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Sample records for sarcoma viruses feline

  1. Hydrodynamic diameters of murine mammary, Rous sarcoma, and feline leukemia RNA tumor viruses: studies by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeen, I; Rimai, L; Luftig, R B; Libes, L; Retzel, E; Rich, M; McCormick, J J

    1976-02-01

    We have studied purified preparations of murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV; Prague strain), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy, ultra-centrifugation, and electron microscopy. The laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy measurements yield the light-scattering intensity, weighted diffusion coefficients. The corresponding average hydrodynamic diameters, as calculated from the diffusion coefficients by the Stokes-Einstein equation for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 144 +/- 6 nm, 147 +/- 7 nm, and 168 +/- 6 nm. Portions of the purified RSV and MuMTV preparations, from which light-scattering samples were obtained, and portions of the actual FeLV light-scattering samples were examined by negatively stained, catalase crystal-calibrated electron microscopy. The light-scattering intensity weighted averages of the electron micrograph size distributions were calculated by weighing each size by its theoretical relative scattering intensity, as obtained from published tables computed according to the Mie scattering theory. These averages and the experimentally observed hydrodynamic diameters agreed to within +/- 5%, which is the combined experimental error in the electron microscopic and light-scattering techniques. We conclude that the size distributions of singlet particles observed in the electron micrographs are statistically true representations of the sedimentation-purified solution size distributions. The sedimentation coefficients (S20, w) for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 595 +/- 29S, 689 +/- 35S, and 880 +/- 44S. Virus partial specific volumes were taken as the reciprocals of the buoyant densities, determined in sucrose density gradients. The Svedberg equation was used to calculate particle weights from the measured diffusion and sedimentation coefficients. The particle weights for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: (3.17 +/- 0.32) x 10(8), (4.17 +/- 0

  2. Control of feline leukaemia virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Weijer (Kees); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractFeline leukaemia virus (FeLV) usually occurs in its natural species, the domestic cat. FeLV is also important to human individuals as a comparative model, as it may cause a variety of diseases, some malignant and some benign, such as immunosuppression, which bears a resemblance to AIDS

  3. Serofrequency of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus in cats of Araçatuba, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente [UNESP; Vides, Juliana Peloi [UNESP; Braga, Eveline Tozzi [UNESP; Gomes, Amélia Ana Domingues; Rossi,Claudio Nazaretian; Marcondes, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia represent important infectious diseases caused by retroviruses. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infection by feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in cats from the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo. Blood samples from 302 cats were collected and tested for the presence of antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus and antigen of feline leukemia virus by ELISA ® Snap- Combo FIV-FeLV (IDE...

  4. Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, SunHwa; Kim, Okjin

    2011-01-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase c...

  5. Adjuvant immunotherapy of feline injection-site sarcomas with the recombinant canarypox virus expressing feline interleukine-2 evaluated in a controlled monocentric clinical trial when used in association with surgery and brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this randomised, controlled, parallel-group monocentric clinical trial was to assess the efficacy (at low and high dose and the safety (at high dose of a recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC® expressing feline interleukin 2 (IL-2. ALVAC IL-2 was administered to cats as an adjunct treatment of feline fibrosarcoma in complement to surgery and brachytherapy (reference treatment. Seventy-one cats with a first occurrence of feline fibrosarcoma were referred to the Veterinary Oncology Centre for post-surgical radiotherapy. They were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: reference treatment group (23 cats, ALVAC IL-2 low dose group (25 cats and ALVAC IL-2 high dose group (23 cats. Two dosages of ALVAC IL-2 were used to assess both safety (high dose and efficacy (high and low doses. The treatment consisted of six consecutive doses of ALVAC IL-2 administered subcutaneously at the tumour site on Day 0 (one day before brachytherapy treatment, Day 7, Day 14, Day 21, Day 35 and Day 49. All cats were evaluated for relapse (i.e. local tumour recurrence and/or metastasis every three months for at least one year (ALVAC IL-2 high dose group or two years (reference treatment and ALVAC IL-2 low dose groups by complete physical examination and regular CT scans. ALVAC IL-2 treatment was well tolerated and adverse effects were limited to mild local reactions. ALVAC IL-2 treatment resulted in a significant longer median time to relapse (>730 days in the ALVAC IL-2 low dose group than in the reference treatment group (287 days, and a significant reduction of the risk of relapse by 56% at one year (ALVAC IL-2 treatment groups versus reference treatment group and 65% at two years (ALVAC IL-2 low dose treatment group versus reference treatment group.

  6. UK owner preferences for treatment of feline injection site sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwardine, D; Friend, E; Toscano, M; Bowlt, K

    2014-02-01

    Feline injection site sarcomas are therapeutically challenging because of their locally invasive nature. Several protocols recommend that the two perceived high-risk adjuvanted vaccines should be administered into distinct anatomical sites ("left hind leg leukaemia, right hind leg rabies"), which should aid surgical resection. This has resulted in a change in tumour distribution with an increased proportion situated caudal to the diaphragm when such a policy is adopted. The aim of this study was to determine UK cat owners' attitudes towards surgical treatments of different anatomical regions. A cross-sectional study of an anonymous convenience sample of UK cat owners was conducted from September to December, 2012 using an internet-based survey. There were a total of 208 respondents: 39% would pursue surgery regardless of tumour site. One percent would not pursue surgery. Of the remainder, respondents would not allow amputation of the forelimb (20%), hindlimb (15%) or tail (15%). Twenty-six, 32 and 27% would not have surgical treatment of the inter-scapular region, chest or abdomen, respectively. The majority of respondents were willing to travel up to 100 miles for radiotherapy or chemotherapy (66 and 69%, respectively). The current feline vaccine site recommendations may not be appropriate for UK cat owners. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

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    Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Kim, Okjin

    2011-12-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination revealed uterine adenocarcinoma that had metastasized to the omentum, resulting in thickening and the formation of inflammatory lesions. Based on the histopathological findings, this case was diagnosed as a uterine adenocarcinoma with abdominal metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

  8. Relevance of feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus and Bartonella henselae in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgard, Sylvia; Truyen, Uwe; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    Despite its common occurrence, the aetiology of chronic gingivostomatitis in cats remains uncertain. Aetiology is likely multifactorial, and several infectious agents may be associated with chronic gingivostomatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and in an age-matched control group. In addition, other factors, e. g., environmental conditions were investigated. In 52 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 50 healthy age-matched control cats, the presence of FCV ribonucleic acid (RNA), and FHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] from oropharyngeal swabs), and B. henselae DNA (PCR from oropharyngeal swabs and blood), as well as FeLV antigen (serum), and antibodies against FCV, B. henselae, and FIV (serum) were examined. FCV RNA was significantly more common in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (53.8%, p prevalence of antibodies to FCV between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (78.8%, p = 0.023) and controls (58.0%). Of the other infectious agents investigated, there was no significant difference in the prevalence between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and the controls. The results of this study allow the conclusion that FCV, but no other infectious agents, is commonly associated with chronic gingivostomatitis in cats.

  9. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia...

  11. Feline injection-site sarcoma / Sarcoma de aplicação felino

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    Julia Maria Matera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The feline injection-site sarcoma (FIS is a challenge for the veterinarian and the affected cat’s owner. The injectable applications (vaccines, medications seems to be the reason for that neoplasia, more specifically, the inflammation caused by injury of given drugs or antigens to the health tissue. Generally the FIS presents a more aggressive behavior when compared to sarcoma not associated to application. The most effective treatment has not been established yet, but it is believed that a multimodality of therapies, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy would be the most indicated option. The knowledge of the illness in all of its aspects will supply to professionals colleges subsidies in relation to the best way to approach its diagnosis and treatment.O sarcoma de aplicação felino (SAF é atualmente um grande desafio para o médico veterinário e também para o proprietário do felino acometido. Aplicações injetáveis por via subcutânea ou intramuscular, como vacinas e medicações, aparecem como iniciadoras do processo de neogênese dessa neoplasia, mais precisamente a inflamação persistente, causada pela lesão ao tecido sadio decorrente do fármaco ou antígeno administrado. Geralmente o SAF apresenta comportamento mais agressivo quando comparado ao sarcoma não associado à aplicação. O tratamento mais eficaz ainda não está estabelecido, mas acredita-se que a multimodalidade de terapias, cirurgia, radioterapia e quimioterapia seja a opção mais indicada. O conhecimento da afecção em todos os seus aspectos irá fornecer aos colegas profissionais subsídios em relação a melhor maneira de abordá-la em termos de diagnóstico, tratamento e prevenção.

  12. Vaccination against feline immunodeficiency virus using fixed infected cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Verschoor, E.J.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Egberink, H.F.; Hesselink, W.; Alphen, W.E. van; Joosten, I.; Boog, C.J.P.; Ronde, A. de

    1995-01-01

    Crandell feline kidney cells and feline thymocytes, either feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infected or uninfected, were fixed with paraformaldehyde and used to vaccinate cats. The cells were mixed with a 30:70 water/mineral oil emulsion containing 250 mu g ml−1 N-acetyl-d-glucosaminyl-beta-(1

  13. Myxoma virus induces apoptosis in cultured feline carcinoma cells.

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    MacNeill, A L; Moldenhauer, T; Doty, R; Mann, T

    2012-10-01

    There is growing interest in utilizing replicating oncolytic viruses as cancer therapeutics agents. The effectiveness of myxoma virus-induced oncolysis was evaluated in two feline cancer cell cultures. Although myxoma virus is a rabbit-specific pathogen, protein expression driven by myxoma virus and production of infectious viral particles were detected. Cell death occurred in primary feline cancer cells within 48 h of inoculation with myxoma virus. Future studies to determine if other feline neoplasms are susceptible to myxoma virus infection are warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical approach to the treatment of feline injection site sarcoma with masitinib: a case report

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    Ledoux JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Marie Ledoux,1 Pascal Brun,2 Tom Chapuis,2 Paul Dumas,3 Jean Guillotin41Veterinary Surgery, Lys-Lez-Lannoy, 2AB Science, Paris, 3Laboratoire de Pathologie Vétérinaire du Nord, Annœullin, 4Laboratoire Départemental Public, Villeneuve d'Ascq, FranceAbstract: Feline injection site sarcoma is a common tumor among cats, for which existing medical treatments do not prove to be entirely satisfactory. In this tumor, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is frequently hyperactivated. In the past, clinical case reports with imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, have demonstrated tumoral stabilization. Here we describe the use of another TKI, masitinib, which specifically inhibits c-Kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and Lyn, and is currently licensed for veterinary use in canine mast cell tumors. The therapeutic results were initially satisfactory, with regression of the tumor followed by tumoral recurrence which was stabilized and moderately reduced. Further studies are suggested, in order to evaluate the relevance of TKIs in the treatment and prevention of recurrences of feline injection site sarcoma. Tumoral stabilization by means of an inexpensive and reasonably well tolerated treatment would prove to be of true therapeutic relevance, in particular for inoperable feline injection site sarcomas. Another indication for such TKIs could be in preoperative treatment as a means of facilitating surgical excision by reduction of adhesions.Keywords: fibrosarcoma, imatinib, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor

  15. Hematologic manifestations of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

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    Shelton, G H; Linenberger, M L; Grant, C K; Abkowitz, J L

    1990-09-15

    Studies were done on 53 cats with community-acquired infection with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) to determine if hematologic abnormalities were comparable with those observed in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nine cats were asymptomatic, 24 had clinical symptoms equivalent to AIDS-related complex (ARC), and 20 had AIDS-like disease. Hematologic abnormalities were detected in 75% (40 of 53) of FIV-seropositive cats, and multiple concurrent cytopenias were common. Anemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 36%, 53%, 34%, and 8% of FIV-seropositive cats, respectively. Cytopenias were seen only in symptomatic (ARC or AIDS) cats. The occurrence of cytopenias and the distribution of clinical stages were similar in cats with concurrent feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection and those with FIV alone, suggesting that these abnormalities were a direct consequence of FIV infection. In addition, abnormalities were noted in 72% of marrows from symptomatic cats and included hyperplasia of individual cell lineages and dysmorphic features. Our results demonstrate that the hematologic manifestations of FIV infection are strikingly similar to those reported in HIV-seropositive patients. Thus, FIV infection in cats is an excellent animal model to study the pathogenesis of blood and marrow abnormalities in AIDS, as well as to evaluate the hematologic toxicities of drug therapies.

  16. Epidemiology of Feline Foamy Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Domestic and Feral Cats: a Seroepidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, I.G.; Löchelt, M; Flower, R. L. P.

    1999-01-01

    Although foamy viruses (Spumaviruses) have repeatedly been isolated from both healthy and diseased cats, cattle, and primates, the primary mode of transmission of those common viruses remains undefined. A database of the feline foamy virus (FeFV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody status, age, and sex of 389 domestic cats presented to veterinarians was assembled. A similar database for 66 feral (wild) cats was also assembled. That FeFV antibody status reflects infection was vali...

  17. Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Budding▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttge, Benjamin G.; Shehu-Xhilaga, Miranda; Demirov, Dimiter G.; Adamson, Catherine S.; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Stephen, Andrew G.; Fisher, Robert J.; Freed, Eric O.

    2008-01-01

    Infection of domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important model system for studying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection due to numerous similarities in pathogenesis induced by these two lentiviruses. However, many molecular aspects of FIV replication remain poorly understood. It is well established that retroviruses use short peptide motifs in Gag, known as late domains, to usurp cellular endosomal sorting machinery and promote virus release from infected cells. For example, the Pro-Thr/Ser-Ala-Pro [P(T/S)AP] motif of HIV-1 Gag interacts directly with Tsg101, a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport I (ESCRT-I). A Tyr-Pro-Asp-Leu (YPDL) motif in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and a related sequence in HIV-1, bind the endosomal sorting factor Alix. In this study we sought to identify and characterize FIV late domain(s) and elucidate cellular machinery involved in FIV release. We determined that mutagenesis of a PSAP motif in FIV Gag, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Tsg101 expression, and overexpression of a P(T/S)AP-binding fragment of Tsg101 (TSG-5′) each inhibited FIV release. We also observed direct binding of FIV Gag peptides to Tsg101. In contrast, mutagenesis of a potential Alix-binding motif in FIV Gag did not affect FIV release. Similarly, expression of the HIV-1/EIAV Gag-binding domain of Alix (Alix-V) did not disrupt FIV budding, and FIV Gag peptides showed no affinity for Alix-V. Our data demonstrate that FIV relies predominantly on a Tsg101-binding PSAP motif in the C terminus of Gag to promote virus release in HeLa cells, and this budding mechanism is highly conserved in feline cells. PMID:18094166

  18. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000-2011)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America...

  19. Susceptibility and production of a feline endogenous retrovirus (RD-114 virus) in various feline cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masaya; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Shojima, Takayuki; Baba, Kenji; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline endogenous retrovirus that has been classified as a xenotropic virus. In this study, we examined the expression of the receptors for RD-114 virus in feline cell lines by conducting a pseudotype virus infection assay. Six out of eight feline cell lines were susceptible to the RD-114 pseudotype virus and two cell lines (MCC and FER cells) were resistant. The two resistant cell lines and one cell line (CRFK cells) weakly sensitive to the RD-114 pseudotype virus were found to produce replication-competent RD114-like viruses by the LacZ marker rescue assay and the interference assay. These data strongly suggest that RD-114 virus is polytropic and resistance to RD-114 virus in certain cell lines is due to receptor interference but not polymorphism of the RD-114 receptors. In addition, we determined the amino acid sequences of the envelope region of RD-114-like viruses produced from MCC, FER and CRFK cells. The sequences were identical with the authentic RD-114 virus. Because many feline cell lines are used to manufacture live attenuated vaccines for companion animals, attention should be paid to contamination of the RD-114 virus in vaccines. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A review of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence in cats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious diseases of cats in Canada. Prevalence data are necessary to define prophylactic, management, and therapeutic measures for stray, feral and owned cats. Recently, comprehensive data on the seroprevalence of retrovirus infections of cats in Canada have become available and are reviewed. Further investigation into geographic variations in retrovirus seroprevalence within Canada is warranted, and may provide information to improve recommendations for testing and prevention. As well, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, as well as to provide information on disease outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

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    Bruno M. Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus: frequency and associated factors in cats in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, L C; Silva, A N; Freitas, J S; Cruz, R D S; Said, R A; Munhoz, A D

    2017-05-10

    Our aims were to determine the frequencies of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in owned and stray cats in the northeastern region of Brazil, ascertain the status of FeLV infection, and investigate potential associated factors among the owned cats. Blood samples from 200 asymptomatic owned cats and 30 stray cats were processed using nested PCR and commercial immunochromatographic tests to diagnose infections. To evaluate the factors associated with FIV and/or FeLV in owned cats, a semi-structured interview was conducted with each owner about the animal's environment, and these data were subjected to unconditional logistic regression. The frequencies for owned cats were 6% (12/200) and 3% (6/200) for FIV and FeLV, respectively. No owned cat was positive for both viruses. Stray cats showed frequencies of 6.66% (2/30) and 0% (0/30) for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Contact with other cats and living in peri-urban areas were considered to be risk factors (P < 0.05) for FIV. We did not identify any factors associated with infections with FeLV. Our results confirm the presence of these two retroviruses in the region under study. Our use of different diagnostic techniques allowed us to determine the frequency of retroviruses in the feline population more accurately, particularly with regard to infections by FeLV, which have complex pathogenesis.

  3. Feline immunodeficiency virus: Studies on pathogenesis and vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractFeline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is classified as a member of the genus Lentivirus (subfamily Lentivirinae) of the Retroviridae family on basis of its morphology, biochemical characteristics, genomic organization, Mg'+ dependent reverse transcriptase, and nucleotide sequence homology

  4. Phylodynamics of the Brazilian feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ortiz, Lucía; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Comerlato, Juliana; Costa, Cristina Santos; Zani, André; Duda, Naila Blatt; Tochetto, Caroline; Dos Santos, Raissa Nunes; da Costa, Fernanda Vieira Amorim; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2017-11-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil. Forty six reference-sequences from the GenBank were used with our 31 sequences to infer the virus subtypes. Our sequences belong to the subtype B and three of them result from a recombination with the previously described subtype F. The other 28 Brazilian samples belonging to subtype B and another 46 Brazilian sequences from the GenBank were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor of each Brazilian clade, using a Bayesian approach and a relaxed molecular clock model. The analyses of Brazilian sequences suggest several different entries of the virus in the Brazilian cat population between 1981 and 1991. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  6. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV Neutralization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Hosie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major obstacles that must be overcome in the design of effective lentiviral vaccines is the ability of lentiviruses to evolve in order to escape from neutralizing antibodies. The primary target for neutralizing antibodies is the highly variable viral envelope glycoprotein (Env, a glycoprotein that is essential for viral entry and comprises both variable and conserved regions. As a result of the complex trimeric nature of Env, there is steric hindrance of conserved epitopes required for receptor binding so that these are not accessible to antibodies. Instead, the humoral response is targeted towards decoy immunodominant epitopes on variable domains such as the third hypervariable loop (V3 of Env. For feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, as well as the related human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, little is known about the factors that lead to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies. In cats infected with FIV and patients infected with HIV-1, only rarely are plasma samples found that contain antibodies capable of neutralizing isolates from other clades. In this review we examine the neutralizing response to FIV, comparing and contrasting with the response to HIV. We ask whether broadly neutralizing antibodies are induced by FIV infection and discuss the comparative value of studies of neutralizing antibodies in FIV infection for the development of more effective vaccine strategies against lentiviral infections in general, including HIV-1.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in peninsular Malaysia

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    Bande Faruku

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV are major causes of morbidity and mortality in domestic and wild felids. Despite the clinical importance of feline retroviruses and the growing interest in cats as pets, information about FeLV and FIV in Malaysia is presently insufficient to properly advise veterinarians and pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with FeLV and FIV among domestic cats in peninsular Malaysia. Plasma samples were harvested from the blood of 368 domestic cats and screened for evidence of FeLV p27 antigen and FIV antibodies, using an immunochromatographic kit. Additionally, data on cat demographics and health were collected using a structured questionnaire, and were evaluated as potential risk factors for FeLV or FIV status. Results Of the 368 cats that were evaluated in this study, 12.2% (45/368; 95% CI = 8.88 - 15.58 were positive for FeLV p27 antigen, 31.3%, (115/368; 95% CI = 26.51 - 35.99 were seropositive to FIV antibodies, and 4.3% (16/368; 95% CI = 2.27 - 6.43 had evidence of both viruses. Factors found to significantly increase the risk for FeLV seropositivity include sex, age, behaviour, sickness, and living in a multi-cat household. Seropositive response to FIV was significantly associated with sex, neuter status, age, behaviour, and health status. Conclusions The present study indicates that FeLV and FIV are common among domestic cats in peninsular Malaysia, and that factors related to cat demographics and health such as age, sex, behaviour, health status and type of household are important predictors for seropositive status to FeLV or FIV in peninsular Malaysia. High prevalence of FeLV or FIV observed in our study is of concern, in view of the immunosuppressive potentials of the two pathogens. Specific measures for control and prevention such as screening and

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Hassan, Latiffah; Zakaria, Zunita; Sapian, Nurul Asyikin; Rahman, Noor Alimah; Alazawy, Amer

    2012-03-22

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in domestic and wild felids. Despite the clinical importance of feline retroviruses and the growing interest in cats as pets, information about FeLV and FIV in Malaysia is presently insufficient to properly advise veterinarians and pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with FeLV and FIV among domestic cats in peninsular Malaysia. Plasma samples were harvested from the blood of 368 domestic cats and screened for evidence of FeLV p27 antigen and FIV antibodies, using an immunochromatographic kit. Additionally, data on cat demographics and health were collected using a structured questionnaire, and were evaluated as potential risk factors for FeLV or FIV status. Of the 368 cats that were evaluated in this study, 12.2% (45/368; 95% CI = 8.88 - 15.58) were positive for FeLV p27 antigen, 31.3%, (115/368; 95% CI = 26.51 - 35.99) were seropositive to FIV antibodies, and 4.3% (16/368; 95% CI = 2.27 - 6.43) had evidence of both viruses. Factors found to significantly increase the risk for FeLV seropositivity include sex, age, behaviour, sickness, and living in a multi-cat household. Seropositive response to FIV was significantly associated with sex, neuter status, age, behaviour, and health status. The present study indicates that FeLV and FIV are common among domestic cats in peninsular Malaysia, and that factors related to cat demographics and health such as age, sex, behaviour, health status and type of household are important predictors for seropositive status to FeLV or FIV in peninsular Malaysia. High prevalence of FeLV or FIV observed in our study is of concern, in view of the immunosuppressive potentials of the two pathogens. Specific measures for control and prevention such as screening and routine vaccination are needed to ensure that FeLV and FIV

  9. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jing; Kelly, Patrick; Price, Stuart; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

      The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide...

  10. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  11. Molecular and clinical study on prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1 and calicivirus in correlation with feline leukemia and immunodeficiency viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Hamideh; MADADGAR, Omid; Jamshidi, Shahram; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Darzi Lemraski, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases (URTD) are common clinical problem in cats worldwide. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the main primary pathogens. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are also among the most common infectious diseases of cats which suppress the immunity. Oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs and blood samples were taken from 16 cats with clinical signs of URTD and 26 clinically healthy cats. PCR and RT-PCR were...

