium lineages are assessed by comparing them with those of related species, using computer tomography for the first time for this genus. The interior diagnostic characters are emphasized, such as columellar configuration in conjunction with the columellar lamella and their relationship in context of the entire shell. These taxa are morphologically described and formally assigned their own names.

  10. Revision of Thisiomorphus Pic (Coleoptera: Mycteridae: Eurypinae) with descriptions of eleven new species from Central and South America and a key to genera of Neotropical Eurypinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Darren A

    2016-03-22

    The Neotropical eurypine genus Thisiomorphus is revised, based on external structural features of adults. Twelve species are recognized, including the following eleven new species (type areas in parentheses): T. festivus (Panama, Colón Prov.), T. osaensis (Costa Rica, Puntarenas Prov.), T. davidsoni (Brazil, Chapada), T. inaequalis (Ecuador, Napo Prov.), T. caeruleus (Panama, Panamá Prov.), T. brasiliensis (Brazil, Amazonas), T. solisi (Costa Rica, Guanacaste Prov.), T. andrewsi (Panama, Chiriquí Prov.), T. bolivianus (Bolivia, Santa Cruz Dept.), T. curticornis (Ecuador, Sucumbíos Prov.), and T. convergens (Brazil, Pará). A key to the 13 described eurypine genera of Central and South American is provided, along with a key to species of Thisiomorphus. The keys are supplemented with images of habitus and selected structural features, and maps of known distributions are provided.

  11. A new species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae with pendent inflorescence, from Chucantí Private Nature Reserve, eastern Panama

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    Rodolfo Flores

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heliconia berguidoi (Heliconiaceae, a new species from premontane forest of eastern Panama, is described, illustrated and its conservation status evaluated. H. berguidoi bears pink flowers, an uncommon color in this group. It differs from the Colombian species Heliconia rhodantha and Heliconia sanctae-theresae, the most similar taxa, by the combination of a petiole glabrous except for the woolly base, a very long peduncle, the perianth pubescent at the apex and staminode with cuspidate apex. H. berguidoi is also similar to Heliconia pogonantha in all four of its varieties and to Heliconia ramonensis in two of its four varieties, but differs by a combination of the long peduncle, pink flowers and staminode with cuspidate apex. Fifty-six Heliconia species have been found in Panama, eighteen of them endemic.

  12. Along the Road: The Ngäbe-Buglé Struggle to Protect Environmental Resources in Panama

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    Rogelio Cansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people in Panama do not enjoy full autonomy within their comarcas (traditional land reserves: they only control surface resources, while the state retains control of underground resources. This article analyses direct action by the Ngäbe-Buglé, who successfully defeated the latest attempt by the government to exploit underground resources within their comarcas. It describes government strategies for retaining control over Indigenous people’s land and analyses how the Ngäbe-Buglé counteracted these strategies with support from burgeoning civil society movements. We argue that this is due to an unprecedented alliance between Indigenous people and other social movements in Panama, as well as to the fact that Indigenous people have succeeded in federating all major civil society organizations around their discourses and actions.

  13. A new species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) with pendent inflorescence, from Chucantí Private Nature Reserve, eastern Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Flores; Carla Black; Alicia Ibáñez

    2017-01-01

    Heliconia berguidoi (Heliconiaceae), a new species from premontane forest of eastern Panama, is described, illustrated and its conservation status evaluated. H. berguidoi bears pink flowers, an uncommon color in this group. It differs from the Colombian species Heliconia rhodantha and Heliconia sanctae-theresae, the most similar taxa, by the combination of a petiole glabrous except for the woolly base, a very long peduncle, the perianth pubescent at the apex and staminode with cuspidate apex....

  14. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model.

  15. Domestication of the neotropical tree Chrysophyllum cainito from a geographically limited yet genetically diverse gene pool in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer J; Parker, Ingrid M; Potter, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Species in the early stages of domestication, in which wild and cultivated forms co-occur, provide important opportunities to develop and test hypotheses about the origins of crop species. Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae), the star apple or caimito, is a semidomesticated tree widely cultivated for its edible fruits; it is known to be native to the neotropics, but its precise geographic origins have not been firmly established. Here, we report results of microsatellite marker analyses supporting the hypothesis that the center of domestication for caimito was the Isthmus of Panama, a region in which few crop species are believed to have originated, despite its importance as a crossroads for the dispersal of domesticated plants between North and South America. Our data suggest that caimito was domesticated in a geographically restricted area while incorporating a diverse gene pool. These results refute the generally accepted Antillean origin of caimito, as well as alternative hypotheses that the species was domesticated independently in the two areas or over a broad geographic range including both. Human-mediated dispersal from Panama to the north and east was accompanied by strong reductions in both genotypic and phenotypic diversity. Within Panama, cultivated and wild trees show little neutral genetic divergence, in contrast to striking phenotypic differentiation in fruit and seed traits. In addition to providing a rare example of data that support the hypothesis of a narrow geographic origin on the Isthmus of Panama for a now widespread cultivated plant species, this study is one of the first investigations of the origins of an edible species of the large pantropical family Sapotaceae.

  16. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    peaceful resolution. This group was made up of foreign ministers from Mexico , Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama and was named after Contadora Island, the...from: Martine, George and Guzman, Jose Miguel, UNFPA Country Support Team, Mexico Source: OPS/OMS (1994); CEPAL (1999); OPS-Nicaragua (http...State. Isacson, Adam 1998. Seguridad Cooperativa en Centroamérica. (Cooperative Security in Central America) Diálogo Centro-americano No. 35

  17. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capece, P.I.; Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Jansen, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the

  18. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey K; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (PMexico (Pwomen). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and opportunities for higher-level education may increase institutional delivery rates

  19. Climate Change Impact Uncertainties for Maize in Panama: Farm Information, Climate Projections, and Yield Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Cecil, L. Dewayne; Horton, Radley M.; Gordon, Roman; McCollum, Raymond (Brown, Douglas); Brown, Douglas; Killough, Brian; Goldberg, Richard; Greeley, Adam P.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a pilot project to characterize and bound multi-disciplinary uncertainties around the assessment of maize (Zea mays) production impacts using the CERES-Maize crop model in a climate-sensitive region with a variety of farming systems (Panama). Segunda coa (autumn) maize yield in Panama currently suffers occasionally from high water stress at the end of the growing season, however under future climate conditions warmer temperatures accelerate crop maturation and elevated CO (sub 2) concentrations improve water retention. This combination reduces end-of-season water stresses and eventually leads to small mean yield gains according to median projections, although accelerated maturation reduces yields in seasons with low water stresses. Calibrations of cultivar traits, soil profile, and fertilizer amounts are most important for representing baseline yields, however sensitivity to all management factors is reduced in an assessment of future yield changes (most dramatically for fertilizers), suggesting that yield changes may be more generalizable than absolute yields. Uncertainty around General Circulation Model (GCM)s' projected changes in rainfall gain in importance throughout the century, with yield changes strongly correlated with growing season rainfall totals. Climate changes are expected to be obscured by the large inter-annual variations in Panamanian climate that will continue to be the dominant influence on seasonal maize yield into the coming decades. The relatively high (A2) and low (B1) emissions scenarios show little difference in their impact on future maize yields until the end of the century. Uncertainties related to the sensitivity of CERES-Maize to carbon dioxide concentrations have a substantial influence on projected changes, and remain a significant obstacle to climate change impacts assessment. Finally, an investigation into the potential of simple statistical yield emulators based upon key climate variables characterizes the

  20. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny V Colombara

    Full Text Available Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001, 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001, and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women. Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.44-2.61, compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81, primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68, informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63, and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79 also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26 and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19. Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  1. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Johanns, Casey K.; McNellan, Claire R.; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44–2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18–1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24–1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21–1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04–1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05–1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02–1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care

  2. Water relations of five tropical tree species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetcher, Ned

    1979-01-01

    Diurnal curves of xylem pressure potential (P) and leaf conductance (C) were measured for five tree species of the lowland tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Measurements were taken just before and just after the beginning of the rainy season. The species studied were: Cordia alliodora, Faramea occidentalis, Heisteria concinna, Macquira costaricana, and Trichilia cipo.For all species, predawn (base P) and daytime values of P increased markedly after the beginning of the rainy season. Diurnal patterns of C were quite diverse. C. alliodora showed a decline in C during the day whereas F. occidentaus, H. concinna, and M. costaricana showed little change. Conductance of the last three species was lower before the first rains. T. cipo exhibited more complicated behavior for P and C. Before the rainy season, low values of base P and midday P were observed (-26 bars and-39 bars, respectively). Conductance was also low. After the first rains, base P increased to-4 bars. At this time, midday P and C appeared to respond to vapor pressure deficit (VPD), being less on a day with high VPD than on a day with low VPD.

  3. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  4. Health care experiences of U.S. retirees living in Mexico and Panama: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Haac, Bryce E; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2013-10-12

    Retirement migration from northern countries to southern countries is increasing in both Europe and North America, and retiree experiences will impact future migration and health services utilization. We therefore sought to describe the healthcare experiences and perceptions of retired U.S. citizens currently living in Mexico and Panama. 46 retired U.S. citizens (23 per country) who had been hospitalized (61%) or had a chronic health condition (78%) in two regions per country with large communities of retired U.S. citizens were identified. Detailed semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore experiences with, attitudes toward, and costs of healthcare. Interviews were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Respondents averaged 68-70 years old, were well educated, had few physical dependencies, and had moderate incomes. They praised physician services as more personalized than in the U.S. and home care as inexpensive and widely available, expressed favorable opinions regarding outpatient and dental care, gave mixed ratings on hospital services, and expressed concerns about emergency services. Numerous concerns about health insurance were expressed, including the unavailability of Medicare and reductions in Tricare. Payment concerns and lack of data on local health providers made deciding where to obtain services challenging. Retirees living abroad report dilemmas regarding healthcare choices, insurance availability, and quality of care. As this population segment grows, pressure will increase for policy and business solutions to existing medical care challenges.

  5. Diversity of Perceptions on REDD+ Implementation at the Agriculture Frontier in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonist farmers have been largely ignored to date in national consultations on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+. Yet, good practices suggest that understanding all relevant stakeholders’ perspectives, goals, and issues is a precondition for the development of successful environmental policies. The present research documents perceptions of the civil society and the government on the possibility of successfully implementing REDD+ activities with colonist farmers. The focus is on Eastern Panama. The perceptions on REDD+ vary greatly depending on the stakeholders’ origins. The government perceives REDD+ as a possibility for improving laws, increasing control over the national territory, and investing more resources for conservation and public institutions, whereas respondents from colonist backgrounds mostly insist on the potential economic benefits and/or the negative implications that could encompass REDD+. Noncolonist participants from regional, national, and international organizations instead try to balance concerns of communities and conservation objectives. Because one of our results highlighted the difficulty of colonist farmers in speaking as a united voice, we carried out a case study of a successful colonists association in order to identify the characteristics and practices found to facilitate communal organization.

  6. Molluscan subfossil assemblages reveal the long-term deterioration of coral reef environments in Caribbean Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Rodríguez, Félix; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2015-07-15

    Caribbean reef corals have declined sharply since the 1980s, but the lack of prior baseline data has hindered identification of drivers of change. To assess anthropogenic change in reef environments over the past century, we tracked the composition of subfossil assemblages of bivalve and gastropod mollusks excavated from pits below lagoonal and offshore reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The higher prevalence of (a) infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves and herbivorous and omnivorous gastropods in lagoons and (b) epifaunal and suspension-feeding bivalves and carnivorous and suspension-feeding gastropods offshore reflected the greater influence of land-based nutrients/sediments within lagoons. Temporal changes indicated deteriorating environmental conditions pre-1960 in lagoons and post-1960 offshore, with offshore communities becoming more similar to lagoonal ones since 1960. Relative abundances of dominant bivalve species tracked those of their coral hosts, revealing broader ecosystem effects of coral community change. The nature and timing of changes implicate land-based runoff in reef deterioration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D; Silvestro, Daniele; Jaramillo, Carlos; Smith, Brian Tilston; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-05-12

    The linking of North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama had major impacts on global climate, oceanic and atmospheric currents, and biodiversity, yet the timing of this critical event remains contentious. The Isthmus is traditionally understood to have fully closed by ca. 3.5 million years ago (Ma), and this date has been used as a benchmark for oceanographic, climatic, and evolutionary research, but recent evidence suggests a more complex geological formation. Here, we analyze both molecular and fossil data to evaluate the tempo of biotic exchange across the Americas in light of geological evidence. We demonstrate significant waves of dispersal of terrestrial organisms at approximately ca. 20 and 6 Ma and corresponding events separating marine organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at ca. 23 and 7 Ma. The direction of dispersal and their rates were symmetrical until the last ca. 6 Ma, when northern migration of South American lineages increased significantly. Variability among taxa in their timing of dispersal or vicariance across the Isthmus is not explained by the ecological factors tested in these analyses, including biome type, dispersal ability, and elevation preference. Migration was therefore not generally regulated by intrinsic traits but more likely reflects the presence of emergent terrain several millions of years earlier than commonly assumed. These results indicate that the dramatic biotic turnover associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange was a long and complex process that began as early as the Oligocene-Miocene transition.

  8. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  9. Predation by odonates depresses mosquito abundance in water-filled tree holes in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, Ola M; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Hanschu, Richard D

    1997-10-01

    In the lowland moist forest of Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, larvae of four common species of odonates, a mosquito, and a tadpole are the major predators in water-filled tree holes. Mosquito larvae are their most common prey. Holes colonized naturally by predators and prey had lower densities of mosquitoes if odonates were present than if they were absent. Using artificial tree holes placed in the field, we tested the effects of odonates on their mosquito prey while controlling for the quantity and species of predator, hole volume, and nutrient input. In large and small holes with low nutrient input, odonates depressed the number of mosquitoes present and the number that survived to pupation. Increasing nutrient input (and consequently, mosquito abundance) to abnormally high levels dampened the effect of predation when odonates were relatively small. However, the predators grew faster with higher nutrients, and large larvae in all three genera reduced the number of mosquitoes surviving to pupation, even though the abundance of mosquito larvae remained high. Size-selective predation by the odonates is a likely explanation for this result; large mosquito larvae were less abundant in the predator treatment than in the controls. Because species assemblages were similar between natural and artificial tree holes, our results suggest that odonates are keystone species in tree holes on BCI, where they are the most common large predators.

  10. Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

  11. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk women in the Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, W C; Quiroz, E

    1987-01-01

    This study enrolled 1,032 sexually active women attending social hygiene clinics in Panama City; clinic attendance is mandatory for women employed in houses of prostitution, bars, and cabarets. Women were interviewed, and endocervical specimens were obtained for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Four occupational groups attended the social hygiene clinics: prostitutes, bar girls denying prostitution, cabaret entertainers, and streetwalkers detained by the police. Prevalence of sexually transmitted disease, nationality, race, contraceptive method, and self-medication varied significantly by occupation; 31% of streetwalkers had gonorrhea as did 10% of prostitutes, 5% of bar girls, and 3% of cabaret entertainers. Rates of positive serologic tests for syphilis followed the same trend: 23% in streetwalkers, 7% in prostitutes, and 3% in nonprostitutes. Rates of chlamydial infection were significantly higher in cabaret entertainers (8%) than in any other occupational group (2%). Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infections were uncommon and were found in 5% and 1% of the women, respectively. Prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae varied with self-medication and years of "professional" experience. Only one of 160 N. gonorrhoeae isolates was resistant to penicillin and also beta-lactamase-positive.

  12. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  13. Effects of water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on in-shell hazelnuts inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Lisa D; Daeschel, Mark A; Durham, Catherine A; Morrissey, Michael T

    2013-12-01

    Recent foodborne disease outbreaks involving minimally processed tree nuts have generated a need for improved sanitation procedures. Chemical sprays and dips have shown promise for reducing pathogens on fresh produce, but little research has been conducted for in-shell hazelnuts. This study analyzed the effectiveness of 3 chemical sanitizers for reducing Salmonella on in-shell hazelnuts. Treatments of water, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 25 and 50 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 80 and 120 ppm), and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 450, 830, and 1013 ppm) were sprayed onto hazelnut samples inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama. Hazelnut samples were immersed in liquid cultures of S. Panama for 24 h, air-dried, and then sprayed with water and chemical treatments. Inoculation achieved S. Panama populations of approximately 8.04 log CFU/hazelnut. Surviving S. panama populations were evaluated using a nonselective medium (tryptic soy agar), incubated 3 h, and then overlaid with selective media (xylose lysine deoxycholate agar). All of the chemical treatments significantly reduced S. Panama populations (P ≤ 0.0001). The most effective concentrations of ASC, PAA, and NaOCl treatments reduced populations by 2.65, 1.46, and 0.66 log units, respectively. ASC showed the greatest potential for use as a postharvest sanitation treatment. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Nieves-Aldrey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera. The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba’s gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1269-1286. Epub 2008 September 30.El interés por el estudio de las agallas y los artrópodos que las inducen ha crecido en todo el mundo en los últimos veinte años. Sin embargo, los artrópodos que inducen agallas en la región Neotropical son probablemente los menos estudiados. Un estudio de la riqueza y composición de artrópodos que inducen agallas fue desarrollado en el Parque Nacional Coiba en la Republica de Panamá. Los datos provienen de

  15. Decadal increase in seagrass biomass and temperature at the CARICOMP site in Bocas del Toro, Panama

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    Jorge M. López-Calderón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP was launched in 1993 to study regional long-term interactions between land and sea, taking standardized measurements of productivity and biomass of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses. Since 1999 continuous measurements of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum parameters as well as environmental data have been recorded in Caribbean Panama. Replicate stations were selected near the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Bocas del Toro. Sediment cores and quadrants were placed there to estimate biomass and productivity, respectively. Mean values for productivity, standing crop, turnover rate, total dry biomass, and Leaf Area Index were 1.74gDW/m²/d, 66.6gDW/m², 2.62%/d, 1 481 gDW/m², and 4.65, respectively. Total dry biomass (shoots, rhizomes and roots and LAI of T. testudinum increased significantly during the study period. Mean values for total rainfall, Secchi disk depth, sea surface temperature, and salinity were 3 498mm, 8.24m, 28.79°C, and 32.26psu, respectively. Sea surface temperature was the only environmental variable with a statistically significant change, increasing from 1999 to 2010. Correlation between sea surface temperature and T. testudinum parameters (total biomass and LAI were both positive and significant. Human population has increased dramatically over the last ten years in Bocas del Toro region, increasing pressure (deforestation, runoff, wastewater over coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, coral reefs. Change in the abundance of T. testudinum may be linked to ocean warming, as a consequence to satisfy plant’s metabolic requirements, although other local factors need to be analyzed (reduced grazing and increased eutrophication. A further warming of the ocean could have a negative effect on T. testudinum population, increasing respiratory demands and microbial metabolism.

  16. Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Vanessa L; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2011-12-06

    Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered to be a disease exclusively of amphibians. However, B. dendrobatidis may also be capable of persisting in the environment, and non-amphibian vectors or hosts may contribute to disease transmission. Reptiles living in close proximity to amphibians and sharing similar ecological traits could serve as vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis, harbouring the organism on their skin without succumbing to disease. We surveyed for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA among 211 lizards and 8 snakes at 8 sites at varying elevations in Panama where the syntopic amphibians were at pre-epizootic, epizootic or post-epizootic stages of chytridiomycosis. Detection of B. dendrobatidis DNA was done using qPCR analysis. Evidence of the amphibian pathogen was present at varying intensities in 29 of 79 examined Anolis humilis lizards (32%) and 9 of 101 A. lionotus lizards (9%), and in one individual each of the snakes Pliocercus euryzonus, Imantodes cenchoa, and Nothopsis rugosus. In general, B. dendrobatidis DNA prevalence among reptiles was positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). These reptiles, therefore, may likely be vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis and could serve as disease transmission agents. Although there is no evidence of B. dendrobatidis disease-induced declines in reptiles, cases of coincidence of reptile and amphibian declines suggest this potentiality. Our study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment.

  17. Controls over aboveground forest carbon density on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mascaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of tropical forests to the global carbon cycle, ecological controls over landscape-level variation in live aboveground carbon density (ACD in tropical forests are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a spatially comprehensive analysis of ACD variation for a mainland tropical forest – Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI – and tested site factors that may control such variation. We mapped ACD over 98% of BCI (~1500 ha using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, which was well-correlated with ground-based measurements of ACD in Panamanian forests of various ages (r2 = 0.77, RMSE = 29 Mg C ha−1, P < 0.0001. We used multiple regression to examine controls over LiDAR-derived ACD, including slope angle, bedrock, soil texture, and forest age. Collectively, these variables explained 14% of the variation in ACD at 30-m resolution, and explained 33% at 100-m resolution. At all resolutions, slope (linked to underlying bedrock variation was the strongest driving factor; standing carbon stocks were generally higher on steeper slopes, where erosion rates tend to exceed weathering rates, compared to gentle slopes, where weathering in place produces deep, oxic soils. This result suggests that physiography may be more important in controlling ACD variation in Neotropical forests than currently thought. Although BCI has been largely undisturbed by humans for a century, past land-use over approximately half of the island still influences ACD variation, with younger forests (80–130 years old averaging ~15% less carbon storage than old-growth forests (>400 years old. If other regions of relatively old tropical secondary forests also store less carbon aboveground than primary forests, the effects on the global carbon cycle could be substantial and difficult to detect with satellite monitoring.

