Full Text Available The Narmada Valley Development Plan – which involvesthe construction of 30 large dams (including theSardar Sarovar dam, 135 medium and 3,000 smalldams in Western India – is set to displace millions.Compensation, resettlement and rehabilitationmechanisms are non-existent, inadequate and/or unjust.
The saga of the Sardar Sarovar dam at Gujarat in India is reported. A state-owned company, Sardar Sarovar Nirman Nigam (SSNNL), is responsible for the project. Construction work at the site first began in 1987 but ceased in 1995 after disputes with environmentalists about the scheme's ecological impact and other allegations led to an interim legal stay against the continuation of work. Environmental and other protests were led by the Save Narmada Movement (NBA). Work only recommenced in October 2000 after a ruling in the project's favour by the Indian Supreme Court, which allowed the dam's height to be increased to 90 m. This is also contentious, with the main initial opposition to the design height of 138.68 m coming from the neighbouring state of Madhya Pradesh. The question of water supplies and the issues raised by the dam's location in a seismic zone were two key areas of disagreement. However, the dam was not damaged by the Gujarat earthquake. A revised schedule has now been drawn up to achieve the design height by 2005, but the state governments of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are advised to take steps to smooth future progress.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel died 53 years ago. But still he is alive in social and Political Fields of India. It is but natural. It is the outcome of achievements which Sardar Patel acquired for the nation and the society. On one hand, he is considered to be a practical person like Mahatma Gandhi...... to accession, Law and order, exchange of population, and made arrangements for rehabilitation of crores of refugees. To make the Bureaucracy fully responsible Vallabhbhai raised two services-Indian Administrative and Indian Police Service. All these works of Sardar Patel were so great and unique that no person...
Full Text Available Sixty-three conodont species and subspecies from the Kal-e-Sardar section indicate that the strata span early to late Famennian. Contrary to most of the sections measured in the Shishtu Formation, the icriodid-polygnathid biofacies is restricted to the lower part of Kal-e-Sardar Famennian succession. Palmatolepid and bispathodid-dominated biofacies in the middle and upper part of section represent a deep shelf to mid-continental slope marine environment. The currently accepted ranges of P. tichonovitchi, P. tenellus and P. inconcinnus are early Famennian, late Frasnian-early Famennian, and early to middle Famennian, respectively, together with middle to late Famennian for P. nodoundatus. Two new species, Polygnathus sardarensis and P. yazdii, are proposed.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
can accomplish them in his one lifetime. However Vallabhbhai accomplished them. It is also true that a person like him is born once in thousands of years. This volume contains articles of renowned persons from India and some other Countries of the World like Manohar Joshi, Yogendra Narayan, Mehboob...
Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL
This paper argues that the semantic difficulties surrounding the term 'futures' and its many variants have significantly impacted this field's legitimacy in public policy circles, as viewed from the experiences of this author. Lacking legitimacy, it has been difficult to build the number of academic programs in the United States needed to improve the field's legitimacy, branding, and quality. In addition to issue of semantics, the field needs to improve its central messages while maintaining its core strengths; diversity of thought and commitment to future generations.
May 8, 2013 ... ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, ... The highest similarity occurred between DWR-Karnal versus .... diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)] and 1 ml sodium dodecyl sulfate ..... Nucleic acid res.
Fatima, Irum; Pathan, Zahid Hussain
The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University (SBKWU) and University of Balochistan (UOB), Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The…
Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie Tour 22135 Dr. Sardar K. Bahador 4 Place Jussieu Department Industrial Chemistry 75252 - Paris Cedex 05 Kyoto...SnO FILMS 2 J. BRUNEAUX H. CACHET, M. FROMENT and A. MESSAD LP 15 CNRS "Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie ", Universiti Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour
Sardar, Sujit Kumar; Mandal, Manasi; Majumder, Samit Kumar
The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. S.K Sardar and S.K. Majumder unified the idea of fuzzy translation and fuzzy multiplication of Vasantha Kandasamy to introduce the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in groups and semigroups. The purpose of this paper is to intuitionistically fuzzify(by using Atanassov's idea) the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in semigroups. Here among other results we obtain some ...