  12. The Molecular Biology of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Julia C.; Lever, Andrew M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is widespread in feline populations and causes an AIDS-like illness in domestic cats. It is highly prevalent in several endangered feline species. In domestic cats FIV infection is a valuable small animal model for HIV infection. In recent years there has been sa significant increase in interest in FIV, in part to exploit this, but also because of the potential it has as a human gene therapy vector. Though much less studied than HIV there are many parallels in the replication of the two viruses, but also important differences and, despite their likely common origin, the viruses have in some cases used alternative strategies to overcome similar problems. Recent advances in understanding the structure and function of FIV RNA and proteins and their interactions has enhanced our knowledge of FIV replication significantly, however, there are still many gaps. This review summarizes our current knowledge of FIV molecular biology and its similarities with, and differences from, other lentiviruses. PMID:22163340

  13. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

  14. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jing; Kelly, Patrick; Price, Stuart; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We st...

  15. Osteochondroma in a young cat infected by feline leukemia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus de Oliveira Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Osteochondromas are primary bone tumors characterized by cartilage-covered bone projections involving single or multiple masses (osteochondromatosis. This study reports the clinical and pathological findings from a young domestic cat with osteochondroma in the humerus. During the clinical evaluation, the animal had pronounced right forelimb musculature atrophy and an increased distal humeral volume. Histopathological examination of the neoplasm revealed a proliferative lesion characterized mostly by endochondral ossification and peripheral foci of proliferating cartilage tissue. Further testing using immunohistochemical staining and polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of feline leukemia virus antigens in the hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow and FeLV proviral DNA in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Clinical and pathological findings are consistent with osteochondroma. This neoplasm occurred in an eight-month-old feline with humeral enlargement that had been present since two months old.

  16. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and heartworm infection among owned cats in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Colin-Flores, Rafael F; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2014-06-01

    Several infectious agents may be distributed within a healthy population of cats where diverse risk factors predispose them to come into contact with pathogens. Blood samples from 227 owned cats in Merida, Mexico, were collected with the objective of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody. Serological detection of FeLV and D immitis antigens, and FIV antibodies was performed using the commercial kit SNAP Feline Triple Test. The prevalence was found to be 7.5% for FeLV, 2.5% for FIV and 0% for D immitis. Adult cats were at a higher risk of coming into contact with FeLV (P cats. Owing to its low prevalence, a risk factor analysis was not performed for FIV. The prevalence of retroviral infections found in this study was low, but within the limits reported in the different geographical areas of the world. Cases of filariosis in the domestic cats of Merida, Mexico, may be absent or very low; however, the low sample size may have influenced these results. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  17. Epidemiology of Feline Foamy Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Domestic and Feral Cats: a Seroepidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, I. G.; Löchelt, M.; Flower, R. L. P.

    1999-01-01

    Although foamy viruses (Spumaviruses) have repeatedly been isolated from both healthy and diseased cats, cattle, and primates, the primary mode of transmission of those common viruses remains undefined. A database of the feline foamy virus (FeFV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody status, age, and sex of 389 domestic cats presented to veterinarians was assembled. A similar database for 66 feral (wild) cats was also assembled. That FeFV antibody status reflects infection was validated by PCR. Both FeFV and FIV infection rates were found to gradually increase with age, and over 70% of cats older than 9 years were seropositive for FeFV. In domestic cats, the prevalence of FeFV infection was similar in both sexes. In feral cats, FeFV infection was more prevalent in female cats than in male cats. Although both FeFV and FIV have been reported to be transmitted by biting, the patterns of infection observed are more consistent with an interpretation that transmission of these two retroviruses is not the same. The prevalence of FIV infection is highest in nondesexed male cats, the animals most likely to display aggressive behavior. The gradual increase in the proportion of FeFV-infected animals is consistent with transmission of foamy viruses by intimate social contact between animals and less commonly by aggressive behavior. PMID:10449463

  18. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola A. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2 is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S. These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  19. Prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus in stray cats sent to an RSPCA hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirden, A

    2002-05-18

    A total of 517 stray cats at an RSPCA veterinary hospital were tested for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The prevalence of FeLV was 3.5 per cent in all the cats, 1.4 per cent in healthy cats and 6.9 per cent in sick cats. FeLV positivity was associated only with disease of non-traumatic origin. Antibodies to FCoV were present in 22.4 per cent of the cats, and their prevalence was significantly higher in cats over two years old and in feral/semiferal cats. The prevalence of antibodies to FIV was 10.4 per cent in all the cats, 4.9 per cent in healthy cats and 16.7 per cent in sick cats. The prevalence of FIV antibodies was significantly higher in entire males and neutered males than in females, in cats over two years old compared with younger cats, and in cats suffering disease of non-traumatic origin rather than in healthy cats or cats suffering only from trauma. Sex, age and health status were each independently highly associated with FIV antibodies.

  20. Novel approaches to vaccination against the feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistello, Mauro; Conti, Francesca; Vannucci, Laura; Freer, Giulia

    2010-03-15

    Inadequate antigen presentation and/or suboptimal immunogenicity are considered major causes in the failure of human immunodeficiency vaccine to adequately protect against wild-type virus. Several approaches have been attempted to circumvent these hurdles. Here we reviewed some recent vaccinal strategies tested against the feline immunodeficiency virus and focused on: (i) improving antigen presentation by taking advantage of the exquisite ability of dendritic cells to process and present immunogens to the immune system; (ii) boosting immune responses with vaccinal antigens presented in a truly native conformation by the natural target cells of infection. Significance of the studies, possible correlates of protection involved, and implications for developing anti-human immunodeficiency virus vaccines are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Contamination of infectious RD-114 virus in vaccines produced using non-feline cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sato, Eiji; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    All domestic cats have a replication-competent endogenous retrovirus, termed RD-114 virus, in their genome and several feline cell lines produce RD-114 viruses. Recently, we found that a portion of live attenuated feline and canine vaccines produced using feline cell lines was contaminated with infectious RD-114 viruses. In this study, we expanded our survey and examined canine vaccines produced using 'non-feline' cell lines. Consequently, we found two vaccines containing RD-114 viral RNA by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. We also confirmed the presence of infectious RD-114 virus in the vaccines by the LacZ marker rescue assay and PCR to detect proviral DNA in TE671 cells (human rhabdomyosarcoma cells) inoculated with the vaccines. It is impossible to investigate the definitive cause of contamination with RD-114 virus; however, we suspect that a seed canine parvovirus type 2 was contaminated with RD-114 virus, because many canine parvoviruses have been isolated and attenuated using feline cell lines. To exclude RD-114 virus from live attenuated vaccines, we must pay attention to the contamination of seed viruses with RD-114 virus in addition to avoiding feline cell lines producing RD-114 virus when manufacturing vaccines. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similar...

  3. Viral diagnostic criteria for Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline leukemia virus infections in domestic cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdo Novo, Sabrina; Bucafusco, Danilo; Diaz, Leandro M; Bratanich, Ana Cristina

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on cats attending the Small Animal Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Blood samples from 255 cats with symptoms compatible with FIV or FeLV infection, collected between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed by serology (immunochromatography, IA) and by hemi-nested PCR (n-PCR). The IA and n-PCR assays showed similar percentages of positivity for FIV while the n-PCR test was more sensitive for FeLV. Differences between the diagnostic tests and their choice according to the age of the animal are discussed. The clinical histories of ninety of the 255 cats showed blood profiles similar to others previously reported and revealed a higher risk of infection in male adult cats with outdoor access. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of Antiviral Drugs against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hartmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is one of the most common infectious agents affecting cats worldwide .FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV share many properties: both are lifelong persistent lentiviruses that are similar genetically and morphologically and both viruses propagate in T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neural cells. Experimentally infected cats have measurable immune suppression, which sometimes progresses to an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A transient initial state of infection is followed by a long latent stage with low virus replication and absence of clinical signs. In the terminal stage, both viruses can cause severe immunosuppression. Thus, FIV infection in cats has become an important natural model for studying HIV infection in humans, especially for evaluation of antiviral compounds. Of particular importance for chemotherapeutic studies is the close similarity between the reverse transcriptase (RT of FIV and HIV, which results in high in vitro susceptibility of FIV to many RT-targeted antiviral compounds used in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of studies on antiviral treatment of FIV, focusing on commercially available compounds for human or animal use.

  5. Masitinib demonstrates anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in primary and metastatic feline injection-site sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J; Saba, C; Gogal, R; Lamberth, O; Vandenplas, M L; Hurley, D J; Dubreuil, P; Hermine, O; Dobbin, K; Turek, M

    2012-06-01

    Dysregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) may play a role in feline injection-site sarcoma (ISS) cell growth and viability. Masitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of canine mast cell tumours, is highly selective for the PDGFR signalling pathway and may offer a new therapeutic approach for this disease. The in vitro effects of masitinib on growth, apoptosis and PDGFR signalling in two novel ISS cell lines were investigated. PDGFR expression was confirmed by Western blot in cell lines derived from a primary ISS tumour (JB) and a corresponding, histologically confirmed ISS lung metastasis (JBLM). Masitinib inhibited cell growth and PDGFR phosphorylation in both cell lines. Higher drug concentrations were required to inhibit growth than to modulate ligand-induced autophosphorylation of PDGFR. These in vitro data suggest that masitinib displays activity against both primary and metastatic ISS cell line and may aid in the clinical management of ISS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Characterization of feline ASCT1 and ASCT2 as RD-114 virus receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakaoka, Rie; Shogen, Hiroko; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline endogenous retrovirus (ERV). RD-114 virus had been thought to be xenotropic; however, recent findings indicate that RD-114 virus is polytropic and can infect and grow efficiently in feline cells. Receptor(s) for RD-114 virus has not been identified and characterized in cats. In this study, we confirmed that two feline sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporters (ASCTs), fASCT1 and fASCT2, function as RD-114 virus receptors. By chimeric analyses of feline and murine ASCTs, we revealed that extracellular loop 2 of both fASCT1 and fASCT2 determines the susceptibility to RD-114 virus. Further, we revealed ubiquitous expression of these genes, consistent with the general metabolic role of the ASCT molecules. Our study indicates that RD-114 virus may reinfect tissues and cells in cats, once the virus is activated. Implications of the involvement of RD-114 virus in feline oncogenesis are also discussed.

  7. Evaluation of feline monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with internally inactivated virus as a vaccine against feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Giulia; Matteucci, Donatella; Mazzetti, Paola; Tarabella, Francesca; Catalucci, Valentina; Ricci, Enrica; Merico, Antonio; Bozzacco, Leonia; Pistello, Mauro; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2008-03-01

    Dendritic cells are the only antigen-presenting cells that can present exogenous antigens to both helper and cytolytic T cells and prime Th1-type or Th2-type cellular immune responses. Given their unique immune functions, dendritic cells are considered attractive "live adjuvants" for vaccination and immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to assess whether the reinjection of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with an aldithriol-2-inactivated primary isolate of feline immune deficiency virus (FIV) was able to elicit protective immune responses against the homologous virus in naive cats. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by monitoring immune responses and, finally, by challenge with the homologous virus of vaccinated, mock-vaccinated, and healthy cats. The outcome of challenge was followed by measuring cellular and antibody responses and viral and proviral loads and quantitating FIV by isolation and a count of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells in blood. Vaccinated animals exhibited clearly evident FIV-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and antibody titers in response to immunization; however, they became infected with the challenge virus at rates comparable to those of control animals.

  8. Evaluation of a new in-clinic test system to detect feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Christina; Englert, Theresa; Egberink, Herman; Lutz, Hans; Hartmann, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    Many in-house tests for the diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection are licensed for use in veterinary practice. A new test with unknown performance has recently appeared on the market. The aims of this study were to define the efficacy of a new in-clinic test system, the Anigen Rapid FIV Ab/FeLV Ag Test, and to compare it with the current leading in-clinic test, the SNAP Kombi Plus FeLV Antigen/FIB Antibody Test. Three-hundred serum samples from randomly selected healthy and diseased cats presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine at Ludwig Maximilian University were tested using both the Anigen Rapid Test and the SNAP Kombi Plus Test. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for both tests using Western blot as the gold standard for verification of FIV infection and PCR as the gold standard for FeLV infection. The presence of antibodies against FIV was confirmed by Western blot in 9/300 samples (prevalence 3%). FeLV DNA was detected by PCR in 15/300 samples (prevalence 5%). For FIV infection the Anigen Rapid Test had a sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 99.7%, positive predictive value of 88.9%, and negative predictive value of 99.7%. For FeLV infection, the Anigen Rapid Test had a sensitivity of 40.0%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 96.9%. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to that of the SNAP Kombi Plus Test. The new Anigen Rapid FIV Ab/FeLV Ag Test performed very well and can be recommended for use in veterinary practice.

  9. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus in client-owned cats in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Luckman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives were to collect baseline data on the occurrence, testing and vaccination practices, and clinical outcomes of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV in New Zealand Methods A cross-sectional survey of 423 veterinary practices in New Zealand was performed to collect data on FeLV and FIV testing and vaccination during the 2015 calendar year. Clinical records from 572 cats tested using a point-of-care ELISA at a first-opinion veterinary practice between 7 April 2010 and 23 June 2016 were also obtained and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to identify risk factors for test positivity. Survival times were estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods. Results The survey was completed by 112 clinics (26.4% of which 72 performed in-house testing. Of the 2125 tests performed, 56 (2.6% were positive for FeLV and 393 (18.5% were positive for FIV. Fewer than 1% of cats were vaccinated for FeLV, with veterinarians citing low perceived prevalence as the primary reason for not vaccinating. Being male compared with being female and having clinical evidence of immunosuppression were significant risk factors for both FeLV and FIV test positivity. The median survival times of FeLV and FIV test-positive cats were 10 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 0–16 and 650 days (95% CI 431–993, respectively. Conclusions and relevance Testing and vaccination for FeLV and FIV in New Zealand appears targeted towards high-risk animals, which may bias prevalence estimates. Baseline data should be monitored for changes in FeLV epidemiology now commercial vaccines are no longer available.

  10. Genetics and Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences f...

  11. Apoptosis transcriptional mechanism of feline infectious peritonitis virus infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Safi, Nikoo; Haghani, Amin; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Haron, Mohd Syamsul Reza; Tan, Sheau Wei; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis has been postulated to play an important role during feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection; however, its mechanism is not well characterized. This study is focused on apoptosis and transcriptional profiling of FIPV-infected cells following in vitro infection of CRFK cells with FIPV 79-1146 WSU. Flow cytometry was used to determine mode of cell death in first 42 h post infection (hpi). FIPV infected cells underwent early apoptosis at 9 hpi (p apoptosis at 12 hpi (p apoptosis cluster (80 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated) along with increase of apoptosis, p53, p38 MAPK, VEGF and chemokines/cytokines signaling pathways were probably involved in apoptosis process. Six of the de-regulated genes expression (RASSF1, BATF2, MAGEB16, PDCD5, TNFα and TRAF2) and TNFα protein concentration were analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively, at different time-points. Up-regulations of both pro-apoptotic (i.e. PDCD5) and anti-apoptotic (i.e. TRAF2) were detected from first hpi and continuing to deregulate during apoptosis process in the infected cells.

  12. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); R.C. Huisman (Robin); W. Huisman (Willem); A. de Ronde; I.H. Darby; M.J. Francis; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein

  13. Quantification of surgical margin length changes after excision of feline injection site sarcomas-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Jesse L; Milovancev, Milan; Nemanic, Sarah; Löhr, Christiane V

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate degree length change of lateral surgical margins at various stages of processing for histological examination and quantify the length change between grossly normal surgical margins (GNSM) and pathologist-reported histologic tumor-free margin (HTFM) in widely resected feline injection site sarcoma (FISS) specimens. Prospective clinical study. Five client-owned cats with injection site sarcomas. All cats underwent wide surgical excision (35-55 mm gross lateral margins, 2 fascial planes deep). Gross normal lateral margin measurements from tumor edge were recorded in 4 directions (cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral) at 5 time points: intra-op (in vivo GNSM); immediately following excision (ex vivo GNSM); following formalin fixation (post-fixation GNSM); after trimming and mounting on glass slides (on-slide GNSM); and HTFM at the narrowest point from the HTFM from the same slides used for on-slide GNSM. Percent change in lateral margin length from in vivo measurements was quantified at each time point and compared using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA. The largest mean decrease in percent GNSM length occurred immediately after excision (in vivo to ex vivo GNSM = 29%; P = .016). Formalin fixation, trimming, and mounting on slides did not result in additional significant changes in length. Mean HTFM length was significantly decreased compared to both in vivo GNSM (33%; P = .014) and on-slide GNSM (7%; P = .024). Significant decreases in surgical margin length in FISS specimens occur immediately following excision (prior to formalin fixation). Subgross evaluation of tumor-free margins from on-slide GNSM to HTFM overestimates the actual (histologic) tumor-free margins. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Adverse effects of feline IL-12 during DNA vaccination against feline infectious peritonitis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Lintelo, E.G. te; Egberink, H.F.; Duquesne, V.; Aubert, A.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is thought to play a decisive role in protecting cats against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a progressive and lethal coronavirus disease. In view of the potential of DNA vaccines to induce cell-mediated responses, their efficacy to induce protective immunity in cats was

  15. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Hannah J.; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S.; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence. PMID:24688176

  16. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus in unowned free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Irene T; Levy, Julie K; Gorman, Shawn P; Crawford, P Cynda; Slater, Margaret R

    2002-03-01

    To determine prevalence of FeLV infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in unowned free-roaming cats. Cross-sectional serologic survey. 733 unowned free-roaming cats in Raleigh, NC, and 1,143 unowned free-roaming cats in Gainesville, Fla. In Raleigh, overall prevalence of FeLV infection was 5.3%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV was 2.3%. In Gainesville, overall prevalence of FeLV infection was 3.7%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV was 4.3%. Overall, FeLV prevalence was 4.3%, and seroprevalence for FIV was 3.5%. Prevalence of FeLV infection was not significantly different between males (4.9%) and females (3.8%), although seroprevalence for FIV was significantly higher in male cats (6.3%) than in female cats (1.5%). Prevalence of FeLV infection and seroprevalence for FIV in unowned free-roaming cats in Raleigh and Gainesville are similar to prevalence rates reported for owned cats in the United States. Male cats are at increased risk for exposure to FIV, compared with female cats.

  17. Evaluation of a novel nested PCR for the routine diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Barquero, Nuria; Doménech, Ana; Tejerizo, German; Collado, Victorio M; Toural, Cristina; Martín, Daniel; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza

    2007-02-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) usually involves both viruses, as the clinical signs are similar and coinfection may occur. Serological methods may not represent an accurate diagnosis: maternal antibodies or cross-reactions may give false positive results to FIV, and false negative results may occur in latent FeLV status, or in certain FIV infection stages. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was designed to detect FeLV, FIV and feline endogenous retrovirus simultaneously. The detection of endogenous sequences was considered indicative of successful DNA extraction. The technique was used to diagnose FIV and FeLV in the blood cells of 179 cats. The kappa value with the serological data was 0.69 for FeLV and 0.87 for FIV. The joint detection of FeLV and FIV by this novel nested PCR is sensitive, specific, fast and convenient, and its applicability for clinical diagnosis is promising, as the direct evidence of the presence of the virus is more realistic than the indirect data provided by the serological detection.

  18. Ebola virus mediated infectivity is restricted in canine and feline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ziying; Bart, Stephen M; Ruthel, Gordon; Vande Burgt, Nathan H; Haines, Kathleen M; Volk, Susan W; Vite, Charles H; Freedman, Bruce D; Bates, Paul; Harty, Ronald N

    2016-01-01

    Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses belong to the Filoviridae family and often cause severe, fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The magnitude of the 2014 outbreak in West Africa and the unprecedented emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the United States underscore the urgency to better understand the dynamics of Ebola virus infection, transmission and spread. To date, the susceptibility and possible role of domestic animals and pets in the transmission cycle and spread of EVD remains unclear. We utilized infectious VSV recombinants and lentivirus pseudotypes expressing the EBOV surface glycoprotein (GP) to assess the permissiveness of canine and feline cells to EBOV GP-mediated entry. We observed a general restriction in EBOV-mediated infection of primary canine and feline cells. To address the entry mechanism, we used cells deficient in NPC1, a host protein implicated in EBOV entry, and a pharmacological blockade of cholesterol transport, to show that an NPC1-dependent mechanism of EBOV entry is conserved in canine and feline cells. These data demonstrate that cells of canine and feline origin are susceptible to EBOV GP mediated infection; however, infectivity of these cells is reduced significantly compared to controls. Moreover, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of EBOV GP mediated entry into cells of canine and feline origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Contamination of live attenuated vaccines with an infectious feline endogenous retrovirus (RD-114 virus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Shimode, Sayumi; Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    Retroviruses are classified as exogenous and endogenous retroviruses according to the mode of transmission. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are retroviruses which have been integrated into germ-line cells and inherited from parents to offspring. Most ERVs are inactivated by deletions and mutations; however, certain ERVs maintain their infectivity and infect the same host and new hosts as exogenous retroviruses. All domestic cats have infectious ERVs, termed RD-114 virus. Several canine and feline attenuated vaccines are manufactured using RD-114 virus-producing cell lines such as Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells; therefore, it is possible that infectious RD-114 virus contaminates live attenuated vaccines. Recently, Japanese and UK research groups found that several feline and canine vaccines were indeed contaminated with infectious RD-114 virus. This was the first incidence of contamination of 'infectious' ERVs in live attenuated vaccines. RD-114 virus replicates efficiently in canine cell lines and primary cells. Therefore, it is possible that RD-114 virus infects dogs following inoculation with contaminated vaccines and induces proliferative diseases and immune suppression, if it adapts to grow efficiently in dogs. In this review, we summarize the incidence of contamination of RD-114 virus in live attenuated vaccines and potential risks of infection with RD-114 virus in dogs.

  20. Placebo-controlled evaluation of a modified life virus vaccine against feline infectious peritonitis: safety and efficacy under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Fehr, D.; Holznagel, E.; Bolla, S.; Hauser, B.; Herrewegh, A.A.; Lutz, Hans

    1997-01-01

    A modified live virus vaccine against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) was evaluated in a double blind, placebo-controlled field trial in two high-risk populations. The vaccine was found to be safe and efficacious in one population of cats that had low antibody titre against feline coronavirus

  1. Detection of Human Herpes Virus 8 in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Human herpes virus-8, a γ2-herpes virus, is the aetiological agent of Kaposi sarcoma. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma cases have increased in Zambia. However, the diagnosis of this disease is based on morphological appearance of affected tissues using histological techniques, and the association with its ...

  2. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master... immunogenicity of vaccine prepared from the Master Seed in accordance with the Outline of Production shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed...

  3. Direct comparisons of inhibitor sensitivities of reverse transcriptases from feline and human immunodeficiency viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    North, T W; Cronn, R C; Remington, K M; Tandberg, R T

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivities of reverse transcriptases (RTs) from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) were directly compared. The two enzymes had similar sensitivities to three analogs of dTTP, namely, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine 5'-triphosphate. Each of these analogs demonstrated competitive inhibition of both enzymes. Ki values for inhibition of FIV RT by the...

  4. Chimeras of receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus/feline leukemia virus B and amphotropic murine leukemia virus reveal different modes of receptor recognition by retrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Johann, Stephen V; van Zeijl, Marja

    1995-01-01

    Glvr1 encodes the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related gene Glvr2 encodes the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (A-MLVs). The two proteins are 62% identical in their amino acid sequences...