  18. Shallow electrical resistivity imaging of the Limón fault, Chagres River Watershed, Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Alexis; Pérez, Tatiana; Toral, Jaime; Miranda, Roberto; Franceschi, Pastora; Calderón, Carlos; Vergara, Fidedigna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was the use of electrical resistivity imaging to investigate the geometry of the southwest portion of one of the most important geologic fault zones of the Panama Canal Watershed: the Limón fault. This fault is characterized by its juxtaposition of pre-Tertiary andesitic basalt (Playa Venado Formation) against late Oligocene Tertiary sediments (Caimito Formation). In this zone, four 2D electrical resistivity tomography profiles were conducted perpendicular to the fault trace: T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4. The T-1, T-3, and T-4 profiles were long profiles (235 m for the first two and 215 m for the last one), with a goal of determining the depth of the geologic boundary between the sedimentary and andesitic deposits. The T-2 profile was a short profile (23.5 m), with the objective of calibrating the results with data provided by the paleoseismic trenching previously developed in the area of interest. For these tests, two electrode arrays of types Wenner-Schlumberger and Dipole-Dipole, were used. For the inversion routine, two regularized least-squares methods were used: the smoothness-constrained method and robust inversion. The long electrical resistivity tomography profiles were able to identify a set of electrical anomalies associated with the andesitic basalt and the Tertiary sediments and with that, the contact geometry between these formations. In these profiles, fault angle measurements ranged from 60° to 80° with respect to the ground surface. In the T-2 profile, the electrical anomalies showed a good association with the results of the paleoseismic study. This allowed identification of the colluvium and alluvium covering the gravel and sand debris that mark the gradual transition to the soils of the Caimito Formation. Finally, a set of 2D synthetic models was developed for each of the T-1, T-3, and T-4 profiles with the objective of optimizing interpretation of the field results.

  19. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  20. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Basset

    Full Text Available Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama between an old (1923-1943 and a recent (1993-2013 period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species. However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.

  1. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Distribution and Persistence of Sterile Screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Released at the Panama-Colombia Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoda, Steven R; Phillips, Pamela L; Sagel, Agustin; Chaudhury, Muhammad F

    2017-04-01

    The sterile insect technique is used by the Comisión Panamá - Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado (COPEG) to maintain a barrier at the border of Panama and Colombia to prevent screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from South America reinfesting North America. Before studying the distribution and persistence of sterilized, mass-produced screwworms released in the barrier zone, the utility of applying fluorescent dust (∼1.0 mg/fly) to pupae and to newly emerged adults was evaluated to determine the potential effect on fly survival. The flight ability of flies collected from two adult emergence/collection systems (enclosed towers and open chambers) and treated with low (∼0.20 mg/fly) or high (∼1.0 mg/fly) amounts of fluorescent powder was compared. The distribution and persistence of sterile screwworms marked with fluorescent powder (∼0.20 mg/fly), after collection from the same two adult emergence/collection systems, was compared after their release in the barrier zone. The results demonstrated that: 1) fluorescent dust did not negatively affect sterile screwworm longevity or flight ability; 2) no differences were detected between sterile flies collected from the two emergence systems; and 3) sterile screwworms distributed evenly in the barrier zone and persisted for > 6 d. This information was useful in implementing the use of a new sterile fly emergence/collection system and deploying a new strain by COPEG for the barrier zone maintenance program; it will be valuable for evaluating alternative release strategies of sterile screwworms by the eradication and barrier maintenance program. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923-1943) and a recent (1993-2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.

  5. When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, B. P.; Condit, C.; Liu, G.; dos Santos, S.; Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kline, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly affected by high-temperature stress events and associated bleaching. Monitoring and predicting these events have largely utilized sea surface temperature data, due to the convenience of using large-scale remotely sensed satellite measurements. However, coral bleaching has been observed to vary in severity throughout the water column, and variations in coral thermal stress across depths have not yet been well investigated. In this study, in situ water temperature data from 1999 to 2011 from three depths were used to calculate thermal stress on a coral reef in Bahia Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama, which was compared to satellite surface temperature data and thermal stress calculations for the same area and time period from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Watch Satellite Bleaching Alert system. The results show similar total cumulative annual thermal stress for both the surface and depth-stratified data, but with a striking difference in the distribution of that stress among the depth strata during different high-temperature events, with the greatest thermal stress unusually recorded at the deepest measured depth during the most severe bleaching event in 2005. Temperature records indicate that a strong density-driven temperature inversion may have formed in this location in that year, contributing to the persistence and intensity of bleaching disturbance at depth. These results indicate that depth may not provide a stress refuge from high water temperature events in some situations, and in this case, the water properties at depth appear to have contributed to greater coral bleaching at depth compared to near-surface locations. This case study demonstrates the importance of incorporating depth-stratified temperature monitoring and small-scale oceanographic and hydrologic data for understanding and predicting local reef responses to elevated water temperature events.

  6. Late quaternary sea bottom conditions in the southern Panama basin, Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarroyo, German D.; Martínez, José I.

    2015-11-01

    A paleoceanographic reconstruction of the southern Panama Basin for the last 23.000 years, based on the benthic foraminiferal analysis from the deep sea core ME0005A-24JC (0.01°N, 86.28°W, water depth 2941) is presented. Cluster and SHEBI (SHE Analysis for Biozone Identification) analyses performed on the benthic foraminiferal assemblages, evidence a faunal turnover in the early Holocene at 14 ky BP. Between 23 and 14 ky BP, Fursenkoina rotundata, Hoeglundina elegans, Globobulimina affinis, Globobulimina pacifica, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Uvigerina hispidocostata were common. Conversely, from 14 ky to the present, the assemblage is represented by Chilostomella oolina, Laticarinina pauperata, and Uvigerina proboscidea. This faunal turnover suggests significant fluctuations in oxygen content at the sea floor and the organic matter (OM) influx, which could reflect: (1) fluctuations in the surface productivity related to the equatorial divergence and, (2) OM advection caused by the dynamic of the deep sea currents. Paleoproductivity estimates and benthic foraminiferal rates depict a general trend towards lower values since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with a conspicuous change at 14 ky BP. Therefore, the paleoceanographic reconstructions of the ME0005A-24JC core suggest a transition from La Niña-like conditions during the LGM to El Niño-like conditions in the recent, as previously proposed for the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Estimates of the paleo-intensity of deep sea currents based on the relative percentage abundance of the epifaunal foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi suggest stronger deep sea currents on the Carnegie Ridge before 14 ky BP.

  7. Phosphorus fertilization management in corn crop, El Ejido, Panama 2004-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Gordon-Mendoza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine medium and long management of phosphorus fertilization with two application methods on the maize. An experiment was established in El Ejido, Panama, from 2004 to 2013 on Udic Haplustalf soil. Two factors were evaluated in a 5 x 4 factorial arrangement of split plot under a randomized block design with three replications. The main plot was the broadcast application of P in rates of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kgP/ha (applied only the first year, while in sub-plots applied P in band, for ten years, together with N and K doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kgP/ha. The maximum grain yield was achieved by applying average 304 kg (average of 30.4 kgP/year. It was observed that the residual effect broadcast applications of 0 and 25 kgP/ha had a relative yield below 80%. Treatment of 50 kgP/ha remained at 82%, while 75 kgP/ha declined from the year 2007 and is at a value close to 80%. Treatment of 100 kgP/ha broadcast presents a relative yield close to 100%. The results indicate that the broadcast application over 50 kgP/ha did not differ from the response obtained with annual applications of 30 P/ha in the first five years. These results suggest that the residual effect of phosphorus broadcast and incorporated before planting, on the type of soil used, varies according doses applied initially, where dosages above 50 kg/ha should be repeated after six years to maintain good productivity, since, from this time the residual effect is drastically reduced.

  8. The Panama Canal and the transoceanic dispersal of marine invertebrates: evaluation of the introduced amphipod Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Ashton, Gail V; Lacerda, Mariana B; Carlton, James T; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    Although the Panama Canal is one of the major corridors for shipping and potential dispersal of marine invaders in the tropics, little is known about the effect that the Canal has had on the distribution of marine biota. In this study, we (a) document the existence of established populations of the Western Atlantic caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla, Mayer, 1890 for the first time at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, (b) review its distribution in the Pacific Ocean, and (c) evaluate possible mechanisms of introduction. The confirmed distribution of P. pusilla in the Pacific Ocean is limited to Australia, Hawaii, and Panama, despite earlier published reports from Chile and China. Laboratory experiments demonstrated intolerance of P. pusilla to freshwater, causing 100% mortality, and suggest invasion of the Pacific coast of Panama occurred through the Canal via ships' ballast water or by secondary spread via ships (ballast water or hull fouling) from another Pacific region.

  9. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  10. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution, abundance and diversity of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae: Psychodidae, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayansi Valderrama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Panama, species of the genus Lutzomyia are vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. There is no recent ecological information that may be used to develop tools for the control of this disease. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the composition, distribution and diversity of Lutzomyia species that serve as vectors of ACL. Sandfly sampling was conducted in forests, fragmented forests and rural environments, in locations with records of ACL. Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia trapidoi were the most widely distributed and prevalent species. Analysis of each sampling point showed that the species abundance and diversity were greatest at points located in the fragmented forest landscape. However, when the samples were grouped according to the landscape characteristics of the locations, there was a greater diversity of species in the rural environment locations. The Kruskal Wallis analysis of species abundance found that Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi were associated with fragmented environments, while Lu. panamensis, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor and Lutzomyia ylephiletor were associated with forested environments. Therefore, we suggest that human activity influences the distribution, composition and diversity of the vector species responsible for leishmaniasis in Panama.

  11. Study of the corrosion products formed on carbon steels in the tropical atmosphere of Panama

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    Jaén, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (in selected samples have been used to characterize corrosion products on carbon steels after atmospheric exposure to the tropical Panamanian locations of Panama and Colon, classified according to ISO 9223 as C3 and C5, respectively. Goethite (α-FeOOH of intermediate particle size (20-100 nm, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH, a spinel phase consisting of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4 and/or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 and nano-sized particles were identified in the corrosion products. The spinel phase is related to short term atmospheric exposure transforms in time to other corrosion products. The corrosion resistance increased with fraction of goethite following a saturation-type behavior.

    Se caracterizaron los productos de corrosión de aceros al carbono expuestos a las atmósferas tropicales panameñas localizadas en Panamá y Colón, mediante el uso de la espectroscopia Mössbauer y difracción de rayos-X (en muestras seleccionadas. Las atmósferas se clasifican como C3 y C5, respectivamente, de acuerdo a la norma ISO 9223. Se lograron identificar los compuestos goethita (α-FeOOH de tamaño de partícula intermedio (20-100 nm, lepidocrocita (γ-FeOOH, una fase de espinela consistente en magnetita no estequiométrica (Fe3-xO4 y/o maghemita (γ-Fe2O3, y nanopartículas. La fase de espinela se puede correlacionar con exposiciones cortas a la atmósfera, transformándose en el tiempo en otros productos de corrosión. La resistencia a la corrosión se incrementa con la cantidad de goethita siguiendo una conducta de saturación.

  12. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  13. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McGowan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA, Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77% from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2 and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 857-869. Epub 2010 September 01.Los bosques de manglar

  14. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  15. Hantavirus Public Health Outreach Effectiveness in Three Populations: An Overview of Northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S. McConnell

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601. Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  16. First report of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  17. An Eco-hydrologic Assessment of Small Experimental Catchments with Various Land Uses within the Panama Canal Watershed: Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project

    2010-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to water management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One of the project’s main objectives is to understand how reforestation effects seasonal stream flows. To meet this objective, a baseline characterization of hydrology on the small catchment scale is being assessed across different land uses typical in rural Panama. The small experimental catchments are found within Panama’s protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all of which are part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The land uses being monitored include a variety of control catchments as well as treated pasture sites. The catchments used for this study include a mature old regrowth forest, a 50% deforested or mosaic regrowth site, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site (saccharum spontaneum) as experimental controls and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. Installed instrumentation includes a network of rain gauges, v-notched weirs, atmometers, an eddy covariance system and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across these six geologically and topographically similar catchments are available from 2009 and 2010. Classic water balance and paired catchment techniques were used to compare the catchments on an annual, seasonal, and event basis. This study sets the stage for hydrologic modeling and for better understanding the effects of vegetation and land-use history on rainfall-runoff processes for the Agua Salud Project and Panama Canal

  18. Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and

  19. Hantavirus infection and habitat associations among rodent populations in agroecosystems of Panama: implications for human disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armién, Aníbal G; Armién, Blas; Koster, Frederick; Pascale, Juan M; Avila, Mario; Gonzalez, Publio; de la Cruz, Manuel; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Gracia, Fernando; Hjelle, Brian; Lee, Sang-Joon; Yates, Terry L; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which is caused by infection with Choclo virus, is uncommon in Panama, yet seropositivity among rural residents is as high as 60%. To clarify the environmental risk factors favoring rodent-to-human transmission, we tested serum from 3,067 rodents captured over a five-year period for antibodies against recombinant N protein of hantavirus by enzyme immunoassay and strip immunoblot. Among 220 seropositive rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, the reservoir of Choclo virus, had the highest overall seroprevalence (23.5%); more abundant rodents (Zygodontomys brevicauda and Sigmodon hirsutus) had lower seroprevalences. In the mixed (combined modern and traditional) productive agroecosystem, the highest seroprevalence was among O. fulvescens captured in residences and in crops grown within 40 meters of a residence, with significantly lower seroprevalence in adjacent pasture and non-productive vegetation. Thus, crop habitats may serve as refugia for invasion into adjacent human residences and suggests several interventions to reduce human infection.

  20. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  1. Characterization of seismicity at Volcán Barú, Panama: May 2013 through April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Chet J.; Waite, Gregory P.

    2016-12-01

    Volcán Barú, in the western province of Chiriquí, is Panama's youngest and most active volcano. Although Barú has experienced no historic eruptions, there have been four eruptive episodes in the last 1600 years, the most recent occurring 400-500 years ago (Sherrod et al., 2007). In addition, there have been four reported earthquake swarms in the last 100 years. The most recent swarm occurred in May of 2006, prompting a USGS hazard assessment (Sherrod et al., 2007). In order to characterize local seismicity and provide a reference for future monitoring efforts, we established a seismic network that operated from May 2013 through April 2014. The network consisted of eight temporary, single-component, short-period sensors loaned by OSOP Panama, and three permanent stations distributed over a 35 by 15 km area. During operation of the network, 91 local events were detected and located. These events were used to calculate a new 1-D velocity model for the region surrounding Barú. Of particular interest was a cluster of events located less than 5 km east of Barú at a depth of roughly 5 km. We used a template matching detection technique to identify another 47 smaller magnitude events in the area of this cluster. The largest events in the cluster exhibit a broad range of frequencies extending up to 20 Hz and focal mechanisms calculated for eight of the events suggest strike-slip and reverse faulting are the predominant source processes. The directions of maximum compression shown by these focal mechanisms are approximately radial with respect to the volcano, which may reflect the influence of a magmatic source beneath the edifice.

  2. Dynamics of the Central American Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Begonia; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; José Machín, Francisco; José Gavidia, Francisco; Castro, Mi

    2014-05-01

    The Central American Pacific (CAP) is the area located in front of the Central America coast, within the Eastern Tropical Pacific region (ETP). The CAP dynamic is strongly influenced by the NE and SE trade winds, also this area is characterized by the presence of coastal wind jets at Gulf of Papagayo and Gulf of Panama, which are product of wind pulses blowing through the mountain gaps of the central cordillera, generating important eddies as the cyclonic eddy of Costa Rica Dome (CRD). Nevertheless, the implications of the topography of the continental margin of Central America in the determination of the dynamic processes in the area related to the action of winds and currents are still unknown. Between November and December 2010 (dry season), onboard the R/V Miguel Oliver, oceanographic parameters were measured in the CAP area, which despite its importance, has been poorly investigated until date. Available oceanographic information was processed in order to describe the dynamic along the Pacific coast of Central America, which is notable for its particularly strong stratification in the water column and the distribution of properties, as response to the presence of areas with high temperatures (above 28° C) and other areas with salinity minimum (less than 24). In this study was possible to distinguish three hydrographic zones: PM, south, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Panama, PY, in the center, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Papagayo, and FC, to the north, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Fonseca. The surface transformations of the water bodies, from south to north, observed in these zones could be indicting the presence of Costa Rica current. The prevailing wind system is the main force of variations in the surface distribution of the temperature in the area, and they are responsible of important structures as the anticyclonic eddy in front Gulf of Fonseca, eddies derived from the wind pulses of Gulf of Papagayo, and the relatively low temperatures in

  3. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  4. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  5. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot’s parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult’s increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 779-787. Epub 2008 June 30.Los desplazamientos del ámbito hogareño de mamíferos subadultos previos a la dispersión natal rara vez han sido documentados. Sin embargo, los eventos que llevan a un animal subadulto a abandonar una parte de su ámbito natal

  6. Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America: Mantle refertilization by arc-hot spot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Esteban; Carr, Michael J.; Hoernle, Kaj; Feigenson, Mark D.; Szymanski, David; Hauff, Folkmar; van den Bogaard, Paul

    2009-02-01

    Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America (central Costa Rica and Panama) have isotopic and trace element compositions with an ocean island basalt (OIB) affinity, similar to the Galapagos-OIB lavas (e.g., Ba/La 10, 206Pb/204Pb > 18.8). Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene ˜6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas similar to the Galapagos hot spot. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hot spot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridge) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively lower Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, and enriched incompatible-element signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hot spot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridge (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological and geochemical evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hot spot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ˜8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hot spot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

  7. Association of anthropogenic land use change and increased abundance of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in a rural landscape of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azäel; Carroll, C Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is associated with increased vector-borne infectious disease transmission in wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate how disturbance of a tropical forest landscape impacts abundance of the triatomine bug Rhodnius pallescens, a vector of Chagas disease, in the region of the Panama Canal in Panama. Rhodnius pallescens was collected (n = 1,186) from its primary habitat, the palm Attalea butyracea, in five habitat types reflecting a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. There was a high proportion of palms infested with R. pallescens across all habitat types (range = 77.1-91.4%). Results show that disturbed habitats are associated with increased vector abundance compared with relatively undisturbed habitats. Bugs collected in disturbed sites, although in higher abundance, tended to be in poor body condition compared with bugs captured in protected forest sites. Abundance data suggests that forest remnants may be sources for R. pallescens populations within highly disturbed areas of the landscape.

  8. Impact of Hepatitis A vaccination with a two-dose schedule in Panama: Results of epidemiological surveillance and time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajeros, Olga; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-06-22

    In April 2007, Panama introduced Hepatitis A universal vaccination using a two-dose schedule (Havrix(®)junior; GSK Vaccines, Belgium). We assessed the impact of this hepatitis A vaccine three years after it was recommended for universal mass vaccination in Panama. Hepatitis A vaccination impact was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach used retrospective data (incidence and number of cases for all age groups), collected from the passive surveillance of the Epidemiologic Surveillance System of the Ministry of Health of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis before (2000-2006) and after (2008-2010) introduction of hepatitis A vaccine. The second approach was a prospective hospital-based active surveillance for hepatitis cases conducted in subjects (0-14 years) during 2009-2011 at three sentinel hospitals in Panama. Overall, the annual incidence of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 13.1, 7.9 and 3.7 per 100,000 subjects, lower than the baseline incidence of 51.1 per 100,000 subjects. In comparison to the mean baseline period (2000-2006), there was an 82% mean reduction in the overall hepatitis-related outcomes (hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis) after vaccine introduction (2008-2010) in all age groups. In the hospital-based surveillance (2009-2011), of the 42 probable viral hepatitis A cases, nine cases were confirmed as acute hepatitis A (8 in 2009, 1 in 2010). Of these confirmed cases, two belonged to the targeted vaccine group (1-4 years) but were not vaccinated. Our study suggests that the introduction of two-dose hepatitis A vaccines in Panama has contributed to the reduction in the incidence of overall hepatitis-related outcomes for all age groups, suggesting herd protection. Additional monitoring is required to document a sustained long-term effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-03-17

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

  10. Cenozoic tectonic evolution leading to the Choco-South America collision (Panama-Colombia), from seismic profiles interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, F.; Maurin, T.; Auxietre, J.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Salmon, P.; Sosson, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Choco Block is located in eastern Panama and western Colombia, at the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate (CP), and is mainly characterized by a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic arc overlying the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). This block was accreted to South American plate (SAP) during Middle to Late Miocene. Geological, chronological and structural data are scarce in the Choco Block. Our study aims at reconstructing the evolution at a local scale, to provide new constraints to the regional scale tectonic processes that have occurred since the Paleogene. In that perspective, we have interpreted offshore seismic reflection profiles. This interpretation was supported by biostratigraphic data from two wells. We focused our studies in the Uraba Gulf area, a triple junction between the Choco Block, the SAP and the Caribbean oceanic plateau. This poorly understood zone offers rare observation of two accretionary wedges, the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), and the Sinu Belt, located at the margins of the Choco Block and the SAP, respectively. They are the results of two opposite convergent zones, and collide along the active Uramita strike-slip Fault Zone (UFZ), a suture zone between the Choco Block and the SAP. This area may provide information on the ages of both accretionary wedges, on the tectonic processes responsible for the disappearance of the CP, and on the late formation of the Choco Block. Our results evidence a northward propagating deformation along the Choco Block, miocene or older in the South of the Uraba Gulf, pliocene in the North of the Uraba Gulf, and active along the northern margin of Panama. This deformation is the result of the progressive accretion of Choco Block along the SAP. At the Uraba triple junction, a thick sedimentary sequence was deposited since late Miocene. North verging progradations suggest that sediments came from the drainage of the western cordillera of Colombia by a Paleo-Sinu river and actual Atrato river

  11. Tracing the Sources of Atmospheric Phosphorus Deposition to a Tropical Rain Forest in Panama Using Stable Oxygen Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A; Turner, B L; Goren, T; Berry, A; Angert, A

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric dust deposition can be a significant source of phosphorus (P) in some tropical forests, so information on the origins and solubility of atmospheric P is needed to understand and predict patterns of forest productivity under future climate scenarios. We characterized atmospheric dust P across a seasonal cycle in a tropical lowland rain forest on Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM), Republic of Panama. We traced P sources by combining remote sensing imagery with the first measurements of stable oxygen isotopes in soluble inorganic phosphate (δ(18)OP) in dust. In addition, we measured soluble inorganic and organic P concentrations in fine (1 μm) aerosol fractions and used this data to estimate the contribution of P inputs from dust deposition to the forest P budget. Aerosol dry mass was greater in the dry season (December to April, 5.6-15.7 μg m(-3)) than the wet season (May to November, 3.1-7.1 μg m(-3)). In contrast, soluble P concentrations in the aerosols were lower in the dry season (980-1880 μg P g(-1)) than the wet season (1170-3380 μg P g(-1)). The δ(18)OP of dry-season aerosols resembled that of nearby forest soils (∼19.5‰), suggesting a local origin. In the wet season, when the Trans-Atlantic Saharan dust belt moves north close to Panama, the δ(18)OP of aerosols was considerably lower (∼15.5‰), suggesting a significant contribution of long-distance dust P transport. Using satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the P concentrations in aerosols we sampled in periods when Saharan dust was evident we estimate that the monthly P input from long distance dust transport during the period with highest Saharan dust deposition is 88 ± 31 g P ha(-1) month(-1), equivalent to between 10 and 29% of the P in monthly litter fall in nearby forests. These findings have important implications for our understanding of modern nutrient budgets and the productivity of tropical forests in the region under future climate scenarios.

