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Sample records for sarcophaga flesh flies

  1. Interchromatin granule clusters in vitellogenic oocytes of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga sp.

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    Dmitry Bogolyubov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect oocyte nuclei contain different extrachromosomal nuclear bodies including Cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs. In the present study, we describe IGC equivalents in the vitellogenic oocytes of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga sp. These structures were found to consist of 20-40-nm granules and also include the fibrillar areas of high and low electron density. Immunogold labeling electron microscopy revealed IGC marker protein SC35, Sm proteins, and trimethylguanosine cap of small nuclear (sn RNAs in these bodies. Antibody against the non-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II selectively labeled the fibrillar areas of low electron density located inside the IGCs.

  2. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): A flesh fly species of medical importance.

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    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sanit, Sangob; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom

    2014-04-01

    Although tropical climate of Thailand is suitably endowed with biodiversity of insects, flies of medical importance is not well investigated. Using information from literature search, fly survey approach and specialist's experience, we review database of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), one of the priorities flesh fly species of medical importance in Thailand. This review deals with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important morphological characteristics of egg, larva, puparia and adult were highlighted with illustration and/or micrographs. Search pertaining to molecular analysis used for fly identification and developmental rate of larvae were included. Medical involvement of larvae was not only myiasis-producing agent in humans and animals, but associated with human death investigations. This information will enable us to accurate identify this species and to emphasis the increase medically important scene in Thailand.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA sequence-based phylogenetic relationship among flesh flies of the genus Sarcophaga (Sarcophagidae: Diptera)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neelam Bajpai; Raghav Ram Tewari

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among flesh flies of the family Sarcophagidae has been based mainly on the morphology of male genitalia. However, the male genitalic character-based relationships are far from satisfactory. Therefore, in the present study mitochondrial DNA has been used as marker to unravel genetic relatedness and to construct phylogeny among five sympatric species of the genus Sarcophaga. Two mitochondrial genes viz., cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NAD dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) were sequenced and genetic distance values were calculated on the basis of sequence differences in both the mitochondrial genes. The data revealed very few genetic difference among the five species for the COI and ND5 gene sequences.

  4. High temperature and hexane break pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, by activating ERK/MAPK.

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    Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Denlinger, David L

    2007-12-01

    Pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, can be terminated by exposure to high temperatures or, artificially, with a topical application of organic solvents. To analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in diapause termination we explored the possibility that the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in this response. Levels of phospho-ERK increased within 10 min after hexane application. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was also activated when pupae were transferred from 20 to 25 degrees C, thus suggesting that ERK activation is a likely component of the signal transduction pathway used to initiate development in response to diapause-terminating signals. 20-Hydroxyecdysone and cyclic GMP terminate diapause in this fly, and the juvenile hormone analog methoprene shortens the diapause, but none of these agents activated ERK. ERK was readily activated in isolated abdomens treated with hexane, thus we conclude that ERK is directly activated by the hexane treatment. ERK activation was evident in the brain, epidermis, midgut and fat body, but not in the ventral nerve mass or ring gland, thus suggesting that ERK does not act directly on the ring gland to promote ecdysteroid synthesis but exerts its effect through stimulation of the brain.

  5. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  6. Neuropeptide-like precursor 4 is uniquely expressed during pupal diapause in the flesh fly

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    Suppression subtractive hybridization comparing brains from diapausing and nondiapausing pupae of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, suggested that the gene encoding neuropeptide-like precursor 4 (Nplp4) was uniquely expressed during diapause. We have sequenced the full-length cDNA encoding Npl...

  7. Molecular phylogenetic profiling of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of flesh flies.

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    Gupta, A K; Rastogi, G; Nayduch, D; Sawant, S S; Bhonde, R R; Shouche, Y S

    2014-12-01

    Flesh flies of the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are carrion-breeding, necrophagous insects important in medical and veterinary entomology as potential transmitters of pathogens to humans and animals. Our aim was to analyse the diversity of gut-associated bacteria in wild-caught larvae and adult flesh flies using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from cultured isolates and clone libraries revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the guts of larval and adult flesh flies. Bacteria cultured from larval and adult flesh fly guts belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Budvicia, Citrobacter, Dermacoccus, Enterococcus, Ignatzschineria, Lysinibacillus, Myroides, Pasteurella, Proteus, Providencia and Staphylococcus. Phylogenetic analysis showed clone sequences of the genera Aeromonas, Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Citrobacter, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Ignatzschineria, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Propionibacterium, Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Sporosarcina, Weissella and Wohlfahrtiimonas. Species of clinically significant genera such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtiimonas spp. were detected in both larvae and adult flesh flies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries supported culture-based results and revealed the presence of additional bacterial taxa. This study determined the diversity of gut microbiota in flesh flies, which will bolster the ability to assess microbiological risk associated with the presence of these flies. The present data thereby establish a platform for a much larger study. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. DNA barcoding identifies all immature life stages of a forensically important flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

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    Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Carrion-breeding insects, such as flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), can be used as evidence in forensic investigations. Despite their considerable forensic potential, their use has been limited because morphological species identification, at any life stage, is very challenging. This study investigated whether DNA could be extracted and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequences obtained for molecular identification of each immature life stage of the forensically important Australian flesh fly, Sarcophaga (Sarcorohdendorfia) impatiens (Walker). Genomic DNA extracts were prepared from all larval instars and puparia. Amplification of the barcoding region was successful from all extracts, but puparia amplicons were weak. All sequences were identified as S. impatiens with 99.95% confidence using the Barcoding of Life Database (BOLD). Importantly, crop removal was necessary to eliminate PCR inhibition for specimens from late second and early third instars. Similar results are expected for immatures of other carrion-breeding species, enhancing the use of evidence from immature flies in forensic investigations.

  9. Multilocus and multiregional phylogeny reconstruction of the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera, Sarcophagidae).

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    Buenaventura, Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The flesh-fly genus Sarcophaga is extremely diverse and contains ca. 30% of the species in the family Sarcophagidae (∼3000 species). The phylogenetic position of the genus-group taxa Helicobia, Lipoptilocnema, and Peckia remains uncertain with respect to the hyperdiverse Sarcophaga, due to conflicting phylogenetic trees and insufficient sampling in recent studies. We present maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of 145 species of 48 subgenera of the genus Sarcophaga from all biogeographic regions based on the molecular markers COI, 28 D1-D3 expansion regions, EF1α, and white. Our analyses find (Lipoptilocnema+Peckia) as the sister group of the monophyletic Sarcophaga. The genus Helicobia is placed outside Sarcophaga. Our hypotheses suggest that the ancestor shared by Sarcophaga and its sister clade originated in the Neotropical region, and the subsequent range expansion might be related to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. This study supports the monophyly of most of the subgenera of Sarcophaga included here, and it shows the evolution of this genus to be a rapid radiation occurring in the Nearctic region with a subsequent dispersal into the Old World. The subgeneric clusters within Sarcophaga are in agreement with the current classification, with only Mauritiella, Rosellea, Helicophagella, Liosarcophaga, and Sarcorohdendorfia being non-monophyletic. We also validate the monotypic condition of 10 subgenera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does it pay to delay? Flesh flies show adaptive plasticity in reproductive timing.

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    Wessels, Frank J; Kristal, Ross; Netter, Fleta; Hatle, John D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2011-02-01

    Life-history plasticity is widespread among organisms. However, an important question is whether it is adaptive. Most models for plasticity in life-history timing predict that animals, once they have reached the minimal nutritional threshold under poor conditions, will accelerate development or time to reproduction. Adaptive delays in reproduction are not common, especially in short-lived species. Examples of adaptive reproductive delays exist in mammalian populations experiencing strong interspecific (e.g., predation) and intraspecific (e.g., infanticide) competition. But are there other environmental factors that may trigger an adaptive delay in reproductive timing? We show that the short-lived flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis will delay reproduction under nutrient-poor conditions, even though it has already met the minimal nutritional threshold for reproduction. We test whether this delay strategy is an adaptive response allowing the scavenger time to locate more resources by experimentally providing supplemental protein pulses (early, mid and late) throughout the reproductive delay period. Flies receiving additional protein produced more and larger eggs, demonstrating a benefit of the delay. In addition, by tracking the allocation of carbon from the pulses using stable isotopes, we show that flies receiving earlier pulses incorporated more carbon into eggs and somatic tissue than those given a later pulse. These results indicate that the reproductive delay in S. crassipalpis is consistent with adaptive post-threshold plasticity, a nutritionally linked reproductive strategy that has not been reported previously in an invertebrate species.

  11. Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Flesh Fly (Dip¬tera: Sarcophagidae in a Patient with Eye Malignancy in Iran

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    H Razmjou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of ophthalmomyiasis in a male patient with basal cell carcinoma. During the operation several live and motile maggots were removed from the lesion. Preliminary examination on the larvae confirmed their affiliation to the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae.This genus is widely distributed throughout the world and species are very difficult to identify. The authors made at¬tempt to approach species identification by rearing larvae to the adult flesh flies, but due to shortage of adult male specimen, reliable diagnosis in the level of species was not obtained. Possible interaction between ocular myiasis and malignancy concerning the case has not been addressed in this paper.

  12. Morphological and Molecular Evolution of Flesh Flies of Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana

    with species from all biogeographical regions, and pruning theso-called ‘rogue’ taxa, we were able to address obstacles such as weakly supported phylogeneticrelationships and low tree resolution within the mega-diverse genus Sarcophaga. With completerogue taxon removal, one of the three New World subgenera...... with currentlyavailable evidence of a New World origin and early diversification of Sarcophaga.Second, we aimed at resolving the phylogenetic relationships of the most species-rich guild ofcarrion flies among the Neotropical sarcophagids, the genus Peckia, encompassing 67 speciesdistributed in five subgenera. Based......A sizeable part of the large majority of animal life on Earth is the outcome of a fewevolutionary bursts of a certain lineage of insects: the episodic radiations of flies. Dipteransconstitute one of the most familiar groups of insects, since they are ubiquitous and of worldwidedistribution...

  13. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

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    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  14. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

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    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  15. Micromorphology of immature stages of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) cultellata Pandellé, 1896 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important fly.

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    Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; Paños, Ángela; García, María-Dolores; Presa, Juan-José; Torres, Belén; Arnaldos, María-Isabel

    2015-02-01

    The Sarcophagidae are one of the most numerous groups of Diptera in the world, consisting of many species of forensic interest, whose immature stages are useful in the estimation of postmortem interval. The immature stages of some species of forensic importance still remain unknown or undescribed, like in the case of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) cultellata Pandellé, 1986, a species restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, south of France and north of Italy, which shares a ecological niche with species of the same subgenus, e.g., Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart, 1839, making it necessary to lay the groundwork for a proper specific differentiation before it can be successfully applied in forensic practice. This study provides the first micromorphological description of all preimaginal stages of S. (L.) cultellata using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results of which allow the morphology of the main features to be followed during the immature life cycle. We propose a combination of features for distinguishing Liopygia from other sarcophagid subgenera, based on the current level of morphological knowledge of immature stages. S. (L.) cultellata can be differentiated from S. (L.) argyrostoma and S. (L.) crassipalpis in every immature stage by both light microscopy and SEM. The presence of tegumental warts and a fan-shaped anterior spiracle with a single row of 15-18 respiratory papillae allow distinguishing the third instar larvae of S. (L.) cultellata from other Sarcophaga species described hitherto by SEM. Identification keys based on light microscopy observations are provided, covering all the immature stages of Liopygia subgenus occurring in the Iberian Peninsula.

  16. Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Diptera:Sarcophagidae): a flesh fly species of medical importance.

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    Suwannayod, S; Sanit, S; Sukontason, K; Sukontason, K L

    2013-06-01

    Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis is a well-known flesh fly species of medical importance, both as a myiasis-producing agent and fly seen in a forensic entomology context. This study performed a comprehensive literature review of this fly species, dealing with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important characteristics used to identify P. ruficornis have been provided for both its third instar and adult for identification purpose in the future.

  17. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): micromorphology of preimaginal stages of a fly of medical and veterinary interest.

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    Paños-Nicolás, Ángela; Arnaldos, M Isabel; García, Ma Dolores; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2015-11-01

    Sarcophagids are a large family of Diptera, with a worldwide distribution. They are related to decomposing organic matter and are very interesting for health science and in forensic cases since many species produce myiasis and occur in human corpses. This family is considered difficult to study, particularly with regard to their immature stages, to which little attention has been paid. Genus Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826 is composed of species of very similar morphology, making very difficult to distinguish. Knowledge of the immature stages of this genus is important because such stages occupy the greater part of the life cycle, so that establishing a basis for their identification will increase their usefulness in systematic and applied sciences. This contribution presents a detailed study of the morphological features, both external and internal, of the preimaginal stages of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart, 1851, providing a taxonomical context for the correct identification of Liosarcophaga species of forensic interest in the Iberian Peninsula. Both light and scanning electron microscopy were applied. Complete descriptions of every stage are provided and illustrated, and their usefulness for species comparison, taking into account our uneven knowledge of morphologically immature stages of this subgenus, is indicated. Features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, such as the shape of the mouth hook and the intermediate and basal sclerites, and external morphology, such as the pattern of spinose band and anterior and posterior spiracles, proved useful for separating species. Finally, tentative identification keys based on light microscopy observation to distinguish S. (L.) tibialis from other species of forensic interest belonging to Liosarcophaga subgenus are proposed for every immature stage.

  18. A Beta-Amino Acid Pyrokinin Analog Induces Irregular Pupariation Behavior in Larvae of the Flesh Fly Sarcophaga bullata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    F., Beckwith W., Sandman C., Eds.), Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1997, 814, 67-72. [3] Nachman R.J., Zdarek J., Hayes T.K., Holman G.M., in: Neuropeptides...in Development and Aging, (Strand F., Beckwith W., Sandman C., Eds.), Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1997, 814, 73-9. [4] Nachman R.J., Strey A., Zubrzak P

  19. Characterisation of functional and insecticidal properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase from flesh fly (Sacrophaga peregrina) involved in differentiation of imaginal discs.

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    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Sacrophaga peregrina (flesh fly), which is involved in differentiation of imaginal discs. The protein has a potential insecticidal activity, since recombinant baculoviruses engineered to express ScathL have an enhanced ability to kill lepidoptera...

  20. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera under Laboratory Conditions

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    AH Shiravi

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study.  

  1. Morphological and Molecular Evolution of Flesh Flies of Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana

    A sizeable part of the large majority of animal life on Earth is the outcome of a fewevolutionary bursts of a certain lineage of insects: the episodic radiations of flies. Dipteransconstitute one of the most familiar groups of insects, since they are ubiquitous and of worldwidedistribution...... in Sarcophaginae are informative in resolvingphylogenetic relationships at various taxonomic levels. Despite the many interesting aspects in theevolution, biogeography, morphology, and biology of these flies, the evolutionary relationshipswithin this dipteran radiation are very poorly understood and the few...... to other regional faunas in the Afrotropical, Australasian, and Oriental regions.Hopefully, this thesis will inspire similar phylogenetic studies on other fly families, to betterunderstand Diptera radiations and how to troubleshoot challenging rapid evolutionary radiations.First and foremost...

  2. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

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    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  3. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene Atividades antibacterianas de Myroides odoratimimus isolada de moscas varejeiras adultas (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são independentes do gene metalo beta lactamase

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    M.S. Dharne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp. and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS. The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery.Moscas varejeiras (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são causa conhecida de miíase e as bactérias de seus intestinos nunca foram estudadas quanto à atividade antibacteriana. Estudos antimicrobianos de Myroides spp restringem-se à cepas hospitalares. Uma bactéria Gram negativa, Myroides sp, foi isolada do intestino de moscas varejeiras adultas (Sarcophaga sp e submetida

  4. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  5. Chemical constituents of guava fruit flesh volatiles and their effect on oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly%番石榴果肉挥发物化学组成及对桔小实蝇产卵行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯歌; 邱雪兰; 杜虎斌; 曾鑫年

    2012-01-01

    The chemical constituents of guava fruit flesh volatiles and their effect on oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) was studied. Guava fruit flesh volatiles were analyzed by GC - MS, and the differences of amount of responded oriental fruit fly adults and eggs laid by oriental fruit fly effected by guava fruit flesh volatiles and other lures. Result of chemical constituents analysis indicated that 18 kinds of components were detected. The highest content component was (Z) -3 -Hexen - 1 - ol acetate, followed by caryophyllene, and their relative contents were 40. 07% and 23. 55% respectively. The results of oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly tests showed that attractant effect of guava fruit flesh was significantly higher than that of sucrose, water control and blank control. But its attractant effect was lower than protein hydrolysate's. Guava fruit flesh and protein hydrolysate had the effect of attracting oriental fruit fly to lay eggs. The eggs laid by oriental fruit fly with guava fruit flesh and protein hydrolysate after 24 h were 6. 80 ±0.23 and 7.07 ±0. 16 egg/tube respectively, which were significantly higher than other treatments. The eggs laid by oriental fruit fly were increased with the increase of weight of guava fruit flesh which can produce volatiles. Maximum eggs were collected, when the weight of guava fruit flesh increased to 11 g. The amount of eggs laid by oriental fruit fly would tend to be unchanged while adding more guava fruit flesh.%本文研究了番石榴果肉挥发物化学组成及对桔小实蝇产卵行为的影响.通过气相色谱与质谱联用对番石榴果肉挥发物进行了分析,并比较了番石榴果肉挥发物和不同引诱物对桔小实蝇成虫诱集虫口数和产卵量的差异.化学组成分析结果表明,检出的番石榴果肉挥发物共18种化合物,含量最高的为乙酸叶醇酯,占40.07%,其次为石竹烯,占23.55%.桔小实蝇成虫产卵行为生

  6. Flesh as communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2012-01-01

    , action. A correlative bond lies in communication theory as the operational difference between ego and alter-ego. This article investigates the non-semiotic intertwinement of ‘flesh’ in art perception and theory based on communication theory in performance art (body art). The thesis is that ‘flesh...

  7. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

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    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus carcasses, and the experiments were conducted in areas of pasture and semideciduous forest. A total of 85,694 adult flesh flies belonging to 57 species were collected from all carcasses. New records for nine species of Sarcophaginae are provided, including the first record of Blaesoxipha (Acridiophaga caridei (Brèthes, 1906 to Brazil, and new occurrences of the following species for the Cerrado and/or for the state of Minas Gerais: Blaesoxipha (Acanthodotheca acridiophagoides (Lopes & Downs, 1951, Malacophagomyia filamenta (Dodge, 1964, Nephochaetopteryx orbitalis (Curran & Walley, 1934, Nephochaetopteryx cyaneiventris Lopes, 1936, Nephochaetopteryx pallidiventris Townsend, 1934, Oxysarcodexia occulta Lopes, 1946, Ravinia effrenata (Walker, 1861 and Sarcophaga (Neobellieria polistensis (Hall, 1933.

  8. Utility of COI, CAD and morphological data for resolving relationships within the genus Sarcophaga (sensu lato) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Wallman, James F; Pape, Thomas; Cameron, Stephen L; Dowton, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Currently there are ≈ 3000 known species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera), which are classified into 173 genera in three subfamilies. Almost 25% of sarcophagids belong to the genus Sarcophaga (sensu lato) however little is known about the validity of, and relationships between the ≈ 150 (or more) subgenera of Sarcophaga s.l. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the usefulness of three sources of data for resolving relationships between 35 species from 14 Sarcophaga s.l. subgenera: the mitochondrial COI barcode region, ≈ 800 bp of the nuclear gene CAD, and 110 morphological characters. Bayesian, maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) analyses were performed on the combined dataset. Much of the tree was only supported by the Bayesian and ML analyses, with the MP tree poorly resolved. The genus Sarcophaga s.l. was resolved as monophyletic in both the Bayesian and ML analyses and strong support was obtained at the species-level. Notably, the only subgenus consistently resolved as monophyletic was Liopygia. The monophyly of and relationships between the remaining Sarcophaga s.l. subgenera sampled remain questionable. We suggest that future phylogenetic studies on the genus Sarcophaga s.l. use combined datasets for analyses. We also advocate the use of additional data and a range of inference strategies to assist with resolving relationships within Sarcophaga s.l.

  9. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed...... in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish...

  10. Sarcophaga (Hoa)flexuosa Ho (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): association of sexes using morphological and molecular approaches, and a redefinition of Hoa Rohdendorf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ming; Pape, Thomas; Gu, Cai-Wei; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Sarcophaga flexuosa Ho, 1934 is the type species of the currently monotypic genus-group taxon Hoa Rohdendorf, 1937, which here is considered a subgenus of Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826. Using DNA sequences of mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b), we positively identify, for the first time, the female of S. (H.)flexuosa. The female is described, the male is redescribed, and both sexes are illustrated using a combination of line drawings, photographs and scanning electron microscopy images. It is argued from the morphology of the male terminalia that Sarcophagaflexuosa is the sister taxon of Sarcophaga basiseta Baranov, 1931, and the subgenus Hoa is redefined to include both of these species.

  11. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.

  12. Wound Myiasis Caused by Sarcophaga (Liopygia) Argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): Additional Evidences of the Morphological Identification Dilemma and Molecular Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangi, Marianna; Balotta, Antonio; Venturelli, Claudio; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    In Mediterranean countries, Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis, Sarcophaga (L.) argyrostoma, and Sarcophaga (L.) cultellata share the same ecological niche and can be responsible of myiasis. In this study, the main morphological characters of a larva found in a hospitalized woman were described and illustrated by light and SEM microscopy and the features discussed. Then, a fragment within the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI) gene of ~735 bp was amplified and sequenced. The molecular investigation was necessary to confirm the species Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (99% of identity). Our findings showed that morphological descriptions of larvae of three Mediterranean species of Liopygia available in several papers might not be clear enough to allow for comparison and correct identification. Until results of reliable comparative studies of larvae of all three species will be available, the use of molecular tools is crucial, to avoid misleading or incomplete identification, and in particular when a myiasis becomes a legal issue. PMID:28251174

  13. Memories in flesh and marble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livia, A

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY This piece is about writing and having children and the places they occupy in my life. It describes a sense of isolation, of being cut off from others like me and my efforts to recreate connections, in fiction and in flesh. I explain how I came to be the mother of twins and recount some of the battles fought with doctors, midwives and strangers, as well as between my lover and myself. Lesbian motherhood may no longer be an oxymoron, but it is an awkward, uneasy category open to endless, hostile questioning from outsiders. Better to write our own stories, around lived contradictions, than accept our inscription under erasure on doctors' forms and birth certificates.

  14. Extraction of fleshing oil from waste limed fleshings and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, K V; Abinandan, S; Vedaraman, N; Velappan, K C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was focused on extraction of fleshing oil from limed fleshings with different neutralization process by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) followed by solvent extraction. The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from limed fleshing oil by two stage process has also been investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to study the effect of process variables viz., amount of flesh, particle size and time of fleshing oil extraction. The maximum yield of fleshing oil from limed fleshings post neutralization by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was 26.32g and 12.43g obtained at 200g of flesh, with a particle size of 3.90mm in the time period of 2h. Gas chromatography analysis reveals that the biodiesel (FAME) obtained from limed fleshings is rich in oleic and palmitic acids with weight percentages 46.6 and 32.2 respectively. The resulting biodiesel was characterized for its physio-chemical properties of diesel as per international standards (EN14214).

  15. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-09

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  16. ‘Liberty’ Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar, ‘Liberty’ was jointly developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Clemson University, South Carolina Agriculture and Forestry Research System. This cultivar is a dry-fleshed type with attracti...

  17. Molecular Identification of Necrophagous Muscidae and Sarcophagidae Fly Species Collected in Korea by Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I Nucleotide Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of insect species is an important task in forensic entomology. For more convenient species identification, the nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene have been widely utilized. We analyzed full-length COI nucleotide sequences of 10 Muscidae and 6 Sarcophagidae fly species collected in Korea. After DNA extraction from collected flies, PCR amplification and automatic sequencing of the whole COI sequence were performed. Obtained sequences were analyzed for a phylogenetic tree and a distance matrix. Our data showed very low intraspecific sequence distances and species-level monophylies. However, sequence comparison with previously reported sequences revealed a few inconsistencies or paraphylies requiring further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report of COI nucleotide sequences from Hydrotaea occulta, Muscina angustifrons, Muscina pascuorum, Ophyra leucostoma, Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, Sarcophaga harpax, and Phaonia aureola.

  18. Carotenoids in white- and red-fleshed loquat fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Hua; Xu, Chang-Jie; Sun, Chong-De; Li, Xian; Chen, Kun-Song

    2007-09-19

    Fruits of 23 loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivars, of which 11 were white-fleshed and 12 red-fleshed, were analyzed for color, carotenoid content, and vitamin A values. Color differences between two loquat groups were observed in the peel as well as in the flesh. beta-Carotene and lutein were the major carotenoids in the peel, which accounted for about 60% of the total colored carotenoids in both red- and white-fleshed cultivars. beta-Cryptoxanthin and, in some red-fleshed cultivars, beta-carotene were the most abundant carotenoids in the flesh, and in total, they accounted for over half of the colored carotenoids. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, 9- cis-violaxanthin, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeta-carotene were also identified, while zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and lycopene were undetectable. Xanthophylls were highly esterified. On average, 1.3- and 10.8-fold higher levels of colored carotenoids were observed in the peel and flesh tissue of red-fleshed cultivars, respectively. The percentage of beta-carotene among colored carotenoids was higher in both the peel and the flesh of red-fleshed cultivars. Correlations between the levels of total colored carotenoids and the color indices were analyzed. The a* and the ratio of a*/ b* were positively correlated with the total content of colored carotenoids, while L*, b*, and H degrees correlated negatively. Vitamin A values, as retinol equivalents (RE), of loquat flesh were 0.49 and 8.77 microg/g DW (8.46 and 136.41 microg/100 g FW) on average for white- and red-fleshed cultivars, respectively. The RE values for the red-fleshed fruits were higher than fruits such as mango, red watermelon, papaya, and orange as reported in the literature, suggesting that loquat is an excellent source of provitamin A.

  19. Flesh, Foil, and Authenticity: Reflections on Johann AR Roduit’s “Flesh and Foil”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Johann AR Roduit’s poem, “Flesh and Foil,” raises a number of issues regarding enhancement, especially the need for principles to guide the process of human enhancement. The guidance that the poem seeks can be found in a combination of virtue ethics and authenticity.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of a Basement Membrane-Degrading Protease against Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease derived from the flesh fly Sarcophaga peregrina that functions in basement membrane (BM) remodeling during insect development. A recombinant baculovirus expressing ScathL (AcMLF9.ScathL) kills larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, signific...

  1. Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars .... 8, 9 and 10. Table 1. Ecological factors and study condition of location (Umudike) in Nigeria (2010 and ..... approaches to Human Nutritional. Deficiencies.

  2. A new red -fleshed kiwifruit cultivar ‘Chuhong’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhongyan; ZhongCaihong; BuFanwen

    2004-01-01

    ‘Chuhong’ is a red-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar selected from Actinidia chinensis var. rufopulpa grown in the wild.The fruit has beautiful red flesh color around the central core. It also has high soluble solids content and good taste. The plantsgrow well in both high and low altitude conditions, and are precocious and productive. The fruit matures in early September, and has reasonably good storage quality. There is a very positive response from customers according to preliminary marketing tests.

  3. Pemanfaatan limbah fleshing kulit kambing untuk pembuatan kompos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create method for managing the environmental pollution caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Compos production was carried out by using the cooked fleshing and uncooked fleshing with variation of fleshing 85,60,45, and 30 % respectively mixed with 13.8% of chaff, 0.2% of brand, and 1% of lime and the rest was soil to gain 100% of compound. Protein bio-city as much as 50 ml/kg was used as a starter and it was added after having diluted and fermented for 48 hours. The compound was filled in the 10 I of plastic bucket and cured by lid on it. Every two days they were agitated and sprayed with water regarding to keep the humidity to be constant. The C/N ratio of the compos was analyzed chemically. The compos had been nature for about one month, and they were characterized by the change of the natural color into dark brown with soil smell, and the volume decreased would be 30% of the initial volume. The mean C/N ratio of compos from cooked fleshing was 14 which varied between 12.46-15.50. That value has a smaller range compared with the compos from uncooked fleshing, the mean value of which was 11, with the variation of C/N ratio of that was bigger 7.07-16.24.

  4. Godzilla's Body: Reviving Memories through Collective Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dosen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy of the body, this paper explores the one of the most recognizable characters of Japanese pop culture – Godzilla. Born in specific historical conditions of the postwar Japan, Godzilla stands as a cinematic behemoth which has been countlessly (regenerated ever since, both domestically and internationally. In Godzilla narrative, Merleau-Ponty’s statement that „I am my Body“ can be extended to „we are other’s Body“ by transcending Japanese collective entity into its monstrous embodiment. Positioning Godzilla’s body as a site of remembrance, a walking monument, the memories of nuclear attack and fallen soldiers in South Seas battle become alive. Variety of those memories in flesh is followed by abundant Godzilla filmography which can be understood by Deleuze’s argument „that each multiplicity is already composed of heterogeneous terms in symbiosis, and that a multiplicity is continually transforming itself into a string of other multiplicities“. Godzilla’s identity shifts, from terrifying invading force meant to reflect on a national trauma, morphing to benevolent protector of Japan from foreign intruders, into a global phenomenon preying the western audience.

  5. Evaluating the quality of the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens, as host for the parasitoid Melittobia digitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Melittobia digitata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and its associations with its natural hosts in Veracruz, Mexico. The parasitoid was confirmed to be present and found to attack prepupae of Trypoxylon and Sceliphron (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae and Sphecidae, respectively mud daubers as well as pupae of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae. Since A. ludens is a very important pest of citrus and mango in Mexico and Central America, we evaluated, in laboratory experiments, the quality of A. ludens as host of M. digitata comparing the development of the parasitoid in another unrelated fly species (Sarcophaga [Neobellieria] bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and in mud dauber wasps (Trypoxylon sp. and Sceliphron sp.. The Mexican fruit fly appears to be a good-quality host for M. digitata, and the results are discussed in the context of their possible interest as a natural enemy of A. ludens.