040753 虹鳉各种定量特性的近交衰退和杂种优势=Inbreed depression and heterosis in various quantitative traits of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata[刊,英]/Nakadate M,Shikano T,Taniguchi N//Aquac..- 2003,220(1/4)..-219～226 研究了近交和杂交对虹鳉各种定量性状的影响,研究近交和杂交对6个定量性状的影响:初孵体长,120日龄时的成活率, 120 d的个体变大比率,120 d的体长,盐
Sardar, Sujit Kumar; Majumder, Samit Kumar
The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. S.K Sardar and S.K. Majumder unified the idea of fuzzy translation and fuzzy multiplication of Vasantha Kandasamy to introduce the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in groups and semigroups. The purpose of this paper is to intuitionistically fuzzify(by using Atanassov's idea) the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in semigroups. Here among other results we obtain some characterization theorems of regular, intra-regular, left(right) regular semigroups in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy magnified translation.
Full Text Available Conodont data from acid-leaching 110 samples from two Late Devonian-Carboniferous areas in the Shotori Range (Tabas region of eastern Iran are presented. At Howz-e-Dorah, a section (88 samples commencing high in the Bahram Formation (Givetian-early Frasnian extended through the Shishtu Formation (Frasnian, Early hassi Zone or older, to latest Tournaisian, anchoralis-latus Zone and the Sardar Formation (earliest Visean, texanus Zone, to late Namurian, sinuatus-corrugatus-sulcatus Zone and into the Jamal Formation (Permian. Four less exhaustively sampled sections (22 samples show the Kale Sardar area to be tectonically more complicated than the Howz-e-Dorah area. Useful marker horizons in the Howz-e-Dorah section, well constrained by conodont data, are: the early Frasnian (no older than Early hassi Zone biostromal beds of the Shishtu Formation, an early Famennian (Late triangularis to Early crepida interval of oolitic limestone, a cyclothem sequence straddling the Early Carboniferous-Late Carboniferous boundary, and an Early Permian interval of siliceous sand ("the white quartzite" of previous authors. Additionally, several iron-rich horizons, readily traceable from locality to locality, are well constrained by conodont ages. Eighty-five conodont species/subspecies are documented representing 24 genera.. Two new species, Polygnathus capollocki and Polygnathus ratebi and one new subspecies, Icriodus alternatus mawsonae are described.
Afshin Hashmie; Ali Rostamnejad; Fariba Nikbakht; Mansour Ghorbanie; Peyman Rezaie; Hossien Gholamalian
This study is focused on sedimentary environments, facies distribution, and sequence stratigraphy. The facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Bahram Formation (middleelate Devonian) in south-central Iran are based on two measured stratigraphic sections in the southern Tabas block. The Bah-ram Formation overlies red sandstones Padeha Formation in sections Hutk and Sardar and is overlain by Carboniferous carbonate deposits of Hutk Formation paraconformably, with a thickness of 354 and 386 m respectively. Mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments are present in this succession. The field observations and laboratory studies were used to identify 14 micro/petrofacies, which can be grouped into 5 depositional environments: shore, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and shallow open marine. A mixed carbonate-detrital shallow shelf is suggested for the depositional environment of the Bahram Formation which deepens to the east (Sardar section) and thins in southern locations (Hutk section). Three 3rd-order cyclic siliciclastic and carbonate sequences in the Bahram Formation and one sequence shared with the overlying joint with Hutk Formation are identified, on the basis of shallowing upward patterns in the micro/pertofacies.
Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Akio Yamagishi,2 Manabu Suno,3 Susumu Nakade,4 Naoki Honda,4 Atsushi Kurosawa,2 Ami Sugawara,2 Yoshikazu Tasaki,5 Hiroshi Iwasaki2 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Asahikawa, Japan; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan; 3Department of Oncology Pharmaceutical Care and Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan; 4Pharmacokinetic Research Laboratories, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 5Department of Hospital Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan Purpose: We previously determined the pharmacokinetic (PK parameters of landiolol in healthy male volunteers and gynecological patients. In this study, we determined the PK parameters of landiolol in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Methods: Eight patients scheduled to undergo peripheral arterial surgery were enrolled in the study. After inducing anesthesia, landiolol hydrochloride was administered at target plasma concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ng/mL for 30 minutes