  5. Immunotherapy with internally inactivated virus loaded dendritic cells boosts cellular immunity but does not affect feline immunodeficiency virus infection course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Giulia; Matteucci, Donatella; Mazzetti, Paola; Tarabella, Francesca; Ricci, Enrica; Bozzacco, Leonia; Merico, Antonio; Pistello, Mauro; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2008-04-17

    Immunotherapy of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDCs) loaded with aldrithiol-2 (AT2)-inactivated homologous FIV was performed. Although FIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses were markedly increased, viral loads and CD4+ T cell depletion were unaffected, thus indicating that boosting antiviral cell-mediated immunity may not suffice to modify infection course appreciably.

  6. Naturally acquired feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats from western Canada: Prevalence, disease associations, and survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, Madhu; Wobeser, Gary A.; Taylor, Susan M.; Jackson, Marion L.

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated epidemiologic features and disease associations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in client owned cats from western Canada. Among 1205 cats that were tested 66 (5.5%) were positive for FIV antibody (FIV+) with a higher prevalence in males than females. FIV+ cats were older than the overall population. Epidemiologic features and disease associations were compared between 58 FIV+, but feline leukemia virus negative (FeLV−) cats and 58 age and se...

  7. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia.

  8. Molecular and clinical study on prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1 and calicivirus in correlation with feline leukemia and immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Hamideh; Madadgar, Omid; Jamshidi, Shahram; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Darzi Lemraski, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases (URTD) are common clinical problem in cats worldwide. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the main primary pathogens. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are also among the most common infectious diseases of cats which suppress the immunity. Oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs and blood samples were taken from 16 cats with clinical signs of URTD and 26 clinically healthy cats. PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect FHV/FIV or FCV/FeLV infections, respectively. Feline calicivirus was detected in all cats with URTD and 87.00% and 93.00% of them were positive for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Feline herpesvirus rate of infection was 43.00% in sick cats. In clinically normal cats, prevalence rates of FCV and FHV were about 50.00%, but FIV and FeLV rates (42.00% and 65.00% respectively) were higher compared to other studies. Stomatitis was observed in 50.00% of cats with URTD. The main causative agent of corneal ulcers is FHV-1, but in 50.00% of cats with corneal ulcers, FCV was detected alone. It seems new variants of Caliciviruses are the main causative agents to attack uncommon tissues like cornea, although retroviral infections may be in the background of these various signs. The high retroviral prevalence may be due to existence of large population of stray cats. This is the first molecular study of FeLV and FCV in Iran and seems that FCV and FHV prevalence rates in FIV or FeLV infected cats is more than other non-infected ones.

  9. Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats.

  10. Detection of salivary antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, A; Giannelli, C.; Pistello, M; Zaccaro, L; Pieracci, D; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    The saliva of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus was examined for total immunoglobulin content and antiviral antibodies. Seropositive cats showed an increase in salivary immunoglobulin G levels, which was only partly attributable to the enhanced prevalence of oral inflammatory lesions, compared with the levels in seronegative cats. Immunoglobulin G, but not immunoglobulin M, levels in serum were also increased. Salivary antibodies were determined by indirect immunofluorescence a...

  11. Feline aminopeptidase N is not a functional receptor for avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbison Carole E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. A major factor in the host range of a coronavirus is its receptor utilization on host cells. In many cases, coronavirus-receptor interactions are well understood. However, a notable exception is the receptor utilization by group 3 coronaviruses, including avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN serves as a functional receptor for most group 1 coronaviruses including feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. A recent report has also suggested a role for fAPN during IBV entry (Miguel B, Pharr GT, Wang C: The role of feline aminopeptidase N as a receptor for infectious bronchitis virus. Brief review. Arch Virol 2002, 147:2047–2056. Results Here we show that, whereas both transient transfection and constitutive expression of fAPN on BHK-21 cells can rescue FIPV and TGEV infection in non-permissive BHK cells, fAPN expression does not rescue infection by the prototype IBV strain Mass41. To account for the previous suggestion that fAPN could serve as an IBV receptor, we show that feline cells can be infected with the prototype strain of IBV (Mass 41, but with low susceptibility compared to primary chick kidney cells. We also show that BHK-21 cells are slightly susceptible to certain IBV strains, including Ark99, Ark_DPI, CA99, and Iowa97 ( Conclusion We conclude that fAPN is not a functional receptor for IBV, the identity of which is currently under investigation.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kappany, Y M; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Dubey, J P

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus and human leukemia virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii , Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv and Dirofilaria immitis antigens was determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 172 (95.5%) of the 180 cats with titers of 1∶5 in 9, 1∶10 in 9, 1∶20 in 3, 1∶40 in 5, 1∶80 in 5, 1∶160 in 15, 1∶320 in 22, and 1∶640 or higher in 104. Thus, 57.4% had high T. gondii titers. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 105 (59.6%) of 178, with titers of 1∶64 in 45, 1∶128 in 39, 1∶256 in 13, 1∶512 in 3, 1∶1,024 in 4, and 1∶2,048 in 1 cat. Antibodies to FIV were detected in 59 (33.9%) of 174 cats. Of 174 cats tested, antigens to FeLv, and D. immitis were detected in 8 (4.6%) and 6 (3.4%) cats, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV infections in cats from Cairo, Egypt. This is the first report of Bartonella spp., and D. immitis infection in cats in Egypt.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia virus infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Mofya, S; Chikweto, A; Baffa, A; Doherty, D; Shakeri, J; Macpherson, C N L; Sharma, R N

    2009-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus, and human leukemia virus, respectively; all of these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondi, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv antigen were determined in sera from 75 domestic and 101 feral cats (Felis catus) from the Caribbean island of Grenada, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 23 (30.6%) of the 75 pet cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 3, 1:400 in 4, 1:500 in 12, 1:800 in 2, and 1:1,600 in 1, and 28 (27.7%) of 101 feral cats with titers of 1:25 in 4, 1:50 in 7, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 1, 1:500 in 3, 1:800 in 2, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 in 4. Overall, in both pet and feral cats, the seroprevalence increased with age. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 38 (50.6%) of the 75 pet cats and 52.4% of 101 feral cats. Antibodies to FIV were found in 6 domestic and 22 feral cats. None of the 176 cats was positive for FeLv antigen. There was no correlation among T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV seropositivity.

  14. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus and Toxoplasma gondii in stray cat colonies in northern Italy and correlation with clinical and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; della Pepa, Alessandra; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana; DeGiorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Domenichini, Giulia; Ferro, Elisabetta; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2012-06-01

    Stray cat colonies in urban and rural areas of Lombardy, northern Italy, were surveyed for seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and Toxoplasma gondii IgG. Of 316 cats tested, 6.6% were positive for FIV and 3.8% were positive for FeLV infection; 203 cats were tested for T gondii IgG antibodies and a prevalence of 30.5% was detected. Statistical analysis tested the influence of provenience, age, gender, health status and laboratory results on seroprevalence and found male gender and adult age were risk factors for FIV infection. FIV-infected cats were more likely to have a decreased red blood cell count than FIV seronegative cats. No predictors were significantly associated with FeLV and T gondii seropositivity. Colony cats in this study posed a limited risk for retrovirus infection to pet cats allowed outdoors, whereas toxoplasmosis exposure was comparable with the worldwide data.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for hemoplasmas in domestic cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus and/or feline leukemia virus in Rio de Janeiro--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macieira, Daniel B; de Menezes, Rita de Cássia A A; Damico, Cristiane B; Almosny, Nádia R P; McLane, Heather L; Daggy, Joanne K; Messick, Joanne B

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (Mhm) infections in domestic cats tested for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Based on serological testing, cats were grouped as i) FIV-positive (n=25); ii) FeLV-positive (n=39); iii) FIV/FeLV-positive (n=8); and iv) FIV/FeLV-negative (n=77). Complete blood counts were followed by DNA extraction, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (16S rRNA gene) for Mhf and Mhm and Southern blotting for all animals. Mhf DNA was found in 4.0, 2.6, 12.5 and 7.8% of the cats from groups i, ii, iii and iv, respectively, while 32, 5.1, 50 and 5.2% of these animals had an Mhm infection. Cats with FIV (OR=4.25, P=0.009) and both FIV and FeLV (OR=7.56, P=0.014) were at greater risk of being hemoplasma infected than retroviral-negative cats, mainly due to Mhm infection (OR=8.59, P=0.001 and OR=18.25, P=0.001, respectively). Among pure-breed cats, FIV-positive status was associated with hemoplasma infection (OR 45.0, P=0.001).

  16. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus among client-owned cats and risk factors for infection in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Sabine E; Krieger, Stefan; Hartmann, Katrin

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors for retrovirus infection of infected cats in a large cat population in Germany by evaluation of 17,462 client-owned cats that were tested for the presence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies or feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen. The owners of a subset of 100 cats were contacted to determine their cat's survival times. Prevalence of FIV and FeLV was 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively, remaining stable for FIV, but decreasing for FeLV (6-1%) over 10 years. Median age was 6 years in FIV- and 3 years in FeLV-infected cats. Risk factors for FIV infection were male gender, older age, mixed breed, access to outdoor, aggressive behaviour, and FeLV co-infection; and for FeLV infection contact to other cats, aggressive behaviour, and FIV co-infection. Median survival time of FIV-infected cats was not significantly different to non-infected cats, whereas FeLV-infected cats had significantly shorter median survival times than non-infected cats.

  17. Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus and Toxoplasma gondii in stray and household cats in Kerman-Iran: seroprevalence and correlation with clinical and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtardanesh, Baharak; Ziaali, Naser; Sharifi, Hamid; Rezaei, Shirin

    2010-10-01

    This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection among stray and owned cats in southeastern Iran and to identify the influence of age, sex, lifestyle, health status, and laboratory findings on seropositivity. The overall infection rate for FIV, FeLV, and T. gondii was 19.2%, 14.2%, and 32.1% respectively. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that old adults more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for FIV, FeLV, and T. gondii (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 1.84, 1.56, and 2.57 respectively). Anemic and diseased cats ([ORs], 6.62 and 0.9) were at a greater risk of testing positive for FeLV. Male cats were 4.91 times as likely to have FIV as were female and hyperglobulinemia was significantly more prevalent in FIV-infected cats ([ORs], 3.4). In conclusion, FIV and FeLV seem to be endemic in Iran and retroviral-associated immunosuppression may be a risk factor for active toxoplasmosis in infected cats. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Latent BK virus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, P; Rotola, A; de Lellis, L; Corallini, A; Secchiero, P; Albini, A; Benelli, R; Parravicini, C; Barbanti-Brodano, G; Cassai, E

    1996-06-11

    We have analyzed by PCR skin lesions from classic, endemic and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), as well as from KS-derived cell lines, the presence of ubiquitous transforming viruses. BK virus (BKV), a transforming human papovavirus which has been associated with human tumors, was detected in 100% of KS skin lesions and 75% of KS cell lines. KS specimens contained a full-length, intact BKV early region, but minor rearrangements were observed in some tumors. BKV was also detected with a high prevalence (57-67%) in genital tissues and sperm, thus fulfilling the role of a sexually transmitted agent in KS. The closely related JC virus (JCV), which has never been associated with human malignancies, was present in 11-20% of KS specimens and was detected with a low prevalence (0-21%) in genital tissues and sperm. Simian virus 40 (SV40) was not detected in any KS lesions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA sequences were detected in 20-25% of KS lesions. Malignant human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 and benign HPV types 6 and 11 were detected in KS specimens with a similar prevalence of 11-83%, suggesting that the presence of HPV-transforming sequences is not a specific trait of HPV interaction with KS tissue. Furthermore, JCV, SV40, HSV and HPV DNA sequences were not detected in KS cell lines, suggesting that these viruses are not associated to KS neoplastic cells in KS tissue. KS cell lines were also negative for DNA sequences of KS-HV, the novel herpesvirus detected in primary KS lesions. The constant association of BKV DNA with KS lesions and KS cell lines suggests that BKV-transforming functions may participate in the development of KS.

  19. Murine xenograft model demonstrates significant radio-sensitising effect of liposomal doxorubicin in a combination therapy for Feline Injection Site Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznek, H; Kleiter, M; Tichy, A; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Hohenadl, C

    2014-10-01

    Therapy of cats suffering from feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) is still a challenging problem, as the recurrence rate after surgery is up to 70%. Four FISS-derived primary tumour cell lines and corresponding xenograft tumour mouse models were established to evaluate the efficacy of a concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy with doxorubicin. In vitro, strongly depending upon the timing of administration, pre-treatment with 0.25 µmol doxorubicin resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation-induced (3.5 Gy) tumour cell death. This result was confirmed in vivo, where only the combined chemo-/radiation therapy resulted in a significant reduction in tumour growth compared to the respective mono-therapies with either doxorubicin or radiation. These results support the use of the concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy for adjuvant treatment of FISS, particularly in advanced or recurrent disease where surgery alone is no longer feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Zhang

    Full Text Available The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes. Overall, 1.3% (8/615 of the cats were positive for provirus DNA with nucleotide analysis using PCRs for the gag and env sequences showing the cats were infected with FIV subtype A. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV in mainland China and the first description of subtype A in continental Asia.

  1. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jing; Kelly, Patrick; Price, Stuart; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes. Overall, 1.3% (8/615) of the cats were positive for provirus DNA with nucleotide analysis using PCRs for the gag and env sequences showing the cats were infected with FIV subtype A. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV in mainland China and the first description of subtype A in continental Asia.

  2. Immunotherapy with internally inactivated virus loaded dendritic cells boosts cellular immunity but does not affect feline immunodeficiency virus infection course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistello Mauro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-infected cats with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDCs loaded with aldrithiol-2 (AT2-inactivated homologous FIV was performed. Although FIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses were markedly increased, viral loads and CD4+ T cell depletion were unaffected, thus indicating that boosting antiviral cell-mediated immunity may not suffice to modify infection course appreciably.

  3. Characterization of a Highly Pathogenic Molecular Clone of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Clade C

    OpenAIRE

    de Rozières, Sohela; Mathiason, Candace K.; Rolston, Matthew R.; Chatterji, Udayan; Edward A. Hoover; Elder, John H

    2004-01-01

    We have derived and characterized a highly pathogenic molecular isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus subtype C (FIV-C) CABCpady00C. Clone FIV-C36 was obtained by lambda cloning from cats that developed severe immunodeficiency disease when infected with CABCpady00C (Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada). Clone FIV-C36 Env is 96% identical to the noninfectious FIV-C isolate sequence deposited in GenBank (FIV-Cgb; GenBank accession number AF474246) (A. Harmache et al.) but is much more diver...

  4. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-02-18

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa

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    Emily P. Lane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research.Keywords: feline panleukopaenia; parvovirus; felid; cheetah; vaccination

  6. Understanding the Process of Envelope Glycoprotein Incorporation into Virions in Simian and Feline Immunodeficiency Viruses

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    José L. Affranchino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lentiviral envelope glycoproteins (Env mediate virus entry by interacting with specific receptors present at the cell surface, thereby determining viral tropism and pathogenesis. Therefore, Env incorporation into the virions formed by assembly of the viral Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane of the infected cells is a key step in the replication cycle of lentiviruses. Besides being useful models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections in humans and valuable tools for developing AIDS therapies and vaccines, simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively are relevant animal retroviruses; the study of which provides important information on how lentiviral replication strategies have evolved. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the incorporation of the SIV and FIV Env glycoproteins into viral particles.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (ART. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs are emerging as a promising new drug class for HIV-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting FIV replication using INSTIs. Methods Phylogenetic analysis of lentiviral integrase (IN sequences was carried out using the PAUP* software. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of the FIV IN catalytic core domain (CCD was obtained by homology modeling based on a crystal structure of HIV-1 IN CCD. The interaction of the transferred strand of viral DNA with the catalytic cavity of FIV IN was deduced from a crystal structure of a structurally similar transposase complexed with transposable DNA. Molecular docking simulations were conducted using a genetic algorithm (GOLD. Antiviral activity was tested in feline lymphoblastoid MBM cells acutely infected with the FIV Petaluma strain. Circular and total proviral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Results The calculated INSTI-binding sites were found to be nearly identical in FIV and HIV-1 IN CCDs. The close similarity of primate and feline lentivirus IN CCDs was also supported by phylogenetic analysis. In line with these bioinformatic analyses, FIV replication was efficiently inhibited in acutely infected cell cultures by three investigational INSTIs, designed for HIV-1 and belonging to different classes. Of note, the naphthyridine carboxamide INSTI, L-870,810 displayed an EC50 in the low nanomolar range. Inhibition of FIV integration in situ was shown by real-time PCR experiments that revealed accumulation of circular forms of FIV DNA within cells treated with L-870,810. Conclusion We report a drug class (other than nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors that is capable of inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. The present study helped establish L-870,810, a compound

  8. Association of gingivitis with dental calculus thickness or dental calculus coverage and subgingival bacteria in feline leukemia virus- and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Steiner, Jörg M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in cats. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between gingivitis and dental calculus thickness (DCT), or dental calculus coverage (DCC); determine the association of gingivitis scores and types of oral bacteria; and to evaluate bacterial co-infection in cats with periodontal disease. Twelve cats that were not infected with feline leukemia or feline immunodeficiency viruses were enrolled in the study. Gingivitis, DCT, and DCC were scored and recorded. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare scores among canine, 2nd premolar, 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth. The relationship between gingivitis and DCT or DCC scores was determined using the Spearman rank sum test (ρ). Subgingival bacteria were cultured and the association between bacterial species and gingivitis score was evaluated using a Fisher’s exact test. The average gingivitis, DCT, and DCC scores for the caudal maxillary teeth were higher for the caudal mandibular teeth and more severe for the 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth than for the canine teeth. A strong relationship between average DCT or DCC score and average gingivitis score was found (ρ = 0.96 and 1, respectively). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections were identified in a large number of cats with periodontal disease (71.1% and 28.9%, respectively). In conclusion, severe gingivitis scores were associated with anaerobic bacterial infection. The caudal teeth are affected with more severe gingivitis, DCT, and DCC than the other teeth. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed in cats with periodontal disease. PMID:28154463

  9. Transmigration of macrophages across the choroid plexus epithelium in response to the feline immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Rick B.; Bragg, D. C.; Poulton, Winona; Hudson, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Although lentiviruses such as human, feline and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, FIV, SIV) rapidly gain access to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the mechanisms that control this entry are not well understood. One possibility is that the virus may be carried into the brain by immune cells that traffic across the blood–CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Since few studies have directly examined macrophage trafficking across the blood–CSF barrier, we established transwell and explant cultures of feline choroid plexus epithelium and measured trafficking in the presence or absence of FIV. Macrophages in co-culture with the epithelium showed significant proliferation and robust trafficking that was dependent on the presence of epithelium. Macrophage migration to the apical surface of the epithelium was particularly robust in the choroid plexus explants where 3-fold increases were seen over the first 24 h. Addition of FIV to the cultures greatly increased the number of surface macrophages without influencing replication. The epithelium in the transwell cultures was also permissive to PBMC trafficking, which increased from 17 to 26% of total cells after exposure to FIV. Thus, the choroid plexus epithelium supports trafficking of both macrophages and PBMCs. FIV significantly enhanced translocation of macrophages and T cells indicating that the choroid plexus epithelium is likely to be an active site of immune cell trafficking in response to infection. PMID:22281685

  10. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus specific antibodies in cats with an attenuated Salmonella strain expressing the Gag protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); J.A. Karlas (Jos); M.C. Burger; F.R. Mooi (Frits); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSalmonella typhimurium aroA strains (SL3261), expressing high levels of the Gag protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) fused with maltose binding protein (SL3261-MFG), were constructed using an invertible promoter system that allows the stable expression of heterologous antigens

  11. Fatal infection with feline panleukopenia virus in two captive wild carnivores (Panthera tigris and Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida D; Barros, Sílvia C; Henriques, Margarida; Fernandes, Teresa Lobo; Bernardino, Rui; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2009-06-01

    Two cases of fatal infection caused by parvovirus in a white tiger (Panthera tigris) and an African lion (Panthera leo) at the Lisbon Zoo (Portugal) are described. Gross findings at necropsy were catharral enteritis in the tiger and severe hemorrhagic enteritis in the lion. Histopathologic examination revealed, in both animals, intestinal crypt necrosis and lymphocyte depletion in the germinal centers of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Bacteriologic examination was negative for common bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella. Amplification of the parvovirus VP2 complete gene was achieved in both cases and sequencing analysis identified these isolates as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV). The nucleotide sequences obtained from these two viruses were genetically indistinguishable. The phylogenetic analysis of FPLV strains from domestic cats obtained in the Lisbon area revealed the circulation of FPLV strains highly similar to those isolated from the tiger and lion, which strongly suggests that stray cats may have been the source of infection.

  12. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Viviana R; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2008-05-01

    A majority of illnesses caused by foodborne viruses are associated with fresh produce. Fruits and vegetables may be considered high-risk foods, as they are often consumed raw without a specific inactivation step. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate nonthermal treatments for the inactivation of foodborne pathogens. This study investigates the UV inactivation of three viruses: feline calicivirus (a surrogate for norovirus), and two picornaviruses, hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus. Three produce types were selected for their different surface topographies and association with outbreaks. Green onions, lettuce, and strawberries were individually spot inoculated with 10(7) to 10(9) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of each virus per ml and exposed to UV light at various doses ( 0.05) for virus inactivation were observed among the three doses applied (40, 120, and 240 mW s/cm2) on the produce, with the exception of hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus inactivation on green onions, where inactivation continued at 120 mW s/cm2 (P < 0.05).

  13. Human genome contains four genes homologous to transforming genes of Harvey and Kirsten murine sarcoma viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, E H; Gonda, M A; Ellis, R.W.; Scolnick, E M; Lowy, D R

    1982-01-01

    Harvey and Kirsten murine sarcoma viruses each encode a structurally and functionally related 21-kilodalton protein (p21), which is the transforming protein of each virus. Using probes from the 0.9-kilobase (kb) p21-coding region of each virus (called v-Ha-ras and v-Ki-ras, respectively), we have molecularly cloned from normal human genomic DNA the sequences that hybridize to these probes. Four evolutionarily divergent restriction endonuclease fragments were isolated. Two hybridized preferent...

  14. Mutants of nonproducer cell lines transformed by murine sarcoma virus. II. Relationship of tumorigenicity to presence of viral markers and rescuable sarcoma genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, M; Klein, R; Lomg, C W; Gilden, R

    1973-08-01

    Tumorigenic and nontumorigenic mutants induced by a single 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) treatment of a nonproducer (NP) tumorigenic cell line were isolated and characterized. Among the cloned derivatives were examples of virus-free and sarcoma virus-producing cell lines. Oncogenicity did not correlate with production of virus or ease of rescue of the sarcoma genome. All lines, including nononcogenic derivatives, retained the sarcoma genome. Phenotypic reversion of some cell mutants was observed after in vivo inoculation or long term in vitro cultivation. The M-50T cell line, obtained from a tumor induced by M-50 cells, had a sarcoma genome rescuable by direct superinfection; this was only achieved with parental M-50 cells by a cell fusion rescue technique. The M-43-2T cell, obtained from a single small static tumor induced by otherwise nononcogenic M-43-2 cells, shed sarcoma virus and became tumorigenic. M-58-4-48 became tumorigenic after passage 48 of the M-58-4 line, which was originally nontumorigenic. These observations of phenotypic reversion demonstrate that the presence of the sarcoma gene in cells is an essential but not sufficient condition of tumorigenesis.