  6. Pertumbuhan cacing tanah Eisenia fetida sp. Pada kompos limbah fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of earthworm as a source of income and a means for managing organic solid waste such as fleshing waste has been widely applied. The aim of this research was to find the optimum ratio between fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium of Eisenia fetida sp. This research was conducted by growing the E. fetida sp. earthworm in the medium containing fleshing waste mixed with cow dung. The ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung was varied at 0:100; 10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; and 50:50. In addition, 2 parts of chopped stubbles per part of every sample was added as a carbon source. The prepared media were fermented for three weeks with EM4 as a starter, followed by incubation of the earthworm for six weeks. The weight and the number of earthworm were evaluated every two weeks. The optimum growth of earthworm was achieved at the 2nd week of incubation with 185.48% and 121.10% increase of weight and number of earthworm, respectively, at 40:60 ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium.

  7. Pemanfaatan lemak fleshing tersulfonasi untuk peminyakan pada proses penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to produce sulfonated oil of fleshing grease and to use for fat liquoring process in leather tanning industries. Fleshing wastes were collected from Yogyakarta. The extract was obtained from fleshing waste by boiling at 100o C for 15 minute 400 – 450 g of extract contained 99.96% of fat were obtained from 5 kg of fleshing. The extract then was sulfonated to increase solubility in water and more reactive with the fiber of processed skin. The sulfonated extract was then analyzed to determine content, iodine value, acid value and saponification value. The result of analysis showed that fat/grease content 158.48. While fat content of goat skin fleshing was 30.27%, iodine value 92.30, acid value 23.74and saponification value 157.03. The quantity parameters are able to meet requirement for leather tanning. Sulfonated extract was then used for fat liquoring process of goat skin with the variation of concentration 4,5 and 6% respectively. Control was made by using 5% synthetic oil. The result of crust testing in this research showed that all of quality parameters meet the document of SNI 06-3536-1994 about goat/sheep crust leather.

  8. Flesh as Communication -- Body Art and Body Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the last pages of The Visible and the Invisible, Merleau-Ponty investigates “the bond between flesh and idea, and the internal armature which [it] manifests and which it conceals.” Flesh and idea are intertwined in that the body reflects on itself in the act of perception and, one could add, action. A correlative bond lies in communication theory as the operational difference between ego and alter-ego. This article investigates the non-semiotic intertwinement of ‘flesh’ in art perception and theory based on communication theory in performance art (body art. The thesis is that ‘flesh’ in performance art is presented as absolute presence, but flesh can only be perceived through a reflective bearing.

  9. How Muscle Structure and Composition Influence Meat and Flesh Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Listrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle consists of several tissues, such as muscle fibers and connective and adipose tissues. This review aims to describe the features of these various muscle components and their relationships with the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of meat/flesh from different livestock and fish species. Thus, the contractile and metabolic types, size and number of muscle fibers, the content, composition and distribution of the connective tissue, and the content and lipid composition of intramuscular fat play a role in the determination of meat/flesh appearance, color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and technological value. Interestingly, the biochemical and structural characteristics of muscle fibers, intramuscular connective tissue, and intramuscular fat appear to play independent role, which suggests that the properties of these various muscle components can be independently modulated by genetics or environmental factors to achieve production efficiency and improve meat/flesh quality.

  10. Penggunaan lemak fleshing industri penyamakan kulit untuk pembuatan sabun mandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ign. Sunaryo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experimentation the Use of Fat from Fleshing of Leather Tanning Industry to Produce Bath Soap was aimed to use the fat from fleshing to gain the alternative source of basic material for bath soap, to assist the industry to solve the environmental pollution and increasing the population income. The point to be gained after finishing this experiment was to find out the problem solving of environmental pollution problem caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Goat/sheep fleshing from one of leather tannings in Yogyakarta was collected and had been used as a source of fat. Fat from fleshing was produced by 3 kinds of heating those were coocked, “kukus”, and steam. The results of fat analysis showed that the average of saphonification value was 201.01; free faty acid value was 0.86%; acid value was 1.72 and the unsaphonification fat value was 1.44%. The variations of fat used for bath soap manufacture were 55%, 60%, 65%, 70% and 75%; whereas the variations of sodium hydrokside were 11, 14, 17. 20 and 23, each of which was in parts. The result of this experiment showed that the fat from fleshing could be a source of fat and could be used for bath soap manufacture. In such way, it could be as a pollultion problem solving to the industry. The result of bath soap analysis showed that almost all of the variations of fat and sodium hydrokside could meet the SNI 06-3532-1994 about bath soap. Economically point of view showed that the value of producing fat in various regions such as Jabotabek, West Java, Center Java, DIY and East would vary from Rp6,000,000,- to Rp.200,000,000,-; whereas the value of producing bath soap would vary from Rp 21,000,000,- - Rp 700,000,000,-

  11. Flying Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  12. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  13. A Modified Trap for Adult Sampling of Medically Important Flies (Insecta: Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Akbarzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran.Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010.Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap.Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult.

  14. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  15. INSULIN SIGNALING AND THE REGULATION OF INSECT DIAPAUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Cheolho eSim; Denlinger, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs), ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulat...

  16. Insulin signaling and the regulation of insect diapause

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Cheolho; Denlinger, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs), ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulat...

  17. Mechanisms of suspended animation are revealed by transcript profiling of diapause in the flesh fly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory J. Ragland; David L. Denlinger; Daniel A. Hahn

    2010-01-01

    .... We used transcriptional profiling to identify key groups of genes and pathways differentially regulated during pupal diapause, dynamically regulated across diapause development, and differentially...

  18. Analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae transcriptome and phylogenetic classification of the major detoxification gene families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Dermauw, W.; Rombauts, S.; Chrisargiris, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved.

  19. Imaging through flesh tissue using fs electronic holographic gating method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯比学; 陈国夫; 郝志琦; 丰善; 王淑岩; 王屹山; 王国志

    1999-01-01

    The experimental results of imaging through flesh tissue using fs electronic holographic gating method is reported. In the experiment, Ti: sapphire mode-locked laser is used as light source, of which the repetition rate is 100 MHz, central wavelength 800 mn, duration of pulse 20 fs, output power 80 mW. Tissue is a 7 mm thick chicken slice, and the imaged object is a metal wire with diameter of 0.5 mm. A general CCD is used to record holograms and a clear image of metal wire is obtained. Several relevant problems are discussed.

  20. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  1. Time flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke

    , the LS fly might be able to spend energy more generously on different tasks. Therefor, the capacity of LS and C lines to locate resources in a natural environment was tested. It turns out that LS flies are less likely to find food than C flies in such a setting, yet that as they age, their ability...... to locate food decreases slower than that of C lines. Gene expression of 10 candidate genes for longevity was quantified in two types of C and LS lines at three different ages. One of these genes, CG32638, indeed appears to be involved in life span determination in both males and females, regardless...... of mating status. Generalising studies on ageing in D. melanogaster can be cumbersome, especially in light of discrepancy between correlated responses between studies. To elucidate which mechanisms might be conserved due to evolutionary constraints, life span of 13 species of Drosophila was determined...

  2. A golden SNP in CmOr governs fruit flesh color of melon (cucumis melo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo) flesh color is genetically determined and can be white, light green or orange with B-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as t...

  3. Peter Wilcox: A new purple-skin, yellow flesh fresh market potato cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Wilcox is a new, medium-maturing, purple-skin, yellow-flesh potato cultivar for fresh market. Peter Wilcox also produces light-colored chips, although it is being released primarily as a fresh market potato because of its skin and flesh colors. Tubers of Peter Wilcox are attractive, smooth, wi...

  4. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    . This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art......Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction...

  5. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of beta-carotene bioaccessability and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honey dew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honey dew, are excellent sources of ß-carotene. Although ß-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precu...

  6. Carrion mimicry in a South African orchid: flowers attract a narrow subset of the fly assemblage on animal carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Hansen, Dennis M.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Although pollination of plants that attract flies by resembling their carrion brood and food sites has been reported in several angiosperm families, there has been very little work done on the level of specificity in carrion mimicry systems and the importance of plant cues in mediating such specialization. Specificity may be expected, as carrion-frequenting flies often exploit different niches, which has been interpreted as avoidance of interspecific competition. Interactions between the orchid Satyrium pumilum and a local assemblage of carrion flies were investigated, and the functional significance of floral traits, especially scent, tested. Pollination success and the incidence of pollinator-mediated self-pollination were measured and these were compared with values for orchids with sexual- and food-deceptive pollination systems. Methods and Key Results Observations of insect visitation to animal carcasses and to flowers showed that the local assemblage of carrion flies was dominated by blow flies (Calliphoridae), house flies (Muscidae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), but flowers of the orchid were pollinated exclusively by flesh flies, with a strong bias towards females that sometimes deposited live larvae on flowers. A trend towards similar partitioning of fly taxa was found in an experiment that tested the effect of large versus small carrion quantities on fly attraction. GC-MS analysis showed that floral scent is dominated by oligosulfides, 2-heptanone, p-cresol and indole, compounds that also dominate carrion scent. Flesh flies did not distinguish between floral and carrion scent in a choice experiment using olfactory cues only, which also showed that scent alone is responsible for fly attraction. Pollination success was relatively high (31·5 % of flowers), but tracking of stained pollinia also revealed that a relatively high percentage (46 %) of pollen deposited on stigmas originates from the same plant. Conclusions Satyrium pumilum

  7. COII ”long fragment” reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Aly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII in identification of forensically important flies. Material and methods: Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species ( Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps , C. rufifacies , C. megacephala , Lucilia sericata , L. cuprina ; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria , S. dux , S. albiceps , Wohlfahrtia nuba ; Muscidae: Musca domestica , M. autumnalis were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results : All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. Conclusions : The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  8. Flesh-Eating Disease: A Note on Necrotizing Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dele Davies

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been much media attention in the past few years to the condition dubbed 'flesh-eating disease', which refers, primarily, to a form of invasive group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS infection that leads to fascia and muscle necrosis. In 1999, the Canadian Paediatric Society issued a statement on the state of knowledge and management of children, and close contacts of persons with all-invasive GABHS disease (1. The present note is intended to deal specifically with necrotizing fasciitis (NF by providing an update on the limited current state of knowledge, diagnosis and management. Surveillance to establish actual national rates and epidemiology of NF through the Canadian Paediatric Society is proposed.

  9. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  11. Tissue- Specific Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in White- and Red-Fleshed Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan73, a teinturier (dyer grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73 or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in both varieties by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that the transcripts of GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3, UFGT, MYBA1, F3′5′H, F3H1 and LDOX were barely detectable in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg. In particular, GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3 and F3H1 showed approximately 50-fold downregulation in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg compared to the red flesh of Yan73. A correlation analysis between the accumulation of different types of anthocyanins and gene expression indicated that the cumulative expression of GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 was more closely associated with the acylated anthocyanins and the 3′5′-OH anthocyanins, while OMT and AM3 were more closely associated with the total anthocyanins and methoxylated anthocyanins. Therefore, the transcripts of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 explained most of the variation in the amount and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of Yan73. The data suggest that the specific localization of anthocyanins in the flesh tissue of Yan73 is most likely due to the tissue-specific expression of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 in the flesh.

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  13. Flying Fortress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    当欧洲的年轻人想到关于德国的两种熊,一个是传统的布娃娃熊,另一个就是充满欧洲街头墙上的Teddy熊涂鸦,而这个涂鸦熊的创作者就是著名的涂鸦艺术家“Flying Fortress”,他称这些熊军队为“Teddy Tmops”。

  14. Application of chemometrics to low-field H-1 NMR relaxation data of intact fish flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Pedersen, H.T.; Engelsen, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    and subsequently analysed for oil or water content by standard chemical methods. In a second experiment, 58 differently thawed cod (Gadus morhua) samples were measured by NMR and subsequently analysed for water-holding capacity. Correlations between chemical data and NMR data were evaluated using partial least...... squares (PLS) regression on complete relaxation curves and compared with conventional regression models on exponential fitting parameters. Predictions on an independent test set were superior for the PLS regression models, with optimal prediction errors of 12 g kg(-1), 6 g kg(-1) and 3.9% for oil...... and water content in fresh salmon flesh and water-holding capacity in thawed cod flesh respectively. Thus rapid, non-invasive low- field NMR can be used to simultaneously determine both oil and water content of fish flesh. Furthermore, it can predict water- holding capacity of cod flesh, with an R-2 of 0...

  15. Molecular genetics of blood-fleshed peach reveals activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by NAC transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Wang, Huiliang; Gu, Chao; Dare, Andrew P; Espley, Richard V; He, Huaping; Allan, Andrew C; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation is an important consumer trait in peach (Prunus persica). In this study, the genetic basis of the blood-flesh trait was investigated using the cultivar Dahongpao, which shows high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside in the mesocarp. Elevation of anthocyanin levels in the flesh was correlated with the expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, PpMYB10.1. However, PpMYB10.1 did not co-segregate with the blood-flesh trait. The blood-flesh trait was mapped to a 200-kb interval on peach linkage group (LG) 5. Within this interval, a gene encoding a NAC domain transcription factor (TF) was found to be highly up-regulated in blood-fleshed peaches when compared with non-red-fleshed peaches. This NAC TF, designated blood (BL), acts as a heterodimer with PpNAC1 which shows high levels of expression in fruit at late developmental stages. We show that the heterodimer of BL and PpNAC1 can activate the transcription of PpMYB10.1, resulting in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco. Furthermore, silencing the BL gene reduces anthocyanin pigmentation in blood-fleshed peaches. The transactivation activity of the BL-PpNAC1 heterodimer is repressed by a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like TF, PpSPL1. Low levels of PpMYB10.1 expression in fruit at early developmental stages is probably attributable to lower levels of expression of PpNAC1 plus the presence of high levels of repressors such as PpSPL1. We present a mechanism whereby BL is the key gene for the blood-flesh trait in peach via its activation of PpMYB10.1 in maturing fruit. Partner TFs such as basic helix-loop-helix proteins and NAC1 are required, as is the removal of transcriptional repressors.

  16. CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOID PIGMENTS IN THE PEEL AND FLESH OF COMMERCIAL APPLE FRUITS VARIETIES.

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2014-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) has always been considered a fruit with low chlorophyll and carotenoid contents; however these pigments contribute also to the external (peel) and internal (flesh) fruit colouration, as well as to the health benefits associated with the regular consumption of this fruit. In the present work we studied the chlorophyll and carotenoid composition of the peel and flesh of thirteen marketed apple varieties presenting different external colouration (gr...

  17. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  18. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  19. Unusual "flesh-eating" strains of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Hila; Samra, Zmira; Paul, Michal; Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitlik, Silvio; Bishara, Jihad

    2012-12-01

    Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis (type II) is typically caused by group A streptococcus alone or in combination with Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli has been isolated from polymicrobial or Fournier's gangrene but has rarely been reported in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of seven cases of monomicrobial E. coli necrotizing fasciitis and/or severe soft tissue infection diagnosed at a single institution during an 18-month period. Four isolates from three patients and two isolates from two patients with type I polymicrobial severe soft tissue infection (controls) were assayed by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for fingerprinting and PCR amplification of primers in order to detect cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2) genes. All patients had some type of immune suppression. The limb was the most commonly involved organ. In all cases, E. coli was isolated as a monomicrobial pathogen from blood, fascia, or both. All patients died during hospitalization, three within the first 48 h. The RAPD amplification assay showed a high degree of genetic diversity among the "flesh-eating" strains and controls. The cnf1 toxin gene was identified in two out of three cases, but not in the controls. cnf2 was not detected in any of the patients. E. coli may be responsible for life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis. Further research is needed to reveal relevant risk factors, reservoirs, and modes of transmission of cnf1 E. coli.

  20. Bacterial composting of animal fleshing generated from tannery industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, B; Sekaran, G

    2010-12-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) is the major proteinaceous solid waste generated during the manufacture of leather, which requires to be disposed of by environmentally sound manner. This study reports about the treatment of ANFL into an organic compost and its effects on physiological parameters of different crops in a laboratory study. The ANFL was hydrolysed using Selenomonas ruminantium HM000123 and then the hydrolysed ANFL was mixed with cow dung and leaf litter for producing composted organic fertilizer (COF). The COF was characterized for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), and total organic carbon (TOC). The composting resulted in a significant reduction in pH, TOC and C:N ratio and an increase in TKN after 49 days in a compost reactor. Scanning electron microscope and FT-IR were used to analyse the hydrolysis of intra structural ANFL matrix and changes in the functional groups, respectively, in initial and final day COF. Thermogravimetry (TG) analysis was carried out for the raw mixture and COF samples to identify the weight loss under the nitrogen environment. The relative seed germination was found to be 94% in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), 92% in green gram (Vigna radiata), 86% in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) and 84% in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using the extracts of COF. The results indicate that the combination of both hydrolysis and bacterial composting reduced the overall time required for composting and producing a nutrient-enriched compost product.

  1. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  2. Identification and antifungal activity of novel organic compounds found in cuticular and internal lipids of medically important flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Novel organic compounds found in the cuticular and internal lipids of medically important flies were identified. Uracil, 9-tricosene, 1-oleoyl glycerol, dimethyl suberate and butyl stearate were tested for their potential antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the compounds against reference strains of fungi were determined. Uracil and dimethyl suberate slightly inhibited the growth of entomopathogenic fungi. The cuticular and internal lipids of Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria, Sarcophaga carnaria and Musca domestica were studied by gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A comparison of the lipid extracts between the preimaginal and mature stages showed adults flies contained a higher total content of the identified components. Furthermore, their amounts distinctly predominated in the internal lipids of all the species. The amount of 9-tricosene was the highest in adults of C. vicina, while the larvae and pupae had a definitively lower amount of this compound. Uracil was found to be the most abundant component in extracts obtained from C. vomitoria especially in the internal lipids of adults. 1-oleoyl glycerol was detected in all of the examined species of flies. It was most abundant in the internal extracts isolated from the larvae of C. vicina and the pupae of C. vomitoria. Suberic acid dimethyl ester was found in the larval and pupal internal lipids of C. vicina and S. carnaria in low amounts. Butyl stearate was identified only in the internal lipids of the larvae and adults of houseflies.

  3. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  4. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  5. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  6. Genetic approaches for studying myiasis-causing flies: molecular markers and mitochondrial genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia

    2006-01-01

    "Myiasis-causing flies" is a generic term that includes species from numerous dipteran families, mainly Calliphoridae and Oestridae, of which blowflies, screwworm flies and botflies are among the most important. This group of flies is characterized by the ability of their larvae to develop in animal flesh. When the host is a live vertebrate, such parasitism by dipterous larvae is known as primary myiasis. Myiasis-causing flies can be classified as saprophagous (free-living species), facultative or obligate parasites. Many of these flies are of great medical and veterinary importance in Brazil because of their role as key livestock insect-pests and vectors of pathogens, in addition to being considered important legal evidence in forensic entomology. The characterization of myiasis-causing flies using molecular markers to study mtDNA (by RFLP) and nuclear DNA (by RAPD and microsatellite) has been used to identify the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for specific patterns of genetic variability. These approaches have been successfully used to analyze the population structures of the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax and the botfly Dermatobia hominis. In this review, various aspects of the organization, evolution and potential applications of the mitochondrial genome of myiasis-causing flies in Brazil, and the analysis of nuclear markers in genetic studies of populations, are discussed.

  7. A 'golden' SNP in CmOr governs the fruit flesh color of melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuri, Galil; Zhou, Xiangjun; Chayut, Noam; Yuan, Hui; Portnoy, Vitaly; Meir, Ayala; Sa'ar, Uzi; Baumkoler, Fabian; Mazourek, Michael; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Arthur A; Li, Li; Burger, Joseph; Katzir, Nurit; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2015-04-01

    The flesh color of Cucumis melo (melon) is genetically determined, and can be white, light green or orange, with β-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as the previously described gf locus in melon. CmOr was found to co-segregate with fruit flesh color, and presented two haplotypes (alleles) in a broad germplasm collection, one being associated with orange flesh and the second being associated with either white or green flesh. Allelic variation of CmOr does not affect its transcription or protein level. The variation also does not affect its plastid subcellular localization. Among the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between CmOr alleles in orange versus green/white-flesh fruit, a single SNP causes a change of an evolutionarily highly conserved arginine to histidine in the CmOr protein. Functional analysis of CmOr haplotypes in an Arabidopsis callus system confirmed the ability of the CmOr orange haplotype to induce β-carotene accumulation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CmOr green/white haplotype to change the CmOR arginine to histidine triggered β-carotene accumulation. The identification of the 'golden' SNP in CmOr, which is responsible for the non-orange and orange melon fruit phenotypes, provides new tools for studying the Or mechanism of action, and suggests genome editing of the Or gene for nutritional biofortification of crops.

  8. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  9. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. Conclusions/Significance A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are present from early

  10. An Iconography of the Flesh: How Corpses Mean As Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Shwartz

    2013-09-01

    the processes of decomposition, with the interventions of photography and embalming, with the cultural practices of disposal that ritually encounter and resolve this “remaining.” The corpse diversely and dynamically organizes the cultural, the representational, the biological, the subjective and the objective, the ritual and the metaphysical. I argue that lingering with the corpse as a dynamic assemblage allows for the development of a nuanced and materialistic notion of agency. I further suggest that this kind of reading provocatively develops Bill Brown’s question, “What might scholars accomplish through a materialist analysis of media?” Corpses are unique objects in that they already suggest themselves as figures of the material, thus literally embodying the question of what a materialist media studies might look like. Corpses communicate something to us about the flesh; they are the not-so-passive objects of technological, ritual and representational practices; they are the perfect starting point for a materialist communication and media studies.

  11. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  12. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  13. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November

  14. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November (win

  15. An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Samal, Ashok; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements. Method: The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of…

  16. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of β-carotene bioaccessibility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Matthew K; Lester, Gene E; Riedl, Ken M; Kopec, Rachel E; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2011-05-11

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honeydew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honeydew, are excellent sources of β-carotene. Although β-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, its bioaccessibility/bioavailability is unknown. We compared β-carotene concentrations from previously frozen orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe melons grown under the same glasshouse conditions, and from freshly harvested field-grown, orange-fleshed honeydew melon to determine β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability, concentrations of novel β-apocarotenals, and chromoplast structure of orange-fleshed honeydew melon. β-Carotene and β-apocarotenal concentrations were determined by HPLC and/or HPLC-MS, β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability was determined by in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake, and chromoplast structure was determined by electron microscopy. The average β-carotene concentrations (μg/g dry weight) for the orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 242.8 and 176.3 respectively. The average dry weights per gram of wet weight of orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 0.094 g and 0.071 g, respectively. The bioaccessibility of field-grown orange-fleshed honeydew melons was determined to be 3.2 ± 0.3%, bioavailability in Caco-2 cells was about 11%, and chromoplast structure from orange-fleshed honeydew melons was globular (as opposed to crystalline) in nature. We detected β-apo-8'-, β-apo-10', β-apo-12'-, and β-apo-14'-carotenals and β-apo-13-carotenone in orange-fleshed melons (at a level of 1-2% of total β-carotene). Orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit had higher amounts of β-carotene than cantaloupe. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability of β-carotene from orange-fleshed melons was comparable to that from carrot (Daucus carota).

  17. Is Higher Consumption of Animal Flesh Foods Associated with Better Iron Status among Adults in Developed Countries? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacklyn Jackson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency (ID is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem iron, however, it is unclear whether low animal flesh diets contribute to ID. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether a higher consumption of animal flesh foods is associated with better iron status in adults. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for published studies that included adults (≥18 years from developed countries and measured flesh intakes in relation to iron status indices. Eight experimental and 41 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies varied in population and study designs and results were conflicting. Of the seven high quality studies, five showed a positive association between animal flesh intake (85–300 g/day and iron status. However, the optimum quantity or frequency of flesh intake required to maintain or achieve a healthy iron status remains unclear. Results show a promising relationship between animal flesh intake and iron status, however, additional longitudinal and experimental studies are required to confirm this relationship and determine optimal intakes to reduce ID development.

  18. Tissue-Specific Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in White- and Red-Fleshed Grape Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sha; Song, Changzheng; Wang, Xingjie; Liu, Meiying; Zhang, Zhenwen; Xi, Zhumei

    2015-12-19

    Yan73, a teinturier (dyer) grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73) or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg) based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in both varieties by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that the transcripts of GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3, UFGT, MYBA1, F3'5'H, F3H1 and LDOX were barely detectable in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg. In particular, GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3 and F3H1 showed approximately 50-fold downregulation in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg compared to the red flesh of Yan73. A correlation analysis between the accumulation of different types of anthocyanins and gene expression indicated that the cumulative expression of GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 was more closely associated with the acylated anthocyanins and the 3'5'-OH anthocyanins, while OMT and AM3 were more closely associated with the total anthocyanins and methoxylated anthocyanins. Therefore, the transcripts of OMT, AM3, GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 explained most of the variation in the amount and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of Yan73. The data suggest that the specific localization of anthocyanins in the flesh tissue of Yan73 is most likely due to the tissue-specific expression of OMT, AM3, GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 in the flesh.

  19. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  20. A rapid cold-hardening process in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R E; Chen, C P; Denlinger, D L

    1987-12-04

    Traditionally studies of cold tolerance in insects have focused on seasonal adaptations related to overwintering that are observed after weeks or months of exposure to low temperature. In contrast, an extremely rapid cold-hardening response was observed in nonoverwintering stages that confers protection against injury due to cold shock at temperatures above the supercooling point. This response was observed in nondiapausing larvae and pharate adults of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, nondiapausing adults of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola, and the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. The rapid hardening response is correlated with the accumulation of glycerol.

  1. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  2. Discovery and comparative profiling of microRNAs in a sweet orange red-flesh mutant and its wild type

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Yuanlong; Zhu, Andan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Ye, Junli; Yu, Keqin; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2010-01-01

    .... Our previous researches on a spontaneous red-flesh mutant revealed that the trait is caused by lycopene accumulation and is regulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms...

  3. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  4. Lycopene fortification on the quality characteristics of beverage formulations developed from pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupuleti, Vijayanand; Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao

    2013-01-01

    Pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L) is an important tropical fruit widely cultivated in different parts of India. The fruit apart from its characteristic pink flesh color is a good source of ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and pectin. Pink color of guava pulp is attributed to the presence of carotenoid pigment lycopene. Incorporation of lycopene in the form of tomato puree to the guava pulp resulted in changes in the quality characteristics of the guava beverage formulations. Lycopene in guav...

  5. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  6. Kinetics of mass transfer during deep fat frying of yellow fleshed cassava root slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedeji, A. B.; Sobukola, O. P.; Henshaw, F. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, K. I.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of mass transfer [moisture content, oil uptake, total carotenoid (TC) and shrinkage] during frying of yellow fleshed cassava roots (TMS 01/1371) was investigated. Slices were divided into (i) fresh and (ii) pre-dried to 75 % moisture content before atmospheric frying and (iii) vacuum fried. Percentage TC and activation energies of vacuum, fresh and pre-dried fried samples were 76, 63 and 61 %; and 82, 469.7, 213.7 kJ/mol, respectively.

  7. Flesh color association with polymorphism of the tyrosinase gene in different Chinese chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Q; Chen, H; Sun, Z J; Liu, X L; Qiang-Ba, Y Z; Gu, Y L

    2010-01-01

    In order to study genetic variation of tyrosinase gene in four different flesh color chicken breeds selected from special districts including Guyuan, Wenchang, Tibetan and Hisex chicken, five loci of the TYR gene exon-1 and one locus of 5' flanking region were analyzed in PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. The results indicated that there were polymorphisms only at TYR1 and TYR3 locus. At TYR1 locus located in exon-1, there were three genotypes (TT, CC, TC), respectively, in three Chinese chicken breeds, and Genotype CC had not been detected in Hisex chicken. At TYR3 locus located in 5' flanking region, there were three genotypes (GG, AA and GA) in Chinese local chicken breeds and genotype AA had not been detected in Hisex chicken breed. It was concluded that there were many variations of TYR gene in Chinese local chicken breeds. DNA sequencing of PCR products for different genotypes showed that there were two mutation sites, respectively, C to T at TYR1 locus and G to A at TYR3 locus. Mutation at TYR1 locus did not cause any amino acid variation. The chi-square analysis revealed that there were significant statistical differences generally between flesh color and the two loci among four chicken populations (P chicken breeds. This study provided original information for elucidating the possible roles of exon-1 of TYR gene and 5' flanking region in chickens with different flesh color chicken.

  8. Assessment of pesticide residues in flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g(-1) for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  9. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  10. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  11. The Theory of Unified Relativity for a Biovielectroluminescence Phenomenon via Fly's Visual and Imaging System

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour, Philip B

    2007-01-01

    The elucidation upon fly's neuronal patterns as a link to computer graphics and memory cards I/O's, is investigated for the phenomenon by propounding a unified theory of Einstein's two known relativities. It is conclusive that flies could contribute a certain amount of neuromatrices indicating an imagery function of a visual-computational system into computer graphics and storage systems. The visual system involves the time aspect, whereas flies possess faster pulses compared to humans' visual ability due to the E-field state on an active fly's eye surface. This behaviour can be tested on a dissected fly specimen at its ommatidia. Electro-optical contacts and electrodes are wired through the flesh forming organic emitter layer to stimulate light emission, thereby to a computer circuit. The next step is applying a threshold voltage with secondary voltages to the circuit denoting an array of essential electrodes for bit switch. As a result, circuit's dormant pulses versus active pulses at the specimen's area ar...