each. A total of 112 data points of plasma concentration were collected from the patients and used for the population PK analysis. A population PK model was developed using a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling software program (NONMEM.Results: The patients had markedly decreased heart rates at 2 minutes after initiation of landiolol hydrochloride administration; however, systolic blood pressures were lower than the baseline values at only five time points. The concentration time course of landiolol was best described by a two-compartment model with lag time. The estimates of PK parameters were as follows: total body clearance, 30.7 mL/min/kg; distribution volume of the central compartment, 65.0 mL/kg; intercompartmental clearance, 48.3 mL/min/kg; distribution volume of the peripheral compartment, 54.4 mL/kg; and lag time, 0.633 minutes. The predictive performance of
Full Text Available Pengembangan Filsafat Ilmu-ilmu Keislaman dapat dilakukan dengan merumuskan kembali landasan ontologis, landasan epistemologis, dan landasan aksiologis ilmu yang bersumber dari kontribusi pemikiran Nasr, al-Attas, dan Sardar. Landasan ontologis tersebut menentukan wilayah objek kajian Ilmu-ilmu Keislaman, yang meliputi aspek-aspek metafisika dan empiris. Landasan epistemologis mengakomodir keragaman (pluralitas metodologis (berbagai prosedur atau cara mengkaji ilmu, sesuai dengan kebutuhan intelektual masyarakat Islam. Landasan aksiologis mengarahkan dan menuntun pemahaman ontologis dan epistemologis tersebut sesuai dengan nilai-nilaidasar Islam. Berdasarkan ketiga landasan tersebut, pengembangan Filsafat Ilmu-ilmu Keislaman dapat dilakukan secara terpadu (integratif, tidak hanya dengan menumbuhkan kesadaran historis untuk menggali khazanah kemajuan intelektual Islam masa lalu, tetapi sekaligus juga dengan merespon kemajuan-kemajuan metodologi masa kini yang relevan dengan nilai-nilai intelektual Islam yang kekal dan universal.Kata kunci: Pemikiran Islam Kontemporer; landasan filosofis; Filsafat Ilmu-ilmu Keislaman.
Mohammad Sadegh Shirinkam
Full Text Available Internet addiction is a result of penetration of internet technology to the modern world and has inundated a substantial proportion of human societies, so that many of mental professionals have considered it as amounting threatening issue of mental health. Many factors are suggested to be of capability of predicting internet addiction, include self-efficacy and self control, whose roles are evaluated in this study. This survey study was conducted on 395 female and male university students of SardarJangalUniversity, Rasht, Iran. Instruments comprised Internet Addiction Test , and Self-Control Scale (Tangney, 2004, which were administered by all participants. findings of regression analysis showed that self-control has significant negative relation with internet addiction (p<.05 and male students gained higher scores in internet addiction than females. Moreover, no significant difference was found among students of different university majors in internet addiction scores. It appears that self-control abilities can reduce the rate of internet addiction in university students. Therefore, future programs and plans of tri-layer prevention can focus on teaching for self-control among university students as well as school-ageed students and families to deliberately decrease internet addiction in various sectors of society.
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University (SBKWU and University of Balochistan (UOB, Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The quantitative data was obtained from the responses of 180 undergraduates in a questionnaire adapted from the study by Noor and Amir (2009 on vocabulary learning strategies proposed by Gu and Johnson (1996. The questionnaire comprised of 45 close-ended items on four broad vocabulary learning strategies, metacognitive regulation strategy, cognitive strategy, memory strategy, and activation strategy. Descriptive statistics was run in SPSS to obtain the results. The independent-samples t-test was run to test for statistically significant differences if any in the use of vocabulary learning strategies across the undergraduates of two universities. However, cognitive regulation strategy, and activation strategy emerged as the most influential source of learning new English words. The findings also revealed that there were no statistically significant differences found in practicing vocabulary learning strategies between undergraduates of SBKWU and UOB. The findings of the study have implications on enhancing teaching and learning by acquainting students with vocabulary learning strategies that can enhance their vocabulary in English language and can result to boost up their proficiency in this language. Keywords: Vocabulary development, learning strategies, gender difference
Spiegel-Roesing, I.; de Solla Price, D. (eds.)