  12. Late Miocene to recent plate tectonic history of the southern Central America convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.

    2015-10-01

    New plate reconstructions constrain the tectonic evolution of the subducting Cocos and Nazca plates across the southern Central American subduction zone from late Miocene to recent. Because of the strong relationships between lower and upper (Caribbean) plate dynamics along this margin, these constraints have wide-ranging implications for the timing and growth of upper plate deformation and volcanism in southern Central America. The reconstructions outline three important events in the Neogene history of this margin: (1) the coeval development of the Panama Triple Junction with the initiation of oblique subduction of the Nazca plate at ˜8.5 Ma; (2) the initiation of seamount and rough crust subduction beginning at ˜3-4 Ma; and (3) Cocos Ridge subduction from ˜2 to 3 Ma. A comparison of these events with independent geologic, geomorphic, volcanic, and stratigraphic data sets reveals that the timing, rates, and origin of subducting crust directly impacted the Neogene growth of upper plate deformation and volcanism in southern Central America. These analyses constrain the timing, geometry, and causes of a number of significant tectonic and volcanic processes, including rapid Plio-Quaternary arc-fore arc contraction due to Cocos Ridge subduction, the detachment of the Panama microplate at ˜1-3 Ma, and the late Miocene cessation of mantle-wedge-derived volcanism across ˜300 km of the subduction zone.

  13. Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes association with Rhodnius prolixus and R. pallescens allopatric distribution in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Antón, Fernando; Urrea, Daniel Alfonso; Guhl, Felipe; Arévalo, Carolina; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Urbina, Andrea; Blandón-Naranjo, Melissa; Sousa, Octavio E; Zeledón, Rodrigo; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    Previous kDNA polymorphism-based reports have revealed the existence of two Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes (KP1+ and KP1-): SL and SSU rRNA gene polymorphism-based studies have revealed that five genotypes (A-E) are distributed throughout different Latin-American countries. Some evidence has shown that the genotypes' biogeographical distribution is associated with sympatric Rhodnius species. 12 T. rangeli isolates from humans and reservoirs from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama were characterised by kDNA and mini-exon gene intergene spacer analysis and compared to 12 previously characterised isolates from humans and vectors from Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras and Venezuela. Central American isolates corresponded to genotypes called KP1(+) or lineage A and KP1(-) or lineage C. Such dimorphism was corroborated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 22 selected isolates; a dendrogram was thus produced having two defined branches. One branch grouped KP1(-) or lineage C strains isolated from Rhodnius colombiensis (Colombia), humans (Panama), Procyon lotor and Choloepus hoffmanni (Costa Rica). The other group was formed by KP1(+) or lineage A strains isolated from Rhodnius prolixus (Colombia, Venezuela) and humans (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras). These results present evidence that both groups infect different mammals (humans, domestic and silvatic animals) having no association with any particular vertebrate species; however, T. rangeli KP1(+) or (A) strains have been isolated in Central America in areas where R. prolixus circulate (Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala) and KP1(-) or (C) strains have been isolated in areas where Rhodnius pallescens is the main vector (Panama and Costa Rica) indicating a parasite-vector association. The same lineages circulate in Andean countries (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru), KP1+ being associated with members of the prolixus group (R. prolixus and Rhodnius robustus) and KP1- with members of the

  14. Embryo production in the sponge-dwelling snapping shrimp Synalpheus apioceros (Decapoda, Alpheidae) from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Adriana P.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Felder, Darryl L.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Caridean shrimps of the genus Synalpheus are abundant and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, but knowledge of their reproductive biology remains scarce. We report reproductive traits of Synalpheus apioceros from Bocas del Toro, Panama, based on collections in August 2011. The 46 ovigerous females that were analyzed ranged in size from 3.8 to 7.4 mm in carapace length. Fecundity varied between 8 and 310 embryos and increased with female size. Females invested 18.6 ± 10.3% of their body weight in Embryo production. Embryo volume increased considerably (77.2%) during embryogenesis, likely representing water uptake near the end of incubation period. Compared to Synalpheus species with abbreviated or direct development, Synalpheus apioceros produced substantially smaller embryos; however, Synalpheus apioceros seems to have a prolonged larval phase with at least five zoeal stages, which may explain the combination of relatively small and numerous embryos. We did not find nonviable, minute, chalky embryos, previously reported for Synalpheus apioceros specimens obtained from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, which supports the hypothesis that the production of this type of embryos may be a physiological response of this warm-water species to the temperature decrease near to its latitudinal range limit. PMID:25561839

  15. Cognitive Impairment, Depression, and Cooccurrence of Both among the Elderly in Panama: Differential Associations with Multimorbidity and Functional Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibiades E. Villarreal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and depression are common mental health problems among the elderly, although few studies have examined their cooccurrence in older adults in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive impairment, depression, and cooccurrence of the two conditions and associated factors in a sample of older adults in Panama. This study included 304 community-dwelling elderly (≥65 years individuals. Participants underwent a clinical interview and assessments of cognitive function by the Minimental State Examination and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Limitations in basic (BADL and instrumental (IADL activities in daily living and the presence of chronic illnesses were recorded. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that cooccurrence of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms was explained by increasing age (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.20, 8.30, low education (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.38, having four or more chronic conditions (OR: 11.5, 95% CI: 2.84, 46.63, and BADL limitations (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.26, 19.68. Less education and limitations in BADL and IADL increased the odds of cognitive impairment alone, while less education and three or more chronic conditions increased the odds of depression alone. These findings underscore the relevance of assessing cognitive impairment in the elderly as part of a long-term approach to managing depression and vice versa.

  16. Sources and spatial distribution of heavy metals in scleractinian coral tissues and sediments from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Seemann, Janina; Dellwig, Olaf; Struck, Ulrich; Wild, Christian; Leinfelder, Reinhold R

    2013-11-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are threatened by aquatic pollution; however, there is a paucity in data from the Caribbean region. As such, five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, mercury) were measured in tissues of the scleractinian corals Porites furcata and Agaricia tenuifolia and in adjacent sediments in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama. Samples were collected from five reef sites along a gradient of distance from an international shipping port and were analysed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for mercury. Copper and zinc were the most abundant metals and ranged from 11 to 63 mg kg(-1) and from 31 to 185 mg kg(-1) in coral tissues, respectively. The highest concentration of each metal was measured in P. furcata tissues, with copper and mercury concentrations significantly higher in P. furcata than in A. tenuifolia at every site. These results suggest that P. furcata has a higher affinity for metal accumulation and storage than A. tenuifolia. With the exception of cadmium, metal concentrations in coral tissues were generally elevated at coral reefs in closer proximity to the port; however, this pattern was not observed in sediments. Hard coral cover was lowest at reefs in closest proximity to the port, suggesting that metal pollution from port-related activities is influencing hard coral abundance at nearby coral reefs.

  17. Consumption of fresh fruit juice: how a healthy food practice caused a national outbreak of Salmonella Panama gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Harold; Hofhuis, Agnetha; De Jonge, Rob; Heuvelink, Annet E; De Jong, Aarieke; Heck, Max E O C; De Jager, Carolien; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2010-04-01

    In spring 2008, 15 Salmonella Panama laboratory-confirmed cases were reported within 2 weeks, twice the average annual number of reported cases of this infrequent serotype in The Netherlands. To identify the source responsible for this national outbreak, we carried out an epidemiological, microbiological, and trace-back investigation. In total, 33 cases were reported, and a matched case-control study (23 cases/24 controls) identified consumption of fresh (unpasteurized) fruit juice purchased from a large retailer (X) as the only significant risk factor for illness (matched odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.2). Though the bacterium could not be isolated from fruit juice, the minimal pH value for growth of the causative strain of the outbreak (3.4) was compatible with survival in fruit juice from X. The outbreak strain showed acid resistance and adaptive properties that may explain how it could have caused infection through fresh orange juice. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak related to fresh fruit juice consumption in western Europe since 1922. A growing number of consumers who are seeking healthy food practices are exposed to the infectious risks related to unpasteurized fresh fruit juice. Labeling regulations should be adapted to properly indicate to the consumers that unpasteurized fresh fruit juices remain vulnerable to microbial contamination. Frequent microbiological screening and strict compliance with food safety procedures should reduce the infectious hazards of fresh fruit juices.

  18. Genetic, spatial, and social relationships among adults in a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milton, Katharine; Nolin, David A.; Ellis, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease as the ten......Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease...... as the tendency to disperse increases. In primate species characterized by bisexual dispersal, relatedness among adult group-mates is predicted to be low, with social interactions shaped largely by factors other than kinship. To date, however, few studies have examined the role of kinship in social interactions...... in bisexually dispersing species. Accordingly, we collected genetic, spatial and behavioral data on all adult members (three males, six females) in a group of free-ranging mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) - a bisexually dispersing species of atelid primate - from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama...

  19. Embryo production in the sponge-dwelling snapping shrimp Synalpheus apioceros (Decapoda, Alpheidae from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rebolledo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps of the genus Synalpheus are abundant and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, but knowledge of their reproductive biology remains scarce. We report reproductive traits of Synalpheus apioceros from Bocas del Toro, Panama, based on collections in August 2011. The 46 ovigerous females that were analyzed ranged in size from 3.8 to 7.4 mm in carapace length. Fecundity varied between 8 and 310 embryos and increased with female size. Females invested 18.6 ± 10.3% of their body weight in Embryo production. Embryo volume increased considerably (77.2% during embryogenesis, likely representing water uptake near the end of incubation period. Compared to Synalpheus species with abbreviated or direct development, S. apioceros produced substantially smaller embryos; however, S. apioceros seems to have a prolonged larval phase with at least five zoeal stages, which may explain the combination of relatively small and numerous embryos. We did not find nonviable, minute, chalky embryos, previously reported for S. apioceros specimens obtained from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, which supports the hypothesis that the production of this type of embryos may be a physiological response of this warm-water species to the temperature decrease near to its latitudinal range limit.

  20. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Observations on the endemic pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus of Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Kaviar

    Full Text Available Our objective was to ascertain the population status of the Pygmy Three-toed Sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus, an IUCN Critically Endangered species, on Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama. Bradypus pygmaeus are thought to be folivorous mangrove specialists; therefore we conducted a visual systematic survey of all 10 mangrove thickets on the island. The total mangrove habitat area was measured to be 1.67 ha, comprising 0.024% of the total island area. The population survey found low numbers of B. pygmaeus in the mangrove thickets and far lower numbers outside of them. The connectivity of subpopulations between these thickets on the island is not established, as B. pygmaeus movement data is still lacking. We found 79 individuals of B. pygmaeus; 70 were found in mangroves and 9 were observed just beyond the periphery of the mangroves in non-mangrove tree species. Low population number, habitat fragmentation and habitat loss could lead to inbreeding, a loss of genetic diversity, and extinction of B. pygmaeus.

  2. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  3. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  4. Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measures to identify producers or organic sources that supported the estuarine food web. N isotopic values of consumers spanned a broad range, from about 2.7 to 12.3‰. Mean δ(15)N of primary producers and organic matter varied from 3.3 for macroalgae to 4.7‰ for suspended particulate matter and large particulate matter. The δ(13)C consumer data varied between -26 and -9‰, but isotopic values of the major apparent producers or organic matter sampled could not account for this range variability. The structure of the food web was clarified when we added literature isotopic values of microphytobenthos and coralline algae, suggesting that these, or other producers with similar isotopic signature, may be part of the food webs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Neira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®, rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86. Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha, which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Gene flow among Anopheles albimanus populations in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean assessed by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; de Mérida, Ana María P; Mills, Katherine; Rodríguez, Fernando; Schoua, Carolina; Yurrita, María Marta; Molina, Eduviges; Palmieri, Margarita; Black, William C

    2004-09-01

    Gene flow was examined among Anopheles albimanus populations from Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela by examining variation at four microsatellite (MS) loci and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. There was little variation among Central American populations and weak isolation by distance was only observed with the MS loci. There was moderate to large variation between Central and South American populations, suggesting a barrier to gene flow between Central and South America. However, Panamanian and Pacific Costa Rican populations differed with respect to western Central America, suggesting that there may be another barrier within Central America. There was small to moderate variation among Caribbean and continental populations. Phylogenetic and diversity analyses of mtDNA indicate that more ancestral and diverse haplotypes were present in the Caribbean population, suggesting that current continental An. albimanus populations may have originated from the Caribbean.

  7. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  8. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  9. Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Solanumbetaceum Cav. Fruits from Panama by Head-Space Micro Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando A. Durant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the volatile compounds of two varieties of Solanum betaceum Cav. by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS i s presented. The HS-SPME method for extraction of the volatiles compounds was optimized by using a 2 3 central composite design. Maximum extraction of volatile compounds was achieved by using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction temperature 76° C, incubation time 44 min, and extraction time of 46 min. The main types of compounds detected in both varieties are terpenoids, followed by aromatics, esters, and aldehydes. Golden-yellow cultivars contained higher levels of esters and terpenes, while the reddish-purple variety contained a significant amount of aromatic compounds. The data structure of the chemical information obtained as well as the relationship between variables was evaluated by means of principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

  10. Centralized Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

      With the complexities surrounding the choice of decentralized vs. centralized labs, as well as the most optimal use of biomarkers in clinical trials, choosing the right lab or CRO partner is paramount...

  11. Team Massachusetts & Central America Solar Decathlon 2015 Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Our team was Team MASSCA (Massachusetts and Central America), which was a partnership of Western New England University (WNE) located in Massachusetts USA, The Technological University of Panama (UTP), and Central American Technological University (UNITEC) of Honduras. Together we had a group of 6 faculty members and approximately 30 undergraduate students. Our house is ‘The EASI’ House, which stands for Efficient, Affordable, Solar Innovation. The EASI house is rectangular with two bedrooms and one bath, and offers a total square footage of 680. Based on competition estimates, The EASI house costs roughly $121,000. The EASI house has a 5kW solar system. Faculty and students from all three institutions were represented at the competition in Irvine California. Team MASSCA did well considering this was our first entry in the Solar Decathlon competition. Team MASSCA won the following awards: First Place – Affordability Contest Second Place – Energy Balance Contest. The competition provided a great experience for our students (and faculty as well). This competition provided leadership, endurance, and technical knowledge/skills for our students, and was the single most important hands-on experience during their undergraduate years. We are extremely pleased with the awards we received. At the same time we have learned from our efforts and would do better if we were to compete in the future. Furthermore, as a result of our team’s Inter-Americas collaborative effort, UTP and WNE have partnered to form Team PANAMASS (PANAma and MASSachusetts) and have developed The 3 SMART House for the inaugural Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean competition held in Colombia.

  12. Phylogeographic Diversity of the Lower Central American Cichlid Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shawn McCafferty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well appreciated that historical and ecological processes are important determinates of freshwater biogeographic assemblages. Phylogeography can potentially lend important insights into the relative contribution of historical processes in biogeography. However, the extent that phylogeography reflects historical patterns of drainage connection may depend in large part on the dispersal capability of the species. Here, we test the hypothesis that due to their relatively greater dispersal capabilities, the neotropical cichlid species Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus will display a phylogeographic pattern that differs from previously described biogeographic assemblages in this important region. Based on an analysis of 318 individuals using mtDNA ATPase 6/8 sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism data, we found eight distinct clades that are closely associated with biogeographic patterns. The branching patterns among the clades and a Bayesian clock analysis suggest a relatively rapid colonization and diversification among drainages in the emergent Isthmus of Panama followed by the coalescing of some drainages due to historical connections. We also present evidence for extensive cross-cordillera sharing of clades in central Panama and the Canal region. Our results suggest that contemporary phylogeographic patterns and diversification in Lower Central American fishes reflect an interaction of historical drainage connections, dispersal, and demographic processes.

  13. Spread of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus across Lowland Populations of Tungara Frogs in Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Rodríguez-Brenes

    Full Text Available Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is an emergent infectious disease partially responsible for worldwide amphibian population declines. The spread of Bd along highland habitats (> 500 meters above sea level, m a.s.l. of Costa Rica and Panamá is well documented and has been linked to amphibian population collapses. In contrast, data are scarce on the prevalence and dispersal of Bd in lowland habitats where amphibians may be infected but asymptomatic. Here we describe the spread (2009 to 2014 of Bd across lowland habitats east of the Panamá Canal (< 500 m a.s.l. with a focus on the Túngara frog (Physalaemus [Engystomops] pustulosus, one of the most common and abundant frog species in this region. Highland populations in western Panamá were already infected with Bd at the start of the study, which was consistent with previous studies indicating that Bd is enzootic in this region. In central Panamá, we collected the first positive samples in 2010, and by 2014, we detected Bd from remote sites in eastern Panamá (Darién National Park. We discuss the importance of studying Bd in lowland species, which may serve as potential reservoirs and agents of dispersal of Bd to highland species that are more susceptible to chytridiomycosis.

  14. The lethal fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is present in lowland tropical forests of far eastern Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eria A Rebollar

    Full Text Available The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is one of the main causes of amphibian population declines and extinctions all over the world. In the Neotropics, this fungal disease has caused catastrophic declines in the highlands as it has spread throughout Central America down to Panamá. In this study, we determined the prevalence and intensity of Bd infection in three species of frogs in one highland and four lowland tropical forests, including two lowland regions in eastern Panamá in which the pathogen had not been detected previously. Bd was present in all the sites sampled with a prevalence ranging from 15-34%, similar to other Neotropical lowland sites. The intensity of Bd infection on individual frogs was low, ranging from average values of 0.11-24 zoospore equivalents per site. Our work indicates that Bd is present in anuran communities in lowland Panamá, including the Darién province, and that the intensity of the infection may vary among species from different habitats and with different life histories. The population-level consequences of Bd infection in amphibian communities from the lowlands remain to be determined. Detailed studies of amphibian species from the lowlands will be essential to determine the reason why these species are persisting despite the presence of the pathogen.

  15. Eco-epidemiological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli and their vector (Rhodnius pallescens in Panama Generalidades do Trypanosoma cruzi, do Trypanosoma rangeli e do seu vetor (Rhodnius pallescens no Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Vasquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The eco-epidemiology of T. cruzi infection was investigated in the Eastern border of the Panama Canal in Central Panama. Between 1999 and 2000, 1110 triatomines were collected: 1050 triatomines (94.6% from palm trees, 27 (2.4% from periurban habitats and 33 (3.0% inside houses. All specimens were identified as R. pallescens. There was no evidence of vector domiciliation. Salivary glands from 380 R. pallescens revealed a trypanosome natural infection rate of 7.6%, while rectal ampoule content from 373 triatomines was 45%. Isoenzyme profiles on isolated trypanosomes demonstrated that 85.4% (n = 88 were T. cruzi and 14.6% (n = 15 were T. rangeli. Blood meal analysis from 829 R. pallescens demonstrated a zoophilic vector behavior, with opossums as the preferential blood source. Seroprevalence in human samples from both study sites was less than 2%. Our results demonstrate that T. cruzi survives in the area in balanced association with R. pallescens, and with several different species of mammals in their natural niches. However, the area is an imminent risk of infection for its population, consequently it is important to implement a community educational program regarding disease knowledge and control measures.A epidemiologia da infecção do T. cruzi foi investigada na margem oriental do canal do Panamá, na região central da Republica do Panamá. A informação obtida durante o estudo avaliou fatores de risco da doença de Chagas nesta área. Entre 1999 e 2000, 1110 triatomíneos foram coletados: 1050 triatomíneos (94,6% em palmeiras, 27 (2,4% em habitats periurbanos e 33 (3,0% no interior de casas. Todos os espécimens foram identificados como R. pallescens. Não havia nenhuma evidência de domiciliação do vetor. O exame de glândulas salivares de 380 R. pallescens revelaram taxa de infecção natural por Trypanosoma de 7,6%, mas o conteúdo da ampola rectal de 373 triatomíneos mostrou 45% de positividade. Os perfis de isoenzimas em

  16. Stable isotopes in bivalves as indicators of nutrient source in coastal waters in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniero, Lauren E; Grossman, Ethan L; O'Dea, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To examine N-isotope ratios ((15)N/(14)N) in tissues and shell organic matrix of bivalves as a proxy for natural and anthropogenic nutrient fluxes in coastal environments, Pinctada imbricata, Isognomon alatus, and Brachidontes exustusbivalves were live-collected and analyzed from eight sites in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Sites represent a variety of coastal environments, including more urbanized, uninhabited, riverine, and oceanic sites. Growth under differing environmental conditions is confirmed by δ (18)O values, with open ocean Escudo de Veraguas shells yielding the highest average δ (18)O (-1.0‰) value and freshwater endmember Rio Guarumo the lowest (-1.7‰). At all sites there is no single dominant source of organic matter contributing to bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values. Bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values likely represent a mixture of mangrove and seagrass N and C, although terrestrial sources cannot be ruled out. Despite hydrographic differences between end-members, we see minimal δ (15)N and δ (13)C difference between bivalves from the river-influenced Rio Guarumo site and those from the oceanic Escudo de Veraguas site, with no evidence for N from open-ocean phytoplankton in the latter. Populated sites yield relative (15)N enrichments suggestive of anthropogenic nutrient input, but low δ (15)N values overall make this interpretation equivocal. Lastly, δ (15)N values of tissue and shell organic matrix correlate significantly for pterioideans P. imbricata and I. alatus. Thus for these species, N isotope studies of historical and fossil shells should provide records of ecology of past environments.