  15. Seroprevalences of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats in the United States and Canada and risk factors for seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Amie N; Levy, Julie K; Scott, H Morgan; Crandall, Michael M; Tucker, Sylvia J; Wood, Erin G; Foster, Jessie D

    2017-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To estimate seroprevalences for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody and risk factors for seropositivity among cats in the United States and Canada. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 62,301 cats tested at 1,396 veterinary clinics (n = 45,406) and 127 animal shelters (16,895). PROCEDURES Blood samples were tested with a point-of-care ELISA for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody. Seroprevalence was estimated, and risk factors for seropositivity were evaluated with bivariate and multivariable mixed-model logistic regression analyses adjusted for within-clinic or within-shelter dependencies. RESULTS Overall, seroprevalence was 3.1% for FeLV antigen and 3.6% for anti-FIV antibody. Adult age, outdoor access, clinical disease, and being a sexually intact male were risk factors for seropositivity for each virus. Odds of seropositivity for each virus were greater for cats tested in clinics than for those tested in shelters. Of 1,611 cats with oral disease, 76 (4.7%) and 157 (9.7%) were seropositive for FeLV and FIV, respectively. Of 4,835 cats with respiratory disease, 385 (8.0%) were seropositive for FeLV and 308 (6.4%) were seropositive for FIV. Of 1,983 cats with abscesses or bite wounds, 110 (5.5%) and 247 (12.5%) were seropositive for FeLV and FIV, respectively. Overall, 2,368 of 17,041 (13.9%) unhealthy cats were seropositive for either or both viruses, compared with 1,621 of 45,260 (3.6%) healthy cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Seroprevalences for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody were similar to those reported in previous studies over the past decade. Taken together, these results indicated a need to improve compliance with existing guidelines for management of feline retroviruses.

  16. Immunogenicity of an Anti-Clade B Feline Immunodeficiency Fixed-Cell Virus Vaccine in Field Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, Donatella; Poli, Alessandro; Mazzetti, Paola; Sozzi, Sabrina; Bonci, Francesca; Isola, Patrizia; Zaccaro, Lucia; Giannecchini, Simone; Calandrella, Michela; Pistello, Mauro; Specter, Steven; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Attempts at vaccine development for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been extensive, both because this is a significant health problem for cats and because FIV may be a useful vaccine model for human immunodeficiency virus. To date, only modest success, producing only short-term protection, has been achieved for vaccine trials in controlled laboratory settings. It is unclear how relevant such experiments are to prevention of natural infection. The current study used a vaccine that emp...

  17. Feline leukemia virus and other pathogens as important threats to the survival of the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; López, Guillermo; Vargas, Astrid; Simón, Miguel A; Zorrilla, Irene; Muñoz, Alvaro; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, Jose V; Pastor, Josep; Tandon, Ravi; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis), and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma) infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV) provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive). All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (pspecies. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the domestic cat population if the lynx population is to be maintained.

  18. Preclinical evaluation of oncolytic vaccinia virus for therapy of canine soft tissue sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    Full Text Available Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV strains is one promising new strategy for canine cancer therapy. In this study we describe the establishment of an in vivo model of canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS using the new isolated cell line STSA-1 and the analysis of the virus-mediated oncolytic and immunological effects of two different Lister VACV LIVP1.1.1 and GLV-1h68 strains against CSTS. Cell culture data demonstrated that both tested VACV strains efficiently infected and destroyed cells of the canine soft tissue sarcoma line STSA-1. In addition, in our new canine sarcoma tumor xenograft mouse model, systemic administration of LIVP1.1.1 or GLV-1h68 viruses led to significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control mice. Furthermore, LIVP1.1.1 mediated therapy resulted in almost complete tumor regression and resulted in long-term survival of sarcoma-bearing mice. The replication of the tested VACV strains in tumor tissues led to strong oncolytic effects accompanied by an intense intratumoral infiltration of host immune cells, mainly neutrophils. These findings suggest that the direct viral oncolysis of tumor cells and the virus-dependent activation of tumor-associated host immune cells could be crucial parts of anti-tumor mechanism in STSA-1 xenografts. In summary, the data showed that both tested vaccinia virus strains and especially LIVP1.1.1 have great potential for effective treatment of CSTS.

  19. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Use of Recombinant Feline Interferon Omega Therapy as an Immune-Modulator in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Oliveira Leal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV. In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω was the first interferon licensed for use in cats. Several studies have recently shown that this compound seems to stimulate the innate immunity, decreasing clinical signs and co-infections in naturally FIV-infected cats. More than summarizing the main conclusions about rFeIFN-ω in cats, this review emphasizes the immune-modulation properties of IFN therapy, opening new perspectives for its use in retroviral infections. Either in FIV-infected cats or in HIV individuals, type I IFNs seem to induce an innate immune-modulation and should not be overlooked as a therapeutic option in retroviral infections.

  1. Molecular subtyping of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, R K C; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Seddon, J M; Lehrbach, P R; Zwijnenberg, R J G; Meers, J

    2006-04-01

    To determine the prevalent subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) present in the domestic cat population of Australia. Blood samples were collected from 41 FIV antibody positive cats from four cities across Australia. Following DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the variable V3-V5 region of the envelope (env) gene. Genotypes were assessed by direct sequencing of PCR products and comparison with previously reported FIV sequences. Phylogenetic analysis allowed classification of the Australian sequences into the appropriate subtype. Of the 41 FIV samples, 40 were found to cluster with previously reported subtype A isolates, whilst the remaining sample grouped within subtype B. Subtype A was found to be the predominant FIV subtype present in Australia, although subtype B was also found. These results broaden our knowledge of the genetic diversity of FIV and the associated implications for preventative, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  2. Identification of feline immunodeficiency virus subtype-B on St. Kitts, West Indies by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick J; Stocking, Ruey; Gao, Dongya; Phillips, Nikol; Xu, Chuanling; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Wang, Chengming

    2011-07-04

    Although antibodies to the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been detected by SNAP assay in cats from St. Kitts, there have been no molecular studies to further confirm the infection and determine the FIV subtypes present. Total nucleic acids were extracted from EDTA whole blood specimens from 35 cats, followed by quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR under a six-channel LightCycler 2.0 Instrument with Software version 4.1. Four of 11 stray cats (36 %) but none of 24 owned cats were FIV positive by real-time PCR.  High-resolution melting curve analysis indicated that all four positive cats were infected with FIV subtype-B. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV subtypes on St. Kitts and the results confirm the high prevalence of FIV infection in stray cats on the island.

  3. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Circular Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi Kuan Choong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV, a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV. Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5, which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 1014 in the virus-inoculated cells to 109 in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for cats testing positive for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection in cats entering an animal shelter in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Vigeant, S; Dale, A

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To estimate the prevalence of cats testing positive for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigens in domestic cats entering a New Zealand animal shelter, based on a commercial point-of-care ELISA, to identify risk factors associated with cats testing positive, and to compare the results obtained from the ELISA with those obtained using PCR-based testing. METHOD A cross-sectional study was performed on 388 cats entering the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand between 7 February 2014 and 30 May 2014. Whole blood samples were collected from each cat and tested for FIV antibody and FeLV antigen using a commercial point-of-care ELISA. Information on the signalment and health status of the cat at the time of entry was also recorded. Blood and saliva samples from a subset of cats were tested for FIV and FeLV proviral DNA using a real-time PCR assay. RESULTS Of the 388 cats in the study sample, 146 (37.6%) had been relinquished by owners, 237 (62.4%) were strays, and 5 (1.3%) were of unknown origin. Overall, 53/388 (13.7%) cats tested positive for FIV antibodies and 4/388 (1.0%) were positive for FeLV antigen. Stray cats had a higher FIV seroprevalence than relinquished cats (42/237 (17.8%) vs. 11/146 (7.5%); p=0.008). Of 53 cats that were FIV-seropositive, 51 (96%) tested positive for FIV proviral DNA using PCR testing of blood. Of these 51 cats, 28 (55%) were positive by PCR testing of saliva. Of the four cats that were FeLV antigen-positive by ELISA, two (50%) were positive for FeLV proviral DNA by PCR testing of blood. The odds of a cat being seropositive for FIV were greater for intact compared to desexed cats (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6-7.4) and for male compared to female cats (OR=6.5; 95% CI=3.2-14.0). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The seroprevalence for FIV was 14% among cats entering an animal shelter in Auckland, whereas the prevalence of

  5. Risk of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus transmission from donor allografts among Italian posttransplant Kaposi's sarcoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, C; Olsen, S J; Capra, M; Poli, F; Sirchia, G; Gao, S J; Berti, E; Nocera, A; Rossi, E; Bestetti, G; Pizzuto, M; Galli, M; Moroni, M; Moore, P S; Corbellino, M

    1997-10-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a newly discovered herpes virus found in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) including KS among immunosuppressed transplant patients. It is unknown whether this virus is transmitted by organ transplantation or is reactivated during immunosuppression among those patients infected before transplantation. To investigate the risk of KSHV transmission during organ transplantation, we conducted a case-control study of transplant recipients with and without KS matched to their respective donors. Sera were collected at time of transplantation and tested in a randomized and blinded fashion using four KSHV serologic assays testing for antibodies to both latent and lytic phase antigens. Ten (91%) of 11 organ recipients who developed KS were seropositive prior to transplantation by one or more of the assays compared with two (12%) of 17 control organ recipients (OR = 75, 95% CI = 4.7, 3500). KS cases were more likely to have been born in southern Italy where KS is endemic than the recipient controls or either donor group. Only four (36%) of 11 donors to case patients and three (18%) of 17 donors to control patients were seropositive (P = .38, two-tailed Fisher's exact test). KSHV transmission could not be ruled out for the single KS patient seronegative at transplantation and clear evidence for organ-related transmission was found for another KS patient outside of the case-control study. Antibodies to KSHV are detectable in the sera from most transplant recipients before initiation of immunosuppressive treatment suggesting that KS among immunosuppressed transplant patients is primarily due to virus reactivation. KSHV transmission, however, from an infected allograft can occur, and our study reports the first documented case of person-to-person transmission of KSHV.

  6. Naturally acquired feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats from western Canada: Prevalence, disease associations, and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Madhu; Wobeser, Gary A; Taylor, Susan M; Jackson, Marion L

    2010-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated epidemiologic features and disease associations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in client owned cats from western Canada. Among 1205 cats that were tested 66 (5.5%) were positive for FIV antibody (FIV(+)) with a higher prevalence in males than females. FIV(+) cats were older than the overall population. Epidemiologic features and disease associations were compared between 58 FIV(+), but feline leukemia virus negative (FeLV(-)) cats and 58 age and sex matched FIV-negative (FIV(-)), FeLV(-) cats. FIV positivity was associated with a history of bite wounds, increasing age, and male gender. Lethargy and oral diseases were significantly associated with FIV positivity. Although several FIV(+) cats were euthanized, the survival time of FIV(+) cats after diagnosis was not significantly different from that of FIV(-) cats. In summary, FIV prevalence was low in cats from western Canada, clinical signs/diseases were mild, and lifespan was not different in FIV(+) cats.

  7. Characterization of a highly pathogenic molecular clone of feline immunodeficiency virus clade C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rozières, Sohela; Mathiason, Candace K; Rolston, Matthew R; Chatterji, Udayan; Hoover, Edward A; Elder, John H

    2004-09-01

    We have derived and characterized a highly pathogenic molecular isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus subtype C (FIV-C) CABCpady00C. Clone FIV-C36 was obtained by lambda cloning from cats that developed severe immunodeficiency disease when infected with CABCpady00C (Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada). Clone FIV-C36 Env is 96% identical to the noninfectious FIV-C isolate sequence deposited in GenBank (FIV-Cgb; GenBank accession number AF474246) (A. Harmache et al.) but is much more divergent in Env when compared to the subgroup A clones Petaluma (34TF10) and FIV-PPR (76 and 78% divergence, respectively). Clone FIV-C36 was able to infect freshly isolated feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary T-cell lines but failed to productively infect CrFK cells, as is typical of FIV field isolates. Two-week-old specific-pathogen-free cats infected with FIV-C36 tissue culture supernatant became PCR positive and developed severe acute immunodeficiency disease similar to that caused by the uncloned CABCpady00C parent. At 4 to 5 weeks postinfection (PI), 3 of 4 animals developed CD4(+)-T-cell depletion, fever, weight loss, diarrhea, and opportunistic infections, including ulcerative stomatitis and tonsillitis associated with abundant bacterial growth, pneumonia, and pyelonephritis, requiring euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed severe thymic and systemic lymphoid depletion. Interestingly, the dam also became infected with a high viral load at 5 weeks PI of the kittens and developed a similar disease syndrome, requiring euthanasia at 11 weeks PI of the kittens. This constitutes the first report of a replication-competent, infectious, and pathogenic molecular clone of FIV-C. Clone FIV-C36 will facilitate dissection of the pathogenic determinants of FIV.

  8. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  9. [Analysis of the susceptibility of the Minor inbred chicken strain to Rous sarcoma virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korec, E; Klozánek, I

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and resistance of the Minor hen inbred line to two antigenic subgroups of the Rous sarcoma virus were determined by the method of the infection of chorioallantoic membranes. The Minor line is sensitive to infection with the virus of the antigenic B subgroup and, as demonstrated by the testing of the interline hybrids of F1 and B1 generations, the birds of the Minor line are dominant homozygotes of genotype bsbs. The testing with the virus of antigenic A subgroup revealed a heterogeneity of the inbred population as to sensitivity and resistance. A formula was derived for the determination of the frequency of the dominant allele as determining sensitivity.

  10. Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Marina L.; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; López, Guillermo; Vargas, Astrid; Simón, Miguel A.; Zorrilla, Irene; Muñoz, Alvaro; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, Jose V.; Pastor, Josep; Tandon, Ravi; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. Methodology/ Principal Findings We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis), and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma) infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV) provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive). All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (plynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the domestic cat population if the lynx population is to be maintained. PMID:19270739

  11. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Serum samples from 340 pet cats presented to three inner city clinics in Sydney Australia, 68 feral cats from two separate colonies in Sydney, and 329 cattery-confined pedigree and domestic cats in eastern Australia, were collected over a 2-year period and tested for antibodies directed against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using immunomigration (Agen FIV Rapid Immunomigration test) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (Snap Combo feline leukaemia virus antigen/FIV antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories). Western blot analysis was performed on samples in which there was discrepancy between the results. Information regarding breed, age, gender, housing arrangement and health status were recorded for all pet and cattery-confined cats, while the estimated age and current physical condition were recorded for feral cats. The FIV prevalence in the two feral cat populations was 21% and 25%. The majority of FIV-positive cats were male (60-80%). The FIV prevalence in cattery-confined cats was nil. The prevalence of FIV in the pet cat sample population was 8% (27/340) with almost equal prevalence in 'healthy' (13/170) and 'systemically unwell' (14/170) cats. The age of FIV-positive pet cats ranged from 3 to 19 years; all FIV-positive cats were domestic shorthairs with outside access. The median age of FIV-positive pet cats (11 years) was significantly greater than the median age of FIV-negative pet cats (7.5 years: Pprevalence of FIV infection in male pet cats (21/172; 12%) was three times that in female pet cats (6/168; 4%; Pcat population given outside access and continued FIV infection present in the feral population, this study highlights the need to develop rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic methods that are not subject to false positives created by concurrent vaccination against FIV. This is especially important in re-homing stray cats within animal shelters and monitoring the efficacy of the new vaccine, which has not been challenged against

  12. Successive deaths of a captive snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) by infection with feline panleukopenia virus at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Mochizuki, Masami; Umemura, Takashi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-04-01

    Feline parvoviruses were isolated from frozen samples of intestines taken from a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) that died successively at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo in Hokkaido, Japan. Isolates possessed an antigenic epitope for both the feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and mink enteritis virus, identified with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Sequencing analyses of the VP2 region of the isolates revealed that the two isolates were identical and of the FPLV-type. These results suggested that FPLV was introduced from a feral cat which entered the zoo and transmitted the virus inside the zoo.

  13. Detection of Human Herpes Virus 8 in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, Rabecca; Kaile, Trevor; Kafita, Doris; Chisanga, Chrispin; Kalonda, Annie; Zulu, Ephraim; Samutela, Mulemba; Polepole, Pascal; Kwenda, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Human herpes virus-8, a γ2-herpes virus, is the aetiological agent of Kaposi sarcoma. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma cases have increased in Zambia. However, the diagnosis of this disease is based on morphological appearance of affected tissues using histological techniques, and the association with its causative agent, Human Herpes virus 8 is not sought. This means poor prognosis for affected patients since the causative agent is not targeted during diagnosis and KS lesions may be mistaken for other reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations when only histological techniques are used. Therefore, this study was aimed at providing evidence of Human Herpes virus 8 infection in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. One hundred and twenty suspected Kaposi's sarcoma archival formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues stored from January 2013 to December 2014 in the Histopathology Laboratory at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia were analysed using histology and Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the ORF26 gene of Human Herpes virus 8. The predominant histological type of Kaposi's sarcoma detected was the Nodular type (60.7%) followed by the plaque type (22.6%) and patch type (16.7%). The nodular lesion was identified mostly in males (40.5%, 34/84) than females (20.2%, 17/84) (p=0.041). Human Herpes virus 8 DNA was detected in 53.6% (45/84) and mostly in the nodular KS lesions (60%, 27/84) (p=0.035). The findings in this study show that the Human Herpes virus-8 is detectable in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues, and, as previously reported in other settings, is closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. The study has provided important baseline data for use in the diagnosis of this disease and the identification of the virus in the tissues will aid in targeted therapy.

  14. Vaccination against feline retrovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), both of veterinary importance, their antigenic and genetic variability as well as their pathogenicity are described. Disease following FeLV infection is interpreted as a consequence of genetic recombination, as a result of viral

  15. Risk factors for feline immunodeficiency virus antibody test status in Cats Protection adoption centres (2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane K; Roberts, Margaret A; Skillings, Elizabeth; Morrow, Lisa D; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2009-06-01

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) within a population of cats entering 10 UK adoption centres run by Cats Protection. All cats entering the adoption centres during 2004 were tested for FIV using a rapid enzyme immunoassay antibody test. The overall prevalence of positive test results was 3.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.7-3.5%), whilst the prevalence at different adoption centres varied from 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.5%) to 6.7% (95% CI 4.9-8.5%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that male cats, stray/feral cats and cats in poor health were at a greater risk of testing positive for FIV than female cats, cats that were relinquished by an owner and cats that were in good/fair health, respectively. No evidence was found for an association between neuter status and FIV test results. This study may help to identify cats that are relinquished to rescue centres with an increased risk of FIV for routine FIV testing.

  16. A door-to-door prevalence study of feline immunodeficiency virus in an Australian suburb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Fung-Martel, Janine; Gummow, Bruce; Burgess, Graham; Fenton, Eloise; Squires, Richard

    2013-12-01

    A door-to-door survey was conducted within the limits of the suburb of Douglas in northern Queensland, Australia, to determine the prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in the overall population of domestic cats. Previous FIV prevalence studies have relied on convenience sampling strategies, leaving out an important group of pet cats that do not receive regular veterinary attention. Saliva was selected for testing because collection was non-invasive and was likely to achieve a high rate of participation. Ninety-six cats were surveyed and tested for salivary antibodies against FIV and with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was considered to be the gold standard and a cat was considered to be FIV-positive if sequencing results on a PCR product of appropriate size matched previously published FIV genome sequences available in GenBank. Results showed 10/96 cats to be infected with FIV subtype A, indicating a prevalence of 10.4% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-16.4) in the area studied. High risk associations were established with the roaming lifestyle of the cat (P cats living in an affluent suburb and presenting saliva as a potential non-invasive sample for large-scale epidemiological surveys on FIV.

  17. Clinical findings and survival in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, B P; Dhand, N K; Pepper, A E; Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A

    2013-01-01

    The clinical course and outcome of natural feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection are variable and incompletely understood. Assigning clinical relevance to FIV infection in individual cats represents a considerable clinical challenge. To compare signalment, hematologic and biochemical data, major clinical problem, and survival among client-owned, FIV-infected, and uninfected domestic cats. Client-owned, domestic cats tested for FIV (n = 520). Retrospective, case control study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for FIV infection and to compare hematologic and biochemical data between cases and controls, after adjusting for potential confounders. Survival times were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves. The prevalence of FIV infection was 14.6%. Mixed breed, male sex, and older age were risk factors for FIV infection. Hematologic abnormalities, biochemical abnormalities or both were common in both FIV-infected and uninfected cats. Lymphoid malignancies were slightly more common in FIV-infected than uninfected cats. Survival of FIV-infected cats was not significantly different from that of uninfected cats. Multiple hematologic and biochemical abnormalities are common in old, sick cats regardless of their FIV status. Their presence should not be assumed to indicate clinical progression of FIV infection. A negative effect of FIV on survival was not apparent in this study. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Bold attitude makes male urban feral domestic cats more vulnerable to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Eugenia; Say, Ludovic; Cafazzo, Simona; Bonanni, Roberto; Schmid, Michaela; Pontier, Dominique

    2005-02-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are a phenomenon that is more and more attracting the attention of scientists. Among the other reasons, behavioural individuality occurs because selection favours the adoption of different tactics by individuals. It is now widely recognized that within many vertebrate species, individuals vary along an axis the extremes of which are represented by individuals 'bold' and 'shy', sometimes called 'proactive' and 'reactive'. Here we present the case of feral domestic cats (Felis catus L.) living in group in the urban environment where showing bold attitudes is linked to the benefit of a high annual reproductive success but, on the other hand, to a high probability to be infected by the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), a lethal disease caused by a retrovirus. In this species, natural selection has probably favoured proactive temperament in spite of the cost represented by getting the disease. In fact, proactive individuals, even if FIV positive, reproduce more than reactive individuals before the last stage of FIV-infection (AIDS) characterized by a loss of immunological defences and subsequent opportunistic infections. Evolutionary implications are discussed.

  19. Innate Immune Defense Defines Susceptibility of Sarcoma Cells to Measles Vaccine Virus-Based Oncolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P.; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2013-01-01

    The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not on...