Fifteen chapters (17 contributors from 9 disciplines and 6 different countries) look at the critical interdisciplinary questions that make up the spectrum of contemporary academic, policymaking, and social concern over scientific and technological development in today and tomorrow's world. The contents are: The Study of Science, Technology, and Society (SSTS): Recent Trends and Future Challenges, I. Spiegel-Rosing; Science Policy Studies and the Development of Science Policy, Jean-Jacques Salomon; Criticisms of Science, J. R. Ravetz; Sociology of the Scientific Research Community, M. J. Mulkay; Changing Perspectives in the Social History of Science, Roy MacLeod; Conditions of Technical Development, E. Layton; Economics of Research and Development, C. Freeman; Psychology of Science, R. Fisch; Models for the Development of Science, Gernot Bohme; Scientists, Technologists, and Political Power, Sanford A. Lakoff; Technology and Public Policy, D. Nelkin; Science, Technology, and Military Policy, Harvey M. Sapolsky; Science, Technology, and Foreign Policy, Brigette Schroeder-Gudehus; Science, Technology, and the International System, Eugene B. Skolnikoff; and Science Policy and Developing Countries, Ziauddin Sardar and Dawud G. Rosser-Owen. (MCW)
Bhoi, P.R.; Singh, R.N.; Sharma, A.M.; Patel, S.R. [Thermo Chemical Conversion Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India)
Sardar Patel renewable energy research institute (SPRERI) has designed and developed open core, throat-less, down draft gasifier and installed it at the institute. The gasifier was designed for loose agricultural residues like groundnut shells. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gasifier on multi-fuels such as babul wood (Prosopis juliflora), groundnut shell briquettes, groundnut shell, mixture of wood (Prosopis juliflora) and groundnut shell in the ratio of 1:1 and cashew nut shell. The gasifier performance was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption rate, calorific value of producer gas and gasification efficiency. Gasification efficiency of babul wood (Prosopis juliflora), groundnut shell briquettes, groundnut shell, mixture of Prosopis juliflora and groundnut shell in the ratio of 1:1 and cashew nut shell were 72%, 66%, 70%, 64%, 70%, respectively. Study revealed that babul wood (Prosopis juliflora), groundnut shell briquettes, groundnut shell, mixture of wood (Prosopis juliflora) and groundnut shell in the ratio of 1:1 and cashew nut shell were satisfactorily gasified in open core down draft gasifier. The study also showed that there was flow problem with groundnut shell. (author)
Zain, Muhammad; Rehman Khattak, Shakeel Ur; Sikandar, Huma; Shah, Shafqat Ali; Fayyaz
To evaluate success of pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular 1st molar by using 4% articaine in buccal infiltration versus 2% lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block. Randomized control trial. Department of Operative Dentistry, Sardar Begum Dental College, Gandhara University, Peshawar, from March to August 2014. One hundred and fifty-six emergency patients, who had 1st molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups by random allocation. One group received 4% articaine buccal infiltration and the other group received inferior alveolar nerve block of 2% lidocaine. Subjects’self-reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anaesthetic administration during access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. Mean age of subjects was 31.46 ±10.994 years. The success rate of 4% buccal infiltration was 76.9%; whereas the success rate of 2% lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block was 62.8%. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. 4% articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to 2% lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anaesthesia for endodontic therapy.
Full Text Available For over half a century Gandhi has been one of the favored characters of a number of films – Nine hours to Rama (1963 to Gandhi, My Father (2007. Gandhian ethos, life and teachings are frequently represented in varied ways in different films. The portrayal of Gandhi in different films can be grouped into two broad categories: i. revolving around his life, percept and practice as one category and ii. involving his ideas, ideals and views either explicitly or implicitly. The first category of the films include three broad films—Gandhi (1982, The Making of the Mahatma (1996 and Gandhi My Father (2007 and the other category of the films include Nine Hours to Rama (1963- English, Jinnah (1998- English, Sardar (1993, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (2000, Hey Ram (2000, Lage Raho Munnabhai, (2006 etc. Grounded in the theory of inter-textuality through moving image method, the present study is a comparative analysis of examining the portrayal of Gandhi among the first category of three films ---Gandhi (1982- English by Richard Attenborough, The Making of the Mahatma (1996 by Shyam Benegal and Gandhi, My Father (2007 by Feroz Abbas Khan with crisscross critiquing of the portrayal of Gandhi in the second category of films. Using Bingham’s (2010 discursive analysis on biopic films, the study seeks to show how Gandhi is perceived and depicted through the lenses of these three eminent directors vis-à-vis others from the point of intertextuality both ideologically and politically. Further the study would elaborate how different personal and social events in Gandhi’s life are weaved together by these directors to bring out the character of Bapu or Mahatma from Gandhi. For all the above critique, Gandhi’s autobiography-The Story of My Experiments with Truth-has been taken as a base referent
Full Text Available Since 2000 the Indian state of Gujarat has been working to construct a state-wide water grid to connect 75% of its approximately 60 million urban and rural residents to drinking water sourced from the controversial Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada River. This project represents a massive undertaking – it is billed as the largest drinking water project in the world – and is part of a broader predilection toward large, concrete-heavy supply-side solutions to water insecurity across present-day India. This paper tracks the claims and narratives used to promote the project, the political context in which it has emerged, the purposes it serves and, following Ferguson (1990, the functioning of the discursive-bureaucratic 'machine' of which it is a product. The dam’s reinvention as the solution to Gujarat’s drinking water shortfall – increasingly for cities and Special Industrial Regions – reflects a concern with attracting and retaining foreign investment through the creation of socalled 'world-class' infrastructure. At the same time, this reinvention has contributed to a project of nationbuilding, while remaining cloaked in a discourse of technological neutrality. The heavy infrastructure renders visible Gujarat’s commitment to 'development' even when that promise has yet to be realised for many, while the promise of Narmada water gives Gujarat’s leaders political capital with favoured investors and political supporters. In conclusion, I suggest that the success of infrastructure mega-projects as a political tool is not intrinsically tied to their ability to achieve their technical and social objectives. Instead, the 'spectacle' of ambitious infrastructural development projects may well yield political gains that outweigh, for a time, the realworld costs of their inequity and unsustainability.