  17. Inter- and Intra-specific variation in egg size among reef fishes across the Isthmus of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planktonic food supplies and temperature on pelagic fish larvae are thought to be the primary environmental determinants of adaptive variation in egg size. Differences between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Panama in primary production (higher in the Pacific due to upwelling and temperature (less seasonal in the non-upwelling Caribbean allow testing such ideas. We compared the volumes, dry weights and energy content of eggs of 24 species of reef fishes from the two sides of the isthmus during the cool and warm seasons. Both egg volume and egg dry weight were good predictors of egg energy content among species, although not within species. Caribbean species produced larger eggs than their close relatives in the Pacific. In the Pacific, eggs were significantly larger during the cool upwelling season than during the warm, non-upwelling period, with a similar but weaker seasonal pattern evident in the Caribbean. The production of larger eggs in the low-productivity Caribbean is consistent with the hypothesis that species produce larger eggs and offspring when larval food supplies are lower. Parallel patterns of seasonal variation in eggs size and the greater strength of that relationship in the Pacific indicate that temperature drives seasonal variation in egg size within species. The decline in egg size with increasing temperature, a general pattern among ectotherms, may be a physiological side-effect, due to differing effects of temperature on various metabolic processes during oogenesis or on hormones that influence growth and reproduction. Alternatively, the seasonal pattern may be adaptive in these fishes, by affecting larval performance or maintaining a particular timeline of major events during embryonic development.

  18. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole G. Easson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1 sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson’s diversity; (2 phylogenetic diversity; (3 taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4 trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5 phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km. Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity. In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations

  19. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  20. New challenges to electrical interconnection systems in Central America; Nuevos retos que plantea la integracion electrica Centroamericana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Pinzon, Luz Amalia [IRHE, Panama (Panama)

    1996-07-01

    The electrical interconnection between Central America countries is a project of regional integration, whose purpose is to optimize the advantage of interconnecting of six electrical systems of their respective countries. This require the establishment of legal procedures to operate the high voltage transmission grid from Guatemala to Panama. The mid and long term planning of the interconnected electrical grid, is a new challenge for the electrical companies, considering that as up to now, they have been satisfying small markets. The possibility to use nuclear energy to satisfy a bigger market is now feasible and deserves to be considered since the beginning of the interconnection project. (author)

  1. Fragmentation by Dams Threatens Diadromous Fauna in Upstream Protected Areas - the Case of the La Amistad World Heritage Site (Costa Rica and Panama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarney, W.; Mafla Herrera, M.; Arias Moreno, A. M.; Snyder, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Biological consequences of fragmenting rivers with dams are especially acute for migratory species, and even moreso for diadromes (animals obliged to travel between marine and fresh water environments in order to complete their life cycles). Diadromy is a worldwide phenomenon, occurring wherever fresh water rivers run to the sea. Worldwide, diadromous behavior has been described for > 300 species of fish in 37 families, as well as for all of the > 800 species of so-called "freshwater" shrimp in 4 families, plus a few crabs and snails. Diadromy is especially prevalent on islands and isthmuses, where rivers are necessarily short and development of primary freshwater fauna limited. One example is the Mesoamerican isthmus, extending from southern Mexico to the Panama/Colombia border. A 2006 study showed more than 300 high (> 15 m.) dams planned for this 8 country region. One example of the consequences emerges from Asociacion ANAI's biomonitoring work over 17 years in one part of Mesoamerica - the watersheds draining the Caribbean slope of the La Amistad World Heritage Site in Costa Rica and Panama. Our work has shown that over 80 % of fish and all of the shrimp in rivers above 100 m. altitude are diadromes. If all currently planned dams are built, we predict that 11 species of fish and shrimp will be extirpated from >90% of the World Heritage Site. Precedent exists in Puerto Rico, where damming has eliminated diadromous fish and all but a remnant of the shrimp from 25% of the island's watersheds. In La Amistad, the consequences, for biodiversity and fishery resources relied upon by neighboring indigenous ethnias are obvious. In Panama, protected area boundaries were drawn to avoid the issue of dams and reservoirs in national parks; our research shows the need for more comprehensive design criteria to prevent extirpations in protected areas.

  2. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of ‘river dolphins’ in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Pyenson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called ‘river dolphins’ are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry. In South America, the two endemic ‘river dolphin’ lineages form a clade (Inioidea, with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1–5.8 million years ago (Messinian, pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs.

  3. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of 'river dolphins' in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O'Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called 'river dolphins' are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic 'river dolphin' lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1-5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs.

  4. Respuesta ambiental en el Pacífico frente a la subducción de la dorsal asísmica de Cocos (Panamá y Costa Rica Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos De Gracia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la Subducción de la Dorsal Asísmica de Cocos (DAC durante las etapas finales de la formación del Istmo. Realizamos muestreos con bultos en afloramientos fosilíferos en las penínsulas de Burica y Nicoya. Las condiciones paleoecológicas y paleoambientales fueron reconstruidas a partir de la comparación entre la estructura de las comunidades fósiles, con las comunidades modernas dragadas de los mares de Panamá, usando análisis de componentes principales. Los resultados indican que antes del cierre del Istmo, existieron islas oceánicas y un afloramiento moderado en Burica. Posterior al cierre, el choque de la DAC provocó la elevación del fondo marino y las aguas que se encontraban a 2 300m pasaron a 40m. El afloramiento se intensificaba en mar abierto pero la dorsal había formado islas en Burica que limitaban el efecto del afloramiento en la costa. La subducción de la DAC continuó y las islas se unieron gradualmente a tierra firme y desaparecieron, permitiendo el afloramiento. Durante el Pleistoceno medio un segundo proceso de levantamiento acelerado continuó elevando el fondo marino y formó la Cordillera de Talamanca. La cordillera creó una barrera que bloqueó el paso de los vientos Alisios y originó condiciones ecológicas y optimas que permiten el crecimiento de los mejores arrecifes de coral costeros del Pacífico oriental tropical (POT entre Panamá y Costa Rica.Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica. The evolution of the marine communities along the Pacific coast of Central America, may have changed in response to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. To evaluate the effect of the Aseismic Cocos Ridge (DAC subduction on the marine benthic communities, we reconstructed benthic assemblages from Neogene fossiliferous formations in Burica and Nicoya peninsulas of Panama and Costa Rica. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions

  5. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  6. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  7. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  8. The Galapagos-OIB signature of the central Costa Rican volcanic front: arc-hotspot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.; Hoernle, K.; Feigenson, M. D.; Hauff, F.; Szymanski, D.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2008-12-01

    Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America have isotopic and trace element compositions with an OIB affinity, similar to the Galapagos hotspot lavas. Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene-Pliocene ca. 6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hotspot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridges) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively low Nd isotopic ratios and enriched geochemical signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hotspot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridges (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological, geochemical, and isotopic evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hotspot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ~8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hotspot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

  9. Pleistocene sector collapse of Volcán Barú and the evolution of the southeastern termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in western Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, K. D.; Gardner, T. W.; Fisher, D. M.; Zellner, H.

    2011-12-01

    We use new geologic, stratigraphic and geomorphic data along with age constraints to characterize Late Pleistocene to Holocene deposits associated with edifice failure and sector collapse of Volcán Barú (alt. 3374 m) in westernmost Panama. This stratigraphic control provides constraints on the timing of thrusting associated with southeastern termination of the Fila Costeña thrust belt, located in the inner forearc of the Central American convergent margin. The Fila Costeña, which contains at many as five thrust faults that root at the basement-cover contact, is migrating to the southeast coeval with the Panama Triple Junction and the associated variations in subducting plate geometry that occur on either side of the triple junction. Radiocarbon dating of organic material, together with Ar/Ar ages of clasts, identify at least three debris avalanche events (DA1, DA2 and DA3) associated with Barú Volcano, located directly inboard of the triple junction. Preliminary volume estimates for the youngest deposit (DA3) range from a minimum of ~30 km3 to a maximum of ~60 km3, a result that has led to the suggestion that it is the largest Holocene deposit of this type in the western hemisphere. Radiocarbon analysis of wood and other organic material extracted from this debris avalanche (n=3) yields ages that range between 10,345 +/- 225 YBP and 12,845 +/- 55 YBP. DA2 is the least exposed of the three debris avalanches, yet it is distinguished from other units by its brown soil color (7.5 YR), and also, its age. A radiocarbon date of wood within this deposit yields an age of 42,800 +/- 500 YBP. The oldest deposit (DA1) contains a soil profile that appears significantly more developed than younger deposits and yields radiocarbon ages > 44,000 YBP. Ar/Ar dating of plagioclase feldspar crystals extracted from clasts within the DA1 deposit, however, yield dates as young as 231 +/- 32 ka, constraining the lower age boundary. These stratigraphic constraints yield new insights

  10. Kilowatts and crisis among the Kuna, Choco, and Colonos: national and regional consequences of the Bayano hydroelectric complex in eastern Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, A.

    1984-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes the sociopolitical consequences of a hydroelectric project (from 1972-1980) on the Bayano Region of Eastern Panama, in order to gauge the national implications of macrodevelopment programs, and determine the local-level impact. Specifically, the study demonstrates that the government's decision to construct the dam, motivated by historical and economic forces, had detrimental consequences for the affected people through changes in patterns of land tenure, economic productivity, and social stratification. Simultaneously, the goal of diversification of the canal-dominated economic structure has not been achieved. Forced resettlement deeply affected the regional population (Kuna and Choco - Amerindians, and Colonos - migrants from Western Panama). Agricultural productivity declined dramatically leading to an upsurge in other economic activities (wage labor, lumbering, and entrepreneurship). The Kuna, having lost 80% of their original reserve, strengthened their leadership institutions in order to negotiate a new reserve. The Choco were forced to settle in a village, contrary to tradition, leading to increased disputes. The Colonos experienced an increased polarization of wealth due to differential access to resources. The Kuna and Choco espoused an ethnic strategy to maintain territorial sovereignity leading to increased intergroup conflict.

  11. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sarah; Guzman, Hector M; Bates, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125 km2 was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot (flat topped seamount), which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76 km2 and is 14.4 km long and 7.1 km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests (elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles), rugose areas (on crests, top of seamount and slope), gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333 m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6 km2 of the bank and sediment 37.8 km2. The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the highest

  12. Gene flow and geographic variation in natural populations of Alnus acuminata ssp. arguta (Fagales: Betulaceae in Costa Rica and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olman Murillo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen natural populations in Costa Rica and Panama were used to asses gene flow and geographic patterns of genetic variation in this tree species. Gene flow analysis was based on the methods of rare alleles and FST (Index of genetic similarity M, using the only four polymorphic gene loci among 22 investigated (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. The geographic variation analysis was based on Pearson`s correlations between four geographic and 14 genetic variables. Some evidence of isolation by distance and a weak gene flow among geographic regions was found. Patterns of clinal variation in relation to altitude (r = -0.62 for genetic diversity and latitude (r= -0.77 for PGI-B3 were also observed, supporting the hypothesis of isolation by distance. No private alleles were found at the single population level.Diecisiete poblaciones naturales de esta especie forestal en Costa Rica y Panamá, fueron investigadas en relación con sus patrones de flujo genético y de variación geográfica. El análisis de flujo genético fue basado en los métodos de los alelos raros y de FST (Indice de similaridad genética M. Los análisis fueron a su vez basados en los únicos cuatro loci genéticos de un total de 22 investigados que mostraron polimorfismo (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. Los análisis de variación geográfica fueron basados en el desarrollo de correlaciones de Pearson entre 4 variables geográficas y 14 variables genéticas. Alguna evidencia de aislamiento por distancia así como un débil flujo genético entre regiones geográficas fue encontrado. Fueron también observados patrones de variación clinal en relación con la altitud (r = -0.62 para la diversidad genética y latitud (r= -0.77 en PGI-B3, que apoyan la hipotesis de aislamiento por distancia para esta especie. No se encontraron alelos privados en ninguna de las poblaciones investigadas.

  13. Age and origin of earliest adakitic-like magmatism in Panama: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whattam, Scott A.; Montes, Camilo; McFadden, Rory R.; Cardona, Agustin; Ramirez, Diego; Valencia, Victor

    2012-06-01

    40-20 Ma marks a fundamental interval in the evolution of the 70-0 Ma Panamanian magmatic arc system. During this period, there is no evidence of Panamanian magmatic arc activity to the east of the Panama Canal Basin while to the west and in localized regions to the east of the Panama Canal Basin a phase of intrusive-only activity is recorded. Fundamentally, geochemical and geochronological evidence presented herein indicate that this intrusive activity was predominantly 'adakitic-like' and becomes younger from west to east along an approximately W-E striking lineament. Granodiorites of the Petaquilla batholith, western Panama yield LAM-ICP-MS 206Pb/238U zircon ages of 29.0 + 0.7, - 0.6 Ma, 28.5 + 0.7, - 0.5 Ma, 28.3 + 0.5, - 0.4 Ma and 26.2 + 0.5, - 0.9 Ma. To the east of the Panama Canal Basin zircons from a hypabyssal diorite of the mainly intermediate Majé subvolcanic suite, cedes a mean 206Pb/238U age of 18.9 + 0.4 Ma. Relative to other 70-5 Ma Panamanian magmatic arc lavas and intrusives, Majé and Petaquilla intrusives yield adakitic-like major and trace element abundances (e.g., > 15 wt.% Al2O3, generally > 3.5 wt.% Na2O, > 400 ppm Sr, 120) and strongly fractionated HREE patterns. These 30-26 Ma (Petaquilla) and 19 Ma (Majé) suites are also compositionally similar to a subvolcanic suite of rare, circa 25 Ma adakitic-like, andesitic intrusives which occur within the Panama Canal Basin midway between Petaquilla and Majé and at the same approximate latitude as Petaquilla and Majé. Collectively, the geochemical and geochronological data for the adakitic-like intrusives arc consistent with formation via partial melting of lowermost, mafic crust above a sub-horizontal slab tear that propagated from the west (Petaquilla) to the east (Majé) between 30 and 19 Ma. Our new tectonic model postulates that collision between the Panamanian magmatic arc system and an 'indentor' (e.g., a tract of thickened buoyant, oceanic crust or plateau) occurred at about 40 Ma, a

  14. Quantifying Hydrological Ecosystem Services of Various Land Covers and Uses on Small Experimental Catchments within the Panama Canal Watershed: The Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Agua Salud Project

    2011-12-01

    As a part of the Agua Salud Project, a baseline characterization of hydrologic processes on the small catchment scale (~0.24 to 2.0 km2) is assessed across different land uses and covers typical to rural Panama. The land covers being monitored include a mature secondary forest, a disturbed catchment with a mosaic of various aged secondary growth and agricultural use, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site as experimental controls, and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. The catchments are found within Panama's protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Using hydrological data from the first two and a half years of the project, three main ecosystem services are observed. The forested area exhibited lower storm event peaks, decreased flashiness, and greater stream flow during the dry season compared to the disturbed mosaic site. Lower hydrograph peaks and flashiness mitigate the risk of substantial flood damage during the major flood events generally seen in Panama between October and December. The mature forest (1.35 km2) catchment has shown lower average flood peaks in comparison to the disturbed site. For storm peaks less than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are on average 51% lower. For storm peaks greater than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are approximately 40% lower. In 1998, draft restrictions were imposed in the Panama Canal because of a deficit of dry season water after an El Niño-Southern Oscillation resulted in decreased wet season rainfall. The water that is available during the end of the dry season has the potential to insure the full operation of the Canal during El Niño drought years. Toward the end of the dry season (March through May) our data shows that roughly 34% more water was available during a relatively dry year with respect to antecedent wet season rainfall

  15. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  16. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  17. panama_city.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. Panama International Merchandise Mart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Interview With Reynald H.Katz PIMM is the product of one visionary mind, namely that of trade specialist and entrepreneur Reynald Henry Katz who started early as a self-made businessman trading handmade jewelry.Katz’s in- novative approach and talent for sales have served him well throughout his remarkable career,a career that has taken him to the United Kingdom,the United States,the Middle East and China,before eventu-

  19. Epidemiology of Emergent Madariaga Encephalitis in a Region with Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis: Initial Host Studies and Human Cross-Sectional Study in Darien, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Y Vittor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurotropic arboviral infections are an important cause of encephalitis. A zoonotic, vector-borne alphavirus, Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus, caused its first documented human outbreak in 2010 in Darien, Panama, where the genetically similar Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is endemic. We report the results of a seroprevalence survey of animals and humans, illustrating contrasting features of MADV and VEEV ecology and epidemiology.Small mammals were trapped in 42 sites in Darien, Panama, using Sherman traps, Tomahawk traps, and mist nets for bats. Blood was tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV. In addition, bird sera collected in 2007 in Chagres, Panama, were tested for MADV and VEEV neutralizing antibodies. Viremia was ascertained by RT-PCR. Human exposure to these two viruses was determined by IgG ELISA, followed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. To identify relevant risk factors for MADV or VEEV exposure, logistic regression analysis was performed, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the Akaike information criterion.The animal survey yielded 32 bats (16 species, 556 rodents (12 species, and 20 opossums (4 species. The short-tailed cane mouse (Zygodontomys brevicauda found abundantly in pasture and farms, had the highest MADV seroprevalence (8.3%. For VEEV, the shrub and forest-dwelling long-whiskered rice rat (Transandinomys bolivaris had the highest seroprevalence (19.0%. Viremia was detected in one animal (Z. brevicauda. Of the 159 bird sera (50 species tested, none were positive for either virus. In humans (n = 770, neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV were present in 4.8% and 31.5%, respectively. MADV seropositivity was positively associated with cattle ranching, farming, and fishing. Having VEEV antibodies and shrubs near the house diminished risk. Age, forest work, farming and fishing were risk factors for

  20. Early development of the south Central American margin: mechanisms and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, D. M.; Baumgartner, P. O.; Arculus, R.; Montes, C.; Bayona, G.; Cardona, A.

    2012-04-01

    The south Central American margin forms the SW border of the Caribbean Plate on top of the subducting Cocos and Nazca Plates between Nicaragua and Colombia. New and previous tectonostratigraphic, age and geochemical results show that the forearc basement between south Costa Rica and east Panama is composed of autochthonous and accreted sequences that provide important constraints on the development of the south Central American margin, the evolution of the Caribbean Plate and the formation of an inter-American land bridge. Autochtonous sequences in the forearc include three tectonostratigraphic units that occur at a regional scale: (1) a Late Cretaceous oceanic plateau considered to represent an extension of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) at the base of the arc; (2) Late Campanian to Maastrichtian protoarc sequences that cover or intrude the oceanic plateau; and (3) Maastrichtian to Eocene sequences of a more mature volcanic arc that overlies or intrude preceding units. These units clearly indicate that subduction initiation along the margin and, thus, the birth of the Caribbean Plate occurred in the Campanian. Incipient subduction was possibly triggered or facilitated by contrasted lithospheric strength across the edge of the CLIP and collision between the CLIP and South America during westward migration of South America. Accreted sequences in the forearc include mostly Late Cretaceous to Eocene seamount fragments between south Costa Rica and west Panama, with additional Eocene to Miocene olistostromal and hemipelagic sediments in south Costa Rica. The age and tectonostratigraphic relationships of accreted sequences, autochtonous sequences, and overlying forearc slope sediment suggest that subduction erosion, punctuated by local seamount or sediment accretion was the dominant process controlling the evolution of the outer margin at least until the Miocene. A major tectonic event affected the margin in the Middle Eocene, which is indicated by a

  1. Post-Hurricane Katrina coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, August 31, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 31, 2005, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,000 feet offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Katrina data, which can be used to assess incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  2. Paleoecological and archaeological implications of a late Pleistocene/Early holocene record of vegetation and climate from the pacific coastal plain of panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Jones, John G.

    2003-01-01

    A phytolith record from Monte Oscuro, a crater lake located 10 m above sea level on the Pacific coastal plain of Panama, shows that during the Late Pleistocene the lake bed was dry and savanna-like vegetation expanded at the expense of tropical deciduous forest, the modern potential vegetation. A significant reduction of precipitation below current levels was almost certainly required to effect the changes observed. Core sediment characteristics indicate that permanent inundation of the Monte Oscuro basin with water occurred at about 10,500 14C yr B.P. Pollen and phytolith records show that deciduous tropical forest expanded into the lake's watershed during the early Holocene. Significant burning of the vegetation and increases of weedy plants at ca. 7500 to 7000 14C yr B.P. indicate disturbance, which most likely resulted from early human occupation of the seasonal tropical forest near Monte Oscuro and the development of slash-and-burn methods of cultivation.