  20. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Has Extensive Oncolytic Activity against Human Sarcomas: Rare Resistance Is Overcome by Blocking Interferon Pathways ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C.; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2011-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses have been tested against many carcinomas of ectodermal and endodermal origin; however, sarcomas, arising from mesoderm, have received relatively little attention. Using 13 human sarcomas representing seven tumor types, we assessed the efficiency of infection, cytolysis, and replication of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and its oncolytically enhanced mutant VSV-rp30a. Both viruses efficiently infected and killed 12 of 13 sarcomas. VSV-rp30a showed a faster rate of infection and replication. In vitro and in vivo, VSV was selective for sarcomas compared with normal mesoderm. A single intravenous injection of VSV-rp30a selectively infected all subcutaneous human sarcomas tested in mice and arrested the growth of tumors that otherwise grew 11-fold. In contrast to other sarcomas, synovial sarcoma SW982 demonstrated remarkable resistance, even to high titers of virus (multiplicity of infection [MOI] of 100). We found no dysfunction in VSV binding or internalization. SW982 also resisted infection by human cytomegalovirus and Sindbis virus, suggesting a virus resistance mechanism based on an altered antiviral state. Quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT)-PCR analysis revealed a heightened basal expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Pretreatment, but not cotreatment, with interferon attenuators valproate, Jak1 inhibitor, or vaccinia virus B18R protein rendered SW982 highly susceptible, and this correlated with downregulation of ISG expression. Jak1 inhibitor pretreatment also enhanced susceptibility in moderately VSV-resistant liposarcoma and bladder carcinoma. Overall, we find that the potential efficacy of VSV as an oncolytic agent extends to nonhematologic mesodermal tumors and that unusually strong resistance to VSV oncolysis can be overcome with interferon attenuators. PMID:21734048

  1. The protective rate of the feline immunodeficiency virus vaccine: An Australian field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, M E; Malik, R; Hall, E; Harris, M; Norris, J M

    2016-09-07

    A case-control field study was undertaken to determine the level of protection conferred to client-owned cats in Australia against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using a commercial vaccine. 440 cats with outdoor access from five Australian states/territories underwent testing, comprising 139 potential cases (complete course of primary FIV vaccinations and annual boosters for three or more years), and 301 potential controls (age, sex and postcode matched FIV-unvaccinated cats). FIV status was determined using a combination of antibody testing (using point-of-care test kits) and nucleic acid amplification, as well as virus isolation in cases where results were discordant and in all suspected FIV-vaccinated/FIV-infected cats ('vaccine breakthroughs'). Stringent inclusion criteria were applied to both 'cases' and 'controls'; 89 FIV-vaccinated cats and 212 FIV-unvaccinated cats ultimately satisfied the inclusion criteria. Five vaccine breakthroughs (5/89; 6%), and 25 FIV-infected controls (25/212; 12%) were identified, giving a vaccine protective rate of 56% (95% CI -20 to 84). The difference in FIV prevalence rates between the two groups was not significant (P=0.14). Findings from this study raise doubt concerning the efficacy of Fel-O-Vax FIV® under field conditions. Screening for FIV infection may be prudent before annual FIV re-vaccination and for sick FIV-vaccinated cats. Owners should not rely on vaccination alone to protect cats against the risk of acquiring FIV infection; other measures such as cat curfews, the use of 'modular pet parks' or keeping cats exclusively indoors, are recommended. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Direct comparisons of inhibitor sensitivities of reverse transcriptases from feline and human immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, T W; Cronn, R C; Remington, K M; Tandberg, R T

    1990-08-01

    The sensitivities of reverse transcriptases (RTs) from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) were directly compared. The two enzymes had similar sensitivities to three analogs of dTTP, namely, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine 5'-triphosphate. Each of these analogs demonstrated competitive inhibition of both enzymes. Ki values for inhibition of FIV RT by these three inhibitors were 3.3, 6.7, and 1.8 nM, respectively; Ki values for inhibition of the HIV enzyme were 6.5, 5.9, and 8.3 nM, respectively. Ratios of the Ki for the inhibitor to the Km for the substrate were also determined for each inhibitor, and no differences between the two enzymes greater than threefold were observed. Inhibition constants for 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate and 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate were determined for FIV RT, and these were similar to published values for HIV RT. The activities of three dideoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates against FIV RT were determined; ddGTP was slightly more potent than ddTTP, whereas both were much more effective than ddCTP. The activity of a noncompetitive inhibitor, phosphonoformate, was also examined with the FIV enzyme; it was much more active with poly(rA)-oligo(dT) as the template-primer than with poly(rC)-oligo(dG) or poly(rI)-oligo(dC).

  3. Feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: Implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L.; Wood, Britta A.; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark W.; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin E.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Riley, Seth P D; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- vs. intra-species transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analysis of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrates that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but did not detect selection among twenty PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus, which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome will occur are complex, and the risk of new virus emergence is therefore difficult to predict. Here

  4. Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in cats in the Pisa district of Tuscany, and attempts to control FeLV infection in a colony of domestic cats by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandecchi, P; Dell'Omodarme, M; Magi, M; Palamidessi, A; Prati, M C

    2006-04-22

    The seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in 203 apparently healthy domestic cats living in the district of Pisa, central Italy, was 11.3 per cent, and the prevalence of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) was 8.4 per cent. The prevalence of FIV depended significantly on the lifestyle and age of the cats; cats living outdoors were more likely to be FIV-positive than cats living indoors, and the proportion of FIV-positive cats increased with age. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between these variables and the prevalence of FeLV. There was no significant relationship between the cats' seropositivity for FIV and FeLV. The results of a five-year field study to control FeLV infection by vaccination in a colony of 30 domestic adult cats naturally exposed to the infection suggest that the vaccination was effective in FIV-negative cats, but failed to protect FIV-positive cats against FeLV.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  6. Feline leukemia virus and other pathogens as important threats to the survival of the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina L Meli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis, and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive. All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (p<0.001. Sequencing of the FeLV surface glycoprotein gene revealed a common origin for ten of the eleven samples. The ten sequences were closely related to FeLV-A/61E, originally isolated from cats in the USA. Endogenous FeLV sequences were not detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that the FeLV infection most likely originated from domestic cats invading the lynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the

  7. Association between malaria exposure and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seropositivity in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwoga, Angela; Cose, Stephen; Wakeham, Katie; Miley, Wendell; Ndibazza, Juliet; Drakeley, Christopher; Elliott, Alison; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Unlike other herpes viruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is not ubiquitous worldwide and is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this are unclear. As part of a wider investigation of factors that facilitate transmission in Uganda, a high prevalence country, we examined the association between antimalaria antibodies and seropositivity against KSHV. Antibodies against P. falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP)-1, P. falciparum apical membrane antigen (PfAMA)-1 and KSHV antigens (ORF73 and K8.1) were measured in samples from 1164 mothers and 1227 children. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seroprevalence was 69% among mothers and 15% children. Among mothers, KSHV seroprevalence increased with malaria antibody titres: from 60% to 82% and from 54% to 77%, comparing those with the lowest and highest titres for PfMSP-1 and PfAMA-1, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among children, only antibodies to PfAMA-1 were significantly associated with KSHV seropositivity, (P < 0.0001). In both mothers and children, anti-ORF73 antibodies were more strongly associated with malaria antibodies than anti-K8.1 antibodies. The association between malaria exposure and KSHV seropositivity suggests that malaria is a cofactor for KSHV infection or reactivation. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Further genetic localization of the transforming sequences of the p21 v-ras gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Ellis, R W; Scolnick, E M

    1984-01-01

    The sequences encoding the 21-kilodalton transforming protein (p21 ras) of Harvey murine sarcoma virus have previously been localized genetically to a 1.3-kilobase segment of the viral DNA (E. H. Chang, R. W. Ellis, E. M. Scolnick, and D. R. Lowy, Science 210:1249-1251, 1980). Within this segment...... of this open reading frame. By constructing a mutant of Harvey murine sarcoma virus DNA from which the first two ATG codons of this open reading frame have been deleted, we now show by transfection of the mutant viral DNA into NIH 3T3 cells that only the third ATG codon is necessary and sufficient...

  9. Unknown age in health disorders: A method to account for its cumulative effect and an application to feline viruses interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, Eléonore; Pontier, Dominique; Siberchicot, Aurélie; Sauvage, Frank; Fouchet, David

    2015-06-01

    Parasite interactions have been widely evidenced experimentally but field studies remain rare. Such studies are essential to detect interactions of interest and access (co)infection probabilities but face methodological obstacles. Confounding factors can create statistical associations, i.e. false parasite interactions. Among them, host age is a crucial covariate. It influences host exposition and susceptibility to many infections, and has a mechanical effect, older individuals being more at risk because of a longer exposure time. However, age is difficult to estimate in natural populations. Hence, one should be able to deal at least with its cumulative effect. Using a SI type dynamic model, we showed that the cumulative effect of age can generate false interactions theoretically (deterministic modeling) and with a real dataset of feline viruses (stochastic modeling). The risk to wrongly conclude to an association was maximal when parasites induced long-lasting antibodies and had similar forces of infection. We then proposed a method to correct for this effect (and for other potentially confounding shared risk factors) and made it available in a new R package, Interatrix. We also applied the correction to the feline viruses. It offers a way to account for an often neglected confounding factor and should help identifying parasite interactions in the field, a necessary step towards a better understanding of their mechanisms and consequences. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Unknown age in health disorders: A method to account for its cumulative effect and an application to feline viruses interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eléonore Hellard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasite interactions have been widely evidenced experimentally but field studies remain rare. Such studies are essential to detect interactions of interest and access (coinfection probabilities but face methodological obstacles. Confounding factors can create statistical associations, i.e. false parasite interactions. Among them, host age is a crucial covariate. It influences host exposition and susceptibility to many infections, and has a mechanical effect, older individuals being more at risk because of a longer exposure time. However, age is difficult to estimate in natural populations. Hence, one should be able to deal at least with its cumulative effect. Using a SI type dynamic model, we showed that the cumulative effect of age can generate false interactions theoretically (deterministic modeling and with a real dataset of feline viruses (stochastic modeling. The risk to wrongly conclude to an association was maximal when parasites induced long-lasting antibodies and had similar forces of infection. We then proposed a method to correct for this effect (and for other potentially confounding shared risk factors and made it available in a new R package, Interatrix. We also applied the correction to the feline viruses. It offers a way to account for an often neglected confounding factor and should help identifying parasite interactions in the field, a necessary step towards a better understanding of their mechanisms and consequences.

  11. Use of a subunit feline leukemia virus vaccine in exotic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citino, S B

    1988-04-01

    Three adult bengal tigers, 2 immature white tigers, and 3 adult servals were vaccinated IM with three 1-ml doses of a subunit FeLV vaccine with dosage interval guidelines of the manufacturer. All cats had increased antibody titers to FeLV gp 70 capsular antigen and feline oncornavirus cell membrane-associated antigen during the vaccination trial. Three weeks after the third vaccination, 7 of the 8 cats had gp70 antibody titers greater than 0.2 (optical density), and all 8 cats had feline oncornavirus cell membrane-associated antigen antibody titers greater than 1:8.

  12. Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates did not reveal a particular African cluster.

  13. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis {Delta}lysA {Delta}panCD Vaccine in Domestic Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)+ and FIV- cats (n = 4/group) received 2 x 10**6 cfu Mycobacterium tuberculosis Delta-lysA Delta-panCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses; albeit, at lower levels in FIV+ cats as compared to FIV- cats. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses ...

  14. Harvey murine sarcoma virus p21 ras protein: biological and biochemical significance of the cysteine nearest the carboxy terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Norris, K; Papageorge, A G

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies of premature chain termination mutants and in frame deletion mutants of the p21 ras transforming protein encoded by the transforming gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MuSV) have suggested that the C terminus is required for cellular transformation, lipid binding, and membrane...

  15. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...

  16. Origin and evolution of the c-src-transducing avian sarcoma virus PR2257.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsula, B A; Geryk, J; Briestanska, J; Karakoz, I; Svoboda, J; Rynditch, A V; Calothy, G; Dezélée, P

    1994-10-01

    Avian sarcoma virus PR2257 transduced de novo the c-src gene and about 900 bp of 3' non-coding sequences belonging to the src locus. This virus contains only one mutation in the c-src coding sequence causing a reading frame shift after Pro-525. The molecular clone studied was derived from a cell line of transformed quail fibroblasts, C7. It contains endogenous virus (ev) derived sequences in the U5 and 3' non-coding regions, indicating that multiple recombination occurred with endogenous virus. Here we investigated the possible evolution of PR2257 when the original tumour was repeatedly passaged in vivo. After 16 passages a new virus, designated PR2257/16, appeared with a tenfold higher titre. The sequence of PR2257/16 was determined and showed that PR2257/16 resulted from recombination of PR2257 with the env gene of the helper virus (td daPR-C). This recombination expanded the env gene content in PR2257/16 and, in addition, five point mutations occurred in its genome. Because we thought that an endogenous virus might be involved in the mechanism of c-src transduction, we also reinvestigated the presence of ev sequences in PR2257 proviruses from several early passages of the original tumour. We found that in contrast with the first isolate from the C7 cell line, the provirus in these tumours did not contain such sequences. These results do not support the hypothesis that endogenous sequences were involved in the transduction process.

  17. True versus false parasite interactions: a robust method to take risk factors into account and its application to feline viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eléonore Hellard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple infections are common in natural host populations and interspecific parasite interactions are therefore likely within a host individual. As they may seriously impact the circulation of certain parasites and the emergence and management of infectious diseases, their study is essential. In the field, detecting parasite interactions is rendered difficult by the fact that a large number of co-infected individuals may also be observed when two parasites share common risk factors. To correct for these "false interactions", methods accounting for parasite risk factors must be used. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present paper we propose such a method for presence-absence data (i.e., serology. Our method enables the calculation of the expected frequencies of single and double infected individuals under the independence hypothesis, before comparing them to the observed ones using the chi-square statistic. The method is termed "the corrected chi-square." Its robustness was compared to a pre-existing method based on logistic regression and the corrected chi-square proved to be much more robust for small sample sizes. Since the logistic regression approach is easier to implement, we propose as a rule of thumb to use the latter when the ratio between the sample size and the number of parameters is above ten. Applied to serological data for four viruses infecting cats, the approach revealed pairwise interactions between the Feline Herpesvirus, Parvovirus and Calicivirus, whereas the infection by FIV, the feline equivalent of HIV, did not modify the risk of infection by any of these viruses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work therefore points out possible interactions that can be further investigated in experimental conditions and, by providing a user-friendly R program and a tutorial example, offers new opportunities for animal and human epidemiologists to detect interactions of interest in the field, a crucial step in the

  18. True versus false parasite interactions: a robust method to take risk factors into account and its application to feline viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, Eléonore; Pontier, Dominique; Sauvage, Frank; Poulet, Hervé; Fouchet, David

    2012-01-01

    Multiple infections are common in natural host populations and interspecific parasite interactions are therefore likely within a host individual. As they may seriously impact the circulation of certain parasites and the emergence and management of infectious diseases, their study is essential. In the field, detecting parasite interactions is rendered difficult by the fact that a large number of co-infected individuals may also be observed when two parasites share common risk factors. To correct for these "false interactions", methods accounting for parasite risk factors must be used. In the present paper we propose such a method for presence-absence data (i.e., serology). Our method enables the calculation of the expected frequencies of single and double infected individuals under the independence hypothesis, before comparing them to the observed ones using the chi-square statistic. The method is termed "the corrected chi-square." Its robustness was compared to a pre-existing method based on logistic regression and the corrected chi-square proved to be much more robust for small sample sizes. Since the logistic regression approach is easier to implement, we propose as a rule of thumb to use the latter when the ratio between the sample size and the number of parameters is above ten. Applied to serological data for four viruses infecting cats, the approach revealed pairwise interactions between the Feline Herpesvirus, Parvovirus and Calicivirus, whereas the infection by FIV, the feline equivalent of HIV, did not modify the risk of infection by any of these viruses. This work therefore points out possible interactions that can be further investigated in experimental conditions and, by providing a user-friendly R program and a tutorial example, offers new opportunities for animal and human epidemiologists to detect interactions of interest in the field, a crucial step in the challenge of multiple infections.

  19. 9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. 113.314... Virus Vaccines § 113.314 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of...

  20. 9 CFR 113.315 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.315 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine...

  1. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine. 113.304... Virus Vaccines § 113.304 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  2. Innate immune defense defines susceptibility of sarcoma cells to measles vaccine virus-based oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2013-03-01

    The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not only expression of IFIT1 but also phosphorylation of IFN-stimulated Stat1 took place rapidly and were found to be persistent over time. In contrast, susceptible cell lines showed a much weaker, delayed, or completely missing expression of IFIT1 as well as a delayed or only transient phosphorylation of Stat1, whereas exogenic stimulation with beta interferon (IFN-β) resulted in a comparable profound activation of Stat1 and expression of IFIT1 in all cell lines. Pretreatment with IFN-β rendered three of the susceptible cell lines more resistant to MeV-mediated oncolysis. These data suggest that differences in the innate immune defense often account for different degrees of susceptibility of sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis. From a therapeutic perspective, we were able to overcome resistance to MeV by increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and by addition of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (FC), thereby exploiting the suicide gene function of virotherapeutic vector MeV-SCD armed with the SCD fusion protein, which consists of yeast cytosine deaminase and yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.

  3. Molecular characterization and virus neutralization patterns of severe, non-epizootic forms of feline calicivirus infections resembling virulent systemic disease in cats in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Samman, Ayman; Hoffmann, Karolin; Sydler, Titus; Cattori, Valentino; Graf, Felix; Diserens, Kevin A; Padrutt, Isabelle; Nesina, Stefanie; Berger, Alice; Ruetten, Maja; Riond, Barbara; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-01-15

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) infections are associated with oral ulceration, chronic stomatitis and a limping syndrome. Epizootic outbreaks of virulent systemic disease (VSD) have been reported in the USA and Europe. Here, the molecular characterization and neutralization patterns of FCV isolates from cases of severe, non-epizootic infection associated with skin ulceration and edema are presented. Samples from eleven symptomatic cats, four in-contact cats and 27 cats with no contact with symptomatic cats were collected and tested for FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Phylogenetic analyses based on the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV and virus neutralization with antisera raised against four FCV vaccine strains were performed. Nine kittens and two adult cats in two shelters and two veterinary clinics in four geographically distinct locations in Switzerland and Liechtenstein were affected. The cats showed fever, tongue and skin ulceration, head and paw edema, and occasionally jaundice, generalized edema and dyspnea. All symptomatic cats tested FCV-positive but were negative for FHV-1, FeLV and FIV, with the exception of one FIV-positive kitten. All kittens of one litter and both adult cats died. The disease did not spread to cats in the environment. Cats in the environment displayed phylogenetically distinct, but related, FCV strains. Virus neutralization patterns suggested that some cases might have been potentially prevented by vaccination with the optimal vaccine strain. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of severe, non-epizootic forms of FCV infections with initial clinical presentations similar to VSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Moloney murine sarcoma virus MuSVts110 DNA: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, L; Chiocca, S M; Gilbreth, M A; Ainsworth, J R; Bishop, L A; Murphy, E C

    1992-09-01

    We have cloned Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MuSV) MuSVts110 DNA by assembly of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified segments of integrated viral DNA from infected NRK cells (6m2 cells) and determined its complete sequence. Previously, by direct sequencing of MuSVts110 RNA transcribed in 6m2 cells, we established that the thermosensitive RNA splicing phenotype uniquely characteristic of MuSVts110 results from a deletion of 1,487 nucleotides of progenitor MuSV-124 sequences. As anticipated, the sequence obtained in this study contained precisely this same deletion. In addition, several other unexpected sequence differences were found between MuSVts110 and MuSV-124. For example, in the noncoding region upstream of the gag gene, MuSVts110 DNA contained a 52-nucleotide tract typical of murine leukemia virus rather than MuSV-124, suggesting that MuSVts110 originated as a MuSV-helper murine leukemia virus recombinant during reverse transcription rather than from a straightforward deletion within MuSV-124. In addition, both MuSVts110 long terminal repeats contained head-to-tail duplications of eight nucleotides in the U3 region. Finally, seven single-nucleotide substitutions were found scattered throughout MuSVts110 DNA. Three of the nucleotide substitutions were in the gag gene, resulting in one coding change in p15 and one in p30. All of the remaining nucleotide changes were found in the noncoding region between the 5' long terminal repeat and the gag gene. In NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the cloned MuSVts110 DNA, the pattern of viral RNA expression conformed with that observed in cells infected with authentic MuSVts110 virus in that viral RNA splicing was 30 to 40% efficient at growth temperatures between 28 and 33 degrees C but reduced to trace levels above 37 degrees C.

  5. Nuclear import of Avian Sarcoma Virus integrase is facilitated by host cell factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Andrew D

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of retroviral DNA into the host cell genome is an obligatory step in the virus life cycle. In previous reports we identified a sequence (amino acids 201–236 in the linker region between the catalytic core and C-terminal domains of the avian sarcoma virus (ASV integrase protein that functions as a transferable nuclear localization signal (NLS in mammalian cells. The sequence is distinct from all known NLSs but, like many, contains basic residues that are essential for activity. Results Our present studies with digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells show that nuclear import mediated by the NLS of ASV integrase is an active, saturable, and ATP-dependent process. As expected for transport through nuclear pore complexes, import is blocked by treatment of cells with wheat germ agglutinin. We also show that import of ASV integrase requires soluble cellular factors but does not depend on binding the classical adapter Importin-α. Results from competition studies indicate that ASV integrase relies on one or more of the soluble components that mediate transport of the linker histone H1. Conclusion These results are consistent with a role for ASV integrase and cytoplasmic cellular factors in the nuclear import of its viral DNA substrate, and lay the foundation for identification of host cell components that mediate this reaction.

  6. Identification of Gelatinases involved in the Rous sarcoma Virus-induced Tumors in Chicks as Prognostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kotresh and Meena Kataria

    Full Text Available The present work is undertaken to study the expression of levels of gelatinases in tumorogenesis by Rous sarcoma virus(RSV in layer chicks and explored the possibility of using gelatinases as potential biological markers in metastatic neoplasms. Two days old chicks (40 were divided into two groups (Gp I and Gp II. Gp-I (20 treated with Rous sarcoma virus for tumor induction. The Gp II (control was inoculated with RPMI-1640. Tumors appeared earliest by three days post infection with RSV and were progressive leading to mortality of birds by twenty eight days. Distant tumors were observed in liver, heart, lung, and kidney on post mortem. A prominent band of gelatinase of around 75 kDa was detected in plasma of infected chicks by gelatin zymography. Results indicate over expression of gelatinases and are leaked into plasma on Rous sarcoma virus infection. Expression of gelatinases in primary tumors, metastasized liver, heart, lung and kidney and corresponding tissues in healthy control chicks was determined by RT-PCR analysis. Over expression of gelatinase gene was observed in metastaic tissues and primary tumors than control. The described assays could be used as a prognostic assay method for detection of proteases in metastatic neoplasms of animals. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 500-502

  7. Precise localization of m6A in Rous sarcoma virus RNA reveals clustering of methylation sites: implications for RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, S E; Beemon, K

    1985-09-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues are present as internal base modifications in most higher eucaryotic mRNAs; however, the biological function of this modification is not known. We describe a method for localizing and quantitating m6A within a large RNA molecule, the genomic RNA of Rous sarcoma virus. Specific fragments of 32P-labeled Rous sarcoma virus RNA were isolated by hybridization with complementary DNA restriction fragments spanning nucleotides 6185 to 8050. RNA was digested with RNase and finger-printed, and individual oligonucleotides were analyzed for the presence of m6A by paper electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography. With this technique, seven sites of methylation in this region of the Rous sarcoma virus genome were localized at nucleotides 6394, 6447, 6507, 6718, 7414, 7424, and 8014. Further, m6A was observed at two additional sites whose nucleotide assignments remain ambiguous. A clustering of two or more m6A residues was seen at three positions within the RNA analyzed. Modification at certain sites was found to be heterogeneous, in that different molecules of RNA appeared to be methylated differently. Previous studies have determined that methylation occurs only in the sequences Gm6AC and Am6AC. We observed a high frequency of methylation at PuGm6ACU sequences. The possible involvement of m6A in RNA splicing events is discussed.

  8. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitika Kuribayashi Hagiwara

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological aspects of three cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in cats related to FIV infection are described. Two of the patients were siamese, male and female, three years old cats and the third one was a male, six years old, short haired domestic cat. Fever, icterus, spleen enlargement, ematiation and weakness were the clinical signs observed. The main hematological alterations were anemia, apparently not related to hemobartonellosis, found in two of the cats, neutrophilia in all of them and lymphopenia observed in one. The necropsy made on two cats revealed that sepsis was the major cause of the worsening of clinical conditions of the FIV infected cats. Moraxella phenilpiruvica was isolated from kidney of one patient. All of the cats were FIV positive and FeLV negative and had been sick for a long time with clinical signs related to feline AIDS.