Full Text Available Study area is located in district of Bajestan and Ferdows cities, NE of Iran. Structurally, this area is part of Lut block. The oldest exposed rocks, to the north of intrusive rocks and in Eastern Bajestan, are meta-chert, slate, quartzite, thin-bedded crystalline limestone and meta-argillite. The sedimentary units are: Sardar Formation (Carboniferous, Jamal Formation (Permian, Sorkh Shale and Shotori Formations (Triassic, carbonateous rocks (Cretaceous and lithostratigraphically equivalent to Kerman conglomerate (Cretaceous-Paleocene are exposed in this area. Based on relative age, magmatism in eastern Bajestan and Taherabad started after Late Cretaceous and it has been active and repeated during Tertiary time. At least, three episodes of volcanic activities are recognized in this area. The first stage was mainly volcanic flow with mafic composition and minor intermediate. The second episode was mainly intermediate in composition. The third stage was changed to acid-intermediate in composition. Since the plutonic rocks intruded the volcanic rocks, therefore they may be Oligo-Miocene age. Bajestan intrusive rocks are granite-granodiorite-quartz monzonite. Taherabad intrusive rocks are diorite-quartz diorite- monzonite-latite. Bajestan intrusive rocks are reduced type (ilmenite series and Taherabad intrusive rocks are oxidized type (magnetite series.Based on geochemical analysis including trace elements, REE and isotopic data, Bajestan intrusive rocks formed in continental collision zone and the magma has crustal origin. Taherabad intrusive rocks were formed in subduction zone and magma originated from oceanic crust. Taherabad intrusive rock has exploration potential for Cu-Au and pb.
Full Text Available Antonietta Buonauro, Trauma, cinema e media. Immaginari catastrofici e cultura visuale del nuovo millennio, Roma, Bulzoni, 2014, 190 pp. ISBN 978-88-7870-921-8 Barbara Greco y Laura Pache Caballo, eds., Sobrenatural, fantástico y metarreal. La perspectiva de América Latina, Madrid, Biblioteca Nueva, 2014, 334 pp. ISBN 978-84-16095-64-3 Chiara Bolognese, Piste di un naufragio. Cartografia di Roberto Bolaño, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 322 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-59-3 Cinzia Scarpino, US Waste. Rifiuti e sprechi d’America. Una storia dal basso, Milano, Il Saggiatore, 2011, 325 pp. ISBN 9788865760871 Cinzia Schiavini, Sulle strade d’America. L’autobiografia di viaggio statunitense contemporanea, Milano, Shake, 2011, pp. 238, ISBN 978-88-97109-06-8 Gibson John, Fiction and the Weave of Life, Oxford & NY, OUP, 2007, 201 pp. ISBN 9780199299522 Gloria Staffieri, L’opera italiana. Dalle origini alle riforme del secolo dei Lumi (1590-1790, Roma, Carocci, 2014, 447 pp. ISBN 978-88-430-7108-1 Horacio Quiroga, I perseguitati, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 64 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-63-0 Lee Edelman, No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive, Durham, Duke University Press, 2004, 208 pp. ISBN 978-0822333692 Marco Canani and Sara Sullam, eds., Parallaxes. Virginia Woolf Meets James Joyce, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014, 206 pp. ISBN 978-1-4438-5623-2 Miklos David, eds., Estática doméstica. Tres generaciones de cuentistas peruanos (1951-1981, México, UNAM, 2005, 353 pp. ISBN 970-32-2525-X Óscar de Borbolla, Le vocali maledette, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 78 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-43-2 Roald Dahl, The Hitch-Hiker, Impara l’inglese con Roald Dahl, note e glossario a cura di Marta Cai, Milano, Vallardi, 2014, 77 pp. ISBN 978-88-6731-451-5 Roberto Arlt, Un viaggio terribile, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 95 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-57-9 Ziauddin Sardar and Borin Van Loon, Introducing Cultural Studies, Cambridge, Icon Books, 1998, 175
Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even