  3. Ubiquitous and ambient-assisted living eHealth platforms for Down's syndrome and palliative care in the Republic of Panama: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña Barrios, Juan Jose; Mendoza, Luis; Pitti, Edgardo; Vargas, Miguel

    2016-10-21

    In this work, the authors present two eHealth platforms that are examples of how health systems are migrating from client-server architecture to the web-based and ubiquitous paradigm. These two platforms were modeled, designed, developed and implemented with positive results. First, using ambient-assisted living and ubiquitous computing, the authors enhance how palliative care is being provided to the elderly patients and patients with terminal illness, making the work of doctors, nurses and other health actors easier. Second, applying machine learning methods and a data-centered, ubiquitous, patient's results' repository, the authors intent to improve the Down's syndrome risk estimation process with more accurate predictions based on local woman patients' parameters. These two eHealth platforms can improve the quality of life, not only physically but also psychologically, of the patients and their families in the country of Panama.

  4. Predominance of Trypanosoma rangeli infection in children from a Chagas disease endemic area in the west-shore of the Panama canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 206 serum samples from children (3-14 years old living in the Amador County (La Chorrera District, Province of Panama were screened by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT for the presence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. Positive sera were confirmed by recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blot analysis. The presence of blood trypanosomes was investigated by hemoculture and subsequently identify by a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by dot blot hybridization. The results indicated a prevalence of 9.7% for trypanosome infections, a seroprevalence of 2.9% against T. cruzi and a predominance of T. rangeli infection (6.8%. The immunological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. 云南香蕉枯萎病及防治研究进展%Advance in Research of Banana Panama Disease and Its Control in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莉; 郭志祥; 番华彩; 李洪祥; 唐志敏; 李雁; 杨佩文; 白亭亭

    2016-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt disease, also known as Panama Disease, is a worldwide, destruction of banana disease. In 2009, it`s discovered in Yunnan and spread rapidly, causing serious economic losses. The research progress on this disease was re-viewed in this paper, and will thus assist researchers for further study on control.%香蕉枯萎病是一种世界性的、毁灭性的香蕉病害,2009年开始传入云南香蕉园并迅速扩展蔓延,造成严重经济损失。本文特就云南香蕉枯萎病的发生、危害现状,病原菌及防治技术的研究进展进行综述,以期为香蕉枯萎病的防控提供参考。

  6. Foraminifera And Coccolithophorid Assemblage Changes In The Panama Basin During The Last Deglaciation: Response To Sea-Surface Productivity Induced By A Transient Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I.; Rincon, D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Barrows, T.

    2004-12-01

    The response of community assemblages of planktonic and benthonic foraminifera and coccolithophorids to transient climate change are explored for the uppermost 2m of cores ODP677B (1.2°N; 83.74°W, 3461m) and TR163-38 (1.34°S; 81.58°W, 2200m), for the last ~40ka. Results suggest that the deglaciation interval was a time of increased productivity and a major reorganization of planktonic trophic webs. The succession in dominance of planktonic foraminifera species Globorotalia inflata, Globigerina bulloides, and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma denote four periods of oceanographic change: (1) advection (24 to 20ka), (2) strong upwelling (20 to 15ka), (3) weak upwelling (14 to 8ka) and (4) oligotrophy (8ka to Present). Strong upwelling for the deglaciation interval is supported by the low Florisphaera profunda / other coccolithophorids ratio and the high percentage abundance of Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Benthonic foraminifera assemblage changes are different in both cores and suggest significant regional variations in surface productivity and/or oxygen content at the seafloor, and a decoupling between surface productivity and export production to the seafloor. This decoupling is evidenced by the inverse relationship between the percentage abundance of infaunal benthonic foraminifera and the percentage abundance of N. pachyderma. The terrigenous input of the Colombian Pacific rivers, particularly the San Juan River, is suggested as a possible mechanism. Finally, the Globorotalia cultrata /Neogloboquadrina dutertrei ratio, is used to reconstruct the past influence of the Costa Rica Dome - Panama Bight and cold tongue upwelling systems in the Panama Basin. A northern influence is suggested for the late Holocene (after 5ka), and the last glacial (before 20ka), whereas a southern influence is suggested for the 20 to 5ka interval. There is a correspondence between our reconstructed northern and southern influences and previously proposed positions of the Intertropical Convergence

  7. ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT INFORMATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSPARENCY POLICIES IN FOUR CENTRAL AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ríos Cázares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the functioning of public information access systems in four Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama based on the methodology used in the project Transparency Metric 2010, conducted by the Center for Economic Research and Teaching (CIDE. The specific objective is to identify common challenges, recurring issues and best practices in matter of access to governmental information in these four countries. The study shows that, although all four countries have made progress in consolidating a specialised Freedom of Information Legislation (FOI, significant challenges remain in institutionalising the operation of such system, as well as consolidating its ability to effectively make government information public, both proactively and in response to specific requests from citizens. The main challenge is to develop a public policy which allows structuring a coherent system for the access to information.

  8. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  9. Increasing the Participation of Afro-Descendants in Bank-Funded Projects in Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Josefina; Aoki, Sayo

    2005-01-01

    A World Bank's Latin America and Caribbean Region's portfolio (projects) review was carried out with the aim of , (i) analyzing the reach of the Bank's Central America Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (CAESSD) projects in Afro-descendant areas, and (ii) suggesting recommendations for increasing Afro-descendent participation in Bank's projects. This note, presents a brie...

  10. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae) in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Reina, Ruth G; Doadrio, Ignacio; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-01

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among members of the Poecilia sphenops species complex to resolve the colonization process and radiation of this group in Central America. We analyzed 2550 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including ATP synthase 6 and 8, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes, and 906bp of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein of 86 ingroup individuals from 61 localities spanning most of its distribution from Mexico to Panama. Our mitochondrial data rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the P. sphenops complex that differed with the nuclear data set topology, which did not recover the monophyly of the P. mexicana mitochondrial lineage. Coalescent-based simulations tests indicated that, although hybridization cannot be completely ruled out, this incongruence is most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting in this group, which also showed the widest geographic distribution. A single colonization event of Central America from South America was estimated to have occurred between the early Paleocene and Oligocene (53-22millionyears ago). Subsequently, two largely differentiated evolutionary lineages diverged around the Early Oligocene-Miocene (38-13million years ago), which are considered two separate species complexes: P. sphenops and P. mexicana, which can also be distinguished by their tricuspid and unicuspid inner jaw teeth, respectively. Ultimately, within lineage diversification occurred mainly during the Miocene (22-5million years ago). All major cladogenetic events predated the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. The allopatric distribution of lineages together with the long basal internodes suggest that vicariance and long term isolations could be the main evolutionary forces promoting radiation in this group, although dispersal through water barriers might also have occurred. Lastly, our results suggest the need to review the current species distribution and taxonomy of the P. sphenops

  11. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  12. Cruise Report; RV Moana Wave cruise M1-01-GM; the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid shelf to upper slope off Panama City, Florida, northeastern Gulf of Mexico; September 3, through October 12, 2001, Panama City, FL to Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Dartnell, Peter; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama City, Florida (Figure 1, 67kb). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama are found in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957; Gardner et al., in press) and were the focus of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2000; in press). If this deep-water-reef trend does exist along the northwestern Florida shelf, then it is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology and type of the reefs that occur because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry is a fundamental first step in the study of areas suspected to be critical habitats. Morphology is thought to be critical to defining the distribution of dominant demersal plankton/planktivores communities. Fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have been relatively ignored. The ecology of deep-water ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatypic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web in ahermatypic reefs. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Thus, one of the principle uses of the morphology data will be to identify whether any reefs found are hermatypic or ahermatypic in origin. Community structure and trophodynamics of demersal fishes of the outer continental of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico presently are the focus of a major USGS reseach project. A goal of the project is to answer questions concerning the relative roles played by morphology and surficial geology in controling biological differentiation. Deep-water reefs are important because they are fish

  13. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.

  14. Primer registro de miasis por Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea en Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae de Panamá First record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea in Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez un caso de miasis por larva de Sarcophagidae sobre Halinobatrachium fleishmanni colectada en el Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panamá, siendo éste el primer registro de miasis en anuros de la familia Centrolenidae.We report the first record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae, on the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium fleishmanni collected in the Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panama, representing the first record of myiasis for Centrolenidae anurans.

  15. Inverse modeling of Central American lavas: old lithospheric and young asthenospheric heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenson, M.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of models proposed to account for the OIB-like geochemical characteristics of lavas from central Costa Rica. The source for most basalts of the Central American volcanic front (ranging from Guatemala to northern Costa Rica) is dominantly DM (depleted MORB-source mantle) fluxed by subduction-derived fluids. In contrast, central Costa Rican basalts display striking isotopic similarities to the Galapagos hotspot. How the Galapagos signature is introduced into the Central American source is at the heart of the conflicting theories. Several models incorporate asthenospheric flow of this enriched mantle, either around the Central American arc via South America, or through a slab window, which may have opened about 5 my ago beneath central Costa Rica. Alternatively, passage of the Caribbean plate over the Galapagos hotspot may have left veins of unerupted melt within the sub-Caribbean lithosphere. These veins may be preferentially tapped during later superimposed arc volcanism. Although these models yield identical isotopic systematics, it may be possible to distinguish between them by a geochemical technique that can indicate the presence of garnet in the source region. This method, developed by Hofmann and coworkers in the 1980s, is termed inverse modeling, and uses the variation of REEs in lavas to assess the relative importance of garnet vs. clinopyroxene during partial melting. We have applied this method to new REE data from back arc lavas throughout Central America, and preliminary results indicate that garnet is not present in their sources. In contrast, direct slab melts (adakites) from Central America, as well as volcanic front lavas and alkaline basalt (with minimal slab signature) from central Costa Rica and Panama, require a source with garnet. Therefore, enriched mantle in the back arc is likely stored in the shallow lithosphere rather than introduced through asthenospheric flow. Enriched material in the volcanic

  16. The begining of the institutionalized education between the Kuna of Panama El inicio de la educación institucionalizada entre los Kunas de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Félix CALVO POBLACIÓN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When Panama and Colombia split up, the Panama Government tried everything they could, to strengthen their borders and specially those that shared with their former ally. The Kunas lined in that region and the efforts of the government focused on the naturalization of this region occupied by native people. From the first laws passed, the Government tried to civilice that people. Education was a way to getting what they wanted. The Government offered grants to the population so that they could study in the capital; so, those students would help the Goverment to change the ideas of all the native population, some of those who helped the Goverment were killed. The Catholic and Protestant missions also played an important role above all until the first schools in that region were set up in i9i5. Education as was understood by the Goverment caused divisions and clashes, there was even a revolution in 1925 that tried to stop the outrage of those who wanted to civilize the native population.Cuando Panamá y Colombia se separaron a comienzos de este siglo, el gobierno panameño intentó reforzar sus fronteras, utilizando los puestos escolares y policiales como medida. Los kunas precisamente habitaban esta línea fronteriza entre los dos países. Las primeras leyes dictadas se encaminaron a la civilización de este pueblo. Y la educación estaba dirigida a conseguir el afianzamiento de la nación; y para ello se emplearon todos los medios: becas, creación de internados... pues los estudiantes iban a ayudar a los mandatarios a cambiar las ideas de los nativos, llegando incluso a perder la vida. Las misiones católicas y protestantes jugaron también un papel importante hasta el momento de la creación de la primera escuela en i9±5. Pero esta educación creó división entre los propios indios y se llegó hasta una revolución en 1925 que pretendía la separación de Panamá y frenar los abusos que se estaban cometiendo bajo la bandera de la civilización.

  17. Active Forearc Response to CO-NZ-CA Triple Junction Migration, Southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, K.; Fisher, D.; Gardner, T. W.

    2007-12-01

    Southeast migration of the CO-NZ-CA triple junction at a rate of ~55 mm/yr results in an abrupt increase in convergence rate, slab thickness and subduction direction within the upper plate of the Central American convergent margin. At the triple junction, an active transform fault (the dextral Panama Fracture Zone) subducts beneath the Caribbean plate at the Middle America Trench, and juxtaposes the thick, orthogonal and shallow subduction of the Cocos plate against the thin, oblique and steeper subduction of the Nazca plate. New bedrock geology, Quaternary mapping and Ar/Ar dates of fluvial and volcanic deposits inboard of the triple junction provide evidence that both the outer and inner forearc of this system is actively responding to the dynamic changes presented by triple junction migration. Our results confirm that the Fila Costeña, a thin-skinned inner forearc thrust belt, is active and likely propagating in concert with triple junction migration. Mapping within the area overriding the Panama Fracture Zone indicates that thrusting develops only in those areas experiencing Cocos subduction; the thrust belt dies out coincident with the on-shore projection of the Panama Fracture Zone, and balanced cross-sections indicate a lateral gradient in the amount of shortening near the termination of the thrust belt. Along-strike variations in drainage basin morphometry suggest that drainage divides of the Fila Costeña are propagating to the southeast with the triple junction, resulting in hook-shaped drainage patterns and asymmetric basin shapes. A survey of a flight of 3-4 fluvial terraces along the Río Chiriquí Viejo indicates recent thrusting along a prominent thrust fault of the Fila Costeña. These terraces are also inset into multiple lahar flows with an upper surface tentatively constrained at ~507 ka based on an Ar/Ar hornblende plateau age. Recent work indicates that this thrust fault displaces surficial lahar deposits, suggesting that it must have become

  18. A new genus and species of the family Lethaxonidae (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia from the island of Coiba (Panama

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    Valdecasas, A. G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Transitia carlosi n. gen. n. sp. of the family Lethaxonidae is described from the interstitial environment of a small stream in Central America. Following a morphological revision of the adult variation in the family, Transitia n. gen. is proposed, characterized by a posteriorly tapering body shape, three pairs of acetabula arranged linearly, median position of male gonopore in relation to first pair of genital acetabula and slight sexual dimorphism of male legs.

    Se describe Transitia carlosi n. gen. n. sp. de la familia Lethaxonidae del medio intersticial de un pequeño río en America Central. Tras la revisión morfológica de la variación en los adultos de la familia se propone Transitia n. gen., caracterizado por una forma del cuerpo estrechada posteriormente, tres pares de acetábulas dispuestos linealmente, posición media del gonóporo del macho en relación a los acetábulas genitales y ligero dimorfismo sexual de las patas del macho.

  19. Knowledge, Behavioral, and Sociocultural Factors Related to Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Inner-City Women in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Calvo, Arlene E; Daley, Ellen M; Giuliano, Anna R; López Castillo, Humberto

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in developing countries regardless of biomedical advances in prevention modalities. Specifically, Panama experiences one of the highest rates of cervical cancer worldwide. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge, behavioral, and sociocultural factors related to cervical cancer prevention among Panamanian women. A theory-guided, population-based quantitative survey following participatory processes was administered to a randomized sample of females (18-44 years) residing in a high-risk Panamanian community. Participants (n = 324) reported low knowledge regarding HPV, cervical cancer, and the purpose of the Pap test. Furthermore, low perceived susceptibility, high-risk sexual behaviors (e.g., low contraception and condom use) and adverse attitudes toward the Pap test (e.g., shame, fear) were identified. Television, newspapers/magazines, and relatives/friends/neighbors were common sources to receive health information. Significant gaps in knowledge and behavioral factors were identified, which may interfere with cervical cancer prevention efforts. Future strategies should reflect the sociocultural context, such as interpersonal relations, when developing and implementing cervical cancer programs, with the ultimate goal of decreasing the persistent burden among Latin American women.

  20. La Yeguada volcanic complex in the Republic of Panama: an assessment of the geologic hazards using 40ar/39ar geochronology

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    Karinne L. Knutsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: La Yeguada volcanic complex is one of three Quaternary volcanic centers in Panama. To assess potential geologic hazards, new samples were analyzed using argon analysis (40Ar/39Ar , and obtained the following: the most recent eruption occurred approximately 32,000 years ago at the Media Luna cinder cone; the youngest dated eruption from the main dome complex occurred 357 ± 19 ka, producing the Castillo dome unit; Cerro Picacho, a separate dacite dome 1.5 km east of the main complex is 4.47 ± 0.23 Ma; and the El Satro Pyroclastic Flow unit surrounds the northern portion of the volcanic complex is 11.26 ± 0.17 Ma. No Holocene (10,000 years ago to present activity is recorded at the La Yeguada volcanic complex and therefore, it is unlikely to produce another eruption. The main geologic hazard at the La Yeguada volcanic complex is from landslides coming off the many steep slopes.

  1. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  2. Constraining the Fore-Arc Flux Along the Central America Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, D. R.; Barry, P. H.; Ramirez, C. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Patel, B. S.; Blackmon, K.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of carbon to the deep mantle via subduction zones is interrupted by outputs via the fore-arc, volcanic front, and back-arc regions. Whereas output fluxes for the front and back-arc locales are well constrained for Central America (CA) [1], the fore-arc flux via cold seeps and groundwaters is virtually unknown. We present new He and CO2 data for the inner fore-arc of Costa Rica and western Panama to complement our study [2] of offshore CO2fluxes on the outer-forearc. On the Nicoya Peninsula, the Costa Rica Pacific coastline (including the Oso Peninsula) and the Talamanca Mountain Range, as well as coastal seeps in Panama, coupled CO2-He studies allow recognition of mantle (3He/4He up to 6RA) and crustal inputs to the volatile inventory. We associate the crustal component with CO2 derived from limestone (L) and organic sediments (S) on the subducting slab, and see a decrease in the L/S ratio trench-ward with the lowest values akin to those of diatomaceous ooze in the uppermost sequence of the subducting sediment package. This observation is consistent with the removal of the uppermost organic-rich sediment from deep subduction by under-plating. As the input carbon fluxes of the individual sedimentary layers are well constrained [3], we can limit the potential steady-state flux of carbon loss at the subaerial fore-arc to ~ 6 × 107 gCkm-1yr-1, equivalent to ~88% of the input flux of C associated with the ooze, or mass balance studies at subduction zones. [1] De Leeuw et al., EPSL, 2007; [2] Furi et al., G-cubed, 2010; [3] Li and Bebout, JGR, 2005.

  3. Central America in Transition: From Maize to Wheat Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Salvador Peña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are in transition from a dietary culture based mainly on maize to a wheat-containing diet. Several other changes are occurring, such as a decrease of parasitic and infectious diseases. The environmental changes permit a prediction of an increase of celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes and thyroid disease in these genetically heterogeneous countries. At present, celiac disease and gluten-related disorders are considered to be of no relevance at the level of public health in these nations. This review documents the presence of celiac disease in Central America. It draws attention to some of the challenges in planning systematic studies in the region since up until recently celiac disease was unknown. The aim of this review is to disseminate knowledge obtained with preliminary data, to stimulate clinical and basic scientists to study these diseases in Central America and to alert authorities responsible for the planning of education and health, to find possibilities to avoid a rise in these disorders before the epidemics start, as has occurred in the Mediterranean countries.

  4. Early and dynamic colonization of Central America drives speciation in Neotropical army ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Max E; Kronauer, Daniel J C; Moreau, Corrie S

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of the Isthmus of Panama is one of the most important events in recent geological history, yet its timing and role in fundamental evolutionary processes remain controversial. While the formation of the isthmus was complete around 3 million years ago (Ma), recent studies have suggested prior intercontinental biotic exchange. In particular, the possibility of early intermittent land bridges facilitating colonization constitutes a potential mechanism for speciation and colonization before full closure of the isthmus. To test this hypothesis, we employed genomic methods to study the biogeography of the army ant genus Eciton, a group of keystone arthropod predators in Neotropical rainforests. Army ant colonies are unable to disperse across water and are therefore ideally suited to study the biogeographic impact of land bridge formation. Using a reduced representation genome sequencing approach, we show that all strictly Central American lineages of Eciton diverged from their respective South American sister lineage between 4 and 7 Ma, significantly prior to the complete closure of the isthmus. Furthermore, three of the lineage pairs form extensive and coincident secondary contact zones in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, with no evidence of gene flow. Such a discrete and repeated biogeographic pattern indicates at least two waves of army ant dispersal into Central America that were separated by significant genetic divergence times. Thus, by integrating phylogenomic, population genomic and geographic evidence, we show that early colonization of Central America across the emerging Isthmus of Panamá drove parallel speciation in Eciton army ants.

  5. Central America in Transition: From Maize to Wheat Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Amado Salvador; Crusius, Jakob Bart Arie

    2015-08-26

    The Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are in transition from a dietary culture based mainly on maize to a wheat-containing diet. Several other changes are occurring, such as a decrease of parasitic and infectious diseases. The environmental changes permit a prediction of an increase of celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes and thyroid disease in these genetically heterogeneous countries. At present, celiac disease and gluten-related disorders are considered to be of no relevance at the level of public health in these nations. This review documents the presence of celiac disease in Central America. It draws attention to some of the challenges in planning systematic studies in the region since up until recently celiac disease was unknown. The aim of this review is to disseminate knowledge obtained with preliminary data, to stimulate clinical and basic scientists to study these diseases in Central America and to alert authorities responsible for the planning of education and health, to find possibilities to avoid a rise in these disorders before the epidemics start, as has occurred in the Mediterranean countries.

  6. Central venous catheter - flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/22/2016 Updated by: ...

  7. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  8. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  9. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of ... CNS (PACNS). What is the cause of CNS Vasculitis? How the vessels in the brain become inflamed ...

  10. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  11. Concentration and accumulation of nutrients in the aerial biomass of teak plantations 3 to 18 old, in the Panama Canal watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Murillo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples from aerial biomass compartments (bark, wood, primary and secondary branches, and foliage were taken from 16 dominant trees of teak in plantations of the Panama Canal watershed, whose volume yield ranged between 9.4 and 13.3 m3 ha-1. year-1 at ages 3 and 18 years, respectively, growing in clayey, red, and acid Ultisols. Wet and dry weight of the different tissues was measured and subsamples taken to be analyzed for macronutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P and S and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B. Regression analyses allowed to relate nutrients accumulation with tree age. Dry biomass of the wood was 59.6% (C.V. 5% of total dry biomass, while primary branches, bark, foliage, and secondary branches represented 16.6, 9.4, 7.9, and 6.5, respectively. Larger concentrations of macronutrients were Ca (2.01% found in the bark, and N in the foliage (1.98%. As for micronutrients, larger concentrations were found in the bark, in the order of Fe (767 mg.kg-1, Mn (60 mg.kg-1 and Zn (50 mg.kg-1. At 18 years of age accumulation of macronutrients was 15.9 kg. tree-1 (7.3 kg Ca, 3.9 kg N, 2.6 kg K, 1.0 kg Mg, 0.7 kg P and 0.4 kg S and 124 g of micronutrients (89 g Fe, 18 g Zn, 9 g B, 5 g Mn and 3 g Cu.