  9. Snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida D Duarte

    Full Text Available The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV, was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99, red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19, stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3, common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3 and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4. A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63% was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58% and red foxes (79%, along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris and the critically

  10. T Regulatory Cell Induced Foxp3 Binds the IL2, IFNγ, and TNFα Promoters in Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells from Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Nag, Mukta; Tuohy, Joanne L; De Paris, Kristina; Fogle, Jonathan E

    2017-11-17

    Polyfunctional CD8+ T cells play a critical role in controlling viremia during AIDS lentiviral infections. However, for most HIV-infected individuals, virus-specific CD8+ T cells exhibit loss of polyfunctionality, including loss of IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for AIDS lentiviral persistence, our laboratory has demonstrated that FIV-activated Treg cells target CD8+ T cells, leading to a reduction in IL2 and IFNγ production. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that Treg cells induce expression of the repressive transcription factor, Foxp3, in CD8+ T cells. Based upon these findings, we asked if Treg-induced Foxp3 could bind to the IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ promoter regions in virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Following coculture with autologous Treg cells, we demonstrated decreased mRNA levels of IL2 and IFNγ at weeks 4 and 8 postinfection and decreased TNFα at week 4 postinfection in virus-specific CD8+ T cells. We also clearly demonstrated Treg cell-induced Foxp3 expression in virus-specific CD8+ T cells at weeks 1, 4, and 8 postinfection. Finally, we documented Foxp3 binding to the IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ promoters at 8 weeks and 6 months postinfection in virus-specific CD8+ T cells following Treg cell coculture. In summary, the results here clearly demonstrate that Foxp3 inhibits IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ transcription by binding to their promoter regions in lentivirus-specific CD8+ T cells. We believe this is the first description of this process during the course of AIDS lentiviral infection.

  11. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and detection of infected bone marrow cells in asymptomatic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Baba, Kenji; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2009-05-12

    Peripheral blood cytopenia such as anemia, leukopenia with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although previous studies report that cytopenia has been observed in FIV-infected symptomatic cats, yet the asymptomatic cats also present cytopenia occasionally. In the present study, hematological and virological analyses in FIV-infected asymptomatic cats were carried out to understand the prevalence and pathogenesis of peripheral blood cytopenia in FIV infection. Hematological abnormalities were detected in 24 of 50 FIV-infected asymptomatic cats (48%) in which no other cause of cytopenia than FIV infection was observed. Anemia only, neutropenia only, thrombocytopenia only, bicytopenia and pancytopenia were observed in 10%, 10%, 6%, 14% and 8%, respectively. Bone marrow (BM) examination was performed in 8 FIV-infected asymptomatic cats with peripheral blood cytopenia. Myeloid dysplasia was observed in 4 cats with neutropenia of which 2 cats with concurrent thrombocytopenia presented morphological abnormalities of megakaryocytes. FIV-infected BM cells in the 8 cats were analyzed by PCR and immunocytochemistry. Lobulated mononuclear cells in BM were infected with FIV in 5 cats with neutropenia of which 2 cats with concurrent thrombocytopenia showed FIV-infected megakaryocytes. Parts of isolated stromal cells from BM were infected with FIV in all the 8 cats. Present results suggest that FIV infection of BM cells can cause peripheral blood cytopenia and myelodysplasia even if the cat is asymptomatic. Such FIV-related hematological abnormalities are supposed to be diagnosed as FIV-myelopathy.

  12. Natural resistance to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection is decreased rather than increased by positive genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Durden, Monica; Lyons, Leslie A

    2016-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated the existence of a natural resistance to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) among 36% of randomly bred laboratory cats. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on this population suggested that resistance was polygenic but failed to identify any strong specific associations. In order to enhance the power of GWAS or whole genome sequencing to identify strong genetic associations, a decision was made to positively select for resistance over three generations. The inbreeding experiment began with a genetically related parental (P) population consisting of three toms and four queens identified from among the survivors of the earlier study and belonging to a closely related subgroup (B). The subsequent effects of inbreeding were measured using 42 genome-wide STR markers. P generation cats produced 57 first filial (F1) kittens, only five of which (9.0%) demonstrated a natural resistance to FIPV infection. One of these five F1 survivors was then used to produce six F1/P-backcrosses kittens, only one of which proved resistant to FIP. Six of eight of the F1 and F1/P survivors succumbed to a secondary exposure 4-12 months later. Therefore, survival after both primary and secondary infection was decreased rather than increased by positive selection for resistance. The common genetic factor associated with this diminished resistance was a loss of heterozygosity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Paladino, Monica G. [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Affranchino, Jose L., E-mail: jose.affranchino@comunidad.ub.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-20

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  14. Efficient Transduction of Feline Neural Progenitor Cells for Delivery of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Lentiviral Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Joann You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.

  15. Comparison of three feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) point-of-care antigen test kits using blood and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2017-02-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard. Blood (n=563) and saliva (n=419) specimens were collected from a population of cats determined to include 491 FeLV-uninfected and 72 FeLV-infected individuals (45 progressive infections [p27 and qPCR positive], 27 regressive infections [p27 negative, qPCR positive]). Sensitivity and specificity using whole blood was 63% and 94% for SNAP Combo, 57% and 98% for Witness, and 57% and 98% for Anigen Rapid, respectively. SNAP Combo had a significantly lower specificity using blood compared to the other two kits (P=0.004 compared to Witness, P=0.007 compared to Anigen Rapid). False-positive test results occurred with all three kits using blood, and although using any two kits in parallel increased specificity, no combination of kits completely eliminated the occurrence of false-positive results. We therefore recommend FeLV proviral PCR testing for any cat that tests positive with a PoC FeLV antigen kit, as well as for any cat that has been potentially exposed to FeLV but tests negative with a FeLV antigen kit, before final assignment of FeLV status can be made with confidence. For saliva testing, sensitivity and specificity was 54% and 100%, respectively, for all three test kits. The reduced sensitivity of saliva testing compared to blood testing, although not statistically significant, suggests saliva testing with the current generation of PoC FeLV antigen kits is unsuitable for screening large populations of cats, such as in shelters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  16. Immunogenicity of an anti-clade B feline immunodeficiency fixed-cell virus vaccine in field cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, D; Poli, A; Mazzetti, P; Sozzi, S; Bonci, F; Isola, P; Zaccaro, L; Giannecchini, S; Calandrella, M; Pistello, M; Specter, S; Bendinelli, M

    2000-12-01

    Attempts at vaccine development for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been extensive, both because this is a significant health problem for cats and because FIV may be a useful vaccine model for human immunodeficiency virus. To date, only modest success, producing only short-term protection, has been achieved for vaccine trials in controlled laboratory settings. It is unclear how relevant such experiments are to prevention of natural infection. The current study used a vaccine that employs cell-associated FIV-M2 strain fixed with paraformaldehyde. Subject cats were in a private shelter where FIV was endemic, a prevalence of 29 to 58% over an 8-year observation period. Cats roamed freely from the shelter through the surrounding countryside but returned for food and shelter. After ensuring that cats were FIV negative, they were immunized using six doses of vaccine over a 16-month period and observed for 28 months after the initiation of immunization. Twenty-six cats (12 immunized and 14 nonimmunized controls) were monitored for a minimum of 22 months. Immunized cats did not experience significant adverse effects from immunization and developed both antibodies and cellular immunity to FIV, although individual responses varied greatly. At the conclusion of the study, 0 of 12 immunized cats had evidence of FIV infection, while 5 of 14 control cats were infected. Thus, the vaccine was safe and immunogenic and did not transmit infection. Furthermore, vaccinated cats did not develop FIV infection in a limited clinical trial over an extended time period. Thus, the data suggest that a fixed, FIV-infected cell vaccine has potential for preventing natural FIV infection in free-roaming cats.

  17. Structure determination of feline calicivirus virus-like particles in the context of a pseudo-octahedral arrangement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim P Burmeister

    Full Text Available The vesivirus feline calicivirus (FCV is a positive strand RNA virus encapsidated by an icosahedral T=3 shell formed by the viral VP1 protein. Upon its expression in the insect cell - baculovirus system in the context of vaccine development, two types of virus-like particles (VLPs were formed, a majority built of 60 subunits (T=1 and a minority probably built of 180 subunits (T=3. The structure of the small particles was determined by x-ray crystallography at 0.8 nm resolution helped by cryo-electron microscopy in order to understand their formation. Cubic crystals belonged to space group P213. Their self-rotation function showed the presence of an octahedral pseudo-symmetry similar to the one described previously by Agerbandje and co-workers for human parvovirus VLPs. The crystal structure could be solved starting from the published VP1 structure in the context of the T=3 viral capsid. In contrast to viral capsids, where the capsomers are interlocked by the exchange of the N-terminal arm (NTA domain, this domain is disordered in the T=1 capsid of the VLPs. Furthermore it is prone to proteolytic cleavage. The relative orientation of P (protrusion and S (shell domains is alerted so as to fit VP1 to the smaller T=1 particle whereas the intermolecular contacts around 2-fold, 3-fold and 5-fold axes are conserved. By consequence the surface of the VLP is very similar compared to the viral capsid and suggests a similar antigenicity. The knowledge of the structure of the VLPs will help to improve their stability, in respect to a use for vaccination.

  18. Time-Course Analysis of Main Markers of Primary Infection in Cats with the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ribba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the response of the immune system to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV during primary infection have shown that a subpopulation of CD8+ T-cells with an activated phenotype and reduced expression of the CD8β chain (denoted CD8βlow T cells expands to reach up to 80% of the total CD8+ T cell count. The expansion of this subpopulation is considered to be a signature of FIV and an indicator of immune system alteration. We use a simple mathematical formalism to study the relationships over time between the dose of infection, the size of the CD8βlow population, and the circulating viral load in cats infected with FIV. Viremia profiles are described using a combination of two exponential laws, whereas the CD8βlow percentage (out of the total CD8+ population is represented by a Gompertz law including an expansion phase and a saturation phase. Model parameters are estimated with a population approach using data from 102 experimentally infected cats. We examine the dose of infection as a potential covariate of parameters. We find that the rates of increase of viral load and of CD8βlow percentage are both correlated with the dose of infection. Cats that develop strong acute viremia also show the largest degree of CD8βlow expansion. The two simple models are robust tools for analysing the time course of CD8βlow percentage and circulating viral load in FIV-infected cats and may be useful for generating new insights on the disease and on the design of therapeutic strategies, potentially applicable to HIV infection.

  19. Systolic blood pressure, routine kidney variables and renal ultrasonographic findings in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffin, Elien Rl; Paepe, Dominique; Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; De Roover, Katrien; Van de Maele, Isabel; Saunders, Jimmy H; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a common cause of proteinuria in HIV-infected people. In cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection appears to be associated with proteinuria. Therefore, the results from systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements in naturally infected FIV-positive cats were reviewed to assess whether hypertension contributes to the observed proteinuria in these cats. Ultrasonographic findings in FIV-positive cats were reviewed to complete renal assessment and to extend the scant knowledge on renal ultrasonography in cats. Methods Data from client-owned, naturally infected FIV-positive cats were retrospectively reviewed. To obtain a control group, records were reviewed from age-matched, privately owned, FIV-negative cats. Results Data from 91 FIV-infected and 113 control cats were compared. FIV-infected cats showed a significantly lower SBP ( P cats were hypertensive (⩾160 mmHg) compared with control cats ( P = 0.025). The prevalence of renal azotaemia did not significantly differ between groups, although FIV-infected cats had significantly lower urine specific gravity (USG) ( P = 0.0273) and a higher incidence of USG below 1.035 ( P = 0.043). Urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats ( P = 0.0005) and proteinuria (UPC >0.4) occurred more frequently in FIV-infected cats ( P cats, with hyperechogenic cortices in 39/91 and enlarged kidneys in 31/91. Conclusions and relevance Hypertension can be excluded as a common cause of renal damage leading to proteinuria in FIV-infected cats. Proteinuria and poorly concentrated urine are common in naturally infected FIV-positive cats, in contrast to azotaemia. Clinicians should cautiously interpret ultrasonographic abnormalities as these occur in over half of FIV-infected cats.

  20. Suppression of NK cells and regulatory T lymphocytes in cats naturally infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ben L; Devriendt, Bert; Olyslaegers, Dominique A; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Favoreel, Herman W; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-05-31

    A strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be indispensable for protection against infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) in cats. In this study, the role of natural killer (NK) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), central players in the innate and adaptive CMI respectively, was examined during natural FIPV infection. When quantified, both NK cells and Tregs were drastically depleted from the peripheral blood, mesenteric lymph node (LN) and spleen in FIP cats. In contrast, mesentery and kidney from FIP cats did not show any difference when compared to healthy non-infected control animals. In addition, other regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ and CD3+CD8+Foxp3+) were found to be depleted from blood and LN as well. Phenotypic analysis of blood-derived NK cells in FIP cats revealed an upregulation of activation markers (CD16 and CD25) and migration markers (CD11b and CD62L) while LN-derived NK cells showed upregulation of only CD16 and CD62L. LN-derived NK cells from FIPV-infected cats were also significantly less cytotoxic when compared with healthy cats. This study reveals for the first time that FIPV infection is associated with severe suppression of NK cells and Tregs, which is reflected by cell depletion and lowered cell functionality (only NK cells). This will un-doubtfully lead to a reduced capacity of the innate immune system (NK cells) to battle FIPV infection and a decreased capacity (Tregs) to suppress the immunopathology typical for FIP. However, these results will also open possibilities for new therapies targeting specifically NK cells and Tregs to enhance their numbers and/or functionality during FIPV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feline leukemia virus integrase and capsid packaging functions do not change the insertion profile of standard Moloney retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métais, J-Y; Topp, S; Doty, R T; Borate, B; Nguyen, A-D; Wolfsberg, T G; Abkowitz, J L; Dunbar, C E

    2010-06-01

    Adverse events linked to perturbations of cellular genes by vector insertion reported in gene therapy trials and animal models have prompted attempts to better understand the mechanisms directing viral vector integration. The integration profiles of vectors based on MLV, ASLV, SIV and HIV have all been shown to be non-random, and novel vectors with a safer integration pattern have been sought. Recently, we developed a producer cell line called CatPac that packages standard MoMLV vectors with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag, pol and env gene products. We now report the integration profile of this vector, asking if the FeLV integrase and capsid proteins could modify the MoMLV integration profile, potentially resulting in a less genotoxic pattern. We transduced rhesus macaque CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells with CatPac or standard MoMLV vectors, and determined their integration profile by LAM-PCR. We obtained 184 and 175 unique integration sites (ISs) respectively for CatPac and standard MoMLV vectors, and these were compared with 10 000 in silico-generated random IS. The integration profile for CatPac vector was similar to MoMLV and equally non-random, with a propensity for integration near transcription start sites and in highly dense gene regions. We found an IS for CatPac vector localized 715 nucleotides upstream of LMO-2, the gene involved in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed by X-SCID patients treated by gene therapy using MoMLV vectors. In conclusion, we found that replacement of MoMLV env, gag and pol gene products with FeLV did not alter the basic integration profile. Thus, there appears to be no safety advantage for this packaging system. However, considering the stability and efficacy of CatPac vectors, further development is warranted, using potentially safer vector backbones, for instance those with a SIN configuration.

  2. Papillomavirus associated skin lesions in a cat seropositive for feline immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Berrocal, A.; Bax, H.A.; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Walter, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A cat was presented with skin lesions consisting of slightly raised pigmented plaques, 2 7 mm in diameter with a rough slightly verrucous surface. Histologically these lesions were identified as papillomas. A papillomavirus infection was demonstrated: virus-like particles were present in the nuclei

  3. Lentiviral Gag assembly analyzed through the functional characterization of chimeric simian immunodeficiency viruses expressing different domains of the feline immunodeficiency virus capsid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Esteva

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the functional relationship between the capsid (CA domains of the Gag polyproteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively, we constructed chimeric SIVs in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by the equivalent region of the FIV CA. The phenotypic characterization of the chimeras allowed us to group them into three categories: the chimeric viruses that, while being assembly-competent, exhibit a virion-associated unstable FIV CA; a second group represented only by the chimeric SIV carrying the N-terminal domain (NTD of the FIV CA which proved to be assembly-defective; and a third group constituted by the chimeric viruses that produce virions exhibiting a mature and stable FIV CA protein, and which incorporate the envelope glycoprotein and contain wild-type levels of viral genome RNA and reverse transcriptase. Further analysis of the latter group of chimeric SIVs demonstrated that they are non-infectious due to a post-entry impairment, such as uncoating of the viral core, reverse transcription or nuclear import of the preintegration complex. Furthermore, we show here that the carboxyl-terminus domain (CTD of the FIV CA has an intrinsic ability to dimerize in vitro and form high-molecular-weight oligomers, which, together with our finding that the FIV CA-CTD is sufficient to confer assembly competence to the resulting chimeric SIV Gag polyprotein, provides evidence that the CA-CTD exhibits more functional plasticity than the CA-NTD. Taken together, our results provide relevant information on the biological relationship between the CA proteins of primate and nonprimate lentiviruses.

  4. Hydrodynamic and Membrane Binding Properties of Purified Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Robert A.; Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Nanda, Hirsh; Fang, Xianyang; Wen, Yi; Barros, Marilia; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan; Vogt, Volker M. (NCI); (Cornell); (CM); (NIST)

    2016-05-06

    Previously, no retroviral Gag protein has been highly purified in milligram quantities and in a biologically relevant and active form. We have purified Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein and in parallel several truncation mutants of Gag and have studied their biophysical properties and membrane interactionsin vitro. RSV Gag is unusual in that it is not naturally myristoylated. From its ability to assemble into virus-like particlesin vitro, we infer that RSV Gag is biologically active. By size exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering, Gag in solution appears extended and flexible, in contrast to previous reports on unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag, which is compact. However, by neutron reflectometry measurements of RSV Gag bound to a supported bilayer, the protein appears to adopt a more compact, folded-over conformation. At physiological ionic strength, purified Gag binds strongly to liposomes containing acidic lipids. This interaction is stimulated by physiological levels of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and by cholesterol. However, unlike HIV-1 Gag, RSV Gag shows no sensitivity to acyl chain saturation. In contrast with full-length RSV Gag, the purified MA domain of Gag binds to liposomes only weakly. Similarly, both an N-terminally truncated version of Gag that is missing the MA domain and a C-terminally truncated version that is missing the NC domain bind only weakly. These results imply that NC contributes to membrane interactionin vitro, either by directly contacting acidic lipids or by promoting Gag multimerization.

    Retroviruses like HIV assemble at and bud from the plasma membrane of cells. Assembly requires the interaction between thousands of Gag molecules to form a lattice. Previous work indicated that lattice formation at the plasma membrane is influenced by the conformation of monomeric HIV. We have extended this work to the more tractable RSV Gag. Our

  5. Seroprevalence immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia in cats in Monteria, Córdoba SEROPREVALENCIA DEL VIRUS DE LEUCEMIA E INMUNODEFICIENCIA FELINA EN GATOS DE MONTERÍA, CÓRDOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríos Rincón Rodrigo Alexander

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The gradual increment of the feline population in Colombia and some countries is associated with presence of diseases that care produce animal health risk. The virus of immunodeficiency and the feline leukemia are the main retroviales diseases with high morbility and mortality in felines and they require of a right diagnostic that extend the felines’ life. A descriptive transversal cut study was done, 60 urban domestic cats of Montería were included, animals were from clinics, veterinarian consults and familiar houses. The simultaneous diagnostic of leukemia and feline immunodeficiency was carried out by using inmunoensayo SNAP combo FeLV Ag/FIV Ab (laboratories Idexx Toronto, Canadá in samples of serum and plasma. The animals were submitted to a physical and laboratory examination the population studied were 30 females and 30 males most of them minor of 2 years. Feline leukemia showed a seroprevalence of 23,3% (14/60, for feline immunodeficiency a seroprevalence of 1,6% (1/60, and the prevalence of double infection for feline leukemia and immunodeficiency was of 5% (3/60. The immunodeficiency’s virus and feline leukemia diagnostic was carry out for first time in the population of domestics cats in the city of Montería and it established a seroprevalence of 23,3% and 1,6% respectively.El incremento gradual de la población felina en Colombia y algunos países está acompañado de la aparición de enfermedades que ponen en riesgo la salud animal. El virus de inmunodeficiencia y la leucemia felina son las principales enfermedades retrovirales de mayor morbilidad y mortalidad en los felinos, que requieren de un diagnóstico oportuno que permita prolongar la vida de estos animales. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal que incluyó 60 gatos domésticos del área urbana de la ciudad de Montería procedentes de clínicas, consultorios veterinarios y viviendas familiares. El diagnóstico simultáneo de leucemia e

  6. Discovery of new feline paramyxoviruses in domestic cats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieg, Michael; Heenemann, Kristin; Rückner, Antje; Burgener, Iwan; Oechtering, Gerhard; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses constitute a large family of enveloped RNA viruses including important pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. Recently, feline paramyxoviruses, genus morbillivirus, were detected in cats from Hong Kong and Japan. Here we describe the discovery of several new feline

  7. Detection Of Human Herpes Virus Type-8 Dna In Kaposi\\'s Sarcoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Since the discovery of Human Herpes viru-8 [HHV-8], many workers try to search its presence in skin lesions of different diseases, and in the peripheral blood of healthy and diseased individuals. Objective: of this work is to study the role of HHV-8 in inducing Kaposi's sarcoma “KS”, in HIV sero-negative patients ...

  8. Seroprevalence of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV among Client-owned Cats in Ahvaz, Southwestern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mosallanejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to detect prevalence and risk factors for retrovirus infection of infected cats in a cat population in Iran, by evaluation of 238 client-owned cats of different ages that were tested for the presence of FIV antibodies. The cats were selected from those referring to Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University, southwestern Iran from December 2007 to June 2010. Classification was made by age, sex, breed, region and season. The studied cats were divided into two age groups (≤ 3 years and >3 years and based on clinical signs into two groups. Prevalence of FIV antibodies in these cats was 10.5 % by immunochromatography assay, indicating that this virus is present in the environment. The infection had more prevalence in cats above 3 years (13.9 % compared with cats less than 3 years (4.6 %. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between different age groups. Mean age of FIV-infected and FIV-negative cats were 4.93 ± 0.43 years (range 1.75 – 10 years and 4.15 ± 0.20 years (range 0.4 – 15 years, respectively. Prevalence of infection was 12.6% in males and 8.1 % in females; nevertheless the infection was not significant between different sexes (P > 0.05. Six out of 36 cases (16.7 % which had clinical signs and 19 out of 202 cases (9.4 % which did not have clinical signs were seropositive, without significant difference between two groups (95 % CI for OR = 1.92. Risk factors for FIV infection were older age (95 % CI for OR = 3.35, access to outdoor (95 % CI for OR = 140.9 and aggressive behavior (95 % CI for OR = 82.71.

  9. Feline leukemia virus outbreak in the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): high-throughput sequencing of envelope variable region A and experimental transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geret, C P; Cattori, V; Meli, M L; Riond, B; Martínez, F; López, G; Vargas, A; Simón, M A; López-Bao, J V; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

    2011-05-01

    The Iberian lynx is the most endangered felid species. During winter/spring 2006/7, a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) outbreak of unexpected virulence killed about 2/3 of the infected Iberian lynxes. All FeLV-positive animals were co-infected with feline hemoplasmas. To further characterize the Iberian lynx FeLV strain and evaluate its potential virulence, the FeLV envelope gene variable region A (VRA) mutant spectrum was analyzed using the Roche 454 sequencing technology, and an in vivo transmission study of lynx blood to specified-pathogen-free cats was performed. VRA mutations indicated weak apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme and catalytic polypeptide-like cytidine deaminase (APOBEC) restriction of FeLV replication, and variants characteristic of aggressive FeLV strains, such as FeLV-C or FeLV-A/61C, were not detected. Cats exposed to FeLV/Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum-positive lynx blood did not show a particularly severe outcome of infection. The results underscore the special susceptibility of Iberian lynxes to infectious diseases.