  12. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  13. Establishment and characterization of a cell line derived from the embryos of Sarcophaga peregrina ( Diptera: Sarcophagidae)%一株棕尾别麻蝇胚胎细胞系的建立及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林华; 黄翠; 黎路林

    2011-01-01

    Dipteran cell lines are widely used for studies of genetics, molecular biology, developmental biology, the host-parasite relationship in insect-borne pathogenic microbes and insect antimicrobial peptides.A new cell line from Sarcophaga peregrina, designated as Sp-E-HNU11, has been established.The primary culture from minced embryos of S.peregrina was initiated on November 17, 2008, grown in Shields & Sang M3 insect cell medium at 28℃, and was split into two 26 days later.Since then, it has been subcultured for 72 passages.The cells, mainly round or spindle-shaped, adhere tightly to the flask.The population doubling time was 42 h.Most cells in metaphase observed were sub-diploid and contained ten or twelve chromosomes, which were short pole-like except two micro chromosomes.β-naphthyl esterase and aspartate aminotransferase isozymes of this cell lines displayed one and three bands, respectively, in sodium dedecyl suffate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.In random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis,the Sp-E-HNU11 cells had a banding pattern markedly different from the ones of Px-E-HNU12, IPLB-Sf-9 and Bm-21E -HNU5 cells.The establishment of the new cell line would provide an additional tool and vector for research in insect antimicrobiai peptides and related fields.%双翅目昆虫细胞系广泛应用于遗传学、发育生物学、分子生物学、人和动物体病原学以及昆虫抗微生物肽的研究.本研究建立了一株新的棕尾别麻蝇Sarcophaga peregrina胚胎细胞系.该细胞系的原代培养始于2008年11月17日,取材于棕尾别麻蝇晚期胚胎组织,在Shields & Sang M3昆虫培养基中于28℃恒温培养,在第26天进行第1次传代,至今已历时21个月,传代72次,生长状态稳定,被命名为Sp-E-HNU11.该细胞系的细胞形态主要呈梭形和近圆形,杂以少量巨型细胞,紧密贴壁生长.细胞群体倍增时间为42 h.染色体数目一般为10条或12条,为二倍体或亚二倍体细胞系;除一对

  14. Flying in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying all over the world is very challenging and demanding. Although ICAO is covering every specific detail by rules, there are some personal experiences which cannot be substituted. Some of them are point out in the article.

  15. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of the Extracts from Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) Flesh and Peel and the Effective Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanxue; Li, Hongfa; Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor activities of the water and ethanol extracts isolated from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) flesh (CYF) and peel (CYP) and the effective compounds. It was found that all peel portions have a better effect on reactive oxygen (ROS) scavenging assay than meat portions, especially for the water extract of Chinese yam peel (CYP-W). Its IC50 values for hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging assay (744.25 ± 3.46 μg/mL) and for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (374.85 ± 6.78 μg/mL) were both lower than that of yam flesh (CYF-W). Furthermore, the antitumor property of yam peel was more effective than that of yam flesh (CYF-W) on mouse models, with tumor inhibition rates were 47.92% and 27.41% for Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAC) model and 40.44% and 24.22% for H22 hepatocarcinoma tumor (H22) model. Meanwhile, extracts of peel showed higher allantoin, total flavonoids, and total phenolics contents than extracts of flesh. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CYP-W exerted better antitumor activity than flesh extracts and the scavenging ROS effects were also significantly higher in the CYP-W in vitro. Moreover, the data indicated that allantoin may play an important role on antioxidative and antitumor capacity in yam peel. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  17. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10 for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.

  18. Modeling the Disintegration Process in Anaerobic Digestion of Tannery Sludge and Fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Polizzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anaerobic digestion (AD is widely acknowledged as a powerful tool to v of the process and to support full-scale plant design, operation and optimization. In this work, a modified version of the IWA-ADM1 model is proposed to simulate the AD of tannery primary sludge (TPS and fleshing, with special emphasis on the disintegration formulation. Multiple batch tests were performed at different inoculum/substrate VS-mass ratio, in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the two substrates and to provide experimental data for modeling purposes. Beside the necessary adjustments of substrates' COD fractionation, the structure modifications of the model focused on the disintegration and hydrolysis. The Contois Monod-based model was adopted to describe disintegration kinetics and the results were compared to the traditionally adopted first-order kinetic. The fate of particulate matter generated from biomass lysis was also questioned and a new model variable was introduced to account for cellular lysis products. Finally, a further modification differentiated substrate particulate matter into a readily and a slowly hydrolysable fraction. Batch tests confirmed that TPS and fleshing are suitable substrates for AD, exhibiting specific methane productions of: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 0.47 ± 0.05 Nm3 Kg−1 VS, respectively. Modeling results showed that the proposed modifications were crucial for successful simulation of experimental data referring to fleshing, whereas did not have a significant effect on the results related to primary sludge degradation. This work is the first application of an IWA-ADM1-based model to AD of tannery waste.

  19. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10) for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagné, David; Carlisle, Charmaine M; Blond, Céline; Volz, Richard K; Whitworth, Claire J; Oraguzie, Nnadozie C; Crowhurst, Ross N; Allan, Andrew C; Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Gardiner, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG) 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species. PMID:17608951

  20. Seasonal variations in skin pigmentation and flesh quality of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.): implications for quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Eric; Dick, James R; Taylor, John F; Bell, J Gordon; Hunter, Dougie; Migaud, Herve

    2010-06-09

    The external coloration of fish is a key driver in consumer buying decisions and is typically altered during sexual maturation in salmonids. Farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) exhibiting distinct phenotypes from the typical silver and nuptial coloration were described in terms of sexual development, flesh quality, and skin pigment profiles. Reconditioning of skin coloration during storage was also tested (CIE[1976]L*a*b*) with the overall view to optimize quality management. The intermediary phenotype never reflected significant deteriorations of flesh quality. It originated from a lack of purine pigments (guanine and hypoxanthine), revealing the carotenoid compounds dominated by the yellow-orange beta-carotene. The resulting distinctive lightness and yellowness were reduced by direct ice contact at a post-mortem stage. Storage conditions can be optimized to improve and standardize the coloration of whole-fish, yielding superior flesh quality parameters. This would facilitate product quality grading during primary processing and also increase product acceptance and attractiveness.

  1. Protective Effect of White-fleshed Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) on Chronic Nicotine-induced Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Rim

    2017-01-01

    Background Nicotine is a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and has been recognized as a risk factor to induce oxidative tissue damage, which is a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, lung-related diseases, and cancers. Peaches (Prunus persica) have been used for the treatment of degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of white-fleshed peach on the excretion of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in smokers and chronic nicotine-induced tissue damages in mice. Methods The concentrations of cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene were measured in urine of smokers before or after intake of white-fleshed peaches. In addition, ICR mice were injected with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight) and then orally administered with white-fleshed peach extracts (WFPE) (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) for 36 days. The oxidative stress parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Also, histological changes and nitrotyrosine expression were assessed. Results Intake of white-fleshed peaches increased the urinary concentration of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in 91.67% and 83.33% of smokers, respectively. WFPE decreased the malondialdehyde levels and recovered the activities of antioxidant enzymes in nicotine-injected mice. In addition, WFPE inhibited nitrotyrosine expression and inflammatory responses in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of nicotine-treated mice. Conclusions White-fleshed peaches may increase the metabolism of toxic components in tobacco smoke in smokers and protect normal tissues against nicotine toxicity in mice. Therefore, supplementation of white-fleshed peaches might be beneficial to smokers.

  2. Flesh & Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roduit, Johann A R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This poem reflects on the possibility of human enhancement. It shows that if enhancements are embraced step-by-step, without any long-term vision, one might get lost along the way.

  3. A novel hydrolytic product from flesh of Mactra veneriformis and its bioactivities in calcium supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Rui; Wu, Hao

    2012-09-01

    To prepare calcium-binding peptides, the flesh residue of Mactra Veneriformis was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. By comparing the capability of combining calcium of the hydrolyzates, pepsin was confirmed to be the most suitable enzyme for hydrolyzing the flesh residue to release calcium-binding peptides among the seven tested proteases. The pepsin hydrolyzate (PHM) was divided into three fractions according to the molecule weight of its composition, which ranged from 0.5 to 15 kDa. The low-molecule-weight fraction named PHM-3 had the highest capability in combining calcium. The peptides existing in the PHM-3 fraction consisted of higher contents of Glu, Ala and Leu, and could produce one type of calcium-peptide complex by powerfully chelating calcium ions. PHM-3 products could effectively increase calcium absorption and retention while they decreased the calcium excretion in animal tests. Additionally, symptoms caused by low calcium bioavailability in ovariectomized rats, such as bone mineral density reduction and mechanical strength loss could be significantly ameliorated by the hydrolytic products addition in diet.

  4. Enhanced production of Aspergillus tamarii lipase for recovery of fat from tannery fleshings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dayanandan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various oil cakes has been investigated for high level production of lipase using Aspergillus tamarii MTCC 5152. By solid state fermentation in wheat bran containing 2.5% w/w gingili oil cake at 70% v/w moisture content the fungus produced a maximal yield of lipase (758 ± 3.61 u/g after 5 days of incubation using 2% v/w inoculum containing 10(6 spores/mL. Wheat bran and gingili oil cake with supplementation of gingili oil (1.0% w/w, glucose (0.5% w/w and peptone (0.5% w/w gives an increased enzyme production of 793 ± 6.56 u/g. The enzyme shows maximum activity at pH 7.0, temperature 50 °C and was stable between the pH 5.0-8.0 and temperature up to 60 °C. Crude lipase (3% applied to tannery fleshing shows 92% fat solubility. The results demonstrate that fat obtained from tannery fleshing, a by-product of the leather industry has a high potential for biodiesel production and the proteinaceous residue obtained can be used as animal feed.

  5. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  6. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed.

  7. A Novel Hydrolytic Product from Flesh of Mactra veneriformis and Its Bioactivities in Calcium Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingchong; CHEN Shiyong; LIU Rui; WU Hao

    2012-01-01

    To prepare calcium-binding peptides,the flesh residue of Mactra Veneriformis was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis.By comparing the capability of combining calcium of the hydrolyzates,pepsin was confirmed to be the most suitable enzyme for hydrolyzing the flesh residue to release calcium-binding peptides among the seven tested proteases.The pepsin hydrolyzate(PHM)was divided into three fractions according to the molecule weight of its composition,which ranged from 0.5 to 15 kDa.The low-molecule-weight fraction named PHM-3 had the highest capability in combining calcium.The peptides existing in the PHM-3fraction consisted of higher contents of Glu,Ala and Leu,and could produce one type of calcium-peptide complex by powerfully chelating calcium ions.PHM-3 products could effectively increase calcium absorption and retention while they decreased the calcium excretion in animal tests.Additionally,symptoms caused by low calcium bioavailability in ovariectomized rats,such as bone mineral density reduction and mechanical strength loss could be significantly ameliorated by the hydrolytic products addition in diet.

  8. Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.. The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne. The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C* showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.

  9. Influence of weather conditions on fly abundance and its implications for transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in the North Island of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Schnitzler, F-R; Pfeiffer, D U; Davies, P

    2005-09-01

    Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are potential vectors of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in New Zealand. The associations between habitat and weather factors on the abundance of these flies were investigated. Between October 1999 and June 2001, flies were trapped on open pasture and in dense vegetation patches on farmland in the Himatangi area of the North Island. Five calliphorid species were trapped commonly at scrub edges and the most abundant sarcophagid, Oxysarcodexia varia Walker, was trapped mainly on open pasture. An abundance peak of O. varia was probably associated with the occurrence of a rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) outbreak in the study area. Overall abundance of flies varied according to habitat and species, and species numbers differed between seasons and years. The all-day minimum temperature 3 weeks before trapping was a significant variable in all models of fly abundance, whereas average rainfall did not affect fly abundance. The all-day temperature range was significant only for O. varia. The influence of other climatic factors varied between fly species. Climate dependent variations in fly abundance may contribute to the risk of transmission of RHD, which occurred intermittently on the site during the study period.

  10. ANALYSIS OF FLYING BIKE

    OpenAIRE

    Momin Irfan Ali Nasir Husain *1, Shah mohd. Rafique rahmatullah *2, Naumanulhaq Barkatullah Shaikh *3, Khatib Mohd. Azimuddin Najimuddin *4, Ansari Mohammad Naasir Shamsudduha *5, Ansari Mohammad Parvez Abdul Qayyum*6, Momin Mohammad Rayyan Mohammad Shakeel*7, Ansari Peer Mohammed Munna *8, Prof. Mohd. Musharraf Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Flying Bike vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) type machine which also follows Newton’s third law. It is thought of as a conventional type of aircraft with special features added to enable it to rise vertically during take-off and to land from a vertical descent.  It flies with two propellers located at front and back side. These propellers are having hovering abilities. The vehicle is controlled by tilting the propellers by using lever mechanism. Rotation is carried out by diffe...

  11. Agent based simulation on the process of human flesh search-From perspective of knowledge and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hou; Hu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Human flesh search as a new net crowed behavior, on the one hand can help us to find some special information, on the other hand may lead to privacy leaking and offending human right. In order to study the mechanism of human flesh search, this paper proposes a simulation model based on agent-based model and complex networks. The computational experiments show some useful results. Discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio are highly correlated, and most of net citizens will take part in the human flesh search or will not take part in the human flesh search. Knowledge quantity does not influence involved personal ratio, but influences whether HFS can find out the target human. When the knowledge concentrates on hub nodes, the discovered information quantity is either perfect or almost zero. Emotion of net citizens influences both discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio. Concretely, when net citizens are calm to face the search topic, it will be hardly to find out the target; But when net citizens are agitated, the target will be found out easily.

  12. Kite-Flying Fun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s kite capital welcomes flying enthusiasts from across the world to its annual carnival Tens of thousands of kite enthusiast from all over the world gathered under the growing swarm of brightly colored kites. Some of the floating and billowing forms had been fashioned into

  13. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  14. Zwischen Kunst und Trash Paul Morrissey's Warhol-Trilogie FLESH/TRASH/HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wintersteiger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Von den einen als Avantgarde, im Sinne der Warhol'schen (Film-Kunst, von den anderen als Sexploitation oder Kommerzfilm gesehen, lassen sich anhand der von Andy Warhol produzierten Trilogie FLESH, TRASH und HEAT Spannungen zwischen den Polen 'Kunst' und 'Trash' des Phänomens Kultfilm ausmachen. Neben einem kurzen Versuch einer Definition des Kultfilms und der Spannungen zwischen Trash und Underground, unternimmt es der folgende Beitrag, unter Rekurs auf Begrifflichkeiten wie Camp und Sexploitation und TheoretikerInnen wie Susan Sontag, Pierre Bourdieu oder Steven Shaviro, die drei Filme zum einen auf ihre spezielle Ästhetik und ihren gesellschaftlichen und poetischen Inhalt hin analysieren, zum anderen sollen sie in den Kontext ihrer Entstehungszeit gestellt werden. Abschließend soll im Rahmen einer zusammenführenden Betrachtung der Filme und ihres (theoretischen Zusammenspiels versucht werden, das Konzept des Kultfilms eigens zu reflektieren.

  15. Cutting the Flesh: Surgery, Autopsy and Cannibalism in the Belgian Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Sokhieng

    2017-04-01

    Within the colonial setting of the Belgian Congo, the process of cutting the body, whether living or dead, lent itself to conflation with cannibalism and other fantastic consumption stories by both Congolese and Belgian observers. In part this was due to the instability of the meaning of the human body and the human corpse in the colonial setting. This essay maps out different views of the cadaver and personhood through medical technologies of opening the body in the Belgian Congo. The attempt to impose a specific reading of the human body on the Congolese populations through anatomy and related Western medical disciplines was unsuccessful. Ultimately, practices such as surgery and autopsy were reinterpreted and reshaped in the colonial context, as were the definitions of social and medical death. By examining the conflicts that arose around medical technologies of cutting human flesh, this essay traces multiple parallel narratives on acceptable use and representation of the human body (Congolese or Belgian) beyond its medical assignation.

  16. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of knife stab wounds on fleshed and clothed ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferllini, Roxana

    2012-05-01

    Stab wounds upon bone are analyzed to interpret the weapon used and the physical context in which the attack occurred. The literature demonstrates that most research conducted pertaining to wound patterns has been carried out on defleshed and unclothed bone samples, not adequately replicating actual circumstances. For this research, six half pig torsos (Sus scrofa), fleshed (including muscle, fat, epidermis, and dermis layers) and clothed, were stabbed using three knife types, applying both straight and downward thrusts. Analysis conducted macroscopically and through a scanning electron microscope with an environmental secondary electron detector revealed a general lack of consistency in wound pattern and associated secondary effects. Consequently, it was not possible to establish wound pattern per knife type as suggested in previous research or relate it to stab motion. Advantage of microscopic analysis was evident in recognizing wound traits and observation of trace evidence not visible macroscopically.

  17. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Sample treatment platform using nanoparticles to determine salinomycin in flesh and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihyun; Lim, H B

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we developed a sensitive and selective analytical method of determining salinomycin in flesh and meat using a lab-built laser induced fluorescence microscope (LIFM) with nanoparticles. Two types of nanoparticles, Cy5 doped core-shell silica nanoparticles as a probe and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to extract the target antibiotic from the treated sample, were synthesized and modified for chemical and enzymatic binding. After optimization, the newly developed method was applied to ham, chicken, and meat samples for the quantitative determination of salinomycin. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained from the calibration curve were 48-590 pg/mL, which was about 100-fold lower than that of the ELISA method.

  19. An opinion paper: emphasis on white muscle development and growth to improve farmed fish flesh quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J

    2011-06-01

    Due to rapid depletion of wild stocks, the necessity to cultivate fish is eminent. Current fish farming practices seek to improve flesh quality. The notion that white muscles are the main target of the fishing industry is emphasized. A novel approach is suggested based on the development of white muscles in wild fish from eggs to adults. A compilation of facts about white muscle structure, function and ontogeny is followed by an account of the changes in swimming behaviour and performance related to the use of white muscle during growth from larva to adult. Ecological data narrate early swimming performance with white muscle development and growth, unveiling some of the important natural selection factors eliminating weak swimmers and poor growers from the breeding stock. A comparison between fish culture practise and natural conditions reveals fundamental differences. New approaches following wild breeding processes promise several important advantages regarding the quality of white muscle.

  20. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. MdHB1 down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white-fleshed apple cultivar 'Granny Smith'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghua; Liu, Cuihua; Yan, Dan; Wen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yanli; Wang, Haojie; Dai, Jieyu; Zhang, Yujie; Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Ren, Xiaolin

    2017-02-01

    Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple). Moreover, flowers of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC89') overexpressing MdHB1 showed a remarkable reduction in pigmentation. Transient promoter activation assays and yeast one-hybrid results indicated that MdHB1 indirectly inhibited expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation determined that MdHB1 acted as a homodimer and could interact with MYB, bHLH, and WD40 in the cytoplasm, consistent with its cytoplasmic localization by green fluorescent protein fluorescence observations. Together, these results suggest that MdHB1 constrains MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, and MdTTG1 to the cytoplasm, and then represses the transcription of MdDFR and MdUFGT indirectly. When MdHB1 is silenced, these TFs are released to activate the expression of MdDFR and MdUFGT and also anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in red flesh in 'Granny Smith'. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 μg mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 μg mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals.

  3. Armazenamento de melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada Storage of 'Orange Flesh' mellons minimally processed and packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento desses em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na conservação do melão tipo Orange Flesh minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM Passiva- Controle, AM Ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM Ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2, armazenados em câmara fria (6 ± 1 ºC e UR 85 ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, firmeza, pectina total (PT, pectina solúvel (PS, e as enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável (ATT, firmeza e pectina total com relação á atmosfera modificada passiva. No entanto, menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Não foram detectadas atividades das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase nos tratamentos analisados.The increase of the demand for products minimally processed brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, considering the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of those products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of such technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere on the quality and conservation of the 'Orange Flesh' melons processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing, were wrapped under

  4. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  5. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Keun Jin; Yeong-Jung Kim; Jae Hong Park; In-Chul Hur; Sang-Hae Nam; Daekeun Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combina...

  6. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  7. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Flesh Firmness in Loquat Germplasm Resources%枇杷种质资源果肉硬度影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽煌; 林旗华; 陈志峰; 魏秀清; 张立杰; 张小艳; 郑少泉

    2011-01-01

    对国家果树种质福州枇杷圃内枇杷种质资源的果肉硬度与果肉化渣程度、果肉质地、果实汁液、单果重、果肉厚度、可溶性固形物含量、果皮厚度、果面茸毛密度、果面茸毛长度、来源地、果肉颜色和果皮颜色等14个性状的关系进行分析.结果表明,枇杷种质果肉硬度与果肉化渣程度、果肉质地、果实汁液、果面茸毛密度、果肉颜色关系较密切,果肉不化渣、果肉质地致密、果肉汁液少、果面茸毛稀疏、果肉黄色和橙黄色和果实成熟期较早的枇杷种质果肉硬度较高.枇杷种质果肉硬度与单果重、果肉厚度、果皮厚度、来源地、可溶性同形物含量、果面茸毛长度、果皮颜色未见明显的内在联系.%In order to investigate the influencing factors on flesh firmness of loquat germplasm resources , the flesh dregs degree, flesh texture, flesh juice, fruit weight, flesh thickness, total soluble solids of juice, peel thickness, density of floss on fruit surface, length of floss on fruit surface, origin region, flesh color, peel color and flesh firmness of loquat germplasm resources in Loquat Resource Nurseries of Fuzhou National Fruit Gene-pool were studied and analyzed.The results indicated that the flesh dregs degree, flesh texture, flesh juice, flesh color and density of floss on fruit surface and fruit maturity stage had great influence on flesh firmness, and the flesh firmness of loquat germplasm resources with dreggy flesh dregs degree, tight flesh texture, few flesh juice, yellow and orange yellow flesh color, sparse density of floss on fruit surface and early fruit maturity stage were relatively higher.The fruit weight, flesh thickness, pericarp thickness, origin region, total soluble solids of juice, length of floss on fruit surface and peel color had no significant internal relations with the flesh firmness.

  8. Nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (Actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Zhao, Jinmei; You, Yilin; Lei, Yushan; Gao, Guitian; Zhan, Jicheng

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of China domestic kiwifruit and imported kiwifruit with different prices and the relationships of retail price among cultivars, nutritional qualities and flesh color were investigated. Results showed that cultivar was the main factor influencing nutritional quality, though the product region could also affect the cultivar characteristics to some extent. Additionally, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit had no relationship to the product region. What's more, there was no correlation among the nutrient compositions, antioxidant capacity and retail price of kiwifruit. At the same time, the flesh color was associated with greater commercial value but was not higher nutritional quality or antioxidant capacity. Thus indicates to consumers that imported kiwifruit were not all superior to local versions, and the priciest kiwifruit did not equal to the most nutritious kiwifruit, also the color kiwifruit. There still need more research to help consumers to choose kiwifruit.

  9. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  10. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  11. Vision in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  12. Sweet Rice Wine Brewed with Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯酿制甜米酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤瑾; 李金生

    2009-01-01

    紫心甘薯含有大量的花青素,有一定的保健作用.以紫心甘薯为原料与糯米混合糖化发酵酿制的紫薯甜米酒,色泽深红透亮,口味鲜甜,酒香浓郁,该种深红色米酒为米酒类产品增添了新品种,同时为紫心甘薯的综合利用提供了新途径.%Purple-fleshed sweet potato contains plenty of anthocyanin,which promotes health in a certain way.The purple sweet potato rice wine is brewed from the fermented mixture of saccharified purple-fleshed sweet potato and glutinous rice.As the wine has a crystal carmine color,a fresh taste and fragrant odor,the burgundy-colored rice wine has added a new variety to the rice wine family,which provides a new way for the comprehensive use of purple-fleshed sweet potato.

  13. Physico-chemical and structural changes of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Nur Adilla; Ding, Phebe; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2011-01-30

    Determination of physico-chemical (weight, length, diameter, stomatal density, respiration rate, colour, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, chlorophyll and betacyanin content) and structural changes of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose) was carried out from 5 to 35 days after pollination (DAP) in order to explain their growth, development, maturations and ripening stages. Fruit growth of red-fleshed dragon fruit followed a sigmoid growth pattern. Significant changes in colour were obtained in both peel and pulp as DAP progressed, which were indicated by reductions of L*, C* and h° values as both changed from green to red-violet colour at ripening. Red-violet betacyanin was manifested earlier in pulp at 25 DAP, followed by peel 4-5 days later, and finally both peel and pulp turned full red-violet by 30 DAP. There was a significant increase in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity with the continuous increase in betacyanin content as DAP progressed. The physico-chemical and betacyanin accumulation of red-fleshed dragon fruit changed as it developed, matured and ripened which coincided with structural changes. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Spectroscopy of the visible and near infrared to evaluate soluble solids and flesh firmness in peach according to harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Leitzke Betemps

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish calibration models to assess soluble solids contents and flesh firmness in a non destructive way in peaches from ‘Chimarrita’, ’Maciel’, ‘Eldorado’ and ‘Jubileu’ varieties, watching the harvest season effect on these models. Thereunto, in the first year of execution it was used the spectrophotometer Nir-Case (SACMI in order to determine the calibrations equations for each cultivar from the non destructive and destructive evaluations. After that the performance of these models were evaluated through the procedure of validation with the remark of the results of determination coefficient (R2 and standard error of the predicted values (SEP. In the second year of experiment, using the same equipment and methodology, harvest dates along the peach maturation period were stipulated and calibrations models were developed for each cultivar studied. According to the results it can be concluded that the proposed models for evaluation of quality of fruit were satisfactory and the same result was not observed in the flesh firmness in the first year. In the second year it was observed that the statistics parameters values relative to the validation of the established models change along different periods during harvest seasons. However, the R2 and SEP values were considered acceptable to estimate the content of soluble solids in all cultivars. The parameter of flesh firmness was only satisfactory for the cultivars Eldorado and Jubileu.

  15. Pulsed-electric-field-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Cregenzán, Oliver; Luengo, Elisa; Alvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2013-02-15

    The influence of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on the anthocyanin extraction yield (AEY) from purple-fleshed potato (PFP) at different extraction times (60-480 min) and temperatures (10-40°C) using water and ethanol (48% and 96%) as solvents has been investigated. Response surface methodology was used to determine optimal PEF treatment and optimise anthocyanin extraction. A PEF treatment of 3.4 kV/cm and 105 μs (35 pulses of 3 μs) resulted in the highest cell disintegration index (Z(p)=1) at the lowest specific energy requirements (8.92 kJ/kg). This PEF treatment increased the AEY, the effect being higher at lower extraction temperature with water as solvent. After 480 min at 40°C, the AEY obtained for the untreated sample using 96% ethanol as the solvent (63.9 mg/100 g fw) was similar to that obtained in the PEF-treated sample using water (65.8 mg/100 g fw). Therefore, PEF was possible with water, a more environmental-friendly solvent than ethanol, without decreasing the AEY from PFP.

  16. Theology in the flesh – a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing that is based on an interdisciplinary exploration of the corporeal turn from a southern African perspective. The work of James B. Nelson is acknowledged, stating that body theology starts with the concrete, the bodily expressions of life and not with doctrines about God and humanity. The theological anthropology of David H. Kelsey is evaluated as a theological anthropology with a sentiment of the flesh. Based on clearings in the work of David Kelsey and an interdisciplinary research, the author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing which functions within the intricate and complex connection of the living body, language and experiencing in a concrete lifeworld with an openness to the ‘more than’. The author considers the use of bodymapping within narrative therapy as a way in which to uncover the intimate and intricate connection between the living body, experience and language, and implementing insights from theological anthropology as embodied sensing.

  17. Confessions of the flesh and biopedagogies: discursive constructions of obesity on Nip/Tuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rail, G; Lafrance, M

    2009-12-01

    Informed by the work of Michel Foucault, the authors discuss the Nip/Tuck episode entitled "Momma Boone" and how it discursively constructs "obesity". They show how this popular media text can be understood as a crystallisation of the dominant discourse surrounding fat bodies. In the process, how the episode can be seen as a "biopedagogy" that instructs its viewers in how to think and feel about the fat body is examined. Foucault's formulation of the confessional is seen to be useful to theorise the ways in which biopedagogy leads subjects to believe and ultimately take part in processes leading to salvation. It is argued that in this Nip/Tuck episode, biopedagogy functions in and through Momma Boone's "confessions of the flesh", that is, confessions aimed at revealing her obese body so that it can be rescued, rehabilitated and saved. Momma Boone's salvation is shown to require three stages: first, the "confession" of obesity; second, the conversion to the "truth" of the "dominant obesity discourse"; and third, the codification of a "new life" for the obese subject. In the end, it is argued that since it is represented as abject, monstrous and out of control, Momma Boone's body is made to inspire fear and panic in so far as it provides constructed "evidence" regarding the consequences of the obese subject's failure to convert to the truth of obesity discourse.

  18. [Visualization of the chilling storage time for turbot flesh based on hyperspectral imaging technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Le; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Shao, Yong-Ni; He, Yong

    2014-07-01

    This study proposed a new method using visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging for the detection and visualization of the chilling storage time for turbot flesh rapid and nondestructively. A total of 160 fish samples with 8 different storage days were collected for hyperspectral image scanning, and mean spectra were extracted from the region of interest (ROD inside each image. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied as calibration method to correlate the spectral data and storage time for the 120 samples in calibration set. Then the PLSR model was used to predict the storage time for the 40 prediction samples, which achieved accurate results with determination coefficient (R2) of 0.966 2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.679 9 d. Finally, the storage time of each pixel in the hyperspectral images for all prediction samples was predicted and displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the aid of an IDL program. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging technique combined with chemometrics and image processing allows the determination and visualization of the chilling storage time for fish, displaying fish freshness status and distribution vividly and laying a foundation for the automatic processing of aquatic products.