  12. Genetic polymorphism and forensic parameters of nine short tandem repeat loci in Ngöbé and Emberá Amerindians of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Edgardo A; Trejos, Diomedes E; Berovides-Alvarez, Vicente; Arias, Tomás D; Ramos, Carlos W

    2007-10-01

    Nine STR loci (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS, VWA, D16S539, D7S820, and D13S317) were analyzed in unrelated Ngöbé and Emberá Amerindians of Panama. The chi-square test demonstrated statistically significant differences (P linguistic stock [Chibchan (Ngöbé) and Chocoan (Emberá)], both retain strong similarities in their allele-frequency distributions. Three loci (TPOX, VWA, and F13A01) in the Ngöbé and two loci (TH01 and TPOX) in the Emberá departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The analysis of the STR markers demonstrates that, despite their low levels of genetic polymorphisms, most of them could be informative for forensic purposes, showing a combined power of discrimination of 0.9999 for both Amerindian populations. However, powers of exclusion in the Ngöbé were very low, particularly at the TH01 (0.04) and FESFPS (0.08) loci. The combined powers of exclusion were 0.9338 and 0.9890 for the Ngöbé and the Emberá, respectively. Furthermore, the combined typical paternity index in the Ngöbé was considerably low (2.58), and in the Emberá it was 40.44, which is also very low. The low genetic polymorphism levels suggest that theuse of additional loci supplementing the battery of the nine loci is recommended for paternity and forensic tests in both populations, particularly for the Ngöbé.

  13. El presidente Mauricio Macri y los Panama Papers. Periodismo, justicia y política entre las denuncias y el escándalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Stefoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la magnitud y las limitaciones del “escándalo” producido alrededor del presidente argentino Mauricio Macri tras las revelaciones de los Panama Papers. Desde una perspectiva sociológico-pragmática, se recorrerán los marcos de situación generados por las denuncias, se evaluarán las intervenciones desde sus exigencias pragmáticas de justificación y se analizarán las legitimidades variables de los distintos actores involucrados en la dinámica denuncia-escándalo. Analizando dimensiones como I la articulación de la denuncia y la percepción del escándalo, II las características de la denuncia, III las particularidades del denunciado, IV el lugar de los medios de comunicación, V la movilización de la denuncia por parte de los distintos actores y VI las formas de legitimación de los denunciantes, se buscará explicar cuáles fueron las condiciones de felicidad del escándalo y por qué el develamiento estuvo lejos de corresponderse con las expectativas de sus impulsores. Como conclusión sostiene que fueron las características de la denuncia periodística y las condiciones contextuales en el ámbito periodístico-mediático, judicial y político las que atenuaron la denuncia, les imposibilitaron a varios actores acreditarse como intérpretes legítimos y terminaron por disminuir la magnitud del escándalo.

  14. The importance of wood nutrient storage in tropical forest nitrogen and phosphorus cycles: Insights from a sapling defoliation experiment in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, K.; Dalling, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients limits productivity and influences tree species distribution in tropical forests. Given the scarcity of soil resources, trees in tropical forests should be under selection to store nutrients for periods when nutrient demand exceeds supply. However, little is known about the capacity of trees to remobilize nutrients from long-lived woody biomass in tropical forests, despite wood sequestering a large proportion of bioavailable nutrients in tropical ecosystems. We evaluated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) remobilization from woody biomass via experimental defoliation of saplings from four widely distributed genera of tropical trees in Panama. Focal saplings were sampled in high and low fertility habitats in both montane and lowland forests to maximize contrast in the availability and identity of limiting nutrients. N and P concentrations of stem wood were measured before defoliation and after subsequent re-foliation response to calculate wood remobilization efficiency. Initial wood P concentrations differed significantly within taxa between low and high fertility habitats, whereas initial wood N differed significantly within taxa between lowland and montane forests, but not among soil fertility habitats. In three of four genera studied, wood P concentrations declined after refoliation at both elevations, and the proportion of wood P remobilized was greater on low fertility compared to high fertility sites. In contrast, significant N remobilization was restricted to the low fertility montane site, where nitrogen is most likely to limit plant growth. These findings provide evidence that a significant fraction of N and P in woody biomass is can be remobilized in response to asymmetry in nutrient supply and demand, as opposed consisting primarily of recalcitrant structural material. Furthermore, variation in remobilization responses of species to defoliation provides additional evidence that multiple nutrient-limitation in tropical

  15. Três espécies novas de Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae da Costa Rica, Panamá e Guiana Francesa Three new species of Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae from Costa Rica, Panama and French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies novas de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta são descritas: L. danuncia sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e Panamá, L. mourei sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e L. glaberrima sp. nov. (da Guiana Francesa. Todas essas espécies foram identificadas anteriormente como Lestrimelitta limao Smith.Three new species of bees of the genus Lestrimelitta are described: L. danuncia sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and Panama, L. mourei sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and L. glaberrima sp. nov. (from French Guiana. All of these new species were previously identified as Lestrimelitta limao Smith.

  16. Hallazgos de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp., serovariedades Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani y Patoc, en un grupo de monos rhesus (Macaca mulatta en condiciones de cautiverio Antibodies findings against Leptospira sp., of the serovars Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani, and Patoc, in a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in conditions of captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ibáñez-Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis ha emergido como una importante enfermedad infecciosa, lo que ha ocurrido en diferentes entornos desde urbanos hasta medios naturales; los portadores son animales salvajes o domésticos. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en monos rhesus en condiciones de bioterio. Se utilizaron 59 monos de diferentes etapas fisiológicas. Se determinaron anticuerpos contra Leptospira a partir de la prueba de aglutinación microscópica (TAM, utilizando como antígenos 25 serovariedades de Leptospira. Se observó que de los 59 animales, únicamente el 30,50% reaccionaron contra una o más serovariedades de Leptospira. En este trabajo se determinaron anticuerpos contra cuatro serovariedades de Leptospira: Panama, Lai, Australis y Shermani, consideradas como patógenas, y once de las muestras reaccionaron contra la serovariedad Patoc, considerada no patógena y saprófita. Ninguno de los animales que resultaron positivos contra Leptospira presentó signos clínicos compatibles con leptospirosis.During the last decade leptospirosis has emerged as a worldwide and very important infectious disease, affecting different environments from urban to rural, with carriers usually being wild or domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Leptospira in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in a Research Center. Fifty nine non-human primates of different physiological stages were studied. The animals were held in groups and in individual cages. Blood samples were obtained from the saphenous vein to determine the presence of antibodies through the microscopic agglutination test (MA, using twenty five serovars of Leptospira as antigens. It was observed that 18 out of the 59 monkeys (30.50% reacted against one or more serovars of Leptospira. In this study, antibodies of 4 serovars of Leptospira, (Panama, Lai, Australis, and Shermani were detected. All 4 serovars were considered

  17. Precios y oferta para el culantro castilla (Coriandrum sativum L. entre los principales mercados mayoristas de Costa Rica y Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Villalobos Monge

    2012-05-01

    el precio fue mayor en el Mercado Central de Alimentos (MAC en Panamá que en el Centro Nacional de Abastecimiento y Distribución de Alimentos (Cenada en Costa Rica. Se descubrió que las plazas con mayores diferencias de precios a favor del MAC se efectuaron entre la tercera semana de mayo y las tres primeras semanas de junio, por lo que se asume que serían los momentos más oportu- nos para obtener el mejor precio posible para ingresar al mercado panameño con culantro castilla costarricense.

  18. A Description of Biremis panamae sp. nov., a New Diatom Species from the Marine Littoral, with an Account of the Phylogenetic Position of Biremis D.G. Mann et E.J. Cox (Bacillariophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Witkowski

    Full Text Available Here we present a formal description of Biremis panamae Barka, Witkowski et Weisenborn sp. nov., which was isolated from the marine littoral environment of the Pacific Ocean coast of Panama. The description is based on morphology (light and electron microscopy and the rbcL, psbC and SSU sequences of one clone of this species. The new species is included in Biremis due to its morphological features; i.e. two marginal rows of foramina, chambered striae, and girdle composed of numerous punctate copulae. The new species also possesses a striated valve face which is not seen in most known representatives of marine littoral Biremis species. In this study we also present the relationship of Biremis to other taxa using morphology, DNA sequence data and observations of auxosporulation. Our results based on these three sources point to an evolutionary relationship between Biremis, Neidium and Scoliopleura. The unusual silicified incunabular caps present in them are known otherwise only in Muelleria, which is probably related to the Neidiaceae and Scoliotropidaceae. We also discuss the relationship between Biremis and the recently described Labellicula and Olifantiella.

  19. Panama Canal Navigation Requirements for Ship’s Outfitting & Electric Design%巴拿马运河对通航船舶舾装和电气设计的要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 朱文婷; 邵梅峰

    2014-01-01

    This article introduced the requirements of Panama Canal ,including the dimension limitation ,mooring arrangement,boarding facilities,awning,signal light arrangement and navigation bridge arrangement of the navigable vessels. In addition ,the mooring requirement from the new lock ,together with the drawings and files which should provide to Panama Canal Authority for approval,were also introduced,which could serve as reference for the outfitting&electric design of the navigable ship.%介绍了巴拿马运河对于通航船舶尺寸限制、系泊设备布置、登乘装置、引水员天幕、声光信号布置和驾驶室布置的要求,以及新航道对于系泊设备的布置新要求。另外,还介绍了需送审巴拿马当局的图纸情况,供通航巴拿马运河的船舶舾装和电气设计借鉴。

  20. Impact of elevated N input on soil N cycling and losses in old-growth lowland and montane forests in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo; Arnold, Julia; Wright, S Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Nitrogen deposition is projected to increase rapidly in tropical ecosystems, but changes in soil-N-cycling processes in tropical ecosystems under elevated N input are less well understood. We used N-addition experiments to achieve N-enriched conditions in mixed-species, lowland and montane forests in Panama. Our objectives were to (1) assess changes in soil mineral N production (gross rates of N mineralization and nitrification) and retention (microbial immobilization and rapid reactions to organic N) during 1- and 9-yr N additions in the lowland forest and during 1-yr N addition in the montane forest and (2) relate these changes to N leaching and N-oxide emissions. In the old-growth lowland forest located on an Inceptisol, with high base saturation and net primary production not limited by N, there was no immediate effect of first-year N addition on gross rates of mineral-N production and N-oxide emissions. Changes in soil-N processes were only apparent in chronic (9 yr) N-addition plots: gross N mineralization and nitrification rates, NO3- leaching, and N-oxide emissions increased, while microbial biomass and NH4+ immobilization rates decreased compared to the control. Increased mineral-N production under chronic N addition was paralleled by increased substrate quality (e.g., reduced C:N ratios of litterfall), while the decrease in microbial biomass was possibly due to an increase in soil acidity. An increase in N losses was reflected in the increase in 15N signatures of litterfall under chronic N addition. In contrast, the old-growth montane forest located on an Andisol, with low base saturation and aboveground net primary production limited by N, reacted to first-year N addition with increases in gross rates of mineral-N production, microbial biomass, NO3- leaching, and N-oxide emissions compared to the control. The increased N-oxide emissions were attributed to increased nitrification activity in the organic layer, and the high NO3- availability combined with

  1. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  2. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2017-03-06

    Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. A literature search was performed on published primary data on medicinal plants of Central America and those specifically pertaining to use against snakebites. Plant use reports for traditional snakebite remedies identified in primary sources were extracted and entered in a database, with data analysed in terms of the most frequent numbers of use reports. The scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most frequently reported species was also examined. A total of 260 independent plant use reports were recorded in the 34 sources included in this review, encompassing 208 species used to treat snakebite in Central America. Only nine species were reported in at least three studies: Cissampelos pareira L., Piper amalago L., Aristolochia trilobata L., Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce, Strychnos panamensis Seem., Dorstenia contrajerva L., Scoparia dulcis L., Hamelia patens Jacq., and Simaba cedron Planch. Genera with the highest number of species used to treat snakebite were Piper, Aristolochia, Hamelia, Ipomoea, Passiflora and Peperomia. The extent of the scientific evidence available to understand any pharmacological basis for their use against snakebites varied between different plant species. At least 208 plant species are traditionally used to treat snakebite in Central America but there is a lack of clinical research to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Available pharmacological data suggest different plant species may target different symptoms of

  3. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable.

  4. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or hands. Central pain syndrome often begins shortly after the causative injury or damage, but may be delayed by months or even years, especially if it is related to post-stroke pain. × Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological ...

  5. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  6. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  7. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Blattner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as "hot comb alopecia," "follicular degeneration syndrome," "pseudopelade" in African Americans and "central elliptical pseudopelade" in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  8. The combined-disk boronic acid test as an accurate strategy for the detection of KPC carbapenemase in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Julio; Cruz, Gerardo; Pérez, Carlos; Tarajia, Musharaf

    2016-03-31

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) outbreaks may cause a huge economical burden on developing countries. Furthermore, KPC can be challenging to detect. We describe the laboratory strategy for the detection of KPC from 2011 to 2013 in a tertiary care hospital in Central America with approximately 1,000 beds. A retrospective analysis of a clinical laboratory database was done to determine the pragmatic application of the combined-disk boronic acid test during a KPC outbreak in Panama. A total of 1,026 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were found, of which 133 were positive for KPC. The strategy during two phases was described according to the test employed as a confirmatory test for KPC. After the K. pneumoniae isolates were detected by the VITEK 2 system, blaKPC polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the combined-disk boronic acid test were employed as a confirmatory test during phase one. The combined-disk boronic acid test was employed as a confirmatory test for KPC during phase two. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the boronic acid test were 100%, 97%, 91%, and 100%, respectively, when blaKPC PCR was employed as a confirmatory test during the start of the outbreak. Afterwards, modified VITEK 2 system parameters resulted in 116 suspicious KPC samples and the boronic acid test confirmed 102 isolates. The use of an automated bacterial identification system and the boronic acid test for the detection of KPC was an effective and low-cost strategy for a clinical laboratory in Panama during an outbreak.

  9. Phlebotomus Fever Viruses in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    species have been Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu sanguinaria, Lu. trapidoi and Lu. ylephilator. Less numerous has been Lu. olmeca . Blood fed...gomezi, 1 Lu. ylephila- lator and 1 Lu. olmeca ). These flies had fed on a viremic hamster shown to be circulating 2.6 x 103pfu/ml of PT virus. Virus was...originally fed on a hamster viremic with CHG virus. Punta Toro virus was recovered from a Lu. olmeca which origi- nally fed on a hamster viremic with PT

  10. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  11. The central peak revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirane, G.

    1995-10-27

    The central peak in SrTiO{sub 3} was first observed by Riste and his collaborators in 1971. This was one of the key discoveries leading to an understanding of the dynamics of phase transitions. The most recent discovery of two length scales in SrTiO{sub 3} motivated a reinvestigation of the soft phonon and associated central peak by neutron scattering. These recent experiments shed new light on the nature of the central peak. It is now well established to be strongly sample dependent and it originates from defects in bulk crystals.

  12. Oceanic terranes of S-Central America - 200 Million years of accretion history recorded on the W-edge of the Caribbean Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, P. O.; Flores, K.; Bandini, A.; Buchs, D.; Andjic, G.; Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    (Chortis Block s. str.), and became exhumed again by the earliest Cretaceous (139 Ma phengite age). A pre-Albian basaltic plateau-like basement is suspected but yet undated in the Matambú Terrane (Central Nicoya Peninsula). It is overlain by the Albian Loma Chumico Formation. A pre-Turonian basement hosting the 90 Ma old Tortugal Picrites and alkaline baselts characterizes the Manzanillo Terrane ( around the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica). The overlying Coniacian-Santonian to early Campanian Berrugate Formation represents the first Cretaceous evolved arc activity. It must be located on the edge of the MCOT, since the CLIP is still forming at that time. To the SE of the S-Nicoya fault zone, Turonian-Santonian (~90-85 Ma) oceanic plateaus represent outcrops of the CLIP. These include parts of Herradura (Costa Rica) and the Azuero Plateau (Coiba, Sona and Azuero, Panama). Late Campanian to Paleocene arcs rest on the CLIP: The Golfito Complex (Costa Rica) and the Azuero Arc (Panama), possibly also the San Blas Complex (Panama) and the Serrania de Baudo (W-Colombia). Late Cretaceous to Eocene plateau/seamount basalts and oceanic sediments became accreted during the Early Tertiary: The Tulin Group (Herradura), Quepos, The Osa Igneous Complex, Burica, the Osa Mélange (Costa Rica/Panama), and the Azuero Accretionary Complex (Panama).

  13. Late Cretaceous Arc Initiation on the Edge of an Oceanic Plateau (Southern Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, D. M.; Baumgartner, P. O.; Arculus, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Caribbean Plate comprises one or several late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus imbricated between the Northern and Southern Americas. Uplifted portions of plateau(s) along plate boundaries have been recognized in many sites, including that underlying the south Central American Volcanic Arc. We provide new constraints for the role of the plateau in the evolution of this arc obtained by mapping of the uplifted forearc area between southern Costa Rica and western Panama. An oceanic plateau, accreted seamounts and arc rocks were identified, and a new tectono-stratigraphy defined. The arc basement is composed of a Coniacian oceanic plateau. In the outer margin, late Cretaceous-Eocene accreted seamounts are in contact with the plateau along tectonic mélanges and active faults. Campanian-Maastrichtian primitive arc rocks are found 40-110 km to the trench on the top of -or as dykes within- the plateau. The location of these rocks correlates to previous observations and indicates that the arc front migrated away from the trench during the late Cretaceous, potentially in response to subduction erosion or slab flattening [Lissinna et al., EGU 2006]. The first island arc lavas were deposited under sea level, over a broad area. They were quickly followed by more evolved intrusives and lavas, which were emplaced along a volcanic front during the late Cretaceous-Paleocene. Detrital and volcanic records along the Central American isthmus indicate that a continuous volcanic arc extended between eastern Panama and northern Costa Rica in this time. In southern Costa Rica (Golfito complex) and western Panama (Sona-Azuero-Coiba complex), the oceanic plateau consists mainly of pillowed and massive low Fe (tholeiitic) basalts. These rocks have a highly consistent geochemistry characterized by flat, primitive upper mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns with low Pb and high Nb-Ti contents. Primitive arc igneous samples are low-medium Fe basalts to trachyandesites found as pillow

  14. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  15. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  16. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  17. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  18. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  19. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic and critical care staff play a governing role in the comprehension of a ... complete central oxygen pipeline failure occurred throughout. Tygerberg Hospital. ..... emergency stations and at plant room emergency supply manifolds.

  20. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities ...

  1. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  2. PROGRAMAS DE EDUCACIÓN SEXUAL EN PANAMÁ PROGRAMAS DE EDUCAÇÃO SEXUAL NO PANAMÁ PROGRAMS ON SEXUAL EDUCATION IN PANAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Vergès

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cuál es el lugar del placer en los programas de educación sexual? En Panamá, como en otros países de América Latina, la violencia contra niños y niñas y contra las mujeres no les permite reconocer la propiedad de su propio cuerpo y menos su derecho al placer. Los programas actuales sobre educación sexual, prevención del embarazo y SIDA promueven el uso del preservativo y la abstinencia pero no hablan de la ética del placer. Frecuentemente, el personal sanitario y educativo no está preparado para hablar sobre el tema. El uso del placer sexual como mercancía en los medios de comunicación introduce mayor confusión. La bioética debe integrar los estudios de la psicología, la antropología y un sentido de humanidad que permitan a este personal trabajar con las personas hacia la apropiación de su integridad como ser humanoQual é o lugar do prazer nos programas de educação sexual? No Panamá, como em outros países da América Latina, a violência contra meninos e meninas e contra as mulheres não lhes permite reconhecer a propriedade dos seus corpos e muito menos os seus direitos ao prazer. Os atuais programas sobre educação sexual, contracepção e AIDS promovem o uso do preservativo e a abstinência, mas não se referem à ética do prazer. Frequentemente, os profissionais da saúde e da educação não se encontram preparados para tratar sobre o tema. O uso do prazer sexual como mercadoria nos meios de comunicação acende ainda mais o conflito. A bioética deve integrar os estudos da psicologia, da antropologia e o sentido de humanidade de modo a permitir que tais profissionais possam trabalhar com as pessoas a apropriação de sua integridade como ser humanoWhich place occupies pleasure in sexual education programs? In Panama, as in other Latin American countries, violence against children and women does not allow people to realize own bodylines and less their right to pleasure. Present programs about sexual education

  3. Phylogeography and genetic variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the main Chagas disease vector in Central America, and its position within the genus Triatoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Bargues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican-northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic

  4. Phylogeography and Genetic Variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Main Chagas Disease Vector in Central America, and Its Position within the Genus Triatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, María Dolores; Klisiowicz, Debora R.; Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Ramsey, Janine M.; Monroy, Carlota; Ponce, Carlos; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Panzera, Francisco; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Sousa, Octavio E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Guhl, Felipe; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Background Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. Methodology and Findings Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican–northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. Conclusions The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T

  5. The Great American Biotic Interchange in frogs: multiple and early colonization of Central America by the South American genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Ibáñez, Roberto; Madriñán, Santiago; Sanjur, Oris I; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-03-01

    The completion of the land bridge between North and South America approximately 3.5-3.1 million years ago (Ma) initiated a tremendous biogeographic event called the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), described principally from the mammalian fossil record. The history of biotic interchange between continents for taxonomic groups with poor fossil records, however, is not well understood. Molecular and fossil data suggest that a number of plant and animal lineages crossed the Isthmus of Panama well before 3.5 Ma, leading biologists to speculate about trans-oceanic dispersal mechanisms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the frog genus Pristimantis based on 189 individuals of 137 species, including 71 individuals of 31 species from Panama and Colombia. DNA sequence data were obtained from three mitochondrial (COI, 12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG-1 and Tyr) genes, for a total of 4074 base pairs. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis showed statistically significant conflict with most recognized taxonomic groups within Pristimantis, supporting only the rubicundus Species Series, and the Pristimantis myersi and Pristimantis pardalis Species Groups as monophyletic. Inference of ancestral areas based on a likelihood model of geographic range evolution via dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis (DEC) suggested that the colonization of Central America by South American Pristimantis involved at least 11 independent events. Relaxed-clock analyses of divergence times suggested that at least eight of these invasions into Central America took place prior to 4 Ma, mainly in the Miocene. These findings contribute to a growing list of molecular-based biogeographic studies presenting apparent temporal conflicts with the traditional GABI model.