  10. Successful treatment of multifocal pedal infection in a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat with multiple Bowenoid in situ carcinomas containing papillomaviral DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan E Kessell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 16-year-old, castrated male, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-positive, domestic shorthair cat developed multiple skin lesions. Most of these were Bowenoid carcinoma in situ and contained DNA sequences consistent with Felis catus papillomavirus type 2. Two additional lesions that developed in the skin and subcutaneous tissues between the digital and carpal pads on the left forelimb and right hindlimb were shown by cytology, histology and culture to be caused by Prototheca wickerhamii . These lesions failed to improve in response to systemic therapy treatment with itraconazole, but excision by sharp en bloc resection with follow-up oral itraconazole therapy proved curative for one lesion, although the other lesion recurred, necessitating a second surgery. Relevance and novel information This is only the second reported case of feline protothecosis from Australia and the first case that has been cultured and identified to the species level. Also of great interest was the presence of multiple papillomavirus-associated neoplastic lesions, which may have afforded a portal of entry for the algal pathogen and the cat’s positive FIV status; the latter might have impacted on both viral and algal pathogenesis by effects on immunocompetence.

  11. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) codon bias analysis reveals a progressive adaptation to the new niche after the host jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Cecchinato, Mattia; Drigo, Michele

    2017-09-01

    Based on virus dependence from host cell machinery, their codon usage is expected to show a strong relation with the host one. Even if this association has been stated, especially for bacteria viruses, the linkage is considered to be less consistent for more complex organisms and a codon bias adaptation after host jump has never been proven. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was selected as a model because it represents a well characterized case of host jump, originating from Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). The current study demonstrates that the adaptation to specific tissue and host codon bias affected CPV-2 evolution. Remarkably, FPV and CPV-2 showed a higher closeness toward the codon bias of the tissues they display the higher tropism for. Moreover, after the host jump, a clear and significant trend was evidenced toward a reduction in the distance between CPV-2 and the dog codon bias over time. This evidence was not confirmed for FPV, suggesting that an equilibrium has been reached during the prolonged virus-host co-evolution. Additionally, the presence of an intermediate pattern displayed by some strains infecting wild species suggests that these could have facilitated the host switch also by acting on codon bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Feline leukemia virus and other pathogens as important threats to the survival of the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Meli, Marina L.; Valentino Cattori; Fernando Martínez; Guillermo López; Astrid Vargas; Simón, Miguel A.; Irene Zorrilla; Alvaro Muñoz; Francisco Palomares; Jose V López-Bao; Josep Pastor; Ravi Tandon; Barbara Willi; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann; Hans Lutz

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis), an...

  13. Lymphocyte migration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in feline immunodeficiency virus infection is significantly influenced by the pre-existence of virus and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha within the central nervous system (CNS): studies using an in vitro feline BBB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, N F; Bexiga, M G; Brayden, D J; Brankin, B; Willett, B J; Hosie, M J; Jacque, J-M; Callanan, J J

    2009-12-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus infection, macrophage-tropic and lymphotropic viruses exist in the host. Central nervous system (CNS) infection is an early and ongoing event, important to understand when developing strategies to treat infection. Some knowledge exists on macrophage-tropic virus interactions with the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the aim of this study was to investigate lymphotropic lentivirus interactions with the BBB. Interactions of the lymphotropic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) with an in vitro model of the feline BBB were evaluated in scenarios to mimic in vivo infections. Cell-free FIV crossed the BBB in very low quantities, and in the presence of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, BBB integrity was unaffected. However, cell-associated FIV readily crossed the BBB, but BBB integrity was not significantly altered. Transmigration of uninfected and infected lymphocytes increased in response to TNF-alpha, accompanied by a moderate disruption of barrier integrity and an upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 rather than intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Significant enhancement of migration and disruption of BBB tight junctions occurred when infected cells and TNF-alpha were added to the brain side of the BBB and this enhancement was not mediated through additional TNF-alpha production. Small quantities of virus in the brain together with TNF-alpha have the potential to stimulate greater cell and viral entry into the CNS and this is likely to involve important factors other than further TNF-alpha production. Lymphotropic lentivirus entry to the CNS is governed by many factors similar to macrophage-tropic strains.

  14. In vitro influence of D/L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite on the infectivity of feline calicivirus and of ECHO virus as potential surrogates for foodborne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, J; Albert, T; Manteufel, J; Heinze, J; Fehlhaber, K; Truyen, U

    2011-11-15

    The importance of foodborne viruses is increasingly recognized. Thus, the effect of commonly used food preservation methods on the infectivity of viruses is questioned. In this context, we investigated the antiviral properties of D,L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite by in vitro studies. Two model viruses, Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Enteric Cytophatic Human Orphan (ECHO) virus, were chosen for this study simulating important foodborne viruses (human noroviruses (NoV) and human enteroviruses, resp.). The model viruses were exposed to different solutions of D,L-lactic acid (0.1-0.4% w/w, pH 6.0-3.2), of sodium chloride (2-20%, w/v) and of sodium nitrite (100, 150 and 200 ppm) at 4 and 20 °C for a maximum of 7 days. Different results were obtained for the two viruses. ECHO virus was highly stable against D,L-lactic acid and sodium chloride when tested under all conditions. On the contrary, FCV showed less stability but was not effectively inactivated when exposed to low acid and high salt conditions at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C). FCV titers decreased more markedly at 20 °C than 4 °C in all experiments. Sodium nitrite did not show any effect on the inactivation of both viruses. The results indicate that acidification, salting or curing maybe insufficient for effective inactivation of foodborne viruses such as NoV or human enteroviruses during food processing. Thus, application of higher temperature during fermentation and ripening processes maybe more effective toward the inactivation kinetics of less stable viruses. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to examine the antiviral properties of these preserving agents on virus survival and inactivation kinetics in the complex food matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Kaposi'S sarcoma of the stomach and duodenum in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Rizwan; Siraj, Urmee; Barde, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) of the upper gastrointestinal tract without extensive cutaneous disease is uncommon and usually asymptomatic. Herein, the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with iron deficiency anemia is reported. A colonoscopy was unremarkable and upper endoscopy revealed multiple raised, hemorrhagic, plaque-like lesions throughout the stomach and the small intestine. Histopathology confirmed KS; further testing revealed the patient to be HIV-positive and a diagnosis of AIDS-related KS was made. Although a rare entity, physicians should be aware of this condition in order to facilitate a prompt diagnosis and necessary intervention.

  16. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA recruits the DNA polymerase clamp loader to mediate efficient replication and virus persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiming; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Juillard, Franceline; Li, Lin; Li, Shijun; De León Vázquez, Erika; Chen, She; Kaye, Kenneth

    2014-08-12

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latently infects tumor cells and persists as a multiple-copy, extrachromosomal, circular episome. To persist, the viral genome must replicate with each cell cycle. The KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates viral DNA replication and persistence, but little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. We find that LANA recruits replication factor C (RFC), the DNA polymerase clamp [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)] loader, to drive DNA replication efficiently. Mutated LANA lacking RFC interaction was deficient for LANA-mediated DNA replication and episome persistence. RFC depletion had a negative impact on LANA's ability to replicate and maintain viral DNA in cells containing artificial KSHV episomes or in infected cells, leading to loss of virus. LANA substantially increased PCNA loading onto DNA in vitro and recruited RFC and PCNA to KSHV DNA in cells. These findings suggest that PCNA loading is a rate-limiting step in DNA replication that is incompatible with viral survival. LANA enhancement of PCNA loading permits efficient virus replication and persistence, revealing a previously unidentified mechanism for KSHV latency.

  17. The Cancer-Associated Virus Landscape in HIV Patients with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Kaposi's Sarcoma, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Burbelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV-positive patients are at higher risk for developing a variety of infection-related cancers, the prevalence of infections with the seven known cancer-associated viruses has not been studied. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems were used to evaluate antiviral antibodies in four 23-person groups: healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients with oral hairy leukoplakia (OLP, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. Antibody profiling revealed that all HIV-positive individuals were strongly seropositive for anti-gp41 and antireverse transcriptase antibodies. However, anti-p24 HIV antibody levels were highly variable and some OLP and KS patients demonstrated weak or negative responses. Profiling two EBV antigens revealed no statistical difference in antibody levels among the three HIV-infected groups. A high frequency of KSHV infection was detected in HIV patients including 100% of KS, 78% of OLP, and 57% of NHL patients. Most HIV-infected subjects (84% showed anti-HBV core antibodies, but only a few showed antibodies against HCV. MCV seropositivity was also common (94% in the HIV-infected individuals and KS patients showed statistically higher antibody levels compared to the OLP and NHL patients. Overall, 68% of the HIV-infected patients showed seropositivity with at least four cancer-associated viruses. Antibody profiles against these and other infectious agents could be useful for enhancing the clinical management of HIV patients.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-β-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1 an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2 a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.

  19. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    STS; Leiomyosarcoma; Hemangiosarcoma; Kaposi's sarcoma; Lymphangiosarcoma; Synovial sarcoma; Neurofibrosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant fibrous histiocytoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma; Angiosarcoma

  20. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of ...

  1. Lymphatic Reprogramming by Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus Promotes the Oncogenic Activity of the Virus-Encoded G-protein Coupled Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Berenice; Choi, Inho; Choi, Dongwon; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Sunju; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Yong Suk; Maeng, Yong Sun; Lee, Ha Neul; Park, Eunkyung; Kim, Kyu Eui; Kim, Nam Yoon; Baik, Jae Myung; Jung, Jae U.; Koh, Chester J.; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer in HIV-positive individuals, is caused by endothelial transformation mediated by the KS herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded G-protein coupled receptor (vGPCR). Infection of blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) by KSHV reactivates an otherwise silenced embryonic program of lymphatic differentiation. Thus, KS tumors express numerous lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-signature genes. A key unanswered question is how lymphatic reprogramming by the virus promotes tumorigenesis leading to KS formation. In this study, we present evidence that this process creates an environment needed to license the oncogenic activity of vGPCR. We found that the G-protein regulator RGS4 is an inhibitor of vGPCR that is expressed in BECs, but not in LECs. RGS4 was downregulated by the master regulator of LEC differentiation PROX1, which is upregulated by KSHV and directs KSHV-induced lymphatic reprogramming. Moreover, we found that KSHV upregulates the nuclear receptor LRH1, which physically interacts with PROX1 and synergizes with it to mediate repression of RGS4 expression. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RGS4 reduced vGPCR-enhanced cell proliferation, migration, VEGF expression and Akt activation and to suppress tumor formation induced by vGPCR. Our findings resolve long-standing questions about the pathological impact of KSHV-induced reprogramming of host cell identity, and they offer biological and mechanistic insights supporting the hypothesis that a lymphatic microenvironment is more favorable for KS tumorigenesis. PMID:22942256

  2. Proton-driven assembly of the Rous Sarcoma virus capsid protein results in the formation of icosahedral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L; Mitra, Alok K

    2010-05-14

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions.

  3. Proton-driven Assembly of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Capsid Protein Results in the Formation of Icosahedral Particles*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L.; Mitra, Alok K.

    2010-01-01

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions. PMID:20228062

  4. Effect of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide on malignant cell transformation by Moloney murine sarcoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huleihel, M; Arad, S

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide produced by the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was highly inhibitory for cell transformation of mouse fibroblast cells by an MSV-124 virus stock. This inhibition was most effective if the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. Addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection. These findings support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration.

  5. Detection of feline coronavirus using microcantilever sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velanki, Sreepriya; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2006-11-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility of detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using microcantilever technology by showing that the feline coronavirus (FIP) type I virus can be detected by a microcantilever modified by feline coronavirus (FIP) type I anti-viral antiserum. A microcantilever modified by FIP type I anti-viral antiserum was developed for the detection of FIP type I virus. When the FIP type I virus positive sample is injected into the fluid cell where the microcantilever is held, the microcantilever bends upon the recognition of the FIP type I virus by the antiserum on the surface of the microcantilever. A negative control sample that does not contain FIP type I virus did not cause any bending of the microcantilever. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 µg ml-1 when the assay time was <1 h.

  6. Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated-Herpes Virus (KSHV Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malope-Kgokong Babatyi I

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Methods We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics who contributed blood to the "National HIV and Syphilis Sero-Prevalence Survey - South Africa, 2001". Information on HIV and syphilis serology, age, education, residential area, gravidity, and parity was anonymously linked to evaluate risk factors for KSHV seropositivity. Clinics were grouped by municipality regions and their proximity to the two main river catchments defined. Results KSHV seropositivity (reactive to either lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 was nearly twice that of HIV (44.6% vs. 23.1%. HIV and syphilis seropositivity was 12.7% and 14.9% in women without KSHV, and 36.1% and 19.9% respectively in those with KSHV. Women who are KSHV seropositive were 4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who were KSHV seronegative (AOR 4.1 95%CI: 3.4 - 5.7. Although, women with HIV infection were more likely to be syphilis seropositive (AOR 1.8 95%CI: 1.3 - 2.4, no association between KSHV and syphilis seropositivity was observed. Those with higher levels of education had lower levels of KSHV seropositivity compared to those with lower education levels. KSHV seropositivity showed a heterogeneous pattern of prevalence in some localities. Conclusions The association between KSHV and HIV seropositivity and a lack of common association with syphilis, suggests that KSHV transmission may involve geographical and cultural factors other than sexual transmission.

  7. Duplex Real Time PCR for the detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish using Feline Calicivirus as a process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Simona; Paniconi, Mara; De Medici, Dario; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Croci, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of bivalve shellfish is a common cause of foodborne outbreaks of viral origin. The evaluation of the sanitary quality of these products, however, is still based on bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (Reg. (EC) No. 2073/2005 and No.1441/2007) even if it is known that they are not reliable indicators of viral contamination. In this study a duplex Real Time PCR method for quantitative detection of hepatitis A (HAV) in shellfish was developed. Feline Calicivirus (FCV) was used as a control for assessing the effectiveness of the concentration and extraction process and the ability to eliminate PCR inhibitors present in the food matrix. The specific primers and probes for detection of HAV and FCV, chosen respectively from the 5'-UTR region and in the ORF1 region, were labeled with two different dyes and detected simultaneously. The method was applied on spiked and non-spiked shellfish from a local market. The amplification of HAV in the presence of FCV showed good linearity (R(2)=0.994) and the sensitivity limit of the reaction was at least 5 x 10(2)TCID(50)g(-1) of an hepatopancreas extract.

  8. CD8+ clonality is associated with prolonged acute plasma viremia and altered mRNA cytokine profiles during the course of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle M; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Suter, Steven E; Fogle, Jonathan E

    2013-04-15

    Acute lentiviral infection is characterized by early CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity and a subsequent decline in plasma viremia. However, CD8(+) lymphocytes fail to eliminate the virus and a progressive T cell immune dysfunction develops during the course of chronic lentiviral infection. To further define this CD8(+) immune dysfunction we utilized PARR (PCR for antigen receptor rearrangements), a technique which measures clonally expanded lymphocyte populations by comparison of highly conserved T cell receptor (TCR) regions to identify the prevalence of clonal CD8(+) T cells following FIV infection. We then compared phenotype, mRNA profiles, CD8(+) proliferation and plasma viremia during acute and chronic infection for PARR positive (PARR(+)) and PARR negative (PARR(-)) Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infected cats. We demonstrated that approximately forty percent of the FIV(+) cats examined exhibit CD8(+) clonality compared to none of the FIV(-) control cats. There were no phenotypic differences between PARR(+) and PARR(-) CD8(+) lymphocytes from FIV(+) cats but retrospective analysis of plasma viremia over the course of infection revealed a delayed peak in plasma viremia and a decline in lymphocyte counts were observed in the PARR(+) group during acute infection. CD8(+) lymphocytes isolated from chronically infected PARR(-) cats exhibited significantly higher mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 following mitogenic stimulation when compared to PARR(+) CD8(+) lymphocytes. These data suggest that clonal CD8(+) expansion may be related to impaired control of acute viremia and less effective CD8(+) anti-viral function. Using PARR to assess changes in CD8(+) clonality during the progression from acute to chronic FIV infection may help to better characterize the factors which contribute to CD8(+) anergy and lentiviral persistence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucari S.C. Vlok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma is a malignant, predominantly juxta-articular, soft-tissue tumour representing approximately 10% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Frequently initially incorrectly diagnosed as a benign lesion, it should be considered as a diagnosis when a young adult patient presents with a calcified juxta-articular soft-tissue mass of insidious onset.

  10. Generation of high-titre virus stocks using BrK.219, a B-cell line infected stably with recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Semra; Hage, Elias; Mynarek, Martin; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Schulz, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gamma-2-lymphotropic human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV establishes latency soon after infection in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, it is technically difficult to generate high-titre virus stocks required for infection experiments in tissue culture. Currently used methods of KSHV stock production involve induction of the lytic/productive cycle in PEL cell lines or in adherent cell lines harbouring recombinant KSHV genomes. In this study, the BJAB-derived B-cell line BrK.219, which is infected latently with a recombinant KSHV (rKSHV.219), is used to produce high-titre virus stocks. BrK.219 cells enter the lytic KSHV replication cycle upon cross-linking of B-cell receptors (BCRs) with anti-IgM antibodies without the need for additional, potentially toxic chemical inducers. High cell concentrations can be cultured and induced easily in spinner flasks, saving time and resources. The established protocol allows the generation of KSHV virus stocks with titres of up to 10(6) IU/ml in unconcentrated culture supernatants, representing a 10(3)-10(4)-fold improvement compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

    1987-06-02

    A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

  12. Peptide motifs of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule explain the striking MHC-determined response to Rous sarcoma virus in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallny, Hans-Joachim; Avila, David; Hunt, Lawrence G.

    2006-01-01

    Compared with the MHC of typical mammals, the chicken MHC is smaller and simpler, with only two class I genes found in the B12 haplotype. We make five points to show that there is a single-dominantly expressed class I molecule that can have a strong effect on MHC function. First, we find only one...... MHC-determined resistance and susceptibility to Rous sarcoma virus. These results are consistent with the concept of a "minimal essential MHC" for chickens, in strong contrast to typical mammals....

  13. Diagnostic Methods for Feline Coronavirus: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Sharif; Siti Suri Arshad; Mohd Hair-Bejo; Abdul Rahman Omar; Nazariah Allaudin Zeenathul; Amer Alazawy

    2010-01-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specif...

  14. Evaluation of Different Antiretroviral Drug Protocols on Naturally Infected Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Cats in the late Phase of the Asymptomatic Stage of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Nélida V.; Fontanals, Adriana; Castillo, Víctor; Gisbert, María A.; Suraniti, Adriana; Mira, Graciela; Pisano, Paola B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the antiretrovirals: Zidovudine (ZDV) alone; ZDV + Recombinant Human Interferon-α (rHuIFN-α); ZDV + Lamivudine (3TC) and ZDV + valproic acid (Valp) on naturally feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats, in the late phase of the asymptomatic stage of infection. The follow-up was performed over one year, through clinical evaluation and the determination of viral loads and CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Neurological signs were studied by visual and auditory evoked potentials (VEP, AEP) and the responses were abnormal in 80% of the FIV-infected cats. After one year, an improvement in VEP and AEP was observed in the ZDV + Valp group and a worsening in the group receiving ZDV + rHuIFN-α. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio showed a significant increase (both intra and inter-groups) only in ZDV and ZDV + 3TC, between their pre-treatment and one year values, as well as among the other groups. Viral load only showed a significant decrease in ZDV and ZDV + 3TC groups, when comparing the values at one year of treatment vs. pre-treatment values and when the different groups were compared. In addition, the viral load decrease was significantly more pronounced in the ZDV + 3TC vs. ZDV group. We conclude that ZDV and ZDV + 3TC produce significant reductions in viral load and stimulate a recovery of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, compared with the other protocols. It is clear that the addition of 3TC resulted in a greater reduction in viral load than use of ZDV as a single drug. Therefore, the combination ZDV + 3TC could be more effective than the sole use of ZDV. PMID:22816032

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 triggers reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency and collaborates with HIV-1 Tat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiao; Qin, Di; Lv, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiaolei; Ma, Xinting; Yan, Qin; Zeng, Yi; Guo, Yuanyuan; Feng, Ninghan; Lu, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection was necessary but not sufficient for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) development without other cofactors. Previously, we identified that both human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) Tat and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) were important cofactors reactivating KSHV from latency. Here, we further investigated the potential of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) to influence KSHV replication and examined the role of Tat in this procedure. We demonstrated that HSV-2 was a potentially important factor in the pathogenesis of KS, as determined by production of lytic phase mRNA transcripts, viral proteins and infectious viral particles in BCBL-1 cells. These results were further confirmed by an RNA interference experiment using small interfering RNA targeting KSHV Rta and a luciferase reporter assay testing Rta promoter-driven luciferase activity. Mechanistic studies showed that HSV-2 infection activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway enhanced HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, whereas activation of NF-κB pathway suppressed KSHV replication in HSV-2-infected BCBL-1 cells. Additionally, ectopic expression of Tat enhanced HSV-2-induced KSHV replication. These novel findings suggest a role of HSV-2 in the pathogenesis of KS and provide the first laboratory evidence that Tat may participate HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, implying the complicated pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related KS (AIDS-KS) patients.

  16. Herpes simplex virus type 2 triggers reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency and collaborates with HIV-1 Tat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Tang

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV infection was necessary but not sufficient for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS development without other cofactors. Previously, we identified that both human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1 Tat and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 were important cofactors reactivating KSHV from latency. Here, we further investigated the potential of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 to influence KSHV replication and examined the role of Tat in this procedure. We demonstrated that HSV-2 was a potentially important factor in the pathogenesis of KS, as determined by production of lytic phase mRNA transcripts, viral proteins and infectious viral particles in BCBL-1 cells. These results were further confirmed by an RNA interference experiment using small interfering RNA targeting KSHV Rta and a luciferase reporter assay testing Rta promoter-driven luciferase activity. Mechanistic studies showed that HSV-2 infection activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway enhanced HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, whereas activation of NF-κB pathway suppressed KSHV replication in HSV-2-infected BCBL-1 cells. Additionally, ectopic expression of Tat enhanced HSV-2-induced KSHV replication. These novel findings suggest a role of HSV-2 in the pathogenesis of KS and provide the first laboratory evidence that Tat may participate HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, implying the complicated pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS patients.

  17. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus targets the lymphotactin receptor with both a broad spectrum antagonist vCCL2 and a highly selective and potent agonist vCCL3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttichau, Hans R; Johnsen, Anders H; Jurlander, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Large DNA viruses such as herpesvirus and poxvirus encode proteins that target and exploit the chemokine system of their host. These proteins have the potential to block or change the orchestrated recruitment of leukocytes to sites of viral infection. The genome of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes...

  18. The Paradox of Feline Coronavirus Pathogenesis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Wanderley Myrrha; Fernanda Miquelitto Figueira Silva; Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira Peternelli; Abelardo Silva Junior; Maurício Resende; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present...