  19. Characterization of a novel purified polysaccharide from the flesh of Cipangopaludina chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingying; Xiong, Qingping; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Xia; Yu, Chunhao; Wu, Jie; Yi, Jing; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Xu, Ying; Cui, Hao

    2016-01-20

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the characterization of a novel polysaccharide from the flesh of Cipangopaludina chinensis, named CCPSn. The results found CCPSn was a white powder, readily soluble in hot water and slightly soluble in water. CCPSn was a homopolysaccharide composed of D-glucose (D-Glc) with molecular weight of 91.1 kDa. Based on analysis of UV-visible, FT-IR, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation, GM-MS and NMR, the structure of CCPSn was elucidated as follows: the backbone was composed of (1 → 3) linked α-D-Glc. The branches, consisting of a single (1 → 3) linked α-D-Glc units and terminal α-D-Glc-4-O-SO3(-), were attached to the main chain at C-4 positions. The degree of branching was calculated to be about 16.73%. The C-1 of terminal α-D-Glc-4-O-SO3(-) was linked to O-3 of (1 → 3) linked α-D-Glc in the branches. In addition, the results indicated CCPSn was a sulfated polysaccharide with the sulfate radical content of 9.12%.

  20. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  1. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.quote>

  2. Refractive Index of Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index reported previously for the rhabdomeres of flies (1.349) has been corrected for waveguide effects. The presented correction method has yielded n1 = 1.365 ± 0.006. It is argued that an acceptable estimate for the refractive index of the inhomogeneous surroundings of fly

  3. In vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Mark L; Thakkar, Sagar K; Kim, Jung Y

    2009-11-25

    Substitution of white with orange fleshed varieties of sweet potatoes (OFSP) was recently shown to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in children in Africa. However, the relationship between beta-carotene (BC) content of different cultivars of OFSP and its bioavailability is unknown. Here, we used the three phase (oral, gastric and small intestinal) in vitro digestion procedure to examine the bioaccessibility of BC from eight cultivars of boiled OFSP. All-trans BC (all-E-BC) was the only isomer of BC detected in raw roots for cultivars of OFSP with amounts ranging from 112 to 281 microg/g. Boiling OFSP decreased all-E-BC content by 11% with conversion to 13-cis BC (13-Z-BC). The efficiency of BC micellarization during simulated digestion of boiled OFSP was only 0.6-3%. Addition of soybean oil (2% vol/wt) to boiled OFSP prior to in vitro digestion more than doubled partitioning of all-E-BC in the micelle fraction for all cultivars. The relatively poor bioaccessibility of all-E-BC was not a limitation of the in vitro model as micellarization was proportional to amount of OFSP digested from 0.5 to 3.0 g and minimally altered by increasing bile salt content during small intestinal digestion. Moreover, micellarization of all-E-BC from boiled fresh OFSP and commercially processed OFSP was significantly less than from carrots processed identically. These results indicate the need for further efforts to elucidate the basis for relatively poor bioaccessibility of BC from OFSP.

  4. Efeito do retardamento da colheita, na qualidade e na vida útil do melão Orange Flesh Effect of the harvest delay on the quality and post-harvest shelf-life of Orange Flesh melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vinícius de S. Mendonça

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do retardamento da colheita na qualidade e na vida útil dos frutos do meloeiro foi avaliado. Os frutos, tipo Honey Dew Orange Flesh, foram colhidos no dia adotado pelos produtores como maturidade comercial, um, dois, três e quatro dias após e, foram armazenados a 7 ± 1ºC e UR de 90 ± 5%. O experimento foi conduzido obedecendo delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com cinco repetições, cinco tempos de retardamento (0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 dias após o adotado para a colheita e cinco tempos de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após a colheita. Foram avaliado a aparência externa e interna, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de sólidos solúveis e incidência de rachadura no pedúnculo. Foi observada perda gradativa de firmeza da polpa para todos os retardamentos durante o armazenamento. Ao final do experimento os frutos ainda apresentavam aparência própria à comercialização. O conteúdo de sólidos solúveis ficou entre 9 e 12% e a incidência de rachaduras foi menor para os frutos colhidos aos 59; 60 e 61 dias após o plantio.The effect of harvesting delay on quality and postharvest shelf-life of Honey Dew Orange Flesh melons was examined. Fruits were harvested at the stage of commercial maturity and, one, two, three and four days after this period. Fruits were kept at 7 ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity. A 5 x 5 factorial scheme in a completely randomized design with five replications was used, with five harvesting dates (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 days after the stage of commercial harvest and five storage periods (0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days. During this period we evaluated the external and internal appearances, flesh firmness, soluble solid content and crack incidence of the peduncle. There occurred reduction of the flesh firmness for all harvest delaying dates. Fruits presented appropriate marketing appearance until the end of the experiment. The soluble solids content varied from 9 to 12%, and the cracking

  5. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  6. Element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Australia: biotic and geographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffree, R A; Markich, S J; Twining, J R

    2001-02-01

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U, and Ti were determined in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) captured in three adjacent catchments of Kakadu National Park, within the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia. This study provides, for the first-time, baseline concentrations of elements in both flesh and osteoderms of wild crocodiles. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the effects of total crocodile length, estimated age, gender, inferred reproductive status, physical condition, and catchment of capture on element concentrations in both tissues. The Mg concentration (log10) in the flesh and osteoderms of C. porosus significantly (p 0.05) effects of gender or inferred reproductive status on element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms were found. The mean concentrations (log10) of Al, Ba, Cr, Ni, and Pb in flesh and Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, and U in the osteoderms were significantly (p crocodiles. They also point to the utility of crocodiles as long-term biomonitors of their environment.

  7. Diapause hormone in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea: Optimum temperature for activity, structure-activity relationships, and efficacy in accelerating flesh fly pupariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapause hormone (DH) effectively terminated pupal diapause in Helicoverpa zea. This effect was temperature-dependent, with an optimum of 21 degrees C. The dose-response curve indicated an ED50 of DH for diapause termination of approximately 100 pmol. The core sequence and essential amino acids w...

  8. Regulating irrigation during pre-harvest to avoid the incidence of translucent flesh disorder and gamboge disorder of mangosteen fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Chiarawipa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In humid tropical areas, excess water during pre-harvest usually causes the occurrence of translucent flesh disorder (TFD and gamboge disorder (GD in mangosteen. To evaluate options for avoiding these incidences, an experiment was conducted with different water management regimes during pre-harvest. Twelve 14-year-old trees were grown under transparent plastic cover with three irrigation regimes: 1 Control (rainfed condition, 2 7-d interval watering, 3 4-d interval watering and 4 daily watering. A further four trees were arranged as the control (rainfed treatment, but these were grown without the plastic roof cover. The treatments were started at 9 weeks after bloom. The results showed that diurnal changes of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were lowest in the control, because intermittent drying occurred during the study period. The highest fruit diameter, fruit weight, flesh firmness and flesh and rind water contents were found in the daily watering treatment. However, all of these values were lowest in the control trees. The amount of TFD was also lowest in the control (3.7%, and it was significantly different from the treatment where trees were watered at 4-d intervals (18.0% and where trees were watered daily (28.9%. There was no significant difference of TFD between the control and the 7-d interval watering treatments. In contrast, GD was not significantly different among the treatments. It is suggested that the risk of TFD and GD incidence could be avoided by maintaining mild soil water deficit around -70 kPa during pre-harvest.

  9. Participatory selection of orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties in north and north-east Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Dibi Konan Evrard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato is cultivated in all the regions of Côte d’Ivoire for consumption and as a source of income. Only varieties with white or yellow flesh are grown. Production of nutritious orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP is hampered by the lack of genetic resources and planting material. To evaluate and release OFSP varieties, on-farm demonstration tests were conducted with women farmer groups in Bondoukou, Nassian, Korhogo and Bondiali in the north and northeast Côte d’Ivoire. Six varieties- ‘Kabode’, ‘Kakamega7’ (‘Irene’, ‘Tacha’, ‘Bela Bela’, ‘Vita’ and TIB-440060-were evaluated in comparison with locally grown varieties. The on-farm demonstration was laid out in a randomised complete block design with replicated three times per location. Assessments were made on yield, disease and pests; and consumer preference on attractiveness of skin color and flesh of the root (fresh and boiled, taste, texture and starchiness. Results showed that introduced varieties have generally recorded higher yields than the local varieties: Yields of about 25 t/ha have been recorded on the sites. The best average yield of about 15 t/ha, was recorded for TIB-440060 and ‘Irene’ varieties. Farmers’ acceptance of OFSP varieties based on the attraction of their color, the dry matter content and taste was more than 90%. At the end of the sensory tests, ‘Irene’, which achieved the best compromise between all observed and measured parameters, was most appreciated and was the farmers’ first choice, followed by varieties TIB-440060 and ‘Bela bela’.

  10. Expression Differences of Pigment Structural Genes and Transcription Factors Explain Flesh Coloration in Three Contrasting Kiwifruit Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa generally have green or yellow flesh when ripe. A small number of genotypes have red flesh but this coloration is usually restricted to the inner pericarp. Three kiwifruit cultivars having red (‘Hongyang’, or yellow (‘Jinnong-2’, or green (‘Hayward’ flesh were investigated for their color characteristics and pigment contents during development and ripening. The results show the yellow of the ‘Jinnong-2’ fruit is due to the combined effects of chlorophyll degradation and of beta-carotene accumulation. The red inner pericarps of ‘Hongyang’ fruit are due to anthocyanin accumulation. Expression differences of the pathway genes in the inner pericarps of the three different kiwifruits suggest that stay-green (SGR controls the degradation of chlorophylls, while lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β controls the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. The abundance of anthocyanin in the inner pericarps of the ‘Hongyang’ fruit is the results of high expressions of UDP flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGT. At the same time, expressions of anthocyanin transcription factors show that AcMYBF110 expression parallels changes in anthocyanin concentration, so seems to be a key R2R3 MYB, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Further, transient color assays reveal that AcMYBF110 can autonomously induce anthocyanin accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum leaves by activating the transcription of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (NtDFR, anthocyanidin synthase (NtANS and NtUFGT. For basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs and WD-repeat proteins (WD40s, expression differences show these may depend on AcMYBF110 forming a MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, instead of it having a direct involvement.

  11. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  12. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to investigat

  13. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  14. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  15. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  16. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  17. Maintenance of Chloroplast Components during Chromoplast Differentiation in the Tomato Mutant Green Flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, A. Y.; McNellis, T.; Piekos, B.

    1993-04-01

    During ripening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, chloroplasts develop into chromoplasts. The chloroplast-chromoplast transition is marked by the accumulation of carotenoids and the disappearance of chlorophyll, the degradation of the highly structured thylakoid membrane system, and a reduction in the levels of proteins and mRNAs associated with photosynthesis. In the tomato mutant green flesh (gf), detectable amounts of chlorophyll remain in the ripe, mutant fruit, giving rise to a rusty red fruit color and suggesting that at least chlorophyll degradation is defective in the mutant. We show here that the ultrastructure of the plastids in the ripe gf fruit maintained significant amouonts of the chloroplast thylakoid grana along with structures characteristic of tomato chromoplasts. The maintenance of chloroplast structure in the gf ripe fruit was paralleled on the molecular level by the retention of plastid photosynthetic components that normally decline significantly in ripening tomato fruits. These included the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of photosystem II, the second electron accepting plastoquinone of photosystem II binding protein, the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the 33-kD oxygen evolution protein, and cytochrome b559. Similarly, photosynthetic transcripts, cab, psbA, rbcL, rbcS, and psbE mRNAs, also accumulated to higher levels in ripening gf fruit than wild type. It is interesting that the levels of some of these transcripts, especially cab mRNA, were noticeably higher in the mature gf green fruit than in the corresponding wild-type fruit. This suggests that the onset of the effect from the gf mutation might be earlier than fruit ripening. We also observed that when chloroplast formation was blocked during the development and ripening of gf fruit, these mutant fruits were bright red and their chromoplasts were indistinguishable from those found in wild-type ripe fruits grown and

  18. Lycopene fortification on the quality characteristics of beverage formulations developed from pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Vijayanand; Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao

    2014-12-01

    Pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L) is an important tropical fruit widely cultivated in different parts of India. The fruit apart from its characteristic pink flesh color is a good source of ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and pectin. Pink color of guava pulp is attributed to the presence of carotenoid pigment lycopene. Incorporation of lycopene in the form of tomato puree to the guava pulp resulted in changes in the quality characteristics of the guava beverage formulations. Lycopene in guava beverage improved the color and appearance and also the nutritional quality of the beverage. Guava beverage having 6 % tomato puree had acceptable color, flavor and overall quality. Increasing levels of tomato puree in the beverage affected the flavor and decreased the sensory acceptability. Beverage formulations showed increase in lycopene concentration from 760 μg/100 g to 2010 μg/100 g with increase in concentration of tomato puree. Ascorbic acid and lycopene decreased by 25.7 % and 12.23 % respectively in beverage stored at room temperature. Guava beverage fortified with lycopene was stable with acceptable sensory quality during the storage of 6 months at room temperature.

  19. [Study on the Rapid Detection of Triazophos Residues in Flesh of Navel Orange by Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Ling, Jing; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Chen, Jin-yin

    2016-03-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and quick pre-treatment technology were used to detect triazophos residues in flesh of navel orange. Quantitative analysis model was developed by partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. SERS of different concentration (0.5 to 20 mg x L(-1)) triazophos juice solution with flesh extract as the matrix were collected by laser Raman spectrometer. Three preprocessing methods such as normalization, MSC and SNV were used to optimize Raman signals and PLS models were set up. The results showed that minimum detection concentration for triazophos in navel orange below 0.5 mg L(-1). The model built with normalization pre-processing gave the best result; the values of correlation (R(p)) and Root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) were 1.38 and 0.976 6, respectively. The predict recoveries were 95.97%-103.18%, and the absolute values of relative errors were below 5%. T-test (t = -0.018) showed that there was no significant difference between the true values and prediction values. This study demonstrates that this method is accurate and reliable.

  20. Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato: Successes and Remaining Challenges of the Introduction of a Nutritionally Superior Staple Crop in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mica; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Houghtaling, Bailey

    2015-09-01

    Chronic vitamin A deficiency affects both women and children in Mozambique and populations worldwide and cannot be addressed through supplementation alone. Food-based approaches encouraging the consumption of vitamin A-rich foods, such as the orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), have the potential to positively affect vitamin A status. A range of OFSP varieties have been introduced in sub-Saharan Africa in rural and urban environments and emergency and nonemergency contexts. To highlight the successes to date and remaining challenges of the introduction of OFSP to increase vitamin A consumption in Mozambique, collating a time line of key events. A systematic review of literature using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The systematic search resulted in 20 studies that met inclusion criteria. Data extracted include author and year, study location and duration, project partners, project title, sample size and characteristics, objectives, methods and measures, and outcomes. Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes are widely accepted by Mozambican farmers and consumers, and various studies show a positive impact on vitamin A status due to the introduction of this nutritionally superior staple crop. Remaining challenges include vine preservation, pest and disease management, market development, and storage and processing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in flesh and skin of Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; Ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2017-08-15

    Natural variation of Andean potato was used to study the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. Levels of phenolic compounds and corresponding structural gene transcripts were examined in flesh and skin of tubers. Phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic acid (CGA), represent the major compounds, followed by anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols. High-anthocyanin varieties have high levels of CGA. Both metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh and showed a good correspondence. Two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases (HCT/HQT) have been involved in CGA production, of which HCT reflects CGA levels. Catechin was found in pigmented tissues whereas epicatechin was restricted to tuber skin. Transcripts of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), which generates catechin, could not be detected. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) transcripts, the enzyme responsible for epicatechin production, showed similar levels among samples. These data suggest that the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in potato tuber would require ANR but not LCR and that an epimerization process is involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fiber optics that fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Michael J.; Thelen, Donald C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for autonomous systems to work under unanticipated conditions requires the use of smart sensors. High resolution systems develop tremendous computational loads. Inspiration from animal vision systems can guide us in developing preprocessing approaches implementable in real time with high resolution and deduced computational load. Given a high quality optical path and a 2D array of photodetectors, the resolution of a digital image is determined by the density of photodetectors sampling the image. In order to reconstruct an image, resolution is limited by the distance between adjacent detectors. However, animal eyes resolve images 10-100 times better than either the acceptance angle of a single photodetector or the center-to-center distance between neighboring photodetectors. A new model of the fly's visual system emulates this improved performance, offering a different approach to subpixel resolution. That an animal without a cortex is capable of this performance suggests that high level computation is not involved. The model takes advantage of a photoreceptor cell's internal structure for capturing light. This organelle is a waveguide. Neurocircuitry exploits the waveguide's optical nonlinearities, namely in the shoulder region of its gaussian sensitivity-profile, to extract high resolution information from the visual scene. The receptive fields of optically disparate inputs overlap in space. Photoreceptor input is continuous rather than discretely sampled. The output of the integrating module is a signal proportional to the position of the target within the detector array. For tracking a point source, resolution is 10 times better than the detector spacing. For locating absolute position and orientation of an edge, the model performs similarly. Analog processing is used throughout. Each element is an independent processor of local luminance. Information processing is in real time with continuous update. This processing principle will be reproduced in an

  3. Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Storey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes drawing upon examples from North America and Australia.

  4. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY ar...

  5. Dermatobia, the neotropical warble fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E

    1988-09-01

    The neotropical warble fly, Dermatobia hominis (Fig. 1), has plagued neotropical America since preColombian times, and has become an economically important pest causing substantial losses to the meat, milk and leather industries from northern Mexico down to northern Argentina. Its life cycle (Box 1) is astonishingly complex, requiring another insect as a phoretic carrier of its eggs to the skin of its mammal hosts. Here Eugenio Sancho discusses factors that contribute to the current economic and public health importance of this myiasis-causing fly.

  6. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  7. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  8. Nutraceutical value of yellow- and red-fleshed South African plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.): evaluation of total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Alet; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Beer, Dalene

    2014-03-11

    Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.). Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe) and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe). The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  9. Nutraceutical Value of Yellow- and Red-Fleshed South African Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.: Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alet Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.. Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe. The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  10. The current impact and potential of biotechnology to improve the capacity of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world and an important cause of premature death in young children and pregnant women. Billions of people get most of their vitamin A from plants that are rich in pro-vitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene. Orange-fleshe...

  11. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction.

  12. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  13. Variation of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acid in the Flesh of Persimmon Fruit among Different Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA are important bioactive components in many plants, including persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.. The present work was carried out to determine OA and UA contents in the flesh of persimmon fruit from 32 cultivars, including 23 astringent and 9 non-astringent ones, by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection. Both OA and UA were present in all of the investigated cultivars, except for three, ‘Hiratanenashi’, ‘Ribenhongshi’ and ‘Matsumotowase’. The OA content ranged from traces to 88.57 μg/g FW, and that of UA were between traces and 27.64 μg/g FW.

  14. Effects of postharvest curing treatment on flesh colour and phenolic metabolism in fresh-cut potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Lili; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Feng, Yanyan; Wei, Shaochong

    2015-02-15

    The flesh colour and phenolic metabolism in potato tuber during curing and after cut were investigated. Result indicated that postharvest curing not only changed phenolic metabolism during curing, but also improved fresh-cut colour for 12 days after fresh cut. Significantly lower PAL and higher phenolic content and PPO activities during curing treatment and fresh-cut potatoes were detected compared to the control, which lead to the lower browning in the slices from curing treated potatoes. HPLC analysis revealed that amounts of total phenolics, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid were induced by curing and highly accumulated in the curing treated potatoes. Our results demonstrated that phenolic metabolism played an important role in the control of browning of fresh cut potato after curing.

  15. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  16. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  17. Replacement of Dietary Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils Improves the Growth and Flesh Quality of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qingyuan; MAI Kangsen; SHENTU Jikang; AI Qinghui; ZHONG Huiying; JIANG Yujian; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Chunxiao; GUO Sitong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5%fish meal and 6.4%menhaden fish oil;whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50%soybean oil (SO50), 100%soybean oil (SO100) and 100%palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent sa-tiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 (P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and wa-ter loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4℃) (P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under dif-ferent storage conditions (1 d, 4℃;7 d, 4℃;4 weeks,-20℃;8 weeks,-20℃) decreased significantly after partial or complete re-placement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  18. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  19. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  20. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  1. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  2. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  3. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  4. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  5. On the Preferred Flesh Color of Japanese and Chinese and the Determining Factors —Investigation of the Younger Generation Using Method of Successive Categories and Semantic Differential Method—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Deng, Pei; Tsuruoka, Hideki; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    The preferred flesh color was surveyed by the successive five categories method and the SD method in Japan and China to investigate its determining factors. The Chinese most preferred flesh color was more reddish than the Japanese one, while the flesh color accepted by 50% and more of the observers in China was larger in chromaticness and more yellowish than in Japan. In the determining factors for selection of the preferred color extracted by a factor analysis, a big difference between Japanese and Chinese men was observed. The first factor of the former was kind personality, whereas that of the latter was showy appearance.

  6. KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN UBI JALAR UNGU SEGAR DAN PRODUK OLAHANNYA (Anthocyanins Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Purple Fleshed Sweet Potato and Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida El Husna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple fleshed sweet potato is a potential source of anthocyanins which is as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic. Anthocyanins can be damaged by high temperatures. However, traditionally a number of processed sweet potato products involve heat treatment. This study aimed to assess the reduction of anthocyanins content in processed sweet potato products (flour, chips, sweet potato, steamed, boiled, and fried pieces from two types of local purple fleshed sweet potato (light purple and dark purple, therefore it might provide useful information stages in order to maintain the content of anthocyanins. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD of factorial arrangement treatments (two types of purple fleshed sweet potato, and five types of purple fleshed sweet potato processed products. The main analysis parameter are anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The anthocyanins content of dark purple fleshed sweet potato was 61.85 mg/100g, 17 times higher than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 3.51 mg/100g. Dark purple fleshed sweet potatoes have antioxidant activity approximately 59.25%, greater than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 56.64%. Decrease in anthocyanins content for processed products from both types of purple sweet potatoes showed the same trend. Purple sweet potato processed products that able to maintain fairly high the content of anthocyanins (the lowest rate of decline in anthocyanin levels were obtained on a steamed sweet potato (34.14% for dark purple and 42.16% for light purple, while the highest reduction obtained on the product chips (95.21% for dark purple and 88.47% for light purple. Reduction of antioxidant activity showed a directly proportion of the decrease in anthocyanins content of processed products, with the exception of processed products chips. Keywords: Purple fleshed sweet potato, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity   ABSTRAK Ubi jalar ungu potensial

  7. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Duistermars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to imposed course deviations, the fast optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, the monocular front-to-back (progressive and back-to-front (regressive visual motion components generated by horizontal rotation are selectively encoded, respectively, by homo and heterolateral motion sensitive circuits in the third optic ganglion, the lobula plate. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular and monocular visual rotation. With stimulus parameters generating large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular progressive motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation but contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular regressive motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the dynamic interplay of contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions and serve to maintain a stable optomotor equilibrium across a range of visual contrasts.

  8. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Dermauw, Wannes; Rombauts, Stephane; Chrysargyris, Antonios; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  9. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  10. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  11. "Fly me to the moon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's first lunar probe Chang'e-I, named after a mythical Chinese goddess who, according to legend, made her home on the moon, blasted off on 24 October from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. In addition to making the dream cherished by Chinese people to fly to the moon come true, it is the first step into China's ambitious threestage moon mission, marking a new milestone in the country's space exploration history.

  12. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  13. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  14. Conflicts and coordination between privacy and freedom of expression in "human flesh search"%从“人肉搜索”看隐私权与言论自由的冲突与协调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌

    2011-01-01

    本文从人肉搜索这一现象入手,阐释网络言论自由的现状与特点,通过人肉搜索第一案解析公民隐私权面对人肉搜索时的危机,在最后试图给出平衡网络言论自由与公民隐私权的建议。%Human flesh search as a new kind of Internet phenomenon,free speech and privacy for existence of conflict and controversial.This paper,from the human flesh search this phenomena,explain the network of the current situation and characteristics of free speech,through the human flesh search first case analytical citizens face of human flesh search privacy's crisis,in the final attempts to provide a balance of free speech and privacy network citizens advice.

  15. Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L. 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz  Al-BACHIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid profile of olive oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh of "Kaissy cultivar" olives, irradiated with 0, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation, and stored for 0, 6 and 12 months. Results on the fatty acid profile showed that the studied oils contained mostly oleic acid (68.1570.80% followed by palmitic acid (14.38-15.89% and linoleic acid (10.3412.51%. Generally, there are slight differences in the fatty acid profile between the oil extracted from whole olives and fruit flesh, but sometime significant (p<0.05. Also, the storage time influenced to a limited extent the fatty acid profile of both type of oils. Immediately after treatment, irradiation caused a significant (p<0.01 gradual decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid content and a significant (p<0.01 saturated fatty acid content increased in virgin olive oils.

  16. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans.

  17. 台湾红肉火龙果新品种栽培技术%Cultivation and management techniques of new red flesh pitaya cultivar from Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗渊; 潘礼明; 林敏; 黄鹏

    2015-01-01

    Red flesh pitaya is one of the fine pitaya varieties and shows some merits such as big fruit size,high quality and high yield after introduction into Fuqing City. This paper stated key points of cultivation and management of red flesh pitaya from some aspects including field selection,seedling selection,field management and harvest.%红肉火龙果是火龙果的优良品种,在福清市引种后,表现出果大、质优、丰产等优点。该文从种植地选择、种苗选育、田间管理和果实采收等方面总结红肉火龙果的栽培管理要点。

  18. Potential of time series-hyperspectral imaging (TS-HSI) for non-invasive determination of microbial spoilage of salmon flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-07-15

    This study investigated the potential of using time series-hyperspectral imaging (TS-HSI) in visible and near infrared region (400-1700 nm) for rapid and non-invasive determination of surface total viable count (TVC) of salmon flesh during spoilage process. Hyperspectral cubes were acquired at different spoilage stages for salmon chops and their spectral data were extracted. The reference TVC values of the same samples were measured using standard plate count method and then calibrated with their corresponding spectral data based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the TVC prediction throughout the whole wavelength range. As a result, eight variables representing the wavelengths of 495 nm, 535 nm, 550 nm, 585 nm, 625 nm, 660 nm, 785 nm, and 915 nm were selected, which were used to reduce the high dimensionality of the hyperspectral data. On the basis of the selected variables, the models of PLSR and LS-SVM were established and their performances were compared. The CARS-PLSR model established using Spectral Set I (400-1000 nm) was considered to be the best for the TVC determination of salmon flesh. The model led to a coefficient of determination (rP(2)) of 0.985 and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 5.127. At last, the best model was used to predict the TVC values of each pixel within the ROI of salmon chops for visualizing the TVC distribution of salmon flesh. The research demonstrated that TS-HSI technique has a potential for rapid and non-destructive determination of bacterial spoilage in salmon flesh during the spoilage process.

  19. Utility Value and Development Prospect of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯的利用价值与开发前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璇; 金素娟; 李占军; 王玉岭

    2012-01-01

    紫心甘薯集营养、保健于一体,近年来在国内外市场上十分走俏,是当前无公害、绿色、有机食品中首推的保健食品。从药用价值和食品加工2个方面,分析了紫心甘薯的开发利用价值与前景,提出进一步开展紫心甘薯利用潜力和相关加工的研究,对增加食品多样性、提高紫心甘薯综合利用率、加快农业产业结构调整升级、增加农民收入等具有长远和重要意义。%Purple-fleshed sweet potato is the main health food of pollution-free,green and organic,and very popular in national and international markets in recent years,which with nutrition and health function.Utility value and development prospect of purple-fleshed sweet potato were analyzed from two aspects of medicinal value and food processing,and the further development of utilization potential and related processing research of purple-fleshed sweet potato were put forward,which had a long-term and important significance for increasing the diversity of food,improving the comprehensive utilization of purple-fleshed sweet potato,speeding up the structural adjustment and upgrade of agricultural industry,increasing the farmers' income.

  20. Separation and Analysis of Carotenoids in Watermelon Flesh%西瓜中类胡萝卜素的分离与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡利强; 郭晓伟; 赵文恩; 王军伟; 张广瑞

    2011-01-01

    采用超声波辅助提取法从不同瓤色西瓜果肉中提取类胡萝卜素,经柱色谱分离和重结晶纯化,获得纯度为90%左右的番茄红素、β-胡萝卜素和ζ-胡萝卜素,用作分析的标样.采用高效液相色谱法,通过特征吸收光谱和保留时间鉴别,初步分析西瓜中类胡萝卜素的组成.结果表明,红瓤西瓜中的类胡萝卜素以番茄红素(18.55%)和β-胡萝卜素为主(11.71%);黄瓤西瓜中含较多新黄质(52.02%);白瓤西瓜中不含番茄红素.%Carotenoids were extracted from the fruit flesh of five watermelon varieties using ultrasonic method,and separated by open-column chromatography using recryctallization. Lycopene, β-carotene,and ζ-carotene in 90% purity were obtained and used in analysis of watermelon carotenoids as the standard samples. Watermelon carotenoids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with the photodiode array detector. The results showed that lycopene (18. 55%) and p-carotene (11. 71%) were the major pigments in the red-fleshed watermelon. In the yellow-fleshed watermelon,the neoxanthin content(52. 02%) was relatively high. Lycopene was not detected in the white-fleshed wtaremelon.

  1. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartarini Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch., and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid

  2. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Onelli, E.; Ghiani, A.; Gentili, R; S Serra; Musacchi, S.; Citterio, S.

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were invest...