  6. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  7. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  8. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  9. Geochemical signatures of the oceanic complexes in southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Herzberg, C. T.; Carr, M. J.; Denyer, P.

    2006-12-01

    The Pacific coast of Costa Rica and western Panama is famous for wide occurrence of oceanic crust that represent fragmentary and disrupted Jurassic to Miocene sequences with a very complicated geological and geotectonic histories. In Northern Costa Rica, the Santa Elena Nappe of ultramafic and mafic associations overthrusts the Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex. The Nicoya Complex represents pre-Campanian Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) segments that crop out in the Nicoya Peninsula and the basement of the Herradura Block. The Tortugal Komatiitic-like Suite represents an accreted seamount section. The Tulin Formation (Maastrichtian to Lower Eocene) forms the main edifice of an accreted oceanic island of the Herradura Block. The Quepos Block was formed by the accretion of a late Cretaceous-Paleocene seamount. In the Osa and Burica peninsulas, Caño Island and Golfito area, a series of Upper Cretaceous to Eocene accreted CLIP and seamount blocks crop out. In western Panama, the oceanic rocks range from Upper Cretaceous to Miocene and their geochemistry show ocean island and CLIP signatures. These oceanic complexes are result of accretionary processes rather than tectonic erosion, even though this last process is currently active in the Middle American Trench. The mafic and ultramafic associations of Santa Elena Nappe and Murcielago Islands represent a supra-subduction complex with a subduction modified NMORB source. The Nicoya Complex, Herradura Basement, and CLIP rocks from Osa, Golfito, Burica and W Panamá were probably formed from high-degree melts of a NMORB source modified by the Galapagos hot-spot plume. The presence of rocks with an ocean island signature from Upper Cretaceous to Lower Miocene suggests the continuous arrivals of Galapagos hot-spot seamount tracks. Mantle reservoirs of the CLIP rocks and ocean islands trend to HIMU (high U/Pb), while Santa Elena rocks trend toward depleted reservoirs (DM). CLIP signature is characterized by high 206Pb

  10. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  11. 后巴拿马运河时代中国粮食码头发展趋势的思考%Reflection on the Developmet Trends of Chinas Grain Terminal in the Post-PanamaCanal Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵斌

    2011-01-01

    The import trend of Chinese crops and the export development in aeveral main crops production counties in the world were expounded. The current status of the, grain esports ports ' berthing eapacity in China was introduced It was estimated that in the Poat-Panama-Canal era. the main ship from for China to import bulk grain was 0.08. -1.12 million dwt. To conform to the requitement of the times after the Panama Canal and development trends of the world's major grain-producing country; exporting ports, it should be carly planned to build deep water grain tenminal . establish the port services and supply chain with grain terminal as the core and aecelerale the pace of international bonded logistics park.%分析了中国粮食进口量趋势及世界主要产粮国的粮食出口港发展趋势,介绍了中国粮食码头靠泊吨位现状,预计后巴拿马运河时代,中国进口散粮运输船舶主船型载重吨为8万~12万t.为顺应后巴拿马运河时代的要求,应及早规划深水粮食码头、构建以粮食码头为核心的港口服务供应链和加速国际粮食保税物流园区建设.

  12. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  13. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  14. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  15. Coast Guard Support of USSOUTHCOM Missions in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    Pact, eight Latin American nations formed the Contadora Group (Mexico, Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Contadora Support Group ( Argentina ...carriers 10 - 36’ River patrol craft 12 - 25’ Boston Whalers Source: Jane’s Fiahting Ships, 1993. 31 21 Salvador Personnel: 850 Bases: Ajacutla, La Libertad

  16. New species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from South and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Tirant, Stéphane Le

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species are described: Tropidion birai (Cerambycinae, Neoibidionini) from Bolivia; Chrysoprasis birai (Cerambycinae, Heteropsini) from Panama; and Recchia nearnsi (Lamiinae, Aerenicini) from Bolivia. The new species are included in amended versions of previously published keys to species of each genus. PMID:26668539

  17. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  18. Glueballs A central mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank E.

    2000-01-01

    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  19. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  20. Glueballs A central mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin

    2000-01-01

    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  1. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redo, Daniel J; Grau, H Ricardo; Aide, T Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L

    2012-06-05

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001-2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeconomic variables associated with human development. Results show a net decrease of woody vegetation resulting from 12,201 km(2) of deforestation of moist forests and 6,825 km(2) of regrowth of conifer and dry forests. The Human Development Index was the socioeconomic variable best associated with forest cover change. The least-developed countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, experienced both rapid deforestation of moist forests and significant recovery of conifer and dry forests. In contrast, the most developed countries, Panama and Costa Rica, had net woody vegetation gain and a more stable forest cover configuration. These results imply a good agreement with FT predictions of forest change in relation to socioeconomic development, but strong asymmetry in rates and directions of change largely dependent upon the biome where change is occurring. The FT model should be refined by incorporating ecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity, particularly in multicountry and regional studies. These asymmetric patterns of forest change should be evaluated when developing strategies for conserving biodiversity and environmental services.

  2. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  3. Central nervous system tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients.

  4. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology.

  5. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Shahina; Chaudhary, Vikas; Yadav, Sachchidanand

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system tuberculosis is a rare presentation of active tuberculosis and accounts for about 1% of cases (1). The three clinical categories include meningitis, intracranial tuberculomas, and spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. We report a case of a young man who presented with active pulmonary tuberculosis in addition to tuberculous meningitis and the presence of numerous intracranial tuberculomas.

  6. The central noradrenergic system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-27

    Jul 27, 2006 ... The majority of central noradrenergic neurons are situated in the brainstem where they .... stimuli and to speed-up information processing.4. The influence of .... single unit activity in the locus coeruleus. Life Sci 1980;27:2231.

  7. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  8. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  9. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  10. Company activities - central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayling, G.

    2007-06-15

    The first section of the article gives an overview of exploration and new developments in the field of gold, nickel, diamond and opal mining in central Queensland. The second part looks at coal, coal seam gas and petroleum exploration and development projects in the area. 1 fig.

  11. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma.

  12. Multicultural Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  13. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS

  14. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    2016-01-01

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they a

  15. Do Central Banks Need Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella

    1997-01-01

    Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s ope...

  16. Induced, endogenous and exogenous centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Stephen P. Borgatti

    2010-01-01

    Centrality measures are based upon the structural position an actor has within the network. Induced centrality, sometimes called vitality measures, take graph invariants as an overall measure and derive vertex level measures by deleting individual nodes or edges and examining the overall change. By taking the sum of standard centrality measures as the graph invariant we can obtain measures which examine how much centrality an individual node contributes to the centrality of the other nodes in...

  17. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  18. [Central neurocytoma: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, M; Mansour, A; Feknous, S; Yassi, F; Smati, S; Belhouchet, S; Lankar, A

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we report one case of central neurocytoma treated in our department. It is a benign tumor of the lateral ventricles of the brain with neuronal differentiation. The clinical symptoms mainly consisted in intracranial hypertension syndrome. Immunohistochemical studies are necessary for the histopathological diagnosis. The treatment of choice is surgical. To guarantee good progression, complete ablation is necessary. The clinical progression, radiological aspects, treatment, histopathology, and postoperative progression will be discussed.

  19. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  20. Central corneal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bijsterveld, O P

    1976-05-01

    Central corneal abscess developed in the experimental animal after inoculation of biologically active staphylococcal strains in a paracentral epithelial lesion of the cornea. These abscesses did not ulcerate, developed only with high inocula, occurred more frequently in immunized rabbits. A serpiginous type of ulceration did not develop at the site of the initial epithelial lesion nor at any other place in the cornea. Histologically, the lesions consisted of densely packed polymorphonuclear leukocytes between the corneal lamellae.

  1. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  2. Central core disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth Heinz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Central core disease (CCD is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1 gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1. Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s. The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome.

  3. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  4. Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality

    CERN Document Server

    Wehmuth, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...

  5. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  6. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  7. Central effects of fingolimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  8. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - flushing Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/17/2016 Updated by: ...

  9. [Central anticholinergic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urretavizcaya, P; Cenoz Osinaga, J C; Jáuregui Garía, M L; Gállego Culleré, J

    1991-10-01

    Two new cases of anticolinergic central syndrome are described. The first case, a 8 year old girl, suffered a severe encefalopathy after topical application of mydriatic cholirio as an aid in a rutine study of ocular refraction. The second case, 67 year old man presented a severe neurological picture after accidental intake of a silvester plantground (Atropa belladonna). His neurological condition returned quickly to normal whith administration of physostigmine. Differents aspects of the etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis are discussed with special emphasis in patients with delirium or acute confusional states. Finally, attention is drawn in the necessity of a properly use of anticholinergic drugs overcoat in aged or children.

  10. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeling, Emma L.; Brady, Angela F. [North West Thames Regional Genetics Service, Kennedy-Galton Centre, Level 8 V, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford Road, HAI 3UJ, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Cruwys, Michele [Department of Paediatrics, Hillingdon Hospital, Hillingdon, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Suri, Mohnish [Clinical Genetics Service, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Aylett, Sarah E. [Neurosciences Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair. We report a 7-year-old boy with TTD due to mutation in the XPD gene. The patient has classic features of this condition, including brittle, sulphur-deficient hair, ichthyosis, growth retardation and developmental delay. In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this association is not widely recognised. We review the radiological findings in this and other similar cases and discuss the natural history of these bony changes. (orig.)

  11. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  12. Feature Centrality and Property Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Sloman, Steven; Stevenson, Rosemary; Over, David

    2004-01-01

    A feature is central to a concept to the extent that other features depend on it. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people will project a feature from a base concept to a target concept to the extent that they believe the feature is central to the two concepts. This centrality hypothesis implies that feature projection is guided by a…

  13. en los pivotes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Roque Rodés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión y comentarios sobre las ventajas y limitantes del empleo del LEPA (Low Enery Precision Aplication en los sistemas de riego de pivotes centrales. Estos sistemas o filosofía de manejo del agua para condiciones de escasez o mala calidad del líquido es una alternativa viable para la producción de alimentos. Introducida en la década del 80 en las planicies del sur de Texas, donde la alta evaporación del agua y la necesidad de regar grandes áreas con pivotes centrales obligaba a la búsqueda de una alternativa para incrementar al máximo la eficiencia de aplicación del riego. Aún en fase de estudio e introducción en Cuba para áreas específicas, puede ser una solución de incremento de los rendimientos de los cultivos, empleando menos agua y aguas con calidad limitada

  14. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, David A; Olsen, Elise A

    2008-01-01

    A progressive scarring alopecia of the central scalp is commonly seen in young to middle-aged females of African descent. It usually starts at the vertex or mid top of the scalp and gradually spreads centrifugally, hence, the unifying term of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. The clinical pattern is suggestive of female pattern alopecia, but a lack of follicular pores indicative of scarring is present. It can progress for years before slowly burning out. The etiology is unknown but genetic factors may be important. It is often associated with a history of traumatic hairstyling involving heat, traction, and chemicals. However, most patients of African descent without this disorder have similar styling habits. Nonetheless, avoidance of physical and chemical trauma to the scalp hair, the use of suitable shampoos and conditioners, and the encouragement of natural hairstyles may be helpful. Any infection should be treated. Topical or intralesional corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics may be useful and topical minoxidil should be tried with the hope of preventing further scarring and encouraging regrowth of recovering follicles. Current research into the etiology of this disorder will help to foster much-needed clinical trials of therapeutic agents.

  15. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  16. Altitudinal distribution and advertisement call of Colostethus latinasus (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae), endemic species from eastern Panama and type species of Colostethus , with a molecular assessment of similar sympatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Roberto D; Griffith, Edgardo J; Lips, Karen R; Crawford, Andrew J

    2017-04-12

    We conducted a molecular assessment of Colostethus-like frogs along an elevational gradient in the Serranía de Pirre, above Santa Cruz de Cana, eastern Panama, aiming to establish their species identity and to determine the altitudinal distribution of C. latinasus. Our findings confirm the view of C. latinasus as an endemic species restricted to the highlands of this mountain range, i.e., 1350-1475 m.a.s.l., considered to be type locality of this species. We described the advertisement call of C. latinasus that consists of a series of 4-18 single, short and relatively loud "peep"-like notes given in rapid succession, and its spectral and temporal features were compared with calls of congeneric species. For the first time, DNA sequences from C. latinasus were obtained, since previously reported sequences were based on misidentified specimens. This is particularly important because C. latinasus is the type species of Colostethus, a genus considered paraphyletic according to recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data.

  17. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  18. Orden monetario y bancos centrales Monetary order and Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglietta Michel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el enfoque evolucionista e institucionalista de la economía de las convenciones francesa, este trabajo analiza el surgimiento histórico de la banca central y la creación institucional del 'arte de la banca central'. El artículo estudia los modelos formales del orden monetario, la banca libre y la banca central, y analiza los eventos históricos que llevaron a que el Banco de Inglaterra inventara el arte de manejar los bancos centrales en conjunción con el aprendizaje colectivo e institucional que lo hizo posible. Aglietta muestra que la banca central no es una creación del Estado sino una creación institucional endógena al sistema de mercado.With the evolutionist and institutionalist focus of the economics of the French conventions, this paper analyzes the historical rise of the central bank and the institutional creation of the 'art of the central bank'. The article studies formal models of the monetary order, free banking and the central bank, and analyzes the historie events that led to the Bank of England inventing the art of managing the central banks, in conjunction with the collective and institutional learning that made it possible. Aglietta shows that the central bank is not a creation of the State, but rather aninstitutional creation endogenous to the market system.

  19. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  20. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  1. Isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites in Central and South American Calea species and their biochemical systematic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen species of the genus Calea (Family Compositae, Tribe Heliantheae) from Central and northern South America, including the type species for the genus, were investigated chemically to determine their secondary metabolites. The taxa studied were C. leptocephala Blake, C. megacephala Rob, and Greenm., and C. trichotoma B. Smith from Mexico, C. prunifolia Kunth (syn. C. pittieri) from Costa Rica, C. prunifolia Kunth from Panama, C. jamaicensis L. from Jamaica, and the Venezuelan species C. berteriana DC., C. divaricata Benthem, C. oliverii Rob. and Greenm., C. prunifolia Kunth, C. septuplinervia Hieron., C. solidaginea Kunth, and C. subcordata Kunth. The chemical investigation of these Calea species, undertaken as part of biochemical systematic study, has resulted in the isolation of 83 compounds, of which 38 are new natural products. The isolated compounds were represented by a dioxin derivative, 3 benzofuranes, 5 chromenes, 12 flavones, and 62 sesquiterpene lactones. The structures of the new compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. These methods included MS, IR, UV, and CD, /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR, and single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis.

  2. Central nervous system stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes marked behavioural change and sometimes psychosis. Major sports abusing amphetamine are cycling, American football, ice-hockey and baseball. Cocaine increases tolerance to intense exercise, yet most of its chronic effects on energy metabolism are negative. Its greatest effects seem to be as a central stimulant and the enhancement of short-term anaerobic exercise. It is highly addictive and can cause cerebral and cardiovascular fatalities. Caffeine enhances fatty acid metabolism leading to glucose conservation, which appears to benefit long-distance endurance events such as skiing. Caffeine is also addictive, and chronic abuse can lead to cardiac damage. Social abuse of each of the three drugs is often difficult to distinguish from their abuse in sport.

  3. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  4. [MANAGEMENT OF CENTRAL HYPERSOMNIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Lopez, Régis

    2016-06-01

    Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom. The treatment of daytime sleepiness is based on modafinil in first intention. Other psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and exceptionally dextro-amfetamine may be considered. In narcolepsy type 1, antidepressants such as inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline will be considered to improve cataplexy. Sodium oxybate is an effective treatment on sleepiness, cataplexy and bad night sleep in narcolepsy. The management for other symptoms or comorbidities should be considered it necessary such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, the disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Important therapeutic perspectives are to be expected concerning new psychostimulant and anticataplectiques, but mainly on immune-based therapies administered as early as possible after disease onset and on hypocretin replacement therapy for patients with severe symptoms.

  5. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  6. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  7. y Banca Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel García Banchs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las teorías monetarias modernas, ortodoxas y heterodoxas, han pasado por alto el hecho de que posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial el mundo quedó dividido entre economías emisoras y receptoras de reservas, pasando el sistema monetario internacional desde entonces a ser completamente asimétrico. De allí que, desde el punto de vista teórico, señalemos la necesidad de tomar en cuenta si las economías emiten o no una moneda de reserva internacional, pues ello explicaría la existencia de diversas prácticas monetarias a nivel mundial. Este trabajo propone, y calcula, indicadores basados en datos provenientes de los balances de activos y pasivos de quince bancos centrales pertenecientes a Norteamérica, Suramérica, Europa y Asia. Los hallazgos con respecto a las diversas estructuras de activos y pasivos confirman la hipótesis acerca de la presencia de tales asimetrías. Se infiere en consecuencia que la política monetaria es menos flexible pero más influyente en las economías receptoras de reservas, y a la vez más flexible pero menos influyente en las economías emisoras. En pocas palabras, la exogeneidad de la tasa de interés de corto plazo es más débil en el caso de las economías receptoras de reservas las cuales se ven obligadas a acumular divisas y a procurar la estabilidad del tipo de cambio, debido a que sus monedas locales no son aceptadas en el exterior. Así, aunque la oferta crediticia es endógena en esas economías, las mismas no han sido capaces de librarse aún de la necesidad de mantener reservas monetarias en divisas extranjeras

  8. Poblaciones urbana y rural de Panamá. Un análisis a partir de microdatos censales Urban and rural populations of Panama. An analysis using census microdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Camacho Cárdenas,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El censo de población y viviendas continúa jugando un rol esencial en las sociedades contemporáneas. La disponibilidad de la información a partir de microdatos censales ofrece posibilidades incalculables para la labor científica, docente y de planificación a diferentes escalas. A partir de la posibilidad de trabajar con las bases de datos de los censos de Panamá, rondas 2000 y 2010, y hacer uso del software REDATAM para los procesamientos especiales, el presente artículo presenta los análisis de características seleccionadas de las poblaciones urbana y rural del país. Los resultados muestran el crecimiento del porcentaje de la población urbana, con una mayor presencia femenina. Las poblaciones urbanas presentan una estructura más envejecida en el contexto nacional. Tanto la mortalidad infantil como la fecundidad son mayores en los contextos rurales. Population and housing census continue playing an essential role in contemporary societies. The availability of the census microdata information offers incalculable possibilities for the scientific work, educational and planning activities to different scales. Starting from the possibility of working with the databases of the censuses of Panama, rounds 2000 and 2010, and making use of the software REDATAM for special processing, this paper presents the analyses of selected characteristics of urban and rural populations of the country. The results show the growth of the urban population’s percentage, with a feminine bigger presence. The urban populations present an older age structure in the national context. The child mortality and fertility are both higher in the rural contexts.

  9. A Geodynamical Perspective on the Subduction of Cocos and Rivera plates beneath Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Manea, Marina; Ferrari, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The Middle America subduction zone (MASZ) is one of the world most complex convergent margins as it involves the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos young oceanic plates beneath the North American and Caribbean plates and is bounded by the Gulf of California rift and the Panama slab window. Characterized by contorted and unusual slab geometry, irregularly distributed seismicity and volcanism, exceptionally large slow slip events (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT), this subduction system represents a great natural laboratory for better understanding geodynamic processes at a fundamental level. Based on a solid observational foundation, and incorporating the latest experimental results into a coherent geodynamical framework, we shed light on the main processes controlling the subduction system evolution in this region. The tectonics, volcanism, slab geometry and segmentation along the margin are reviewed from a geodynamical perspective. We proposed and discussed a series of evolutionary scenarios for the Mexican and Central American subduction zones, providing a coherent starting base for future geodynamical modeling studies tailored to this active margin. We discuss comparatively the recently discovered SSEs and NVTs along the MASZ, and try to differentiate among the proposed mechanisms responsible for these observations. Finally we discuss the recent seismic anisotropy observations in a geodynamic context, offering an integrated view of mantle flow pattern along the entire active margin. Although the MASZ as a whole may be considered a fairly complicated region with many unusual features and sometimes controversial interpretations, its complexity and unusual characteristics can improve our knowledge about the linkage between deep and surface processes associated with subduction zone dynamics.