  3. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  4. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  5. Cell wall polysaccharides of near-isogenic lines of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and their inbred parentals which show differential flesh firmness or physiological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, Noelia; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Fernandez-Trujillo, J Pablo

    2011-07-27

    We characterized differences in cell wall material and polysaccharide structures, due to the quantitative trait loci associated with higher flesh firmness in a nonclimacteric near-isogenic line (NIL) SC7-2, and with the climacteric behavior of the NIL SC3-5-1, using their nonclimacteric inbred parentals, "Piel de Sapo" (PS) and PI 161375 (SC). PS was firmer and had a higher ripening index and greater hemicellulosic content than SC, with its lower wall material yield, and uronic acid, neutral sugar, cellulose and free sugar content and higher pectic content. SC3-5-1 showed lower uronic acid values, a higher soluble solid content, and similar flesh firmness to PS. SC3-5-1 yielded mainly high molecular weight polysaccharides in the imidazole-soluble fraction than PS. SC7-2 showed greater flesh firmness, a higher neutral sugar (especially galactose and mannose) and uronic acid content, together with a larger cellulose and α-cellulose residue than PS. SC7-2 also contained more polysaccharides of low molecular weight in the first pectic fraction and shifted toward higher molecular weights in the main peak of the 4 M potassium-soluble fraction compared with PS.

  6. Comparative Transcriptomes Analysis of Red- and White-Fleshed Apples in an F1 Population of Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana Crossed with M. domestica 'Fuji'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    Full Text Available Transcriptome profiles of the red- and white-fleshed apples in an F1 segregating population of Malus sieversii f.Niedzwetzkyana and M.domestica 'Fuji' were generated using the next-generation high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology and compared. A total of 114 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were obtained, of which 88 were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated in red-fleshed apples. The 88 up-regulated genes were enriched with those related to flavonoid biosynthetic process and stress responses. Further analysis identified 22 genes associated with flavonoid biosynthetic process and 68 genes that may be related to stress responses. Furthermore, the expression of 20 up-regulated candidate genes (10 related to flavonoid biosynthesis, two encoding MYB transcription factors and eight related to stress responses and 10 down-regulated genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. After exploring the possible regulatory network, we speculated that flavonoid metabolism might be involved in stress responses in red-fleshed apple. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for further enriching gene resources associated with flavonoid synthesis and stress responses of fruit trees and for breeding elite apples with high flavonoid content and/or increased stress tolerances.

  7. Inhibition of α-Glucosidase, Total Phenolic Content and Flavonoid Content on Skin Fruit and Flesh Extracts of Some Varieties of Snake Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, E.; Fauzi, M. R.; Batubara, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of the skin fruit and flesh of snack fruit through α-glucosidase inhibition and correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as thin layer chromatography bio-autography. Seven varieties of varieties of skin and flesh of the fruits each extracted by maceration using ethanol 70%. The results show the highest power of the α-glucosidase inhibition obtained at Manonjaya skin extract with IC50 value of 17.9 µg/mL. The TLC pattern indicates the presence of four active spot on skin extract and two spots on flesh extracts on the use of solvent BuOH:HAc:water (6:2:2). The highest phenolic content obtained at skin fruit extract of Salak Mawar 186.15 ± 1.66 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram extract. The highest total flavonoid content obtained in Salak Malaka skin fruit extract that is 7:43 ± 0:04 milli gram of quercetin equivalents

  8. Sugar and Acid Content and Their Genotypic Correlations of Unselected P.Persica x P.Davidiana Progenies as Affected by Hairness and Flesh Color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ben-hong; LI Shao-hua; Quilot Bénédicte; Génard Michel; Kervella Jocelyne

    2004-01-01

    Fruit sugar and acid content were determined in a group of hybrids from one family,including 22 peach and 85 nectarine genotypes, or 75 white-fleshed and 32 yellow-fleshed genotypes. Sucrose accounted for about 65% of the total sugar, and malate for about 50%of the total acid. Mean sucrose, fructose, sorbitol, total sugar, soluble solid and quinate content were significantly higher in nectarines than in peaches, while no significant difference was found in mean malate, citrate and total acid content between nectarines and peaches. Shikimate content was very low and ranged from 0.011-0.046 meq 100 g-1 FW in all genotypes studied. Flesh color did not affect sugar and acid content.Glucose and fructose had a close positive correlation (r=0.63***). Malate had positive correlations with sucrose, sorbitol, total sugar and soluble solid content. The correlation between citrate and sugars were not significant. Glucose, fructose, sorbitol and malate content seemed to be higher in late-maturing genotypes. Sucrose, total sugar and total acid content had a parabolic relationship with developmental period (from full blooming date to maturity date).

  9. Hydroxycinnamic acids and UV-B depletion: Profiling and biosynthetic gene expression in flesh and peel of wild-type and hp-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvenzani, Valentina; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are phenolic compounds widely found in most plant families. Aim of the present work was to investigate their accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression in presence or absence of UV-B radiation in tomato fruits of wild-type and hp-1, a mutant characterized by exaggerated photoresponsiveness and increased fruit pigmentation. Gene expression and HCAs content were higher in hp-1 than in wild type peel and UV-B depletion determined a decrease in HCAs accumulation in wild-type and an increase in hp-1 fruits, generally in accordance with biosynthetic gene expression. In flesh, despite a similar transcript level of most genes between the two genotypes, HCAs content was generally higher in wild type than in hp-1, although remaining at a lower level with respect to wild type peel. Under UV-B depletion, a general reduction of HCAs content was observed in wild-type flesh, whereas an increase in the content of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid was observed in hp-1 flesh.

  10. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  11. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  12. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  13. What the fly's nose tells the fly's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-07-28

    The fly olfactory system has a three-layer architecture: The fly's olfactory receptor neurons send odor information to the first layer (the encoder) where this information is formatted as combinatorial odor code, one which is maximally informative, with the most informative neurons firing fastest. This first layer then sends the encoded odor information to the second layer (decoder), which consists of about 2,000 neurons that receive the odor information and "break" the code. For each odor, the amplitude of the synaptic odor input to the 2,000 second-layer neurons is approximately normally distributed across the population, which means that only a very small fraction of neurons receive a large input. Each odor, however, activates its own population of large-input neurons and so a small subset of the 2,000 neurons serves as a unique tag for the odor. Strong inhibition prevents most of the second-stage neurons from firing spikes, and therefore spikes from only the small population of large-input neurons is relayed to the third stage. This selected population provides the third stage (the user) with an odor label that can be used to direct behavior based on what odor is present.

  14. Cross-talk among flesh-eating Aeromonas hydrophila strains in mixed infection leading to necrotizing fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Azar, Sasha R; Fitts, Eric C; Kirtley, Michelle L; Tiner, Bethany L; Andersson, Jourdan A; Grim, Christopher J; Isom, Richard P; Hasan, Nur A; Colwell, Rita R; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-01-19

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by flesh-eating bacteria is associated with high case fatality. In an earlier study, we reported infection of an immunocompetent individual with multiple strains of Aeromonas hydrophila (NF1-NF4), the latter three constituted a clonal group whereas NF1 was phylogenetically distinct. To understand the complex interactions of these strains in NF pathophysiology, a mouse model was used, whereby either single or mixed A. hydrophila strains were injected intramuscularly. NF2, which harbors exotoxin A (exoA) gene, was highly virulent when injected alone, but its virulence was attenuated in the presence of NF1 (exoA-minus). NF1 alone, although not lethal to animals, became highly virulent when combined with NF2, its virulence augmented by cis-exoA expression when injected alone in mice. Based on metagenomics and microbiological analyses, it was found that, in mixed infection, NF1 selectively disseminated to mouse peripheral organs, whereas the other strains (NF2, NF3, and NF4) were confined to the injection site and eventually cleared. In vitro studies showed NF2 to be more effectively phagocytized and killed by macrophages than NF1. NF1 inhibited growth of NF2 on solid media, but ExoA of NF2 augmented virulence of NF1 and the presence of NF1 facilitated clearance of NF2 from animals either by enhanced priming of host immune system or direct killing via a contact-dependent mechanism.

  15. From lab to life: Making storable orange-fleshed sweetpotato purée a commercial reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in Rwanda demonstrated that orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP purée (steamed, mashed roots was an economically viable, vitamin A enhancing ingredient in baked products when the purée was produced and used in the same bakery. Having a storable, packaged OFSP purée produced by a firm to supply bakers is an alternative model. Vacuum-packed OFSP purée with preservatives with a four-month shelf-life at 23°C was developed by the International Potato Center under laboratory conditions in 2015. Turning it into a commercial reality required developing a public-private partnership to establish an OFSP purée-bread value chain. The phases in developing the chain are described. Cost-benefit assessment focuses on two points along the chain: the farmers producing roots for the purée factory and purée production. The first OFSP bread began to be marketed in six Tuskys’ stores in June 2015 at a premium price (5 Ksh above its regular bread, reaching 20 stores by August 2016. OFSP bread was well-received by consumers. Purée production became profitable (18% profit margin when we shifted from using peeled to unpeeled roots--the new product being a “high fiber” purée. Commercial OFSP purée production has been improved and is poised for profitable, larger-scale output.

  16. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  17. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Chuanyue; Liu, Wanjing; Xia, Hu; Li, Jian; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of an organic biomass containing cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. The ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia are grave hazards for fish. The present study assessed the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impact on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, whereas it significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness and gumminess, and increased fillet ultimate pH as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH, thaw loss and protein carbonyl content, whereas ammonia exposure did not. The results of the present study indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Genotype × Environment Interaction of Mosaic Disease, Root Yields and Total Carotene Concentration of Yellow-Fleshed Cassava in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert G. Maroya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes were evaluated over two years in five major cassava growing agroecological zones in Nigeria. The trials were established in a randomized complete block design with four replications to assess genotype performance and Genotype × Environment interaction for cassava mosaic disease (CMD, fresh and dry root yield (FYLD; DYLD, root dry matter content (DMC, and total carotene concentration (TCC. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001 among genotypes (G, environment (E, and Genotype × Environment interaction (GE for all the traits tested. For reaction to CMD, the best genotypes showing stable resistance were TMS 07/0539 and TMS 07/0628. For root yield, the best genotypes were TMS 01/1368 and TMS 07/0553. Genotype TMS 07/0593 was the best for DMC and TCC across the 10 environments. Variation among genotypes accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for CMD (72.1% and TCC (34.4%. Environmental variation accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for FYLD (42.8%, DYLD (39.6%, and DMC (29.2%. This study revealed that TMS 07/0593 has the highest and most stable TCC, DMC with the lowest CMD severity score and appeared to be the best genotype.

  19. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of hydrolysed proteins of delimed tannery fleshings: comparison of acid hydrolysis and fermentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bijinu; Prasad, Binod; Rai, Amit Kumar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Subbanna, Mahendrakar Namadev; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2011-04-01

    Proteins in delimed tannery fleshings were fermentatively hydrolysed using Enterococcus faecium NCIM5335 and also hydrolysed using mild organic acids (formic acid and propionic acid). The liquor portion containing hydrolysed proteins was spray dried, in both the cases, to obtain a powder. The spray dried powder was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activities with respect to scavenging different free radicals and antibacterial properties against nine different pathogens. Fermentation and acid hydrolysates scavenged 83 and 75.3% of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals, respectively, at a protein concentration of 0.25 mg. Further, fermentation hydrolysate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of 59% as compared to 56% scavenging by acid hydrolysate at a protein concentration of 5 mg. Acid hydrolysate exhibited lesser (82.3%) peroxy radical scavenging compared to hydrolysate from fermentation (88.2%) at a protein concentration of 10 mg. However, acid hydrolysate exhibited higher (89.2%) superoxide anion scavenging while its fermentation counterpart showed lower activity (85.4%) at 2.5 mg hydrolysate protein. Well as superoxide anion scavenging properties. All the in vitro antioxidant properties exhibited dose dependency. Fermentation hydrolysate exhibited maximum antagonistic activity against Salmonella typhi FB231, from among host of pathogens evaluated. Both the hydrolysates have potential to be ingredients in animal feeds and can help reduce oxidative stress in the animals.

  20. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  1. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  2. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  3. Efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na qualidade do melão 'orange flesh' minimamente processado Effect of the active modified atmosphere in the quality of the melon tipo orange flesh processed minimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Marta Machado Casado de Araújo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento destes em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na qualidade e conservação do melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM passiva - controle, AM ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2 , armazenados em câmara fria (6ºC ± 1ºC e UR 85% ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais, a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável, firmeza, pectina total e sabor com relação à atmosfera modificada passiva. Menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Os atributos de qualidade, sabor e textura não sofreram deteriorações durante os 8 dias de armazenamento, em todos os tratamentos, de acordo com a análise sensorial.The increase of the demand for products processed minimally brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, being considered the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of these products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of this technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere in the quality and conservation of the melon 'Orange Flesh' processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing were wrapped under modified atmosphere (passive AM control; active AM with 5% of CO2 and 5% of O2 and activate AM with 10

  4. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash. ... In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by ... This will encourage the use of fly ash economically as a construction material.

  5. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  6. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  7. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Antanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  8. Flying Probe Tester: Architecture, Principle and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu,Xu; Fang,Kangling; Chen,Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the flying probe tester, which is a testing device for PCB. The architecture and principle of flying probe tester are firstly introduced. Then the implementation of hardware and software is illuminated briefly. Finally, the optimizing method for the probe's moving path is researched based on the traveling salesman problem.

  9. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  10. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  11. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  13. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  14. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  15. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  16. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  17. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song Chang; Z. Jane Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat...

  18. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  20. Hydroxylysyl pyridinoline cross-link concentration affects the textural properties of fresh and smoked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejun; Bickerdike, Ralph; Lindsay, Emma; Campbell, Patrick; Nickell, David; Dingwall, Alastair; Johnston, Ian A

    2005-08-24

    A simple HPLC method is presented to quantify the low concentration of hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (PYD) cross-links in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) muscle. The method involved the extraction of tissue with NaOH prior to hydrolysis, which greatly reduced the amount of protein to be hydrolyzed and made downstream operations easier and more reproducible. The concentration of PYD was 426 pmol g(-)(1) dry mass muscle in post-rigor muscle stored at 0 degrees C and sampled 3 d after death. Hydroxproline (HYP) concentration was determined following NaOH extraction as a measure of collagen content. In post-rigor samples, the alkaline-insoluble HYP fraction comprised 18.3% of the total HYP. Scanning electron microscopy revealed shrinkage of muscle fibers and a retraction of the connective tissue matrix in smoked salmon. PYD concentration was relatively resistant to processing to the smoked product, decreasing by around 11.7%, as compared to a 22.2% decrease in HYP. There was a positive correlation between PYD concentration and the firmness of post-rigor muscle samples as measured by an instrumental texture analyzer, explaining 25% of the total variation. A weaker but still significant correlation was found between PYD concentration and firmness in the smoked product. There was no relationship between fillet firmness and total collagen concentration, although the correlation with HYP in the alkaline-insoluble fraction was significant at the 6% level (P = 0.057). Our results indicate that only 1-3% of collagen molecules are linked by nonreducible mature cross-links in harvest size farmed Atlantic salmon and that PYD concentration is an important raw material characteristic for flesh quality.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation with krill meal on pigmentation and quality of flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of administration of krill meal and synthetic astaxanthin during the finisher phase of the fattening cycle of rainbow trout on flesh pigmentation and quality traits were studied. The inclusion of krill meal increased the body weight and size and decreased the peri-visceral fat and visceral weight indices. The astaxanthin diet produced the highest accumulation of total carotenoids in the fillet compared to the krill meal diet: the difference was significant after 15 days of feeding (2.50 vs 2.10 mg/kg till the end of the trial (5.00 vs 4.80 mg/kg. The same pattern was observed for astaxanthin concentration with the highest values in the fillets of fish fed the astaxanthin diet. Fillet lightness (L* was not affected by trout diets whereas redness (a* and yellowness (b* were significantly higher in fish fed the astaxanthin diet until day 30 of the trial. Hue was not affected by feeding, whereas chroma was significantly higher in the fish fed astaxanthin throughout the trial except on day 45 of sampling. Trout fed the krill meal diet had a paler pink-red colour on the SalmoFan scale than those receiving the astaxanthin diet. No significant differences emerged in proximate composition and cholesterol content of trout in the two groups. The fatty acid profile of the fillets reflected the fatty acids of the diets administered to the trout: eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in the fish fed the krill meal.

  2. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  3. Enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins gene in purple-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important root crop that produces low molecular weight antioxidants such as carotenoids and anthocyanin. The sweetpotato orange (IbOr) protein is involved in the accumulation of carotenoids. To increase the levels of carotenoids in the storage roots of sweetpotato, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in an anthocyanin-rich purple-fleshed cultivar (referred to as IbOr plants). IbOr plants exhibited increased carotenoid levels (up to 7-fold) in their storage roots compared to wild type (WT) plants, as revealed by HPLC analysis. The carotenoid contents of IbOr plants were positively correlated with IbOr transcript levels. The levels of zeaxanthin were ∼ 12 times elevated in IbOr plants, whereas β-carotene increased ∼ 1.75 times higher than those of WT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that most carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated in the IbOr plants, including PDS, ZDS, LCY-β, CHY-β, ZEP and Pftf, whereas LCY-ɛ was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCD1, CCD4 and NCED, which are related to the degradation of carotenoids, were also up-regulated in the IbOr plants. Anthocyanin contents and transcription levels of associated biosynthetic genes seemed to be altered in the IbOr plants. The yields of storage roots and aerial parts of IbOr plants and WT plants were not significantly different under field cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of IbOr-Ins can increase the carotenoid contents of sweetpotato storage roots.

  4. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  5. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    CERN Document Server

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  6. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  9. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  10. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  11. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  12. A consensus linkage map identifies genomic regions controlling fruit maturity and beta-carotene-associated flesh color in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, H E; Staub, J E; Simon, P W; Zalapa, J E

    2009-08-01

    The nutritional value and yield potential of US Western Shipping melon (USWS; Cucumis melo L.) could be improved through the introgression of genes for early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of the quantity of beta-carotene (QbetaC) in fruit mesocarp (i.e., flesh color). Therefore, a set of 116 F(3) families derived from the monoecious, early FM Chinese line 'Q 3-2-2' (no beta-carotene, white mesocarp) and the andromonoecious, late FM USWS line 'Top Mark' (possessing beta-carotene, orange mesocarp) were examined during 2 years in Wisconsin, USA to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with FM and QbetaC. A 171-point F(2-3) based map was constructed and used for QTL analysis. Three QTL associated with QbetaC were detected, which explained a significant portion of the observed phenotypic variation (flesh color; R (2) = 4.0-50.0%). The map position of one QTL (beta-carM.E.9.1) was uniformly aligned with one carotenoid-related gene (Orange gene), suggesting its likely role in QbetaC in this melon population and putative relationship with the melon white flesh (wf) gene. Two major (FM.6.1 and FM.11.1; R (2) >or= 20%) and one minor QTL (FM.2.1; R (2) = 8%) were found to be associated with FM. This map was then merged with a previous recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based map used to identify seven QTL associated with QbetaC in melon fruit. This consensus map [300 molecular markers (187 co-dominant melon and 14 interspecific; 10 LG)] provides a framework for the further dissection and cloning of published QTL, which will consequently lead to more effective trait introgression in melon.

  13. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  14. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  15. 传播学视角下的“人肉搜索”分析%Analysis of "Flesh Search" from the Communication Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁庚申; 赵智岗

    2012-01-01

    The communication characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of"flesh search" are analyzed. "Flesh search" with the collective wisdom of Netizens can solve the social problems quickly, expose social scandal, reveal the truth and safeguard the social moral order, it can also enhance the Netizens' consensus supervision right and in- tegrate the power and functions of the various medias. However, the new emerging thing has led to some negative effects such as the infringement of citizens' privacy and the excessive entertainment. Therefore, it is necessary to perfect the network laws and regulations, improve the media quality of Netizens, strengthen network supervision, improve and standardize the search engine technology and so on. By all means mentioned above, the social risks of "flesh search" can be effectively avoided, the healthy development of "flesh search" can be achieved and the media quality of citizens can be improved.%从"人肉搜索"的概念界定入手,对"人肉搜索"的传播学特征、优势和弊端等进行分析。认为"人肉搜索"可以借助网民的集体智慧,有利于社会问题的迅速解决;可以揭露社会丑闻,还原事实真相,维护社会道德秩序;可以增强网民的网络舆论监督权;可以整合各种媒介的力量和功能。同时也表现出了对这一新生事物所产生的侵犯公民隐私、泛娱乐化倾向等负面影响的担忧。因此,有必要通过完善网络法律法规,提高网民媒介素养,加强网络新闻把关,完善和规范搜索引擎技术手段,才能有效规避"人肉搜索"的社会风险。旨在为"人肉搜索"的健康发展和公民媒介素养的提高提供帮助。

  16. “人肉搜索”的刑法学思考%Thought on "Human Flesh Search" in Criminal Kules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚程

    2012-01-01

    "人肉搜索"作为一种新兴的信息搜索方式,近几年愈发吸引社会关注。人们在赞叹"人肉搜索"为社会环境净化带来积极作用的同时,也看到网络暴力事件的频频发生。在隐私权的内涵如何界定在实体法上还没有明确规定,学界意见尚未统一的情况下,将"人肉搜索"纳入刑法规制明显不当,面临诸多障碍。针对"人肉搜索"产生的负面影响,应主要从民事责任角度加以调整。"人肉搜索"的部分行为类型也可构成刑法现有的侮辱罪、诽谤罪以及出售、非法提供公民个人信息罪。%The "human flesh search" plays the role of a new information search mode, and has attractd social concern in recent years. People praise " human flesh search" for its function in purification of the social environment, but at the same time, people see network violence occurred frequently. When the substantive law does not make clear regulation on how to define the connotation of privacy, and academic opinions have not reached an agreement, the "human flesh search" entering into the criminal law regulation is obvioulys inappropriate. Facing many obstacles, in view of the negative effect of "human flesh search", this behavour should be mainly adjusted by civil liability. However, parts of behavours may also constitute a criminal behavior, such as insult, libel, and illegally selling and providing citizens" personal information.

  17. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  18. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  19. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms - obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV. Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse’s physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse’s microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  20. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  1. Dynamic Optimization Algorithm for Flying Trajectory of a Free-flying Space Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method of dynamic optimization for the flying trajectory of a free-flying space robot based on its flying motion characteristics is presented. The continuous flying trajectory is broken into a number of segment and the control efforts and the duration of the segment are chosen as the optimization parameters. The objective function is made by using the weighted sum of the fuel used and the time spent, and the constraint equations are selected. Finally, the internal point punishment function method is adopted in the optimization program, and the results of computer simulation are given.

  2. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  3. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.

    2008-06-01

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic "flying mirror", which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of ≈4-6×1019 cm-3. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are ˜55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3×107 photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  4. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. My Friendship with the Flying Tigers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yingshan

    2015-01-01

    "I believe I owe a debt to the Chinese people...It’s so huge there’s no way I can pay it back."This is what Flying Tigers pilot Glen Beneda said to his family time and again.I have been working in the CPAFFC for over 10 years now,and my feelings for the Flying Tigers have deepened over time.I had heard of its

  6. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  8. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  9. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  10. From flesh to fossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the functions of natural philosophers at the court of the Medici through the case of anatomist/geologist Nicolaus Steno (1638 – 1686). By tracing Steno’s work during the years he spent in the service of the Florentine court this paper pinpoints how Steno’s natural philosophy w...

  11. History in the Flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam

    drevet af en historisering, en vilje til at placere historie hvor der før var biologi.   Denne afhandling undersøger denne interesse i kroppen gennem en analyse af hvad jeg kalder den historiserede krop som diskursiv figur. Den historiserede krop er ikke et klart aftegnet koncept eller en skarp afgrænset...

  12. Divine Flesh, Embodied Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Anne-Claire

    2006-01-01

    What has Luce Irigaray's statement that women need a God to do with her thoughts on the relation between body and mind, or the sensible and the intelligible?Using the theological notion 'incarnation' as a hermeneutical key, Anne-Claire Mulder brings together and illuminates the interrelations

  13. Bias in the Flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Solomon; Jabon, Maria; Plaut, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence linking skin complexion to negative stereotypes and adverse real-world outcomes. We extend these findings to political ad campaigns, in which skin complexion can be easily manipulated in ways that are difficult to detect. Devising a method to measure how dark a candidate appears in an image, this paper examines how complexion varied with ad content during the 2008 presidential election campaign (study 1). Findings show that darker images were more frequent in negative ads—especially those linking Obama to crime—which aired more frequently as Election Day approached. We then conduct an experiment to document how these darker images can activate stereotypes, and show that a subtle darkness manipulation is sufficient to activate the most negative stereotypes about Blacks—even when the candidate is a famous counter-stereotypical exemplar—Barack Obama (study 2). Further evidence of an evaluative penalty for darker skin comes from an observational study measuring affective responses to depictions of Obama with varying skin complexion, presented via the Affect Misattribution Procedure in the 2008 American National Election Study (study 3). This study demonstrates that darker images are used in a way that complements ad content, and shows that doing so can negatively affect how individuals evaluate candidates and think about politics. PMID:27257306

  14. Intrinsic Membrane Targeting of the Flagellar Export ATPase FliI: Interaction with Acidic Phospholipids and FliH

    OpenAIRE

    Auvray, Frédéric; Ozin, Amanda J.; Claret, Laurent; Hughes, Colin

    2002-01-01

    The specialised ATPase FliI is central to export of flagellar axial protein subunits during flagellum assembly. We establish the normal cellular location of FliI and its regulatory accessory protein FliH in motile Salmonella typhimurium, and ascertain the regions involved in FliH2/FliI heterotrimerisation. Both FliI and FliH localised to the cytoplasmic membrane in the presence and in the absence of proteins making up the flagellar export machinery and basal body. Membrane association was tig...

  15. Research and Progress about Anthocyanins of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes%甘薯紫色素及提取技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖海峻; 施鹏飞; 杨新建; 田璐; 王伟青

    2014-01-01

    Purple fleshed sweet potatoes are ant hocyanin rich foods. Anthocyanin pigments of purple fleshed sweet potatoes show functions of anti oxidation and antimutagenicity , they also can prevent carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver dam age in t he rat and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The advantages and disadvantages of extracting methods such as organic solvent method and microwave and ultrasonic and the best technological parameter are summarized in this paper, and the results showed that microwave method are the best way according to the productivity.%紫薯色素主要含花青素类色素,它具有抗氧化、抗突变、减轻肝机能障碍与心血管疾病等作用。本文综述了紫薯色素的有机溶剂提取法、超声辅助提取法、微波提取法各自有缺点及最佳提取工艺参数以及产率的大小,综合分析认为微波提取法效果最好。

  16. A chimeric transcript containing Psy1 and a potential mRNA is associated with yellow flesh color in tomato accession PI 114490.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Baoshan; Gu, Qinsheng; Tian, Peng; Xiao, Liangjun; Cao, Haipeng; Yang, Wencai

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid content is the primary determinant of fruit color that affects nutritional value and appearance in tomato. Phytoene synthase (PSY) is the key regulatory enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Absent function of PSY1 in tomato fruit results in yellow flesh phenotype. We, here, report that two different transcripts, a wild-type (Psy1) and a chimeric mRNA (Psy1/Unknown), exist in a yellow-fruited tomato accession PI 114490. Psy1/Unknown is generated by joining exons from two different genes, Psy1 and an unknown gene, transcribed using both complementary DNA strands. The Psy1 shows low expression in the fruit of PI 114490, while the expression of Psy1/Unknown in the fruit of PI 114490 shows the same pattern as Psy1 in red fruit. The PSY1/Unknown has a lower function than PSY1 in a bacterial expression system. Coincidence of one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fourth intron and one simple sequence repeat (SSR) with 19 AT repeats in the downstream sequence of Psy1 gene with Psy1/Unknown in a set of yellow-fruited tomato lines indicates that Psy1/Unknown might be caused by the SNP and/or SSR. One possible explanation of these observations is trans-splicing. Severely reduced Psy1 transcript caused by Psy1/Unknown results in low accumulation of carotenoid and yellow flesh in PI 114490.

  17. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  18. Analysis on monitoring result of fly in 2010 in Xianyang city%2010年咸阳市蝇类监测结果与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁国刚; 张秀玲; 归克有; 赵光

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解咸阳市苍蝇的种类、数量、分布及季节变化.方法 依据GB/T23796 - 2009《病媒生物密度监测方法蝇类》中的笼诱法,在市区进行了4 - 10月的连续动态监测.结果 总共捕蝇2 735只,平均密度为18.99%.蝇类种群构成为:麻蝇占37.29%、家蝇占25.27%、丝光绿蝇19.89%、厩腐蝇11.33%.7、8、9月份为密度高峰期,密度分别为29.45、30.75、37.60只/笼.结论 在成蝇的活动期间内,防治重点月份为7-9月,重点的防治区域为公共绿地和居民区,相关部门应在这些区域增加捕蝇器械,并保持环境的卫生,避免民众受到苍蝇的骚扰,减少或者避免肠道传染病和寄生虫病的发生机率.%Objective To find out species, quantity, distribution and seasonal variation of flies in Xianyang city. Methods According to the " Surveillance methods for vector density-fly" GB/T23796 - 2009, cage trap method was adopted in continuous dynamic monitoring of flies in urban area from April to October in 2010. Results 2 735 flies were captured in total. Mean density of these flies was 18.99%. These flies made up of 37.29% flesh fly, 25.27% of house flies, 19.89% of Lucilia, 11.33% of Muscina stabidans. Peak density appeared in July, August, September; and densities of the three months were 29.45,30.75,37.60 flies per cage respectively. Conclusion During active phase of adult flies, the time between July and September is important to prevent and cure, the prevention focus areas are public lawn and residential area. The related departments should increase the fly fishing equipment a-round these spaces, and keep environment clean, help people to avoid Harassment from flies, reduce and avoid incidence of intestinal infectious diseases and parasitic diseases.

  19. Direct regulation of BCL-2 by FLI-1 is involved in the survival of FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lesault, Isabelle; Tran Quang, Christine; Frampton, Jon; Ghysdael, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Rearrangement of the FLI-1 locus with ensuing overexpression of FLI-1 is an early event in Friend murine leukemia virus-induced disease. When overexpressed in primary erythroblasts, FLI-1 blocks erythropoeitin (Epo)-induced terminal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis normally induced in response to Epo withdrawal. We show here that the survival-inducing property of FLI-1 is associated with increased transcription of BCL-2. We further show that FLI-1 binds BCL-2 promoter sequences in trans...