  10. Some shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the central east coast of Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic account of 67 species, referable to 22 families and 40 genera, identified in a small collection of hydroids from the central Atlantic coast of Florida between Melbourne and Palm Beach. The fauna mostly comprises an assemblage of tropical western Atlantic species ranging northwards along the southeastern coast of the United States. One new species, Lafoea intorta, is described. Applying Reversal of Precedence provisions in zoological nomenclature, the widely-used generic name Halopteris Allman, 1877 is designated as valid and as a nomen protectum, while its virtually unused senior synonym Halicornaria Hincks, 1865 (not Halicornaria Allman, 1874) is reduced to a nomen oblitum. The genus Pasya Stechow, 1922 is resurrected for the hydroid generally known as Dynamena quadridentata (Ellis & Solander, 1786). Laomedea tottoni Leloup, 1935 is shown to be a junior objective synonym of Clytia fragilis Congdon, 1907, which in turn is a junior subjective synonym of Clytia linearis (Thornely, 1900). Obelia oxydentata Stechow, 1914 is recognized as distinct from O. bidentata Clark, 1875. Hincksella brevitheca Galea, 2009, first described from Cuba, is reported for only the second time; records of the species are added here from Grand Cayman Island and the Caribbean coast of Panama as well as from the Atlantic coast of Florida. Also reported for the second time is Antennella incerta Galea, 2010, previ-ously known only from Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Sea. The true Halopteris diaphana (Heller, 1868), known from the Mediterranean Sea and from Brazil, is reported for the first time from the western North Atlantic. Earlier records of the species in the region are based on misidentifications of H. alternata (Nutting, 1900). Male gonothecae of Halecium calderi Galea, 2010 are reported and illustrated for the first time.

  11. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the p

  12. Central bank independence and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Farvaque, Etienne; Héricourt, Jérôme; Lagadec, Gaël

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the influence of demography and central bank independence on inflation. The recent demographic trends in developed countries are shown to weight more on inflation than central bank independence, while the contrary stands for the period from 1960 to 1979.

  13. Controlling centrality in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, V.; Criado, R.; Romance, M.; Russo, G.; Latora, V.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral centrality measures allow to identify influential individuals in social groups, to rank Web pages by popularity, and even to determine the impact of scientific researches. The centrality score of a node within a network crucially depends on the entire pattern of connections, so that the usual approach is to compute node centralities once the network structure is assigned. We face here with the inverse problem, that is, we study how to modify the centrality scores of the nodes by acting on the structure of a given network. We show that there exist particular subsets of nodes, called controlling sets, which can assign any prescribed set of centrality values to all the nodes of a graph, by cooperatively tuning the weights of their out-going links. We found that many large networks from the real world have surprisingly small controlling sets, containing even less than 5 – 10% of the nodes. PMID:22355732

  14. Central presbycusis: an emerging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, George A

    2012-07-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system (central presbycusis) is common but rarely looked for by those who provide aural rehabilitation. Patients who complain of difficulty hearing in noise--the key symptom of central presbycusis--are generally disadvantaged with conventional rehabilitation. This symptom should be documented with commercially available speech-in-noise tests, which use materials that are uncomplicated to administer. Those patients who perform poorly on such tests should have a customized rehabilitation program aimed at optimizing their remaining communication abilities. Otolaryngologists who provide auditory rehabilitation may wish to consider expanding their practices to meet the communication needs of older patients with central presbycusis. Central presbycusis is an emerging area for basic and clinical research in auditory neurotology, particularly in the relation of cognitive dysfunction to impaired auditory processing.

  15. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  16. Betweenness centrality profiles in trees

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Benjamin; Turan, Gyorgy

    2016-01-01

    Betweenness centrality of a vertex in a graph measures the fraction of shortest paths going through the vertex. This is a basic notion for determining the importance of a vertex in a network. The k-betweenness centrality of a vertex is defined similarly, but only considers shortest paths of length at most k. The sequence of k-betweenness centralities for all possible values of k forms the betweenness centrality profile of a vertex. We study properties of betweenness centrality profiles in trees. We show that for scale-free random trees, for fixed k, the expectation of k-betweenness centrality strictly decreases as the index of the vertex increases. We also analyze worst-case properties of profiles in terms of the distance of profiles from being monotone, and the number of times pairs of profiles can cross. This is related to whether k-betweenness centrality, for small values of k, may be used instead of having to consider all shortest paths. Bounds are given that are optimal in order of magnitude. We also pre...

  17. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae from two forests in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproduction, abundance, distribution and a new size record for S. annulatus are discussed.

  18. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.O gênero de ariídeos Cathorops inclui espécies que habitam principalmente águas doces e estuarinas das plataformas orientais e ocidentais do sul do México, Américas do Sul e Central. Neste estudo, se apresenta uma revisão das espécies de Cathorops da Mesoamérica (bacias do Atlântico e Caribe centroamericano, incluindo a descrição de três espécies novas: C. belizensis, de áreas de manglar em Belice; C. higuchii, de águas costeiras rasas e rios costeiros do Caribe centroamericano, desde Honduras até o Panamá; e C. kailolae, das bacias do rio Usumacinta e lago Izabal no México e Guatemala. Adicionalmente, se redescrevem C. aguadulce, da bacia do rio Papaloapan no México, e C. melanopus, da bacia do rio Motagua na Guatemala e Honduras, apresentando-se uma revisão de suas distribuições geográficas.

  19. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  20. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  1. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  2. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  3. Central cementifying fibroma of mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Edward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Central cementifying fibroma is a rare non odontogenic tumor coming in the group of fibro osseouslesion, arising from periodontal ligament and is usually seen in tooth bearing area. It can affect boththe mandible and the maxilla, particularly the mandible. This bone tumour consists of highly cellular,fibrous tissue that contains varying amounts of calcified tissue resembling bone, cementum or both.Here we present a case of Central cementifying fibroma (recurrent in a 34 year old female.

  4. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    OpenAIRE

    Haibin Shao; Mehran Mesbahi; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagati...

  5. Controlling centrality in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Romance, Miguel; Russo, Giovanni; Latora, Vito

    2011-01-01

    Spectral centrality measures allow to identify influential individuals in social groups, to rank Web pages by their popularity, and even to determine the impact of scientific researches. The centrality score of a node within a network crucially depends on the entire pattern of connections, so that the usual approach is to compute the node centralities once the network structure is assigned. We face here with the inverse problem, that is, we study how to modify the centrality scores of the nodes by acting on the structure of a given network. We prove that there exist particular subsets of nodes, called controlling sets, which can assign any prescribed set of centrality values to all the nodes of a graph, by cooperatively tuning the weights of their out-going links. We show that many large networks from the real world have surprisingly small controlling sets, containing even less than 5-10% of the nodes. These results suggest that rankings obtained from spectral centrality measures have to be considered with ex...

  6. USO DA GEOESTATÍSTICA NA PROBABILIDADE DE OCORRÊNCIA DO MAL-DO-PANAMÁ EM BANANEIRA PRATA ANÃ GEOSTATISTIC USE OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF THE OCCURRENCE OF PANAMA DISEASE IN BANANA 'PRATA ANÃ'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Zucoloto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a probabilidade de ocorrência e variabilidade espacial da incidência do mal-do-Panamá em uma área cultivada com bananeira 'Prata Anã' em um ciclo da cultura. O trabalho foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial no município de Aracruz, estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. A probabilidade da ocorrência do mal-do-Panamá na área foi avaliada pelo método de interpolação krigagem indicativa, que é um processo básico de krigagem. Para atingir este objetivo, o primeiro passo, foi a transformação de plantas com ocorrência da doença igual a 1 (um e da não ocorrência da doença igual a 0 (zero. A incidência da doença apresentou dependência espacial de 10 m e com ajuste do modelo exponencial aos dados, o que permitiu estimar por krigagem indicativa a probabilidade de ocorrência da doença na área com a construção do mapa, tornando-se uma ferramenta importante para otimizar as medidas preventivas.This research was carried out to assess the likelihood and spatial variability in the incidence of disease Panama in an area cultivated with banana 'Prata Anã'' in a cycle of culture. The work was conducted on a commercial farm in the municipality of Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The probability of occurrence of Panamá disease in the area was evaluated by means of kriging interpolation indicative, which is a basic process of kriging. To achieve this goal, the first step was the transformation of plants with occurrence of disease equal to one (1 and the occurrence of the disease does not equal to 0 (zero. The incidence of the disease showed spatial dependence of 10 m with the exponential model fit the data, allowing for kriging indicative estimate the probability of occurrence of the disease in the area with the construction of the map, making it an important tool to optimize the preventive measures.

  7. Rosette Central Configurations, Degenerate central configurations and bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Jinzhi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we find a class of new degenerate central configurations and bifurcations in the Newtonian $n$-body problem. In particular we analyze the Rosette central configurations, namely a coplanar configuration where $n$ particles of mass $m_1$ lie at the vertices of a regular $n$-gon, $n$ particles of mass $m_2$ lie at the vertices of another $n$-gon concentric with the first, but rotated of an angle $\\pi/n$, and an additional particle of mass $m_0$ lies at the center of mass of the system. This system admits two mass parameters $\\mu=m_0/m_1$ and $\\ep=m_2/m_1$. We show that, as $\\mu$ varies, if $n> 3$, there is a degenerate central configuration and a bifurcation for every $\\ep>0$, while if $n=3$ there is a bifurcations only for some values of $\\epsilon$.

  8. Coverage centralities for temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex by the proportion of (normal) vertex pairs, the quickest routes between which can (or should) use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bo...

  9. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  10. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  11. Geomorphic and exhumational response of the Central American Volcanic Arc to Cocos Ridge subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Kirby, Eric; Fisher, Donald M.; van Soest, Matthijs

    2012-04-01

    The timing of collision of the Cocos Ridge at the Middle America Trench remains one of the outstanding questions in the tectonic evolution of the Central American convergent margin. New analyses of the tectonic geomorphology of the Cordillera de Talamanca, the extinct volcanic arc inboard of the Cocos Ridge, coupled with low temperature thermochronometry data, provide insight into the cooling and erosional history of the arc from late Miocene to present. We identify a low-relief surface at high elevation along the northeastern flanks of the range, which represents a relict erosional landscape cut across shallow plutonic rocks of the arc edifice. Longitudinal profiles of rivers on this surface are isolated from steep downstream sections by prominent knickzones that are interpreted to reflect a migrating wave of transient incision generated during differential rock uplift of the range. Reconstruction of pre-incision profiles suggests that rock uplift during the growth of the Cordillera de Talamanca is no greater than ˜2 km. This inference is corroborated by results from our apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track analyses along an elevation transect on Mt. Chirripó, the highest mountain in the Cordillera de Talamanca. Low-temperature cooling ages overlap significantly with published high-temperature40Ar/39Ar ages; the combined results imply that rapid cooling in the late Miocene was related to secular cooling of a shallow pluton, rather than exhumation. Our results imply that rapid incision along downstream channel segments, differential rock uplift, and growth of the Talamanca as a bivergent orogenic wedge associated with the onset of Cocos Ridge subduction are relatively young characteristics of the range. A review of previously published radiometric ages and revised plate reconstructions for the late Miocene further suggest that the cessation of arc volcanism in both the Cordillera de Talamanca and the Cordillera Central of western Panama was coeval with the

  12. [Agrarian movements, development alternatives and food security in Central America: scenarios of transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rojas, R

    1991-01-01

    This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups

  13. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibin; Mesbahi, Mehran; Li, Dewei; Xi, Yugeng

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagation rate of influence exerted on consensus networks and the Kirchhoff index of the underlying graph. Moreover, the tempo centrality also encodes the disturbance rejection of nodes in a consensus network. Our findings provide an approach to infer the performance of a consensus network from its temporal data. PMID:28098166

  14. Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.

    2014-12-01

    The final closure of the Panama Isthmus and permanent separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters is thought to have modified their salinity, faunistic assemblages, and ultimately, ocean circulation patterns and global climate. The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) is thought to have been the result of Plio-Pleistocene closure of the Isthmus that allowed land animals to massively cross the Isthmus. Similarly, the separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters by a rising Isthmus is thougth to be a prime example of vicariance. The role of Isthmus closure on global changes, however, remains controversial due in part to the difficulty of establishing a precise chronology of seaway closure. While timing of glaciation is well established, new data on the chronology of Isthmus emergence suggests that the process of closure is more complex, long, and old than previously thought. We sampled fluvial and shallow marine strata in northwesternmost South America to recover zircon grains for provenance analyses in the immediate vicinity of the docking site. Because the ages of magmatic provinces in northwestern South America and the Panama Isthmus are mutually exclusive, detrital zircon analyses provides a tool to evaluate land connections. We found that an uniquely Panamanian, 40-45 Ma (early Lutetian) detrital zircon fingerprint is abundant in middle Miocene strata, but absent in underlying lower Miocene and Oligocene strata of the northern Andes. This fingerprint represents the beginning of fluvial detrital exchange between the Panama arc and South America, and therefore marks the time of docking and the end of deep-water, and probably shallow-water connections by middle Miocene times.

  15. CENTRAL MECHANISMS OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clear. This article summarizes the central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. Method: We have focused on examining the recent literature on acupuncture analgesia. The central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. We focused on the studies related to central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia from these aspects: (neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy. Result: The result revealed that acupuncture act on various parts of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral ganglia and cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. The central mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture include neurohumors and neurotransmitters, which are involved in analgesia. At spinal level, Spinal opioids, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin are the key elements acupuncture-induced analgesia. At brain level, Endogenous opioid peptides, limbic system play essential roles in mediating the analgesia. Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective approach to pain management. There is good evidence in both experimental and clinical research that supports acupuncture efficacy in management of chronic pain through central nervous system. Acupuncture should be strongly used as a part of pain management plans. This work helps in improving our understanding of the scientific basis underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  16. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David

    2016-01-01

    In this brief invited review, I will attempt to summarise some of the key areas of interest in the study of central stars of planetary nebulae which (probably) won't be covered by other speakers' proceedings. The main focus will, inevitably, be on the subject of multiplicity, with special emphasis on recent results regarding triple central star systems as well as wide binaries which avoid a common-envelope phase. Furthermore, in light of the upcoming release of Kepler's Campaign 11 data, I will discuss a few of the prospects from that data including the unique possibility to detect merger products.

  17. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    Ministro de Gobernacion y policia y seguridad publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 16 Freedom House 17 Constitution of Panama, Artículo 305.- La...Ramos Martínez, Licenciado Rogelio, Ministro de Gobernación y Policía y Seguridad Publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 Salvatierra, BG Manuel...medios ordinarios para el mantenimiento de la paz interna, la tranquilidad y la seguridad pública, el Presidente de la República podrá disponer de la

  18. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianaefrom a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females, 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4 and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were from juveniles of T. merianae, 30 from adult males and 21 from adult females. Salmonella enterica was the most frequent bacteria followed by Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakasakii, Kluivera sp., Citrobacter amalonaticus, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter diversus, Yersinia frederiksenii, Serratia odorifera, and Serratia liquefaciens. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae and houtenae showed resistance to cotrimoxazole, and serum Salmonella enterica Worthington showed resistance to tetracycline and gentamicin. Salmonella enterica Panama and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae showed intermediate sensitivity to cotrimoxazole. In addition to Enterobacteriaceae in the Tegu lizard, pathogenic serotypes of S. enterica also occur, and their antimicrobial resistance was confirmed.

  19. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-09-07

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed.

  20. Central Libraries in Uncertain Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses security and safety issues for public libraries, especially high-profile central facilities, in light of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Highlights include inspecting bags as patrons enter as well as exit; the need for security guidelines for any type of disaster or emergency; building design; and the importance of communication.…

  1. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely

  2. Learning and the central bank

    OpenAIRE

    Charles T. Carlstrom; Timothy S. Fuerst

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that sunspot equilibria may arise under an interest-rate operating procedure in which the central bank varies the nominal rate with movements in future inflation (a forward-looking Taylor rule). This paper demonstrates that these sunspot equilibria may be learnable in the sense of E-stability.

  3. Water Governance in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Assche, Van Kristof; Valentinov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    We develop a social systems theory perspective on Central Asian post-Socialist transition, placing particular emphasis on the coordination problems in transboundary water governance. The extensive Soviet water-energy infrastructure around the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers required coordination, bu

  4. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  5. Pathology of Central American Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Jean

    1986-01-01

    The rapidly increasing numbers of Central American refugees in the United States include many whose sufferings have led to severe psychological problems. The article attempts to lay a foundation for assisting them by discussing the following: (1) origins of disorders; (2) culture shock and stress; (3) prevalence of symptoms; and (4) suggestions…

  6. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  7. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc

    2002-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a r

  8. The MEANING multilingual central repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atserias, J.; Villarejo, L.; Rigau, G.; Agirre, E.; Carroll, J.; Magnini, B.; Vossen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of the Multilingual Central Repository, a lexical knowledge base developed in the framework of the MEANING project. Currently the MCR integrates into the EuroWordNet framework five local wordnets (including four versions of the English WordNet from Princeton),

  9. Earth Works Central. [Educational Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kids for Saving Earth Worldwide, Minneapolis, MN.

    Earth Works Central is an educational curriculum tool designed to provide environmental education support for the classroom. It features environmental materials for science, geography, history, art, music, dramatics, and physical education. It includes information on creating an environmental center where kids can learn and become empowered to…

  10. Music Libraries: Centralization versus Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper-Rushing, Lois

    2002-01-01

    Considers the decision that branch libraries, music libraries in particular, have struggled with concerning a centralized location in the main library versus a decentralized collection. Reports on a study of the Association of Research Libraries that investigated the location of music libraries, motivation for the location, degrees offered,…

  11. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  12. 27 CFR 9.75 - Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Coast. 9.75... Central Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Central Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Central Coast...

  13. Inequality and megaprojects: The Panama Canal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Cuando el control y gestión del Canal de Panamá pasó al estado panameño a finales de 1999, el gobierno comenzó a preparar un plan para su modernización. Este plan incluía la construcción de nuevas esclusas para que pudieran atravesarlo un mayor número de barcos y que admitiese los nuevos buques Post-Panamax de gran tamaño. El proyecto de Ampliación del Canal se ha seleccionado como ejemplo paradigmático de grandes Obras Públicas (GOP) por su impacto ambiental, económico y social. Este caso de...

  14. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  16. Origins of Convective Activity Over Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    oscillations in the tropics. Using satellite cloud data and geopotential height, Yasunari (1980) found that intraseasonal variation of the Indian...day) fluctuation of outgoing longwave radiation and 250 mb streamfuncion during northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 941-961. Yasunari , T., 1980: A

  17. Ataque por animales acuáticos (tiburón y cocodrilo: A propósito de dos casos fatales en la provincia de Bocas del Toro (Panamá Attack for aquatic animals (shark and alligator: Report of two fatal cases in the Bocas del Toro province (Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mendieta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques por animales acuáticos, y especialmente los producidos por tiburón y cocodrilo, son muy poco frecuentes. Se han descrito ataques por tiburón en países como Australia, Sudáfrica, Brasil, Bahamas, México y Puerto Rico, algunos con resultado fatal en los últimos cinco años. En Panamá, los casos descritos de ataques por escualo son escasos, siendo el último descrito con resultado no fatal en julio de 2008 en una playa de la localidad de San Carlos mientras que el último caso fatal se remonta al año 1964. Los ataques por cocodrilo, al igual que en el caso anterior, son poco frecuentes. A nivel mundial la mayor parte de los casos descritos proceden de Australia, Angola, India, Brasil y Florida. En Panamá, el último caso fatal ocurrió en el Lago de Miraflores en mayo de 2007, pero el cadáver no fue encontrado. En este artículo se describen dos casos de depredación animal, por tiburón y cocodrilo, en la provincia de Bocas del Toro (Panamá con el objetivo de reconocer el patrón de las lesiones por mordedura y las áreas anatómicas vulnerables afectadas.Attacks for aquatic animals, especially those due to shark and alligator, are very unusual. Shark attacks have been reported in countries such as Australia, South Africa, Brazil, Bahamas, Mexico and Puerto Rico, some with fatal consequences in the last five years. In Panama, reported cases from shark attack are scarce, being the last one in the city of San Carlos, while the last fatal case was reported in the year 1964. Alligator attacks, as in the previous case, are very scarce. Worldwide, the major part of the described cases are from Australia, Angola, India, Brazil and Florida. In Panama, the last fatal case occurred in the Miraflores lake in May 2007; however, the corpse was never found. In this paper, we described two cases of animal predation, from shark and alligator, occurred in the Bocas del Toro province (Panama with the aim to recognize the pattern of bite

  18. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi; Hamid Zamani Moghadam Dolu; Elham Pishbin; Maryam Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central veno...

  19. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  20. Identifying the Distribution of Alteration Zone Using Very Low Frequency Method in Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Semarang, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfianto, A. D.; Sari, D. P.; Almas, S. A.; Kurniawan, W. S.; Ambariani, S. G.; Suyanto, I.

    2016-09-01

    The alteration zone could be a key link and a proof to know where the paleo heat source was previously located. An electromagnetic survey to identify and to map the lateral and vertical distribution of alteration zone had been done at geothermal area Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Central Java, from 9th - 19th of June 2014, using VLF method. The survey consisted of 6 profiles, with NW - SE direction, which were located nearby the fumaroles spots and then went down to the observed alteration zone. Each profile was 600 m long and the distance between each profile was 20 m. The space between each measurement point of a profile was 20 m. In this study, tilt and ellipticity data with frequency of 19.8 kHz (Japan) and 24 kHz (Panama) were used. First, the data was processed to get the cross features anomaly between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart. Then, the derivative fraser and the relative current density pseudosection were also made to support the cross features anomaly. The interpretation of this data was done qualitatively using fraser and relative current density pseudosection. The result shows that the alteration zone gives high response of conductivity compared to its surrounding area. This is supported by the anomaly cross features between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart, also by high value of fraser and relative current density. Thus, the alteration zone are located in meter 150 - 250 in V1 and V2 profiles, also in meter 180 - 250 in V5 and V6 profiles. This result indicates that the ancient heat source was previously located nearby the fumaroles area and it is physically shown by the presence of sulphuric clay mineral content at the alteration surface area.