  20. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  1. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  2. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  3. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  4. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  5. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  6. Variation Laws of Anthocyanin Content in Roots and Their Relationships with Major Economic Traits in Purple-Fleshed Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variation laws of anthocyanin content in root during the development and among the varieties, and their relationships with major economic traits in purple-fleshed sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were studied in the present article. The dynamics of 20 economic traits in 13 purple-fleshed sweetpotato varieties at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 d after their transplanting were investigated, and these traits included anthocyanin content in root, length of the longest vine, number of base branches, root number, dry matter contents in stem, foliage and root, fresh/dry weight of root, fresh/dry weight of stem, fresh/dry weight of foliage, fresh/dry weight of stem and foliage, fresh/dry weight of whole plant, and rations of photosynthate to root, stem, and foliage. The correlations between the variations of anthocyanin content and the other 19 economic traits among varieties and during the whole developing stages, and the correlations of daily increase of anthocyanin content with other 10 kinds of yields were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) During the whole development, the anthocyanin content had three variation types, I.e. A slow-increase type, a fluctuating-change type, and a devious- rising type, and had different responses to the growth of length of the longest vine, number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, and photosynthate allotments. (2) The anthocyanin contents among 13 varieties began to have significant difference after 20 d, and showed completed differentiation during 40-100 d, which had significantly negative correlationships with the number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, photosynthate allotment ratio to root, and had significant positive correlationships with dry matter content of root, length of the longest vine, fresh/dry yield of stem, dry yield of whole plant and photosynthate allotment ratio to foliage. (3) Because of the significantly negative correlation between daily increase of anthocyanin content and dry matter

  7. FlyBase: improvements to the bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Leyland, Paul C; Seal, Ruth L; Goodman, Joshua L; Thurmond, Jim; Strelets, Victor B; Wilson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    An accurate, comprehensive, non-redundant and up-to-date bibliography is a crucial component of any Model Organism Database (MOD). Principally, the bibliography provides a set of references that are specific to the field served by the MOD. Moreover, it serves as a backbone to which all curated biological data can be attributed. Here, we describe the organization and main features of the bibliography in FlyBase (flybase.org), the MOD for Drosophila melanogaster. We present an overview of the current content of the bibliography, the pipeline for identifying and adding new references, the presentation of data within Reference Reports and effective methods for searching and retrieving bibliographic data. We highlight recent improvements in these areas and describe the advantages of using the FlyBase bibliography over alternative literature resources. Although this article is focused on bibliographic data, many of the features and tools described are applicable to browsing and querying other datasets in FlyBase.

  8. Attracting the attention of a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-04-26

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can direct the attention of the fly to one or the other of the two visual half-fields. The cue can precede the test stimulus by several seconds and may also be spatially separated from the test by at least 20° and yet attract attention. This kind of external guidance of attention is found only in the lower visual field.

  9. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  10. Research on Partner-fly Infrared Decoys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Yang; LI Yan-jun; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of new generation of infrared-guided missiles, it is very difficult for the traditional point-source infrared decoys to confront them. Therefore it is important to research the jamming mechanism and tactical application of infrared decoys. Through the research on rocket-propelled infrared decoys, a movement model and a radiation pattern of partner-fly infrared decoy are established based on the jamming mechanism of infrared centroid effect, the aerodynamics principle as well as the aeronautical dynamics principle. A dynamic simulation seeking superiority is conducted for its firing range and direction, a tactical application method of partner-fly infrared decoy against infrared-guided missile is explored, and the technical conditions of partner-fly infrared decoys are determined.

  11. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  12. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  13. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  14. 黄肉甘薯多酚类提取物的抗氧化活性研究%STUDY ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL EXTRACTS FROM YELLOW FLESH SWEET POTATO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师超; 卞科

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we respectively extracted polyphenols from the flesh and peel of yellow flesh sweet potato by ethanol extraction method, studied the antioxidant activity of the polyphenol extracts from the flesh and peel of yellow flesh sweet potato using gallic acid as the reference control, and respectively determined the effects of the polyphenol extracts on scavenging superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, the reduction capability, and the oxidation resistance to edible oils. The results showed that the content of polyphenols in the peel was 15.654 mg/g, which was about 3.17 times of that in the flesh; the antioxidant activity of the polyphenol extracts from flesh and peel of yellow flesh sweet potato was as excellent as gallic acid; and the polyphenol extracts were the natural antioxidant with development and utilization values.%采用乙醇浸提法分别提取黄肉甘薯肉和皮的多酚类物质,薯皮和肉总多酚的含量分别为15.654 mg/g和4.938 mg/g,薯皮中的含量约为薯肉的3.17倍.并以没食子酸为对照品对黄肉甘薯肉和皮多酚类提取物的抗氧化活性进行了研究.通过5种不同的抗氧化体系,分别测定了黄肉甘薯肉和皮多酚类提取物对超氧阴离子自由基、过氧化氢、羟基自由基的清除能力、还原能力以及对食用油脂的抗氧化性的影响.结果表明:黄肉甘薯肉和皮多酚类提取物具有与没食子酸一样良好的抗氧化性能,是一种具有开发利用价值的天然抗氧化剂.

  15. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  16. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  17. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  18. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  19. Caracterização da polpa de pêssegos produzidos em São Manuel-SP Characterization of peach fleshes produced in São Manuel, State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do consumo de frutas e hortaliças sempre foram associados à presença de vitaminas e fibras. Entretanto, outros compostos são importantes e muitos exercem função antioxidante, destacando-se os polifenóis e pigmentos. Neste trabalho, foram caracterizadas as polpas de sete cultivares de pêssegos, duas de polpa branca e cinco de polpa amarela, utilizando-se frutas no ponto de consumo (frutos com coloração de fundo amarela. Foi avaliada a concentração de vitamina C, polifenóis, pigmentos e a capacidade antioxidante. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de sete tratamentos e três repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por seis frutos. O teor de vitamina C variou de 7,74 a 17,31mg em 100g-1 de polpa; a concentração de polifenóis variou de 53,33 a 141,77mg de ácido gálico em 100g-1 de polpa; o conteúdo de clorofila 'A' variou de 11,59 a 44,61ug em 100g-1 de polpa; o conteúdo de clorofila 'B' variou de 69,69 a 411,37ug em 100g-1 de polpa; os carotenóides totais variaram de 28,69 a 81,58ug em 100g-1 de polpa; as antocianinas variaram de 85,13 a 336,05ug em 100g-1 de polpa. A atividade antioxidante variou de 35,81 a 65,39mg de DPPH reduzido 100g-1 de polpa. Foi verificada correlação positiva significativa entre vitamina C e atividade antioxidante.The benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption have been always associated with the presence of vitamins and fiber. However, other compounds are important and many exert antioxidant function, especially the polyphenols and pigments. In this study, fleshes of seven peach cultivars were characterized, two from white flesh cultivars and five of yellow flesh, all from fruits at the point of consumption (fruits with yellow background color. It was evaluated the concentration of vitamin C, polyphenols, pigments and antioxidant capacity. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of seven treatments and three

  20. Comparison of modified immunodiffusion and Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) methods for detection of Salmonella in raw flesh and highly contaminated food types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, P T; Falbo-Nelson, M T

    1995-01-01

    A wide variety of naturally contaminated and inoculated raw flesh and highly contaminated food types was analyzed by a modified immunodiffusion enrichment protocol and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method to determine the equivalence of these methods. This modification was developed by Agriculture Canada to allow addition of a high-temperature selective enrichment step in tetrathionate brilliant green broth at 42 degrees C while maintaining a 2-day total test time. Foods representing red meat, white meat, frog, and seafoods and one type of animal meal were evaluated. A total of 320 samples was tested, resulting in false negative rates of 5.2 and 3.5%, respectively, for the modified immunodiffusion and the BAM culture methods. The overall agreement rate was 96.9%.

  1. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; Arimond, Mary; Osman, Nadia; Cunguara, Benedito; Zano, Filipe; Tschirley, David

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is widespread and has severe consequences for young children in the developing world. Food-based approaches may be an appropriate and sustainable complement to supplementation programs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is rich in beta-carotene and is well accepted by young children. In an extremely resource poor area in Mozambique, the effectiveness of introduction of OFSP was assessed in an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, which aimed to increase vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children. The 2-y quasi-experimental intervention study followed households and children (n = 741; mean age 13 mo at baseline) through 2 agricultural cycles. In y 2, 90% of intervention households produced OFSP, and mean OFSP plot size in intervention areas increased from 33 to 359 m(2). Intervention children (n = 498) were more likely than control children (n = 243) to eat OFSP 3 or more d in the last wk (55% vs. 8%, P Africa.

  2. Studies On Optimization Of Protease Production Using Bacterial Isolate Clri Strain 5468 And Its Application In Dehairing And Hydrolysis Of Tannery Fleshings Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala Devi Seenivasagham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strain which produces protease was originally isolated characterized in Biotechnology laboratory at CLRI and was maintained. The microorganism was growned on several proteolytic media and the maximum activity was observed. The characterization of enzyme was analysed for different pH temperature size of inoculum inhibitors age of the culture. Then the enzyme was observed for the unhairing of skin and the disadvantage in chemical treatment was studied. The conformation of unhairing was studied using histology studies. The tannery waste solid fleshings as it is cannot be directly disposed off to the environment. It was treated with the microbial proteases. The hydrolysis of waste was done using proteases. The solid waste was converted to protien fat and the salt matter. Future work is to optimize the cheap media for the production of the enzyme for large scale applications in various industries.

  3. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  4. Comparative transcripts profiling reveals new insight into molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis red-flesh mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianchen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in lycopene metabolism and regulation is growing rapidly because accumulative studies have suggested an important role for lycopene in human health promotion. However, little is known about the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in fruits other than tomato so far. Results On a spontaneous sweet orange bud mutant with abnormal lycopene accumulation in fruits and its wild type, comparative transcripts profiling was performed using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 6,877,027 and 6,275,309 reliable signatures were obtained for the wild type (WT and the mutant (MT, respectively. Interpretation of the MPSS signatures revealed that the total number of transcribed gene in MT is 18,106, larger than that in WT 17,670, suggesting that newly initiated transcription occurs in the MT. Further comparison of the transcripts abundance between MT and WT revealed that 3,738 genes show more than two fold expression difference, and 582 genes are up- or down-regulated at 0.05% significance level by more than three fold difference. Functional assignments of the differentially expressed genes indicated that 26 reliable metabolic pathways are altered in the mutant; the most noticeable ones are carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and citrate cycle. These data suggest that enhanced photosynthesis and partial impairment of lycopene downstream flux are critical for the formation of lycopene accumulation trait in the mutant. Conclusion This study provided a global picture of the gene expression changes in a sweet orange red-flesh mutant as compared to the wild type. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed new insight into the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in the sweet orange red-flesh mutant.

  5. Orange-fleshed sweet potato-based infant food is a better source of dietary vitamin A than a maize-legume blend as complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2014-03-01

    White maize, which is widely used for complementary feeding and is seldom fortified at the household level, may be associated with the high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among infants in low-income countries. The nutrient composition of complementary foods based on orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and cream-fleshed sweet potato (CFSP), maize-soybean-groundnut (Weanimix), and a proprietary wheat-based infant cereal (Nestlé Cerelac) were assessed using the Codex Standard (CODEX STAN 074-1981, Rev. 1-2006) specification as a reference. Additionally, the costs of OFSP complementary food, CFSP complementary food, and Weanimix production at the household level were estimated. Phytate and polyphenols, which limit the bioavailability of micronutrients, were assessed. Energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients listed as essential composition in the Codex Standard were determined and expressed as energy or nutrient density. All the formulations met the stipulated energy and nutrient densities as specified in the Codex Standard. The beta-carotene content of OFSP complementary food exceeded the vitamin A specification (60 to 180 microg retinol activity equivalents/100 kcal). All the formulations except Weanimix contained measurable amounts of ascorbic acid (> or = 32.0 mg/100 g). The level of phytate in Weanimix was highest, about twice that of OFSP complementary food. The sweet potato-based foods contained about twice as much total polyphenols as the cereal-based products. The estimated production cost of OFSP complementary food was slightly higher (1.5 times) than that of Weanimix. OFSP complementary food is a good source of beta-carotene and would therefore contribute to the vitamin A requirements of infants. Both OFSP complementary food and Weanimix may inhibit iron absorption because of their high levels of polyphenols and phytate, respectively, compared with those of Nestlé Cerelac.

  6. Historical changes of the anthropogenic impact in a coastal lagoon: Pb isotopes and trace elements on mussel`s fleshes and shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonne, M.; Othman, D.B.; Luck, J.M. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Geofluides, Bassins, Eaux, Montpellier (France)

    1997-10-01

    Molluscs are known to concentrate metals and are used as bioindicators in many programs of coastal survey. The aims of this study were: (1) to better understand the spatial and temporal variations of metals in a greatly anthropized lagoon (Thau, S France) by using concentrations and Pb isotopes in mussel flesh; (2) to compare present and past environment and the different sources of local Pb in recent mussel shells and ones from the Roman empire. Young mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the sea were introduced at various locations in the lagoon. The ancient shells came from a Roman villa on the lagoon coast. We compare their isotopic compositions to different sources present on the watershed such as rocks, road, harbour, ancient lead castings or Spanish and English ingots. Concentrations of trace metals were determined directly by ICP-MS after proper dilution and the isotopic compositions was determined on a VG Sector mass spectrometer. The Pb concentration variations are difficult to separate from weight variations so we use isotopic compositions for determination of lead sources. The Pb isotopic composition of the flesh define nice alignments in {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb vs {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb diagram with season, which can be explained by two-component mixtures. However, while one end-member remains quite stable and influenced by road network, the other one shifts to more radiogenic values indicating either a variable origin, or varying proportions of a third component. The ancient shells have more radiogenic isotopes than the current shells but shift towards ancient lead castings and ingots signature. Variations of Pb ratios in the ancient shells can be roughly correlated with age and the evolution of population density around the lagoon over the centuries

  7. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p controls or that treated at 200 MPa for 5 min. No significant changes (p > 0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  8. Characterisation and expression of calpain family members in relation to nutritional status, diet composition and flesh texture in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    Full Text Available Calpains are non-lysosomal calcium-activated neutral proteases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including muscle proteolysis linked to post-mortem flesh softening. The aims of this study were (a to characterise several members of the calpain system in gilthead sea bream and (b to examine their expression in relation to nutritional status and muscle tenderisation. We identified the complete open reading frame of gilthead sea bream calpains1-3, sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapn3, and two paralogs of the calpain small subunit1, sacapns1a and sacapns1b. Proteins showed 63-90% sequence identity compared with sequences from mammals and other teleost fishes, and the characteristic domain structure of vertebrate calpains. Transcripts of sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b had a wide tissue distribution, whereas sacapn3 was almost exclusively detected in skeletal muscle. Next, we assessed transcript expression in skeletal muscle following alteration of nutritional status by (a fasting and re-feeding or (b feeding four experimental diets with different carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. Fasting significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased free fatty acids and triglycerides, together with a significant increase in sacapns1b expression. Following 7 days of re-feeding, plasma parameters returned to fed values and sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b expression was significantly reduced. Furthermore, an increase in dietary carbohydrate content (11 to 39% diminished growth but increased muscle texture, which showed a significant correlation with decreased sacapn1 and sacapns1a expression, whilst the other calpains remained unaffected. This study has demonstrated that calpain expression is modulated by nutritional status and diet composition in gilthead sea bream, and that the expression of several calpain members is correlated with muscle texture, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for flesh quality in aquaculture production.

  9. Lixiviation of fly ash. Uitloging van vliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The lixiviation of a number of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, As, Sb and Hg) from different fly ash products (fired and cement bounded products) is investigated. A theoretical description of diffusion from a fly ash product is given as well as a standard test to determine the lixiviation rate. Lixiviation can be interpreted as a diffusion process. Diffusion of an element X from a fly ash product can be described with the following parameters: the effective diffusion coefficient, the fraction that is available for lixiviation and the tortuosity of the product. The physical meaning of the determined tortuosity is not clear. The behavior of tracers in the product is compared with the behavior of the corresponding element. Often this behavior deviates, sometimes even considerably. From a comparison of fly ash products it appears that cement bounded products are better able to combine with arsenicum and antimony than fired products. None of the investigated products caused concentrations of micro-elements way above the stated norm. Improvement as for lixiviation behavior of the products seems to be possible, in particular for bricks. 8 refs., 17 tabs., 26 figs.

  10. Have tsetse flies disappeared from Brazzaville town?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bitsindou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 1980 to 1985, the zoological park of Brazzaville was the only tsetse resting site located in downtown which supplied others temporary sites. The last trapping survey carried out in this area in 1987 showed that there were no more tsetse flies. Knowing that areas free of tsetse used to be reinvaded many years later, we have carried out an entomological survey in the area with the aim to verify what has happened more than twenty years later; given that suitable environmental conditions for Glossina are still available. Methods: Sixteen pyramidal traps were set out at the edge of the forest, along paths and around animal’s cages and were examined twice a day, at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during four days. Results: No tsetse fly was captured. Using the formula previously described; the probability of capturing a tsetse fly is 0.002. Conclusion: The zoological park seems close to be free of tsetse flies. Long-lasting surveys within the town and around are required before stating a complete disappearance of tsetse in the town.

  11. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  12. Refractive index of the fly rhabdomere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoenders, B.J.; Huiser, A.M.J.; Toorn, P. van

    1982-01-01

    The refractive index and the diameter of the fly rhabdomere were determined by comparing the experimental results derived from interference microscopy with the results of a theoretical study on the scattering of plane waves by a homogeneous, isotropic cylindrical dielectric rod. It was found that

  13. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  14. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  15. Decision-making capacity of flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) can make appropriate choices among alternative flight options based on the relative salience of competing visual cues, according to a recent study by a team under the leadership of GUO Aike from the CAS Institute of Neuroscience.

  16. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  17. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    volunteers took on many of the following duties to help enable CAP functions: clerical work , aircraft maintenance , refueling operations, first aid...Highway Patrol, Monterey County Aero Squadron, Lane County Sheriff’s Office, Civil Air Patrol, volunteer flying organizations, law enforcement...5 3. Civil Air Patrol’s Use in Law Enforcement .................................7 D. POTENTIAL EXPLANATIONS AND HYPOTHESES

  18. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Also, fly ash has been found to be an efficient adsorbent for water treatment in the removal of ... properties for the removal of metal ions and organics; the residual sludge produced is used in ... investigate the reuse of the adsorbent for better economy of the process. ..... Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria to complete this article.

  19. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  20. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  1. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  2. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  3. "Lord of the Flies". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on William Golding's novel "Lord of the Flies," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that, on a literal level, the novel deals with what happens to a group of boys stranded on an island; and that on a symbolic level, it investigates what happens to civilized people when the structures of civilization…

  4. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  5. Measurement on Camber Deformation of Wings of Free-flying Dragonflies and Beating-flying Dragonflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqiang Song; Lijiang Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of wing orientation and deformation during flapping flight is necessary for a complete aerodynamic analysis, but to date those kinematic features have not been simultaneously quantified for free-flying insects. A projected comb-fringe (PCF) method has been developed for measuring spanwise camber changes on free-flying dragonflies and on beating-flying dragonflies through the course of a wingbeat, which bases on projecting a fringe pattern over the whole measurement area and then measuring the wing deformation from the distorted fringe pattern. Experimental results demonstrate substantial camber changes both along the wingspan and through the course of a wingbeat. The ratio of camber deformation to chord length for hind wing is up to 0.11 at 75% spanwise with a flapping angle of -0.66 degree for a free-flying dragonfly.

  6. Advanced control technology and airworthiness flying qualities requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Flying quality requirements are specified in terms of the complete pilot-airframe-systems loop, the task, and the environment. Results from a study of flying qualities are reported. A review of the treatment of failure cases in various flying quality requirements is presented along with a description of the methods used and relevant lessons learned from recent Autoland certification programs.

  7. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  8. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  9. Flies remember the time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Nitin S; Wolf, Reinhard; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Heisenberg, Martin

    2015-06-15

    The circadian clock enables organisms to anticipate daily environmental cycles and drives corresponding changes in behavior [1, 2]. Such endogenous oscillators also enable animals to display time-specific memory [1, 3-5]. For instance, mice and honeybees associate the location of a stimulus (like food or mate) with a certain time of day (time-place learning) [6, 7]. However, the mechanism underlying time-related learning and memory is not known. In the present study, we investigate time-specific odor learning. We use a genetically tractable animal, the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Starved flies are trained in the morning and afternoon to associate distinct odors with sucrose reward. The training is repeated the next day, and their time-dependent odor preference is tested on the third day. Our results indicate that Drosophila can express appetitive memory at the relevant time of day if the two conditioning events are separated by more than 4 hr. Flies can form time-odor associations in constant darkness (DD) as well as in a daily light-dark (LD) cycle, but not when kept under constant light (LL) conditions. Circadian clock mutants, period(01) (per(01)) and clock(AR) (clk(AR)), learned to associate sucrose reward with a certain odor but were unable to form time-odor associations. Our findings show that flies can utilize temporal information as an additional cue in appetitive learning. Time-odor learning in flies depends on a per- and clk-dependent endogenous mechanism that is independent of environmental light cues.

  10. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  11. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  12. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  13. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  14. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  15. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  16. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  18. Focus characteristics of long distance flying optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兆谷; 蒋金波; 李现勤; 许国良; 夏金安; W.M.Steen; G.Dearden

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD law for the complex parameter q of the TEM00 Gaussian beam is generally not valid for high-order modes. It can be used for the high-order modes or their superposition when the spot size w in the virtual part of the parameter q is substituted by the Rayleigh range ZR of a certain resonator. The focus characteristics of long distance flying optics are studied in this paper theoretically and experimentally for the TEMmn Gaussian beams between the two types of resonators without and with distortion. It is very important for the applications of the flying optical processing, the laser space craft and the spatial filter in the large laser project.

  19. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  20. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  1. Evil in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    Lord of the Flies deals with the problem of the nature of human personality and the reflection of personality on society.Devils hidesomewhere dee in side of all people.Without morals,law and order it will eventually surface and come out.Evil it;the natural product of their con-sciousness.Simon understands,and this is the wisdom Golding treats with awe.that evil is"only us".

  2. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  3. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  4. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  5. Spacecraft formation flying: Dynamics, control and navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, Kyle Terry; Vadali, Srinivas Rao; Gurfil, Pini; How, Jonathan; Breger, Louis S.

    2009-12-01

    Space agencies are now realizing that much of what has previously been achieved using hugely complex and costly single platform projects - large unmanned and manned satellites (including the present International Space Station) - can be replaced by a number of smaller satellites networked together. The key challenge of this approach, namely ensuring the proper formation flying of multiple craft, is the topic of this second volume in Elsevier's Astrodynamics Series, Spacecraft Formation Flying: Dynamics, control and navigation. In this unique text, authors Alfriend et al. provide a coherent discussion of spacecraft relative motion, both in the unperturbed and perturbed settings, explain the main control approaches for regulating relative satellite dynamics, using both impulsive and continuous maneuvers, and present the main constituents required for relative navigation. The early chapters provide a foundation upon which later discussions are built, making this a complete, standalone offering. Intended for graduate students, professors and academic researchers in the fields of aerospace and mechanical engineering, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics, Spacecraft Formation Flying is a technical yet accessible, forward-thinking guide to this critical area of astrodynamics.

  6. Examining the nature of fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins-Gilligan, Janice; Dygdon, Judith A; Conger, Anthony J

    2011-10-01

    The nature of fear of flying (FOF) is not well understood. It is commonly assumed to be a fear learned from flight-specific experiences. However, existing literature suggests that FOF is a manifestation of fears of other stimuli (e.g., heights) embedded in the flying situation, but not specific to it. This study compared the level of prediction of FOF attained from flight-specific conditioning experiences (specifically, classical conditioning experiences in direct, observational, and verbal modes) with the level of prediction attained from flight-embedded fears. There were 109 university students who completed the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire (FAS) and the Fear Survey Schedule, Version III (FSS) as well as demographic and flying experience questionnaires built for this study. All FOF measures were highly predicted by at least one flight-embedded fear. Conversely, conditioning experiences predicted only four of five FOF measures and this prediction was not strong. In general, conditioning experiences did not behave as in previous studies of conditioning and fear. The results suggest that FOF is based more on several flight-embedded innate fears than on learned fears. The implications of these results for FOF emergence and prevention are discussed.

  7. Accurate Segmentation for Infrared Flying Bird Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hong; HUANG Ying; LING Haibin; ZOU Qi; YANG Hao

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes present a huge risk for air ve-hicles, especially since traditional airport bird surveillance is mainly dependent on inefficient human observation. For improving the effectiveness and efficiency of bird monitor-ing, computer vision techniques have been proposed to detect birds, determine bird flying trajectories, and pre-dict aircraft takeoff delays. Flying bird with a huge de-formation causes a great challenge to current tracking al-gorithms. We propose a segmentation based approach to enable tracking can adapt to the varying shape of bird. The approach works by segmenting object at a region of inter-est, where is determined by the object localization method and heuristic edge information. The segmentation is per-formed by Markov random field, which is trained by fore-ground and background mixture Gaussian models. Exper-iments demonstrate that the proposed approach provides the ability to handle large deformations and outperforms the m ost state-of-the-art tracker in the infrared flying bird tracking problem.

  8. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. FlyCap: Markerless Motion Capture Using Multiple Autonomous Flying Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Liu, Yebin; Cheng, Wei; Guo, Kaiwen; Zhou, Guyue; Dai, Qionghai; Fang, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Aiming at automatic, convenient and non-instrusive motion capture, this paper presents a new generation markerless motion capture technique, the FlyCap system, to capture surface motions of moving characters using multiple autonomous flying cameras (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) each integrated with an RGBD video camera). During data capture, three cooperative flying cameras automatically track and follow the moving target who performs large-scale motions in a wide space. We propose a novel non-rigid surface registration method to track and fuse the depth of the three flying cameras for surface motion tracking of the moving target, and simultaneously calculate the pose of each flying camera. We leverage the using of visual-odometry information provided by the UAV platform, and formulate the surface tracking problem in a non-linear objective function that can be linearized and effectively minimized through a Gaussian-Newton method. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results demonstrate the plausible surface and motion reconstruction results.

  10. Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V M; Mentasti, T; Bellagamba, F; Luzzana, U; Caprino, F; Turchini, G M; Giani, I; Valfrè, F

    2006-11-01

    The presence of carotenoids in animal tissue reflects their sources along the food chain. Astaxanthin, the main carotenoid used for salmonid pigmentation, is usually included in the feed as a synthetic product. However, other dietary sources of astaxanthin such as shrimp or krill wastes, algae meal or yeasts are also available on the market. Astaxanthin possesses two identical asymmetric atoms at C-3 and C-3' making possible three optical isomers with all-trans configuration of the chain: 3S,3'S, 3R,3'S, and 3R,3'R. The distribution of the isomers in natural astaxanthin differs from that of the synthetic product. This latter is a racemic mixture, with a typical ratio of 1:2:1 (3S,3'S:3R,3'S:3R,3'R), while astaxanthin from natural sources has a variable distribution of the isomers deriving from the different biological organism that synthesized it. The high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of all-trans isomers of astaxanthin was performed in different pigment sources, such as red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, alga meal Haematococcus pluvialis, krill meal and oil, and shrimp meal. With the aim to investigate astaxanthin isomer ratios in flesh of fish fed different carotenoid sources, three groups of rainbow trout were fed for 60 days diets containing astaxanthin from synthetic source, H. pluvialis algae meal and P. rhodozyma red yeast. Moreover, the distribution of optical isomers of astaxanthin in trout purchased on the Italian market was investigated. A characteristic distribution of astaxanthin stereoisomers was detected for each pigment sources and such distribution was reproduced in the flesh of trout fed with that source. Colour values measured in different sites of fillet of rainbow trout fed with different pigment sources showed no significant differences. Similarly, different sources of pigment (natural or synthetic) produced colour values of fresh fillet with no relevant or significant differences. The coefficient of distance computed amongst

  11. Pollination Technique of Pitaya with Red Pericarp and Flesh in Rainy Season%红肉型火龙果雨季授粉技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志平; 张阳梅

    2013-01-01

    为减少降雨对火龙果产量造成的损失,探索红肉型火龙果雨季授粉技术,比较了不同降雨类型气候条件下,套袋授粉和自然授粉对火龙果产量和品质的影响.结果表明,与自然授粉相比,红肉型火龙果雨季套袋授粉后,座果率提高18.89%~51.67%,平均单果重提高181.79~201.77 g,增产23006.55~27073.95 kg/hm2,为自然授粉处理的2.63~4.19倍;套袋授粉还促进了火龙果的果实发育,增加了一、二级商品果比率,每公顷比对照净增收18.92~20.62万元,增幅达240.7 %~433.2%,大幅提升了火龙果种植效益,同时对火龙果的内在品质无影响.雨季套袋授粉在生产上是简便、有效、经济、可操作性强的一项技术措施.%In order to reduce yield losses because of rainfall, pollination techniques of pitaya with red pericarp and flesh in rainy season was explored. The effects of different pollination treatments on the yield and quality of pitaya were clarified in different types of rainfall climatic conditions. Compared with natural pollination, pollination with bagging treatment increased fruit-set rate of 18.89%~51.67%, the average weight of 181.79~201.77 g and yield 23 006.55-27 073.95 kg/hm2. Pollination with bagging not only promoted pitaya development but also made higher percentage of commercial fruit and yield as well as economic benefits. The net income over the CK was 189 200-206 200 Yuan/hm2, an increase rate of 240.7%~433.2%. The bagging pollination technique of pitaya with red pericarp and flesh in rainy season is simple, high efficiency and operable.

  12. 长脂拟鲿含肉率及肉质营养评价%Flesh rate and muscle nutritional composition in Pseudobagrus adiposalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹邦一; 代应贵; 董坡

    2014-01-01

    The flesh rate and nutritional components of muscle in Pseudobagrus adiposalis were determined and evaluated by the routine methods.The results showed that the flesh ratio of P.adiposalis averaged 53.99%.The contents of protein and lipid were 18.58%and 0.62%respectively in the fresh muscle of the species.A total of 17 common amino acids ( ex-cept for tryptophan ) were determined , and the total content of the 17 amino acids was 85.81%in the dry muscle.The total content of 9 essential amino acids was 39.41%and made up 45.96%of that of the 17 amino acids.And leucine and lysine had much higher contents than the other essential amino acids.The essential amino acid index ( EAAI) was 75.23.The total content of 4 delicious amino acids was 33.92%and accounted for 39.52%of that of the 17 amino acids in the species.The first limited amino acid of the species was phenylalanine +tyrosine and the second one was methionine +cysteine and valine.%采用常规方法测定了长脂拟鲿( Pseudobagrus adiposalis)的含肉率及肌肉营养成分,并对其肉质营养进行了分析和评价。结果表明:长脂拟鲿平均含肉率为53.99%。肌肉鲜样中蛋白质含量较高,达18.58%;脂肪含量较低,为0.62%。肌肉干样中17种氨基酸(色氨酸未测定)的含量为85.81%。其中必需氨基酸含量为39.41%,占氨基酸总量的45.96%,并以亮氨酸、赖氨酸含量最高。必需氮基酸指数较高,达75.23。4种鲜味氨基酸含量高达33.92%,并占氨基酸总量的39.52%。第一限制氨基酸为苯丙氨酸+酪氨酸,第二限制氨基酸为甲硫氨酸+半胱氨酸和缬氨酸。

  13. Modificações dos componentes de parede celular do melão 'Orange Flesh' submetido a tratamento pós-colheita com cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo V. de B. Vilas Boas

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar as mudanças estruturais da parede celular durante o armazenamento do melão 'Orange Flesh' submetido ao tratamento pós-colheita com CaCl2. Os teores de celulose, hemicelulose, substâncias pécticas e seu grau de esterificação, proteínas e cálcio foram determinados na parede celular da polpa dos frutos armazenados sob temperatura ambiente e refrigeração. O tratamento hidrotérmico por imersão em CaCl2 de melões 'Orange Flesh' armazenados sob temperatura ambiente determinou, aparentemente, um incremento na concentração de cálcio ligado à parede celular da polpa dos frutos, além de inibir parcialmente a degradação de substâncias pécticas e seu grau de esterificação e promover a solubilização de proteínas da parede celular, embora não tenha influenciado as mudanças dos compostos da parede celular, a exceção dos poliuronídeos, nos frutos armazenados sob refrigeração a 6°C. A despeito do tratamento com cálcio, o armazenamento do melão 'Orange Flesh' por 28 dias à temperatura ambiente determinou uma redução nos teores de proteínas e uma substancial desesterificação das pectinas, embora não tenha afetado, aparentemente, os teores de celulose e hemicelulose e promovido um aumento relativo nos poliuronídeos e cálcio ligado à parede celular. Os frutos armazenados sob refrigeração apresentaram poucas mudanças dos compostos da parede celular, a despeito do fato de que uma redução no grau de esterificação tenha sido noticiado durante os 31 dias de armazenamento.The purpose of this work was to study the structural changes of the cell wall during the storage of 'Orange Flesh' melon submitted to postharvest treatment with CaCl2. The content of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectic substances and their degree of esterification, proteins and calcium was determined in the cell wall of the flesh of the fruits stored under ambient temperature and refrigeration. The hot

  14. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NOx, SOx, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. 428 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar-788010, Assam (India)

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. (author)

  16. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  17. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  18. 黄颡鱼的含肉率及肌肉营养价值研究%Study on flesh content and its nutritive value of Pseudobagrus ful vidraco (Richardson)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄钧; 陈琴; 陈意明; 蔡子德; 农永恒; 柯永恩

    2001-01-01

    A conventional method was used to investigate the flesh contentand to analyse the nutritional components of the flesh in Pseudobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson) from Guijiang river, Guangxi. The results showed that flesh content of the fish was 83.88%. On the basis of dry matter of the flesh, the contents of crude protein, ether extract and ash were 85.96%,5.04% and 5.57% respectively. The amount of amino acids and essential amino acids were 70.21% and 27.39% respect ively. The contents of Ca,P,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn and Se were 395.8, 1870,3.3, 53.3 ,47.5, 30.3 mg/kg and 7470.6 μg/kg respectively.It was thought that yellowheaded catfish is one of quality fishes with better nutritive value.%采用常规方法测得广西桂江黄颡鱼的含肉率为83.88%;每100g肌肉(干样)中含粗蛋白85.96g,粗脂肪5.04g,粗灰分5.57g,氨基酸总量为70.21g,必需氨基酸含量27.39g,含钙39.58mg,磷187mg,铜0.33mg,锌5.33mg,铁4.75mg,锰3.03mg,硒747.06μg。综合分析结果认为,广西桂江的黄颡鱼是营养价值较高的优质鱼类。

  19. GC-MS外标法分析椰子果肉中的脂肪酸含量%Fatty Acid Analysis of Coconut Flesh by GC-MS External Standard Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿薇; 郑敏燕; 魏永生; 张君才

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid in coconut flesh were analyzed by GC-MS ,using the external standard method to analyze quantitatively. There are different kinds of fatty acid in coconut flesh. The content of the four fatty acids in coconut flesh: Palmitic acid > oleic acid > stearic acid , Linoleic acid was not checked out. The RSD of results was between 2.03%and 10.25%.The recovery rate of sample was from 77.0%to 110.0%.%通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)测定椰子果肉中的脂肪酸含量,用外标法进行定量分析。椰子果肉脂肪酸种类丰富,选取常见的4种脂肪酸,在椰子果肉中的含量:棕榈酸>油酸>硬脂酸,亚油酸未检出。相对标准偏差RSD (n=5)在2.03%~10.25%之间,样品回收率测定在77.0%~110.0%之间。

  20. The Ratio of Flesh to Body and Analysis on Biochemical Composition of Muscle in Pachyhynobius Shangchengensis%商城肥鲵的含肉率及其肌肉生化成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仁海; 张丽霞

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The ratio of flesh content and biochemical compositions in muscles of Pachyhynobius shangchengensis were researched in this experiment to provide basic referrences for studying nutritive physiological ecology of Pachyhynobius shangchengensis.[Method]The biochemical analytic method was used to detect the ratio of flesh content and biochemical compositions in muscle of Pachyhynobius shangchengensis.[Result]The ratio of flesh contents of female and male Pachyhynobius shangchengensis were 54.93% and 55.84% respectively.The contents of protein,total saccharides and fatty acid of female Pachyhynobius shangchengensis were 15.44% ,1.70% and 0.68% respectively,while the same contents of male Pachyhynobius shangchengensis were 15.67% ,1.89% and 0.53% respectively.The total content of 18 kinds of amino acids was 12.72%(the proportion in fresh weight),among which the content of 8 kinds of essential amino acids was 4.68%.The essential amino acids index(EAAI)was 72.68 and limiting amino acids was valine.There were 11 kinds of fatty acids in muscles of Pachyhynobius shangchengensis,among which the content of unsaturated fatty acid(80.02%)was higher than that of saturated fatty acids(19.98%).[Conclusion]Pachyhynobius shangchengensis was a kind of valuable natural resource belonging to the nutritious type of low fat content and high protein content.

  1. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  2. Use of insecticide-impregnated ear tags for the control of face flies and horn-flies on pastured cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R E; Westby, E J; Hendrix, K S; Lemenager, R P

    1981-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated ear tags in controlling face flies, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linn.), on pastured beef cattle. In one 16-week trial, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ear tags treated with stirofos (Rabon) insecticide reduced horn fly numbers by 79% (P less than .05) and face fly numbers by 30% (P less than .05). Coumaphos (Co-Ral) insecticide dust bags used in a separate herd produced an 86% (P less than .05) reduction in horn flies and an 18% (P less than .05) reduction in face flies. In the second study, 5 and 10% permethrin (Atroban), PVC-treated ear tags in a one-piece design were tested. In this 11 week trial, horn fly control averaged 95% (P less than .05) with the 10% tag and 77% (P less than .05) with the 5% tag. Face fly control averaged 49% (P less than .05) for 8 weeks with the 10% permethrin tag. No significant face fly control was achieved with the 5% permethrin tag. In a herd treated with coumaphos dust bags, horn fly control averaged 93% (P less than .05) and face fly control averaged 34% (P less than .05). The third study tested 5 and 10% permethrin, PVC-treated ear tags in a two-piece design and two-piece 5% permethrin-treated ear tags in a polyurethane matrix. Fourteen-week horn fly control averaged 88% (P less than .05) with the 10% PVC-treated tag, 83% (P less than .05) with the 5% PVC-treated tag, 71% (P less than .05) with the 5% polyurethane-treated tag and 74% (P less than .05) with coumaphos dust bags. Face fly control averaged less than 50% (P greater than .05) throughout the trial with all treatments.

  3. FliH and FliI ensure efficient energy coupling of flagellar type III protein export in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru; Kinoshita, Miki; Inoue, Yumi; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Ihara, Kunio; Koya, Satomi; Hara, Noritaka; Nishioka, Noriko; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-06-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, flagellar proteins are exported via its specific export apparatus from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure. The flagellar export apparatus consists of a transmembrane (TM) export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlhA is a TM export gate protein and plays important roles in energy coupling of protein translocation. However, the energy coupling mechanism remains unknown. Here, we performed a cross-complementation assay to measure robustness of the energy transduction system of the export apparatus against genetic perturbations. Vibrio FlhA restored motility of a Salmonella ΔflhA mutant but not that of a ΔfliH-fliI flhB(P28T) ΔflhA mutant. The flgM mutations significantly increased flagellar gene expression levels, allowing Vibrio FlhA to exert its export activity in the ΔfliH-fliI flhB(P28T) ΔflhA mutant. Pull-down assays revealed that the binding affinities of Vibrio FlhA for FliJ and the FlgN-FlgK chaperone-substrate complex were much lower than those of Salmonella FlhA. These suggest that Vibrio FlhA requires the support of FliH and FliI to efficiently and properly interact with FliJ and the FlgN-FlgK complex. We propose that FliH and FliI ensure robust and efficient energy coupling of protein export during flagellar assembly.

  4. Environmental impact of using fly ash in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    An attempt was made to estimate the chemical composition of fly ash using the known chemical composition of coals from numerous regions of the country and the known behavior of elements in a limited number of coal and fly-ash samples. This technique assumes that each element in every piece of coal in the United States partitions itself into fly ash to the same extent and leaches from fly ash at the same rate. Using these limited data, enrichment factors were then calculated by dividing the composition in the fly ash by the composition in the corresponding coal samples. These enrichment factors were then applied to all of the coal samples for which chemical compositions were available to estimate the chemical composition of the fly ash.

  5. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  6. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Filipendula ulmaria Plant Extract Against Selected Foodborne Pathogenic and Spoilage Bacteria in Laboratory Media, Fish Flesh and Fish Roe Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-methanol extract from Filipendula ulmaria contains a variety of phenolic compounds, such as caffeic, p-coumaric and vanillic acid, myricetin, etc, which demonstrate antibacterial activity. Monitoring this activity in the broth using absorbance measurements showed that species of the Enterobacteriaceae family were more resistant than other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria tested. Acidic environment enhanced the antibacterial activity of Filipendula ulmaria extract when it was tested against Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. The efficacy of Filipendula ulmaria extract against selected foodborne psychrotrophic bacteria was also tested using solid laboratory media and low incubation temperatures for better simulation of food preservation conditions. Higher concentrations of the extract, compared to minimum inhibitory concentration determined in the broth, were needed for satisfactory inhibition of spoilage bacteria. Potential use of Filipendula ulmaria extract as natural food preservative was also examined against natural spoilage flora and inoculated pathogenic bacteria on fish flesh and fish roe product (tarama salad. No significant differences of viable populations of spoilage or pathogenic bacteria were found between the treated samples and controls. Further trials of Filipendula ulmaria extract should be carried out in acidic foods with low fat and protein content, supplemented with additional adjuncts, in order to explore its potential as effective natural food antimicrobial agent.

  8. Structural elucidation and estimation of the acute toxicity of the major UV-visible photoproduct of fludioxonil - detection in both skin and flesh samples of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Yannick; Nicol, Édith; Genty, Christophe; Bourcier, Sophie; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible irradiation of fludioxonil was investigated with two photoreactors using either a mercury or xenon vapor lamp. In both cases, it led to the formation of only one photoproduct in significant amount: 2-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-4-yl)-2-(nitrosomethylene)-4-oxobutanenitrile, which has been characterized using Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution - Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) coupling. A photolysis pathway has been proposed to rationalize its formation in degassed water. In vitro bioassays on Vibrio fischeri bacteria showed that UV-vis irradiation of an aqueous solution of fludioxonil significantly increases its toxicity. Because no other by-product was detected in significant amount, the photoproduct mentioned above may be considered mainly responsible for this increase in toxicity. Grape berries treated with a 50 ppm aqueous solution of fludioxonil were submitted to UV-visible irradiation under laboratory conditions. The fungicide and photoproduct were detected in both skin and flesh of berries, even after they have been rinsed with water. The ability of the photoproduct to pass through the fruit skin is comparable with that of fludioxonil. These results are of concern for consumers because they mean that water tap rinsing does not lead to efficient removing of both compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Polyphenols from hawthorn peels and fleshes differently mitigate dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in association with modulation of liver injury in high fructose diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Li, Wenfeng; Huang, Di; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-09-25

    Hawthorn ingestion is linked to health benefits due to the various polyphenols. The present study investigated the differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels (HPP) and fleshes (HFP) against liver injury induced by high-fructose diet in mice. It was found that the main species of polyphenols in hawthorn was chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin and hyperoside, and their contents in HPP were all higher than those in HFP. Administration of HPP was better than HFP to alleviate liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, reflected by the reduction of ALT, AST and ALP activities, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in mice. Meanwhile, HPP was also more effective than HFP to mitigate liver inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) release, and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities and PPARα expression, while reducing Nrf-2 and ARE expression in mice. Interestingly, HPP-treated mice also showed the lower levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and Apo-B, and the higher levels of HDL-C and Apo-A1 than HFP-treated mice via reducing FAS express. These results together with the histopathology of the liver with H&E and oil red O staining suggest that hawthorn fruit, especially its peel, is an excellent source of natural polyphenolic chemopreventive agents in the treatment of liver disorders.

  10. Detection of Chromium (Cr using X-ray Fluorescence Technique and Investigation of Cr Propagation from Poultry Feeds to Egg and Chicken Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuzzaman Rajib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents possibility of detecting the presence of Chromium (Cr in poultry in Rajshahi area using X-ray fluorescence (XRF technique. It also investigates the propagation of Cr from poultry feeds to chicken flesh. Poultry feeds were collected from different vendors at Rajshahi. It was found that some of the locally produced poultry feeds contained a considerable amount of Cr that propagates to the chicken meat and egg. This Cr might be hazardous for human health. Among the four most widely used feeds in Rajshahi region maximum Cr concentration of 17.3 ppm was detected in “Adorsho feed (Pabna”. Transmission of Cr from feed to egg and various parts of chicken were investigated with chicken samples of different ages grown by feeding “Adorsho feed”. An average of 4.3 ppm of Cr was found in Yolk and 2.7 ppm was found in the egg-white. Highest concentration of Cr was found to be 5.9 ppm in the brain of 29-days old chicken. The concentration of Cr was different in various parts of chicken depending on its age. The experimental results indicate that the XRF technique can be used efficiently to detect the presence and transmission of heavy metals like Cr from feed to egg and poultry

  11. A reassessment of the study of cut mark patterns to infer hominid manipulation of fleshed carcasses at the Flk Zinj 22 site, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous experimental studies on cut marks have suggested that cut mark percentages and their anatomical distribution (based on element type and bone section type could be used to differentiate primary access to fleshed carcasses from secondary access to defleshed carcasses. In this study, the experimental sample of this type of studies is increased and further data are included to infer a primary access by hominids to carcasses at the FLK Zinj site of Olduvai.

    Estudios experimentales anteriores sobre marcas de corte han sugerido que los porcentajes de marcas de corte y su distribución (basada en tipo de hueso y tipo de sección ósea podrían usarse para diferenciar un acceso primario a carcasas con carne de un acceso secundario a carcasas descarnadas. En este estudio semejante muestra experimental se ve ampliada y se muestran más datos que sirven para inferir que los homínidos tuvieron un acceso primario a las carcasas representadas en el yacimiento FLK Zinj de Olduvai.

  12. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onelli, E; Ghiani, A; Gentili, R; Serra, S; Musacchi, S; Citterio, S

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  13. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF and Non Melting Flesh (NMF Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Onelli

    Full Text Available Melting (MF and non melting flesh (NMF peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  14. Carotenoid profiling and biosynthetic gene expression in flesh and peel of wild-type and hp-1 tomato fruit under UV-B depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Valerio; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Tonelli, Chiara; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2012-05-16

    Although light is recognized as one of the main factors influencing fruit carotenogenesis, the specific role of UV-B radiation has been poorly investigated. The present work is addressed to assess the molecular events underlying carotenoid accumulation in presence or absence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light in tomato fruits of wild-type and high pigment-1 (hp-1), a mutant characterized by exaggerated photoresponsiveness and increased fruit pigmentation. Gene expression analyses indicated that in wild-type fruits UV-B radiation mainly negatively affects the carotenoid biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes downstream of lycopene both in flesh and peel, suggesting that the down-regulation of genes CrtL-b and CrtL-e and the subsequent accumulation of lycopene during tomato ripening are determined at least in part by UV-B light. In contrast to wild-type, UV-B depletion did not greatly affect carotenoid accumulation in hp-1 and generally determined minor differences in gene expression between control and UV-B-depleted conditions.

  15. Control of bloodsucking black fly (Simuliidae) populations in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Bartninkaitė, Ilona; Bernotienė, Rasa; Pakalniškis, Saulius; Žygutienė, Milda

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of bloodsucking black flies began in the 70s of the 20th century in the south-eastern part of Lithuania. By 1990, the biting activity of bloodsucking black flies increased and had become a serious problem. The bloodsucking insects caused losses of cattle and domestic birds and tormented holiday-makers in the Druskininkai health-resort. Biological larvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was used for bloodsucking black fly control in 1999–2005. The larvicide was ...

  16. A soil emergence trap for collections of phlebotomine sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Cláudio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of breeding sites of sand flies is of great epidemiological interest. A soil emergence trap for investigating potential sand fly breeding sites is described. The trap was tested in two rural areas in the Mogi Guaçu River Valley where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease. Seventy-three sand fly individuals of three species, Lutzomyia intermedia s. l., L. whitmani and L. pessoai, were collected on the forest floor and peridomicile.

  17. Adaptive Supervisory Engine for Autonomous Formation Flying GNC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying represents a critical enabling technology for future space missions, including NASA's Space and Earth Science...

  18. Surface Modification of Fly Ash for Active Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash based effective solid base catalyst (KF/Al2O3/fly ash473, KF/Al2O3/fly ash673, and KF/Al2O3/fly ash873 was synthesized by loading KF over chemically and thermally activated fly ash. The chemical activation was done by treating fly ash with aluminum nitrate via precipitation method followed by thermal activation at 650°C to increase the alumina content in fly ash. The increased alumina content was confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. The alumina enriched fly ash was then loaded with KF (10 wt% and calcined at three different temperatures 473 K, 673 K and 873 K. The amount of loaded KF was monitored by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, TEM and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were tested in the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde with 2′-hydroxyacetophenone to produce 2′-hydroxychalcone and 4-methoxy-2′-hydroxychalcone respectively. Higher conversion (83% of benzaldehyde and (89% of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde reveals that among these heterogeneous catalysts KF/Al2O3/fly ash673 is very active.

  19. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  20. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, adding aggregate with reasonable ratio and additives with reasonable dosage and do the experimental research on manufacture products for properties, production technology and selection about technology parameter of production equipment. Index of strength grade and freezing-thawing resisting etc and the high doping fly ash brick building which we are working on can achieve the national standard on building materials industry. Based on the tests, this achievement of research has a very wide practical prospect in using fly ash, industrial waste residue, environmental protection and reducing the cost of enterprises. The efficient reuse of fly ash from coal boiler and power plants has very vital significance of protecting the environment, benefiting descendants and developing of circular economy.

  1. The Cement Solidification of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Haobo; HE Xinghua; ZHU Shujing; ZHANG Dajie

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition, the content and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration ( MSWI) fly ash were tested and analyzed. It is shown that the leachability of Pb and Cr exceeds the leaching toxicity standard, and so the MSWI fly ash is considered as hazardous waste and must be solidifled. The effect of solidifying the MSWI fly ash by cement was studied, and it is indicated that the heavy metals can be well immobilized if the mass fraction of the fly ash is appropriate. The heavy metals were immobilized within cement hydration products through either physical fixation, substitution, deposition or adsorption mechanisms.

  2. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The te...

  3. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes was invest......Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes...

  4. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  5. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  6. The flying carpet and other tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, Noah Thomas

    In this thesis we demonstrate propulsion of a thin plastic piezoelectric sheet using controlled traveling wave deformations. This is achieved in air, without touching the ground, thus confirming the physical basis for a "flying" carpet near a horizontal surface. The device developed in this work demonstrates a novel form of propulsion, which operates without separate moving parts, since all actuation elements are formed from the same thin sheet of material. Potential advantages of this include low manufacturing costs and long lifetime. This work also demonstrates the advantages, in general, of using integrated sensors to control the vibrations of thin plastic sheets. Although we focus here on traveling waves, the same techniques could be used to produce a wide variety of time-varying deformations. The device could be used to model biological organisms, for example, for fluid dynamics studies. In addition, sensor arrays, for example chemical or biological, could be integrated onto the sheet. We discuss the fundamental and experimental conditions for realizing such a device, and describe the experimental approach to produce the traveling waves and demonstrate propulsion. The propulsive forces qualitatively agree with previous theoretical predictions. Theory predicts that such a sheet needs to reach speeds of ~20 cm/s to produce its own lift (the so-called "flying carpet" effect). Currently, the sheet is not free, so the observed velocity is ~1-2 cm/s. We present preliminary work to free the sheet from its tethers by providing on-board power using a boost-converter circuit, and, alternatively, using a cart that carries the tethering wires and follows the sheet. In addition, to enable the sheet to begin moving without external lift, methods to reduce friction and static electricity are presented. Experiments with passive test samples show indications of lift beginning at ~20-30 cm/s. Two aspects related to the integration of improved functionality on the sheet are also

  7. Interkingdom responses of flies to bacteria mediated by fly physiology and bacterial quorum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect location and utilization of a resource is influenced by a host of variables, including nutrients acquired prior to encountering a stimulus and age of the individual. For the carrion system, we hypothesized the volatiles to which primary colonizers such as blow flies respond are the same sign...

  8. The Hungry Fly: Hydrodynamics of feeding in the common house fly

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2010-01-01

    A large number of insect species feed primarily on a fluid diet. To do so, they must overcome the numerous challenges that arise in the design of high-efficiency, miniature pumps. Although the morphology of insect feeding structures has been described for decades, their dynamics remain largely unknown even in the most well studied species (e.g. fruit fly). Here, in the fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate in-vivo imaging and microsurgery to elucidate the design principles of feeding structures of the common house fly. Using high-resolution X-ray absorption microscopy, we record in-vivo flow of sucrose solutions through the body over many hours during fly feeding. Borrowing from microsurgery techniques common in neurophysiology, we are able to perturb the pump to a stall position and thus evaluate function under load conditions. Furthermore, fluid viscosity-dependent feedback is observed for optimal pump performance. As the gut of the fly starts to fill up, feedback from the stretch receptors in the cuticle di...

  9. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Ordoñez, Soledad R.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC). This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins. PMID:28659885

  10. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Radomska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC. This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins.

  11. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  12. Uncontrolled Stability in Freely Flying Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, James, Jr.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    One of the key flight modes of a flying insect is longitudinal flight, traveling along a localized two-dimensional plane from one location to another. Past work on this topic has shown that flying insects, unless stabilized by some external stimulus, are typically unstable to a well studied pitching instability. In our work, we examine this instability in a computational study to understand whether it is possible for either evolution or an aero-vehicle designer to stabilize longitudinal flight through changes to insect morphology, kinematics, or aerodynamic quantities. A quasi-steady wingbeat averaged flapping flight model is used to describe the insect. From this model, a number of non-dimensional parameters are identified. The effect of these parameters was then quantified using linear stability analysis, applied to various translational states of the insect. Based on our understanding of these parameters, we demonstrate how to find an intrinsically stable flapping flight sequence for a dragonfly-like flapping flier in an instantaneous flapping flight model.

  13. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  14. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  15. Modes of thrust generation in flying animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Song, Jialei; Tobalske, Bret; Luo Team; Tobalske Team

    2016-11-01

    For flying animals in forward flight, thrust is usually much smaller as compared with weight support and has not been given the same amount of attention. Several modes of thrust generation are discussed in this presentation. For insects performing slow flight that is characterized by low advance ratios (i.e., the ratio between flight speed and wing speed), thrust is usually generated by a "backward flick" mode, in which the wings moves upward and backward at a faster speed than the flight speed. Paddling mode is another mode used by some insects like fruit flies who row their wings backward during upstroke like paddles (Ristroph et al., PRL, 2011). Birds wings have high advance ratios and produce thrust during downstroke by directing aerodynamic lift forward. At intermediate advance ratios around one (e.g., hummingbirds and bats), the animal wings generate thrust during both downstroke and upstroke, and thrust generation during upstroke may come at cost of negative weight support. These conclusions are supported by previous experiment studies of insects, birds, and bats, as well as our recent computational modeling of hummingbirds. Supported by the NSF.

  16. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  17. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  18. Durability of biomass fly ash concrete: Freezing and thawing and rapid chloride permeability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Emilio Llamazos; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Strict interpretation of ASTM C 618 excludes non-coal fly ashes, such as biomass fly ashes from addition in concrete. Biomass fly ash in this investigation includes (1) cofired fly ash from burning biomass with coal; (2) wood fly ash and (3) blended fly ash (wood fly ash mixing with coal fly ash). A set of experiments conducted on concrete from pure cement and cement with fly ash provide basic data to assess the effects of several biomass fly ashes on the performances of freezing and thawing (F-T) and rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT). The F-T tests indicate that all fly ash concrete has statistically equal or less weight loss than the pure cement concrete (control). The RCPT illustrate that all kinds of fly ash concrete have lower chloride permeability than the pure cement control concrete. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Comparison of Plutarch’s Defence of Animals in the Treatise On the Eating of Flesh and Shelley’s A Vindication of Natural Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Vičar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the defence of animals in two texts which promote a vegetable diet: in Plutarch’s essay from Moralia, On the Eating of Flesh, and Shelley’s essay A Vindication of Natural Diet. The paper focuses on the conceptualisation of animals and consideration of their moral status in both texts and on Shelley’s treatment of Plutarch’s ethical argument. Anthropocentric  conceptions of animals and their moral status, based on the logic that all and only human beings deserve to be treated on the principles of moral consideration because all and only human beings possess reason, linguistic intelligence and self-awareness, have their roots in Aristotle and in particular in Stoic thought. The canonical Stoic position is based on the cosmological principle, by which each being has a specific place in the scheme of the cosmos, whereby this proper place is determined by the capacities of the being; the highest place belongs to those beings who are capable of rational contemplation. The implication of this position is the categorical denial of the duty of justice toward animals, and the ultimate implication is the denial of any direct duties toward animals: animals as fundamentally inferior to rational beings have only instrumental value in the cosmic scheme of things and exist only for the benefit of rational beings. Plutarch’s texts on animals in his early work (Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer, Beasts Are Rational, On the Eating of Flesh represent the first and most spirited de- fence of the capacities and moral status of animals, directed against the Stoic position. In contrast to the Stoics, Plutarch argues that animals have inherent value, and ultimately calls for a justice relationship between human beings and animals on the basis of their experiental capacities. Plutarch defends the view that animals have a fundamental interest to live on the basis of recognising animal perceptual awareness. He advocates the moral

  20. Geological behavior of wet outflow deposition fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德泉; 赵明华; 刘宏利; 周毅; 严聪

    2008-01-01

    The geological behaviors of wet outflow deposition fly ash were investigated, including the feature of in-situ single and even bridge cone penetration test (CPT) curves, the change of the penetration parameters and vane strength with the increase of depth and the difference of the penetration resistance on and down the water level. Drilling, CPT and vane shear test were carried out in silty clay, fine sand, and fly ash of the ash-dam. The CPT curves of the fly ash do not show a critical depth. The cone resistance (qc) of the fly ash is smaller than that of silty clay or sand; the friction resistance is smaller than that of filling silty clay, similar to that of deposition silty clay or more than that of fine sand; the friction ratio is smaller than that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay or much more than that of fine sand. The specific penetration resistance (ps) is similar to that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay. There is a clear interface effect between the deposition fly ash and the clay. Interface effect of ps-h curve at the groundwater table is clear, and ps of the fly ash reduces significantly under the table. The vane strength of the fly ash increases as the depth increases. The deposition fly ash with wet outflow is similar to silt in the geological behavior.

  1. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  2. 7 CFR 29.3151 - Flyings (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... tolerance. X4M Fair Mixed Color Flyings. Medium to tissuey body, mature to ripe, firm to porous, wrinkly to... Mixed Color Flyings. Medium to tissuey body, mature to ripe, firm to porous, wrinkly, dingy finish, pale...

  3. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  4. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived insects and have to take a blood meal regularly. Tsetse f

  5. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a)...

  6. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  7. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  8. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Stable flies are considered to be one of themajor blood-feeding pests in theUS livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is ex...

  9. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  10. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  11. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oils of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm. f.) and their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; Ashour, Mohamed L; Mulyaningsih, Sri; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The volatile secondary metabolites of essential oils from fruit peel and leaves of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon) were investigated using GLC and GLC-MS (gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy). Altogether 141 compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 99.59% and 96.33% of the total hydrodistilled peel and leaf oil, respectively. Limonene occurred in higher amounts in fruit peel (52.73%) than in leaf oil (29.13%). Neral (12.72%), neryl acetate (8.53%), p-menth-1-en-7-al (4.63%), beta-pinene (6.35%), and nerol (4.42%) were the most abundant constituents in leaf oil, whereas gamma-terpinene (9.88%), beta-pinene (7.67%), geranial (4.44%), and neral (3.64%) dominated in the fruit peel oil. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal, and antimicrobial activities of the fruit peel essential oil were evaluated. The oil had a low antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of (26.66 +/- 2.07) mg/ml as compared to the efficient antioxidant ascorbic acid [IC50 (16.32 +/- 0.16) microg/ml]. The oil moderately inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with an IC50 value of (32.05 +/- 3.91) microg/ml and had moderate antitrypanosomal activity [IC50 (60.90 +/- 0.91) microg/ml]. In addition, moderate antimicrobial activities were detected against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus capitis, Micrococcus luteus), one Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida parapsilosis).

  13. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm3 of 5 mol · dm−3 NaOH + 0.4...

  16. Use of Recycled Aggregate and Fly Ash in Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myle N. James

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recycled materials aggregate from the demolished concrete structures and fly ash from burning coal shows the possible application as structural and non structural components in concrete structures. This research aims to evaluate the feasibility of using concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate and fly ash in concrete pavement. Approach: Two water cement ratio (0.45 and 0.55 the compressive strength, modulus of electricity and flexural strength for concrete with recycled aggregate and fly ash with 0, 25% replacing cement in mass were considered. Results: The material properties of recycled aggregate concrete with fly ash indicate comparable results with that of concrete with natural aggregate and without fly ash. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recycled materials could be used in concrete pavement and it will promote the sustainability of concrete.

  17. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value...... as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms, yet recent research has suggested that fly relationships have been...... (including the wingless Braulidae) of bees and other insects. Furthermore, we use micro-RNAs to resolve a node with implications for the evolution of embryonic development in Diptera. We demonstrate that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation—lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma...

  18. Dry coal fly ash cleaning using rotary triboelectrostatic separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Daniel; FAN Mao-ming; JIANG Xin-kai

    2009-01-01

    More than 80 million metric tons of fly ash is produced annually in the U.S. As coal combustion by-product. Coal fly ash can be converted to value-added products if unburned carbon is reduced to less than 2.5%. However, most of fly ash is currently landfilled as waste due to lack of efficient purification technologies to separate unburned carbon from fly ash. A rotary triboelectrostatic separator has been developed and patented recently at the University of Kentucky with unique features. Several fly ash samples have been used to understand the effects of major process parameters on the separation performance. The results show that compared to existing triboelectrostatic separators, the rotary triboelectrostatic separator has significant advantages in particle charging efficiency, solids throughput, separation efficiency, applicable particle size range.

  19. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  20. Self-healing ability of fly ash-cement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipat Termkhajornkit; Toyoharu Nawa; Yoichi Yamashiro; Toshiki Saito [Lafarge Research Centre, Quentin Fallavier (France). Reactive Components Department

    2009-03-15

    Concrete is susceptible to cracking due to both autogenous and drying shrinkage. Nevertheless, most of these types of cracks occur before 28 days. Because fly ash continues to hydrate after 28 days, it is likely that hydrated products from fly ash may modify microstructure, seal these cracks, and prolong the service life. This research investigates the self-healing ability of fly ash-cement paste. Compressive strength, porosity, chloride diffusion coefficients, hydration reactions and hydrated products were studied. The research focuses on behavior after 28 days. According to the experimental results, the fly ash-cement system has the self-healing ability for cracks that occur from shrinkage. The self-healing ability increased when the fraction of fly ash increased.

  1. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  2. Palpebral myiasis in a Danish traveler caused by the human bot-fly (Dermatobia hominis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...

  3. Feasibility study on solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash with circulating fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; Zhang, Chuhao; Zhang, Dajie

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash with circulation fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ash, which is unsuitable as a cement replacement due to its high amounts of carbon, lime and anhydrite. The solidification process was conducted on samples prepared from MSWI fly ash, binders (cement clinkers and CFBC fly ash were mixed at two replacement ratios) and water (water/solid weight ratio = 0.4), among which the MSWI fly ash replaced each binder at the ratio of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% by dry weight. The samples were subjected to compressive strength tests and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the results showed that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standard imposed by US EPA after 28 days of curing. Micro-analysis (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry) revealed that the main hydrate products were C-S-H gel and ettringite, which have a positive effect on heavy metals retention. Therefore, this method provides a possibility to achieve a cheap and effective solution for MSWI fly ash management and use for CFBC fly ash.

  4. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  5. Network Configuration Analysis for Formation Flying Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of two networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. Both systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation, with one of the satellites designated as the central or 'mother ship.' All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/EP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation, and the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IP queuing delay, IP queue size and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as end-to-end delay for both systems. In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  6. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keka Ojha; Narayan C Pradhan; Amar Nath Samanta

    2004-12-01

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain highly crystalline zeolite with maximum BET surface area. The maximum surface area of the product was found to be 383 m2/g with high purity. The crystallinity of the prepared zeolite was found to change with fusion temperature and a maximum value was obtained at 823 K. The cost of synthesized zeolite was estimated to be almost one-fifth of that of commercial 13X zeolite available in the market.

  7. Objective Symbols in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2013-01-01

      The novel Lord of the Flies was published in 1954, since then, a lot of praise, including the honor of the Nobel Prize in literature, was given to the novel and its author. The magic of the novel lies in something under the surface meaning of the novel it⁃self. With symbolism as a main figurative device, there are various symbols in this novel. Symbol, in literature, is a thing that refers or suggests something more than its literal meaning. In this novel, a lot of symbols are employed, some of them are obvious, others are obscure. This paper will focus on the objective symbols, the things and the people that can be seen by our eyes.

  8. Fly ash for durable concrete construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This is essentially a review paper, bringing together the various studies undertaken at the University of Dundee as well as many others selected from published work. A full range of durability properties have been considered dealing with the effects of fly ash (FA) in concrete. It is shown that the use of FA generally effects improvement in the resistance of concrete to various forms of attack. FA is shown to greatly improve concrete resistance to chloride ingress and to reduce expansion caused by ASR. In the case of sulphate attack the use of FA is recommended. With regard to carbonation, FA can slightly reduce the resistance. It is also shown that FA concrete will benefit more from curing than OPC concrete in developing its resistance to deterioration with age. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  10. “人肉搜索”机制在信息开发与资源共享中的应用研究%An Investigation of Human Flesh Search in Information Exploration and Resource Sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军雄

    2012-01-01

    "人肉搜索"是指更多地利用人工参与来提纯搜索引擎提供信息的一种机制,它具有最大化发挥群体力量的优势。将这种搜索原理用于信息资源开发与共享活动中,可以克服用户在检索过程中遇到的专业知识限制、检索技术限制、可获得资源限制等问题。但由于"人肉搜索"过度开放,因此,需要建立专门的信息资源共享平台和有效的激励机制,才能更好地发挥"人肉搜索"在信息开发及资源共享中的积极作用。%"Human flesh search" is a mechanism utilizing the human beings in information retrieval and purification,which shows the collective advantages of personalities.Using this principle,it is easy to overcome the obstacles of professional knowledge,retrieving skill,and resource quantity in the information exploration and sharing processes.On the other hand,due to the opening characteristics of the "human flesh search",the foundation of information sharing platforms and encouragements is in great demand,for promoting the "human flesh search" in information exploration and resource sharing.

  11. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  12. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The test method followed the procedures applied for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC concrete. Test results show that fly ash-based geopolymer concrete undergoes low creep which is generally less than that of OPC concrete. After one year of loading, the results for specific creep of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete in this study ranges from 15 to 29 microstrain for concrete compressive strength 67–40 MPa respectively. From the test results, it is also found out that the creep coefficient of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is about half of that predicted using Gilbert’s Method for OPC concrete.

  14. Stabilization of Expansive Soil by Lime and Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; CAO Xing

    2002-01-01

    An experimental program was undertaken to study the individual and admixed effects of lime and fly ash on the geotechnical characteristics of expansive soil. Lime and fly ash were added to the expansive soil at 4% -6% and 40% - 50% by dry weight of soil, respectively. Testing specimens were determined and examined in chemical composition, grain size distribution, consistency limits, compaction, CBR ,free swell and swell capacity. The effect of lime and fly ash addition on reducing the swelling potential of an expansive soil is presented.It is revealed that a change of expansive soil texture takes place when lime and fly ash are mixed with expansive soil. Plastic limit increases by mixing lime and liquid limit decreases by mixing fly ash, which decreases plasticity index. As the amount of lime and fly ash is increased, there are an apparent reduction in maximum dry density,free swell and swelling capacity under 50 kPa pressure, and a corresponding increase in the percentage of coarse particles, optimum moisture content and CBR value. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the expansive soil can be successfully stabilized by lime and fly ash.

  15. Carbonatation Influence on Fly Ash and Portland Cement Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Valdez–Tamez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbonation on mortars containing 25% of fly ash instead of the cementitious materials was studied. Mortar cylinder specimens were fabricated for 4 different W/C ratios: 0.35, 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65. Mortars with and without fly ash were subjected to an accelerated carbonation process. Volumetric weight, water absorption, compressive strength, water permeability, pH and mercury intrusion porosimetry of the mortar specimens were determined. Due to the fly ash pozzolanic potential, for all W/C ratios, results of the compressive strength tests at 28 days of the mortars with and without fly ash were similar. Mortars with fly ash presented similar water permeability as mortars without fly ash. PH results showed that alkalinity reduction is lower in mortars with fly ash compared to those containing cement only. In all the mortars, the porosimetric analysis indicated that porosity is reduced due to carbonation. Further more, it is showed the predominance of the macro and mesopores.

  16. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  17. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  18. Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: A global review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha Basu; Manish Pande; P.B.S. Bhadoria; S.C. Mahapatra

    2009-01-01

    Though in last four decades various alternate energy sources have come into the limelight, the hyperbolic use of coal as a prime energy source cannot be counterbalanced. Disposal of high amount of fly-ash from thermal power plants absorbs huge amount of water, energy and land area by ash ponds. In order to meet the growing energy demand, various environmental, economic and social problems associated with the disposal of fly-ash would continue to increase. Therefore, fly-ash management would remain a great concern of the century. Fly-ash has great potentiality in agriculture due to its efficacy in modification of soil health and crop performance. The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in fly-ash increases the yield of many agricultural crops. But compared to other sectors, the use of fly-ash in agriculture is limited. An exhaustive review of numerous studies of last four decades took place in this paper, which systematically covers the importance, scope and apprehension regarding utilization of fly-ash in agriculture. The authors concluded that though studies have established some solutions to handle the problems of radioactivity and heavy metal content in flyash, long-term confirmatory research and demonstration are necessary. This paper also identified some areas, like proper handling of dry ash in plants as well as in fields, ash pond management (i.e., faster decantation, recycling of water, vertical expansion rather than horizontal), monitoring of soil health, crop quality, and fate of fly-ash in time domain, where research thrust is required. Agricultural lime application contributes to global warming as Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumes that all the carbon in agricultural lime is finally released as CO2to the atmosphere. It is expected that use of fly-ash instead of lime in agriculture can reduce net CO2emission, thus reduce global warming also.

  19. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn;

    2001-01-01

    in the Entomophthora muscae species complex (E. muscae sensu lato) caused high infection levels in several species of flies. However, only a few specimens of cattle flies were infected by E. muscae sensu stricto despite the fact that cattle flies were observed to perch on spear thistles, which acted as transmission...... site for all four Entomophthora species. Transmission experiments with E. muscae s.l. supported the field data. Of the two species considered host specific, E. syrphi caused substantial infection in a muscid, and E. scatophagae likewise could be transmitted to a muscid. This emphasizes the need...

  20. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Schoubroeck, van, F.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doub...

  1. Usage of fly ash as a coal desulphurization reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-12-31

    This paper covers the direct usage of fly ash to remove sulphur from coal. Experiments were carried out on a high sulphur Turkish lignite. 5 g of fly ash was extracted in 200 ml of water under pressure and the dilute solution containing water extractable parts of fly ash was used as desulphurization reagent. Oxygen pressure was created over desulphurization medium during the extraction period by which dissolved oxygen was concentrated in the solution. Effects of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, and time were investigated in the ranges of 403--498 K, 0.0--1.5 MPa and 15--90 min, respectively.

  2. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  3. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion...... fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  4. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  5. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Rodrigue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g. To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.

  6. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  7. Insulin signaling and the regulation of insect diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Cheolho; Denlinger, David L

    2013-01-01

    A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs), ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulatory pathway leading to the diapause phenotype. Insects produce many different insulin-like peptides (ILPs), and not all are involved in the diapause response; ILP-1 appears to be the one most closely linked to diapause in C. pipiens. Many steps in the pathway leading from perception of daylength (the primary environmental cue used to program diapause) to generation of the diapause phenotype remain unknown, but the role for insulin signaling in mosquito diapause appears to be upstream of JH, as evidenced by the fact that application of exogenous JH can rescue the effects of knocking down expression of ILP-1 or the Insulin Receptor. Fat accumulation, enhancement of stress tolerance, and other features of the diapause phenotype are likely linked to the insulin pathway through the action of a key transcription factor, FOXO. This review highlights many parallels for the role of insulin signaling as a regulator in insect diapause and dauer formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  8. INSULIN SIGNALING AND THE REGULATION OF INSECT DIAPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolho eSim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs, ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulatory pathway leading to the diapause phenotype. Insects produce many different insulin-like peptides (ILPs, and not all are involved in the diapause response; ILP-1 appears to be the one most closely linked to diapause in C. pipiens. Many steps in the pathway leading from perception of daylength (the primary environmental cue used to program diapause to generation of the diapause phenotype remain unknown, but the role for insulin signaling in mosquito diapause appears to be upstream of JH, as evidenced by the fact that application of exogenous JH can rescue the effects of knocking down expression of ILP-1 or the Insulin Receptor. Fat accumulation, enhancement of stress tolerance, and other features of the diapause phenotype are likely linked to the insulin pathway through the action of a key transcription factor, FOXO. This review highlights many parallels for the role of insulin signaling as a regulator in insect diapause and dauer formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  9. The role of FLI-1-EWS, a fusion gene reciprocal to EWS-FLI-1, in Ewing sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Elzi, David J.; Song, Meihua; Houghton, Peter J.; Chen, Yidong; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly FLI-1. The EWS-FLI-1 fusion oncogene is widely believed to play a central role in Ewing sarcoma. The EWS-FLI-1 gene product regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cancer progression, can transform mouse cells such as NIH3T3 and C3H10T1/2, and is necessary for proliferation and tumorigenicity ...

  10. Autonomous and FliK-dependent length control of the flagellar rod in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F V; Hughes, Kelly T; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-10-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism.

  11. Autonomous and FliK-Dependent Length Control of the Flagellar Rod in Salmonella enterica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Hughes, Kelly T.; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism. PMID:19666714

  12. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  13. FlyBase at 25: looking to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramates, L. Sian; Marygold, Steven J.; dos Santos, Gilberto; Urbano, Jose-Maria; Antonazzo, Giulia; Matthews, Beverley B.; Rey, Alix J.; Tabone, Christopher J.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Emmert, David B.; Falls, Kathleen; Goodman, Joshua L.; Hu, Yanhui; Ponting, Laura; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Strelets, Victor B.; Thurmond, Jim; Zhou, Pinglei

    2017-01-01

    Since 1992, FlyBase (flybase.org) has been an essential online resource for the Drosophila research community. Concentrating on the most extensively studied species, Drosophila melanogaster, FlyBase includes information on genes (molecular and genetic), transgenic constructs, phenotypes, genetic and physical interactions, and reagents such as stocks and cDNAs. Access to data is provided through a number of tools, reports, and bulk-data downloads. Looking to the future, FlyBase is expanding its focus to serve a broader scientific community. In this update, we describe new features, datasets, reagent collections, and data presentations that address this goal, including enhanced orthology data, Human Disease Model Reports, protein domain search and visualization, concise gene summaries, a portal for external resources, video tutorials and the FlyBase Community Advisory Group. PMID:27799470

  14. Improved Sorting Scheme of Microstructure of Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立刚; 彭苏平

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of the existing sorting for microstructure of flyash, an improved scheme was put forward in this paper. First, fly ash particles are divided into four groups as low-calcium, iron, high calcium and char particle acco rding to the substance components of fly ash. Then fly ash particles are divided into 14 sub-groups, for example: cenospheres, plerospheres, solid spheres, porous char and dense char based on their chemical composition, shape and the chara cteristics of inner-structure of fly ash. It has a distinct difference in granu le configuration, inner-structure and substance components. Some disadvantages of the existing scheme such as unilateralism and imprecision have been overcome in the advanced schemes.

  15. Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and control...

  16. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  17. Fly-ash lobby design to convert the sceptics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bile, P.

    1983-07-14

    New uses for pfa in structural concrete have been pioneered at Didcot power station. Twenty percent cost savings and significant gains in long-term strength are claimed for the new concrete, called high fly-ash content concrete (HFCC).

  18. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  19. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  20. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu [Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  1. Flies selected for longevity retain a young gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    differentially expressed between selected and control flies when measured at the same chronological age. The longevity-selected flies consistently showed expression profiles more similar to control flies one age class younger than control flies of the same age. This finding is in accordance with a younger gene...... the physiological age as the level of cumulative mortality. Eighty-four genes were differentially expressed between the control and longevity-selected lines at the same physiological age, and the overlap between the same chronological and physiological age gene lists included 40 candidate genes for increased...... longevity. Among these candidates were genes with roles in starvation resistance, immune response regulation, and several that have not yet been linked to longevity. Investigating these genes would provide new knowledge of the pathways that affect life span in invertebrates and, potentially, mammals....

  2. From Page to Stage: Lord of the Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Helen; Hiltunen, Tuomas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how drama can used in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language, describing a project at the International School of Helsinki that chose to dramatize William Golding's "Lord of the Flies." (Author/VWL)

  3. Utilization of coal combustion fly ash in terracotta bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, A.; Kurama, S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey); Kurama, H.; Kara, Y. [Osmangazi Univ., Mining Engineering Dept., Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    In this present work, coal combustion fly ash from a power plant in Turkey was used in combination with a traditional raw material in terracotta production with the aim of having a product with improved physico-mechanical properties and lower production cost. Several compositions were prepared by adding different amounts of fly ash (ranging from 0 to 20%) in a yellow firing terracotta formulation and shaped by wet pressing. Following firing at a suitable temperature, some of the physical properties of the resultant tiles were determined as a function of the fly ash content. A combination of XRD, SEM and EDX techniques were also employed to correlate the properties with the phase composition. The results indicated that fly ash could be utilized easily in certain amounts in such an application. (orig.)

  4. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  5. On-the Fly Merging of Attitude Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in autonomous attitude determination instrumentation enable even small satellites flying fully autonomous multi head star trackers providing full accurate and robust attitude information. Each sensor provides the full attitude information but for robustness and optimal usage...

  6. Leaching of nutrient salts from fly ash from biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated....... The first method was a counter current moving bed process in four stages. The ash was kept in filter bags and leached with water that was introduced into the bags at 40-50°C. In the second method, fly ash and water was brought into contact in a partially fluidized bed. The third method was a counter current...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  7. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  8. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and alimentary tract of the non-hematophagous blow fly, Phormia regina, and the hematophagous horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Aaron T; Yin, Chih-Ming; Stoffolano, John G

    2008-01-01

    FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are a diverse and physiologically important class of neuropepeptides in the metazoa. In insects, FaRPs function as brain-gut neuropeptides and have been immunolocalized throughout the nervous system and alimentary tract where they have been shown to affect feeding behavior. The occurrence of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was examined in the central nervous system and alimentary tract of non-hematophagous blow fly, Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and the hematophagous horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera:Tabanidae). Although the central nervous system and alimentary anatomy differ between these two dipteran species, many aspects of FLI remain similar. FLI was observed throughout the central and stomatogastric nervous systems, foregut, and midgut in both flies. In the central nervous system, cells and processes with FLI occurred in the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and ventral nerve cord. FLI was associated with neurohemal areas of the brain and ventral nerve cord. A neurohemal plexus of fibers with FLI was present on the dorsal region of the thoracic central nervous system in both species. In the gut, processes with FLI innervated the crop duct, crop and anterior midgut. Endocrine cells with FLI were present in the posterior midgut. The distribution of FLI in these two flies, in spite of their different feeding habits, further supports the role of FaRPs as important components of the braingut neurochemical axis in these insects and implicates FaRPs as regulators of insect feeding physiology among divergent insect taxa.

  9. Linea Trasversale, Flesh and Soul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    similarities among different theatrical cultures, and 2) its theoretical starting point is Barba’s “Theatre Anthropology”. LT denies the very conventions of theatre: unlike traditional commercial theatre or avant-garde theatre, there is no paying audience sitting in a theatre for a few hours in order...

  10. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham

    2009-01-01

    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  11. Receptor response in Venus's fly-trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S L

    1965-09-01

    The insect-trapping movement of the plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus's fly-trap) is mediated by the stimulation of mechanosensory hairs located on the surface of the trap. It is known that stimulation of the hairs is followed by action potentials which are propagated over the surface of the trap. It has been reported that action potentials always precede trap closure. The occurrence of non-propagated receptor potentials is reported here. Receptor potentials always precede the action potentials. The receptor potential appears to couple the mechanical stimulation step to the action potential step of the preying sequence. Receptor potentials elicited by mechanical stimulation of a sensory hair were measured by using the hair as an integral part of the current-measuring path. The tip of the hair was cut off exposing the medullary tissue; this provided a natural extension of the measuring electrode into the receptor region at the base of the hair. A measuring pipette electrode was slipped over the cut tip of the hair. Positive and negative receptor potentials were measured. Evidence is presented which supports the hypothesis that the positive and negative receptor potentials originate from independent sources. An analysis is made of (a) the relation of the parameters of mechanical stimuli to the magnitude of the receptor potential, and (b) the relation of the receptor potentials to the action potential. The hypothesis that the positive receptor potential is the generator of the action potential is consistent with these data.

  12. Formation Flying Spacecraft Concept for Heliophysics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Davila, Joseph; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Shah, Neerav; Li, Steven X.

    2016-05-01

    A number of space-based heliophysics instruments would benefit from formation flying spacecraft. An occulter or a focusing optic such as a photon sieve could be mounted on a separate spacecraft rather than at the end of a boom. This would enable science measurements to be made on smaller, less expensive spacecraft. To accomplish this goal, the relative position of the spacecraft must be monitored and controlled to high precision. We describe two separate optical sensing systems that monitor relative position of the spacecraft to the level required for a photon sieve mission concept wherein the photon sieve is mounted on one spacecraft while the imaging detector is mounted on another. The first system employs a novel time of flight measurement of a laser beam that includes imbedded optical data packets. The contents of the returning data packet can be compared to the departing data packet to provide an extremely high resolution distance measurement. Employing three such systems allows measurement of pitch and yaw in addition to longitudinal separation. The second optical system monitors lateral motion. A mildy divergent laser beam is transmitted from one spacecraft to a sensor array on the second spacecraft. Monitoring the position of the brightest portion of the beam on the sensor array provides a direct measurement of lateral relative motion. Employing at least two such systems enables monitoring roll of the spacecraft as well as centration. We will also discuss low force thruster systems required for high precision station keeping.

  13. Networks for Autonomous Formation Flying Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of three communications networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. All systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation arranged in a star topology, with one of the satellites designated as the central or "mother ship." All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/lP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation and the last system uses both of the previous architectures with a constellation of geosynchronous satellites serving as an intermediate point-of-contact between the formation and the terrestrial network. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IF queuing delay, and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as application-level round-trip time for both systems, In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  14. Acoustic cloaking and mirages with flying carpets

    CERN Document Server

    Diatta, Andre; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Carpets under consideration here, in the context of pressure acoustic waves propagating in a compressible fluid, do not touch the ground: they levitate in mid-air (or float in mid-water), which leads to approximate cloaking for an object hidden underneath, or touching either sides of a square cylinder on, or over, the ground. The tentlike carpets attached to the sides of a square cylinder illustrate how the notion of a carpet on a wall naturally generalizes to sides of other small compact objects. We then extend the concept of flying carpets to circular cylinders. However, instead of reducing its scattering cross-section like in acoustic cloaks, we rather mimic that of another obstacle, say a square rigid cylinder. For instance, show that one can hide any type of defects under such circular carpets, and yet they still scatter waves just like a smaller cylinder on its own. Interestingly, all these carpets are described by non-singular acoustic parameters. To exemplify this important aspect, we propose a multi-...

  15. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Anush; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Barba, L A

    2013-01-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, showing that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift appears also in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the ...

  16. Bidirectional swimming in spermatozoa of Tephritid flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B; Gibbons, B H; Gibbons, I R

    1989-10-01

    Our observations show that spermatozoa of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata and of Dacus oleae and Dacus dorsalis are capable of swimming backwards as well as forwards, and that they can change direction abruptly. The preferred direction is backwards, observed in spermatozoa obtained from the male genitalia. Forwards swimming spermatozoa were frequently seen in the spermatheca and close to the eggs. The change in swimming direction appears to be effected solely by a change in the direction of bend propagation, with no significant change in other waveform parameters. In vitro reactivated spermatozoa swim forwards only and require a minimum free Ca++ concentration of about 10(-6) M for movement. A switching of wave propagation from one direction to the other under control of intracellular free Ca++ concentration is suggested. Perhaps the backwards movement allows easier delivery of spermatozoa from the common envelope embedding the heads in the male apparatus, and assures a more efficient movement of the sperm towards the egg, especially given the enormous relative length of the head. The forwards movement is favoured in order to orient the sperm for penetration of the micropile.

  17. Dynamics of a ‘flying chimney’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Runda; Sandali, Yahya; Zhu, Changqing; Coileáin, Cormac Ó.; Shi, Qingfan

    2017-01-01

    The ‘flying chimney’, where a paper cylinder floats when set alight, is an interesting phenomenon that lacks both systematic theoretical and experimental investigation. To investigate the dynamics of liftoff, an appropriate chimney material was first selected from 22 kinds of traditional Chinese Xuan paper. Subsequent experiments with this paper, examining the relationship between the likelihood of liftoff and the height of the air-gap under the cylinder, show the necessity of a gap and the ideal minimum height required to assure successful liftoff. We experimentally investigate the cylinder geometry, determining the optimal parameters for height and diameter, and the boundary conditions for which liftoff can occur. In order to reveal the mechanism of liftoff, a physical model in which the viscous force is reasonably suggested to be a key kinetic parameter is proposed. The viscous force can be obtained by substituting the velocity field of heated air-flow into the constitutive equations of a Newtonian fluid. Numerical calculation for the size effect of liftoff is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Spread Across Liquids Continues to Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fletcher J.

    2001-01-01

    The physics and behavior of a flame spreading across a flammable liquid is an active area of research at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Spills of fuels and other liquids often result in considerable fire hazards, and much remains unknown about the details of how a flame, once ignited, moves across a pool. The depth of the liquid or size of the spill, the temperature, and wind, if any, can all complicate the combustion processes. In addition, with the advent of the International Space Station there may be fire hazards associated with cleaning, laboratory, or other fluids in space, and it is essential to understand the role that gravity plays in such situations. The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment is an experimental and computational effort dedicated to understanding the detailed mechanisms of flame spread across a flammable liquid initially below its flashpoint temperature. The experimental research is being carried out in-house by a team of researchers from Glenn, the National Center for Microgravity Combustion, and Zin Technologies, with computer modeling being provided via a grant with the University of California, Irvine. Glenn's Zero Gravity Facility is used to achieve short microgravity periods, and normal gravity testing is done in the Space Experiments Laboratory. To achieve longer periods of microgravity, the showcase SAL hardware flies aboard a sounding rocket launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, approximately once per year. In addition to extended microgravity, this carrier allows the use of detailed diagnostics that cannot be employed in a drop tower.

  19. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    African governments and the international donor community have started to put substantial emphasis on private sector development and entrepreneurship, but only very few African enterprises manage to grow beyond informal micro-activities. Although there is growing awareness about factors and insti......African governments and the international donor community have started to put substantial emphasis on private sector development and entrepreneurship, but only very few African enterprises manage to grow beyond informal micro-activities. Although there is growing awareness about factors...... to provide insights on how Tanzanian entrepreneurs manage resources during the start-up and development of micro- to small-scale ventures. We find that micro-environmental differences in the resources of the entrepreneur and the institutional complexity of the venture lead to distinct patterns of resource...... management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  20. FLI1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castellucci, L; Jamieson, SE; Miller, EN; de Almeida, LF; J. Oliveira; Magalhães, A.; Guimarães, LH; LESSA, M.; E. Lago; Jesus,AR de; Carvalho, EM; Blackwell, JM

    2011-01-01

    Mapping murine genes controlling cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) identified Fli1 as a candidate influencing resistance to L. major and enhanced wound healing. We examine FLI1 as a gene controlling CL and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) caused by L. braziliensis in humans. Intron 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging promoter and enhancer elements were analysed in 168 nuclear families (250 CL; 87 ML cases) and replicated in 157 families (402 CL; 39 ML cases). Robust case-pseudocontrol logistic reg...