  19. Feline ocular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Elizabeth A

    2005-05-01

    Feline ocular emergencies include any ophthalmic condition that has rapidly developed or is the result of trauma to the eye or periocular structures. Common feline emergencies include proptosis, lid lacerations, corneal ulcers, and foreign bodies. Complete ophthalmic examination including procurement of the minimal ophthalmic database (Schirmer tear test, fluorescein stain, and intraocular pressure measurement) should be obtained whenever possible to ensure that the complete and correct diagnosis is made. Concern for the patient's vision and ocular comfort should guide the practioner's diagnostic and therapeutic plan. This article reviews some of the more common feline ocular emergencies, including conditions affecting the orbit and globe, adnexa, conjunctiva, and cornea. Feline uveitis, glaucoma, and lenticular diseases are covered more thoroughly elsewhere in this issue.

  20. Kaposin-B enhances the PROX1 mRNA stability during lymphatic reprogramming of vascular endothelial cells by Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyuk Yoo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is the most common cancer among HIV-positive patients. Histogenetic origin of KS has long been elusive due to a mixed expression of both blood and lymphatic endothelial markers in KS tumor cells. However, we and others discovered that Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV induces lymphatic reprogramming of blood vascular endothelial cells by upregulating PROX1, which functions as the master regulator for lymphatic endothelial differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that the KSHV latent gene kaposin-B enhances the PROX1 mRNA stability and plays an important role in KSHV-mediated PROX1 upregulation. We found that PROX1 mRNA contains a canonical AU-rich element (ARE in its 3'-untranslated region that promotes PROX1 mRNA turnover and that kaposin-B stimulates cytoplasmic accumulation of the ARE-binding protein HuR through activation of the p38/MK2 pathway. Moreover, HuR binds to and stabilizes PROX1 mRNA through its ARE and is necessary for KSHV-mediated PROX1 mRNA stabilization. Together, our study demonstrates that kaposin-B plays a key role in PROX1 upregulation during lymphatic reprogramming of blood vascular endothelial cells by KSHV.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated giant conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma: complete remission with antiretroviral therapy and systemic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo-Sánchez, Y W; Fernández-Agrafojo, D

    2017-09-05

    A 35-year-old male patient with a large unilateral haemorrhagic conjunctival tumour lesion and another contralateral haemorrhagic conjunctival flat lesion associated with violaceous cutaneous macules on the extremities and angiomatous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract as initial clinical manifestation of HIV-related immunodeficiency. Cutaneous, gastric mucosal and conjunctival biopsy was consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma with complete remission after highly active antiretroviral therapy and systemic chemotherapy. HIV-related conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma, even a large one, can have a good response to antiretroviral therapy and systemic chemotherapy without any additional topical eye treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. An internal ribosomal entry signal in the rat VL30 region of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus leader and its use in dicistronic retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlioz, C; Torrent, C; Darlix, J L

    1995-10-01

    The genetic organization of the 5' genomic RNA domain of the highly oncogenic Harvey murine sarcoma virus appears to be unusual in that a multifunctional untranslated leader precedes the v-ras oncogene. This 5' leader is 1,076 nucleotides in length and is formed of independent regions involved in key steps of the viral life cycle: (i) the Moloney murine leukemia virus 5' repeat, untranslated 5' region, and primer binding site sequences necessary for the first steps of proviral DNA synthesis, (ii) the virus-like 30S (VL30)-derived sequence containing a functional dimerization-packaging signal (E/DLS) directing viral RNA dimerization and packaging into MLV virions, and (iii) an Alu-like sequence preceding the 5' untranslated sequence of v-rasH which contains the initiation codon of the p21ras oncoprotein. These functional features, the unusual length of this leader (1,076 nucleotides), and the presence of stable secondary structures between the cap and the v-ras initiation codon might well cause a premature stop of the scanning ribosomes and thus inhibit v-ras translation. In order to understand how Harvey murine sarcoma virus achieves a high level of expression of the ras oncogene, we asked whether the rat VL30 sequence, 5' to v-ras, could contribute to an efficient synthesis of the ras oncoprotein. The implications of the VL30 sequence in the translation initiation of Ha-ras were investigated in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and in murine cells. Results show that the rat VL30 sequence allows a cap-independent translation of a downstream reporter gene both in vitro and in murine cells. Additional experiments performed with dicistronic neo.VL30.lacZ mRNAs indicate that the 5' VL30 sequence (positions 380 to 794) contains an internal ribosomal entry signal. This finding led us to construct a new dicistronic retroviral vector with which the rat VL30 sequence was able to direct the efficient expression of a 3' cistron and packaging of recombinant dicistronic RNA

  3. Neoplasias hemopoyéticas en 10 gatos positivos al virus leucemia felina Haemopoyetic neoplasm in 10 cats positive to feline leukaemia virus

    OpenAIRE

    L. Muñoz

    2005-01-01

    En Chile se diagnosticó la presencia del antígeno del virus leucemia felina en el suero de gatos naturalmente infectados en 1989 mediante la prueba de ELISA. Este virus produce enfermedades neoplásicas como no neoplásicas. Dentro de las neoplasias hemopoyéticas, las linfoproliferativas son más frecuentes que las mieloproliferativas. Para realizar un diagnóstico certero de la línea celular alterada se deben realizar hemogramas y mielogramas con tinciones de rutina (Giemsa) y tinciones específi...

  4. Feline otitis: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennis, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Feline otitis is reviewed by evaluating the predisposing, primary, and secondary causes. Diagnostic and treatment options are summarized. Emphasis is placed on comparing feline and canine otitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloning and characterization of the antiviral activity of feline Tetherin/BST-2.

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    Aiko Fukuma

    Full Text Available Human Tetherin/BST-2 has recently been identified as a cellular antiviral factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. In this study, we cloned a cDNA fragment encoding a feline homolog of Tetherin/BST-2 and characterized the protein product. The degree of amino acid sequence identity between human Tetherin/BST-2 and the feline homolog was 44.4%. Similar to human Tetherin/BST-2, the expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 mRNA was inducible by type I interferon (IFN. Exogenous expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 efficiently inhibited the release of feline endogenous retrovirus RD-114. The extracellular domain of feline Tetherin/BST-2 has two putative N-linked glycosylation sites, N79 and N119. Complete loss of N-linked glycosylation by introduction of mutations into both sites resulted in almost complete abolition of its antiviral activity. In addition, feline Tetherin/BST-2 was insensitive to antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu, although the antiviral activity of human Tetherin/BST-2 was antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu. Our data suggest that feline Tetherin/BST-2 functions as a part of IFN-induced innate immunity against virus infection and that the induction of feline Tetherin/BST-2 in vivo may be effective as a novel antiviral strategy for viral infection.

  6. Canine parvovirus in asymptomatic feline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog

  7. Sarcoma Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouw, Launce G., E-mail: launce.gouw@hsc.utah.edu [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Jones, Kevin B. [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Randall, R. Lor [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis.

  8. Sarcoma Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lor Randall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis.

  9. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and the Importance of Considering the Oncogenic and Immune-Suppressant Role of the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lupo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSoft-tissue sarcomas account for 0.7% of all malignant tumors, with an incidence rate of 3 per 100,000 persons/year. The undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS with giant cells, a high grade tumor of soft tissue, is very unusual, especially in young adults before the age of 40. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus, classified as group 1 human carcinogens by The International Agency for Research on Cancer, that causes an aggressive malignancy known as adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia and a progressive chronic inflammatory neurological disease named HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HTLV-1 causes accumulation of genetic mutations in the host genome that could contribute to cellular transformation, one of the oncogenic features of HTLV-1.Case reportWe describe a case of a young woman with UPS who suffered from HAM/TSP with 3 years of evolution. In 2013, the patient started with neurological symptoms: weakness in the legs and bladder dysfunction. One year later, the patient developed a mild paraparesis in both extremities, anti-HTLV-1 antibodies were detected in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid, and HAM/TSP was confirmed. In November 2015, a benign ganglion cyst was first suspected without intervention and by March 2016 a sarcoma was diagnosed. Three weeks after surgical resection, the tumor aroused in deep tissue and behaved aggressively, implicating a curative wide resection of the fibula, joint reconstruction, and soft-tissue graft. Histopathological examination confirmed UPS with giant cells.Concluding remarksThe unapparent subclinical immunodeficiency state due to HTLV-1 infection deserves to be considered in order to carefully monitor the possibility of developing any type of cancer. Besides, reaching an accurate and timely diagnosis of UPS can be challenging due to the difficulty in diagnosis/classification and delayed consultation. In this particular case

  10. Macronutrients in feline health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Cecilia; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-07-01

    Dietary macronutrients include protein, fat, and carbohydrates. Current nutritional recommendations establish minimums but not maximums for protein and fat but not for carbohydrates; thus, commercial feline maintenance diets have a wide range of macronutrient distribution depending on manufacturer, ingredients, and processing. There is growing interest and discussion, however, in defining the ideal macronutrient composition of feline diets to maximize longevity and health. Current recommendations should be tailored to each patient based on age, body condition, presence of muscle mass atrophy, and the presence of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic Methods for Feline Coronavirus: A Review

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    Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

  12. Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen Encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Interacts with Tat and Activates the Long Terminal Repeat of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Teresa S.; Subramanian, Chitra; Cotter, Murray A.; Robert A. Thomas; Robertson, Erle S.

    2001-01-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is constitutively expressed in cells infected with the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV), also referred to as human herpesvirus 8. KSHV is tightly associated with body cavity-based lymphomas (BCBLs) in immunocompromised patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). LANA, encoded by open reading frame 73 of KSHV, is one of a small subset of proteins expressed during latent infection and was shown to be important in tethering the...

  13. During readaptation in vivo, a tissue culture-adapted strain of feline immunodeficiency virus reverts to broad neutralization resistance at different times in individual hosts but through changes at the same position of the surface glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Del Mauro, D; Cammarota, G; Maggi, F; Leonildi, A; Giannecchini, S; Bergamini, C; Matteucci, D

    2001-05-01

    The broad resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization of lentiviruses recently isolated from infected hosts is a poorly understood feature which might contribute to the ability of these viruses to persist and to the failure of experimental vaccines to protect against virulent viruses. We studied the underlying molecular mechanisms by examining the evolution of a neutralization-sensitive, tissue culture-adapted strain of feline immunodeficiency virus upon reinoculation into specific-pathogen-free cats. Reversion to broad neutralization resistance was observed in seven of seven inoculated animals and, in individual hosts, started to develop between less than 4 and more than 15 months from infection. After comparison of the envelope sequences of the inoculum virus, of an additional 4 neutralization-sensitive in vitro variants, and of 14 ex vivo-derived variants (6 neutralization sensitive, 5 resistant, and 3 with intermediate phenotype), a Lys-->Asn or -->Glu change at position 481 in the V4 region of the surface glycoprotein appeared as a key player in the reversion. This conclusion was confirmed by mutagenesis of molecularly cloned virus. Analysis of viral quasispecies and biological clones showed that the intermediate phenotype was due to transient coexistence of neutralization-sensitive and -resistant variants. Since the amino acid position involved was the same in four of four recent revertants, it is suggested that the number of residues that control reversion to broad neutralization resistance in FIV might be very limited. Amino acid 481 was found to be changed only in one of three putative long-term revertants. These variants shared a Ser-->Asn change at position 557 in region V5, which probably collaborated with other mutations in long-term maintenance of neutralization resistance, as suggested by the study of mutagenized virus.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of kaposi sarcoma herpes virus seropositivity: a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

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    Maskew Mhairi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS is the most common AIDS-defining tumour in HIV-infected individuals in Africa. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV infection precedes development of KS. KSHV co-infection may be associated with worse outcomes in HIV disease and elevated KSHV viral load may be an early marker for advanced HIV disease among untreated patients. We examined the prevalence of KSHV among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART and compared immunological, demographic and clinical factors between patients seropositive and seronegative for KSHV. Results We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 404 HIV-infected treatment-naïve adults initiating ART at the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa between November 2008 and March 2009. Subjects were screened at ART initiation for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens. Seropositivity to KSHV was defined as positive to either lytic KSHV K8.1 or latent KSHV Orf73 antibodies. KSHV viremia was determined by quantitative PCR and CD3, 4 and 8 lymphocyte counts were determined with flow cytometry. Of the 404 participants, 193 (48% tested positive for KSHV at ART initiation; with 76 (39% reactive to lytic K8.1, 35 (18% to latent Orf73 and 82 (42% to both. One individual presented with clinical KS at ART initiation. The KSHV infected group was similar to those without KSHV in terms of age, race, gender, ethnicity, smoking and alcohol use. KSHV infected individuals presented with slightly higher median CD3 (817 vs. 726 cells/mm3 and CD4 (90 vs. 80 cells/mm3 counts than KSHV negative subjects. We found no associations between KSHV seropositivity and body mass index, tuberculosis status, WHO stage, HIV RNA levels, full blood count or liver function tests at initiation. Those with detectable KSHV viremia (n = 19, however, appeared to present with signs of more advanced HIV disease including anemia and WHO stage 3 or 4 defining conditions compared to those in whom

  15. Efficacy of feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in the treatment of canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M; Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2017-07-01

    This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study aimed to evaluate efficacy of commercially available feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in dogs with canine parvovirus infection. First, cross-protection of feline panleukopenia virus antibodies against canine parvovirus was evaluated in vitro. In the subsequent prospective clinical trial, 31 dogs with clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection and a positive faecal canine parvovirus polymerase chain reaction were randomly assigned to a group receiving feline panleukopenia virus antibodies (n=15) or placebo (n=16). All dogs received additional routine treatment. Clinical signs, blood parameters, time to clinical recovery and mortality were compared between the groups. Serum antibody titres and quantitative faecal polymerase chain reaction were compared on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. In vitro, canine parvovirus was fully neutralised by feline panleukopenia virus antibodies. There were no detected significant differences in clinical signs, time to clinical recovery, blood parameters, mortality, faecal virus load, or viral shedding between groups. Dogs in the placebo group showed a significant increase of serum antibody titres and a significant decrease of faecal virus load between day 14 and day 0, which was not detectable in dogs treated with feline panleukopenia virus antibodies. No significant beneficial effect of passively transferred feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in the used dosage regimen on the treatment of canine parvovirus infection was demonstrated. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hartmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Feline leukemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma, bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia, and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats.

  17. Clinical aspects of feline retroviruses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-10-31

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats.

  18. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats. PMID:23202500

  19. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  20. Opposing regulation of PROX1 by interleukin-3 receptor and NOTCH directs differential host cell fate reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyuk Yoo

    Full Text Available Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs are differentiated from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs during embryogenesis and this physiological cell fate specification is controlled by PROX1, the master regulator for lymphatic development. When Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV infects host cells, it activates the otherwise silenced embryonic endothelial differentiation program and reprograms their cell fates. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that KSHV drives BECs to acquire a partial lymphatic phenotype by upregulating PROX1 (forward reprogramming, but stimulates LECs to regain some BEC-signature genes by downregulating PROX1 (reverse reprogramming. Despite the significance of this KSHV-induced bidirectional cell fate reprogramming in KS pathogenesis, its underlying molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we report that IL3 receptor alpha (IL3Rα and NOTCH play integral roles in the host cell type-specific regulation of PROX1 by KSHV. In BECs, KSHV upregulates IL3Rα and phosphorylates STAT5, which binds and activates the PROX1 promoter. In LECs, however, PROX1 was rather downregulated by KSHV-induced NOTCH signal via HEY1, which binds and represses the PROX1 promoter. Moreover, PROX1 was found to be required to maintain HEY1 expression in LECs, establishing a reciprocal regulation between PROX1 and HEY1. Upon co-activation of IL3Rα and NOTCH, PROX1 was upregulated in BECs, but downregulated in LECs. Together, our study provides the molecular mechanism underlying the cell type-specific endothelial fate reprogramming by KSHV.

  1. Role of natural killer cells in the mechanism of the antitumor effect of interferon on Moloney sarcoma virus-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Murasko, D M

    1986-01-01

    The growth of tumors induced by inoculation of cells transformed by Moloney sarcoma virus can be inhibited by in situ administration of interferon (IFN) beginning one day after tumor challenge and continuing for 2 or 3 additional days. Inhibition of tumor growth by IFN was associated with a marked augmentation of natural killer (NK) cell activity, both in the spleen and at the site of tumor challenge, by day 5 after tumor challenge. However, using optimal conditions for IFN treatment, depletion of NK cells by in vivo treatment with anti-asialo GM1 prior to tumor challenge had no significant effect on inhibition of tumor growth by IFN. When the tumor load was greater or when IFN treatment was shorter, treatment with anti-asialo-GM1 partially abrogated the inhibition of tumor growth by IFN. In vitro assays gave no evidence of IFN enhancement of specific T-cell or activated macrophage antitumor effect. These results suggest that under optimal treatment conditions, the mechanism of the antitumor effect of IFN was independent of augmentation of NK activity, but under suboptimal conditions NK cells play a role in the mechanism of the antitumor effect of IFN.

  2. Mutations in the C-terminal domain of ALSV (Avian Leukemia and Sarcoma Viruses) integrase alter the concerted DNA integration process in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Karen; Faure, Claudine; Violot, Sébastien; Verdier, Gérard; Ronfort, Corinne

    2003-11-01

    Integrase (IN) is the retroviral enzyme responsible for the integration of the DNA copy of the retroviral genome into the host cell DNA. The C-terminal domain of IN is involved in DNA binding and enzyme multimerization. We previously performed single amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal domain of the avian leukemia and sarcoma viruses (ALSV) IN. Here, we modelled these IN mutants and analysed their ability to mediate concerted DNA integration (in an in vitro assay) as well as to form dimers (by size exclusion chromatography and protein-protein cross-linking). Mutations of residues located at the dimer interface (V239, L240, Y246, V257 and K266) have the greatest effects on the activity of the IN. Among them: (a) the L240A mutation resulted in a decrease of integration efficiency that was concomitant with a decrease of IN dimerization; (b) the V239A, V249A and K266A mutants preferentially mediated non-concerted DNA integration rather than concerted DNA integration although they were found as dimers. Other mutations (V260E and Y246W/DeltaC25) highlight the role of the C-terminal domain in the general folding of the enzyme and, hence, on its activity. This study points to the important role of residues at the IN C-terminal domain in the folding and dimerization of the enzyme as well as in the concerted DNA integration of viral DNA ends.

  3. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus in BCBL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Francesca; Serafino, Annalucia; Divizia, Maurizio; Donia, Domenica; Fraschetti, Marzia; Sinibaldi-Salimei, Paola; Giganti, Maria Gabriella; Volpi, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Association between extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and human cancers is controversial, and few studies have been conducted on their influence on oncogenic viruses. We studied the effects of 1 mT, 50 Hz sine waves, applied for 24-72 h, on Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV-8) in BCBL-1, a latently infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell line. ELF-EMF exposure did not affect the growth and viability of BCBL-1 cells, either stimulated or not with TPA. The total amount of KSHV DNA detected in ELF-EMF exposed cultures not stimulated with TPA did not differ from that of the unexposed controls (P = ns). However, in the presence of TPA stimulation, total KSHV DNA content was found higher in ELF-EMF exposed than in control BCBL-1 cultures (P = .024) at 72 h exposure, but not earlier. Viral DNA increase significantly correlated with increased mean fluorescence intensity/cell for the lytic antigen gp K8.1A/B (P EMF exposure consisted mainly of defective viral particles. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Differences in targeting and secretion of cathepsins B and L by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts and Moloney murine sarcoma virus-transformed BALB/3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, C; Gong, Q M; Frankfater, A; Bajkowski, A S

    1990-08-15

    BALB/3T3 fibroblasts (3T3) were observed to secrete latent, pepsin-activatable forms of cathepsin B and cathepsin L as well as an active form of beta-glucuronidase when cultured in the absence of serum. The secretion of these proteins was stimulated by the cation ionophore monensin: cathepsin B, 4.3-fold; cathepsin L, 7.2-fold; and beta-glucuronidase, 3.1-fold. These increases were accompanied by a 50% decline in cellular levels of the active forms of these enzymes and by the cellular accumulation of latent forms of cathepsin B and cathepsin L. Latent forms of beta-glucuronidase were not detected. In contrast, Moloney murine sarcoma virus-transformed BALB/3T3 fibroblasts (MMSV) secreted greatly increased amounts of latent cathepsin B (17-fold) and latent cathepsin L (27-fold), and moderately increased amounts of active beta-glucuronidase (2-fold) in a manner which was not further increased by monensin. The increased monensin-insensitive secretion of these lysosomal enzymes by MMSV cells may be due to a transformation-induced decrease in mannose 6-phosphate receptors. Thus, 3T3 cells bound the neoglycoconjugate pentamannosyl 6-phosphate-bovine serum albumin at 4 degrees C in a pentamannosyl 6 phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate-inhibitable manner, whereas MMSV cells showed no measurable cell surface mannose 6-phosphate receptor binding activity.

  5. Piracy of prostaglandin E2/EP receptor-mediated signaling by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (HHV-8) for latency gene expression: strategy of a successful pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Paul, Arun; Sharma-Walia, Neelam; Kerur, Nagaraj; White, Carl; Chandran, Bala

    2010-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of KS, a chronic inflammation-associated malignancy. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), two pivotal proinflammatory/oncogeneic molecules, are proposed to play roles in the expression of major KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1). Microsomal PGE2 synthase, PGE2, and its receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) were detected in KS lesions with the distinct staining of EP2/EP4 in KS lesions. In latently infected endothelial TIVE-LTC cells, EP receptor antagonists downregulated LANA-1 expression as well as Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB, which are also some of the signal molecules proposed to be important in KS pathogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 and EP receptor agonists induced the LANA-1 promoter in 293 cells, and YY1, Sp1, Oct-1, Oct-6, C/EBP, and c-Jun transcription factors seem to be involved in this induction. PGE2/EP receptor-induced LANA-1 promoter activity was downregulated significantly by the inhibition of Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB. These findings implicate the inflammatory PGE2/EP receptors and the associated signal molecules in herpes virus latency and uncover a novel paradigm that shows the evolution of KSHV genome plasticity to use inflammatory response for its survival advantage of maintaining latent gene expression. These data also suggest that potential use of anti-COX-2 and anti-EP receptor therapy may not only ameliorate the chronic inflammation associated with KS but could also lead to elimination of the KSHV latent infection and the associated KS lesions. (c)2010 AACR.

  6. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus noncoding polyadenylated nuclear RNA interacts with virus- and host cell-encoded proteins and suppresses expression of genes involved in immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Cyprian C; Pari, Gregory S

    2011-12-01

    During lytic infection, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expresses a polyadenylated nuclear RNA (PAN RNA). This noncoding RNA (ncRNA) is localized to the nucleus and is the most abundant viral RNA during lytic infection; however, to date, the role of PAN RNA in the virus life cycle is unknown. Many examples exist where ncRNAs have a defined key regulatory function controlling gene expression by various mechanisms. Our goal for this study was to identify putative binding partners for PAN RNA in an effort to elucidate a possible function for the transcript in KSHV infection. We employed an in vitro affinity protocol where PAN RNA was used as bait for factors present in BCBL-1 cell nuclear extract to show that PAN RNA interacts with several virus- and host cell-encoded factors, including histones H1 and H2A, mitochondrial and cellular single-stranded binding proteins (SSBPs), and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). RNA chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that PAN RNA interacted with these factors in the infected cell environment. A luciferase reporter assay showed that PAN RNA expression interfered with the ability of IRF4/PU.1 to activate the interleukin-4 (IL-4) promoter, strongly suggesting a role for PAN RNA in immune modulation. Since the proteomic screen and functional data suggested a role in immune responses, we investigated if constitutive PAN RNA expression could affect other genes involved in immune responses. PAN RNA expression decreased expression of gamma interferon, interleukin-18, alpha interferon 16, and RNase L. These data strongly suggest that PAN RNA interacts with viral and cellular proteins and can function as an immune modulator.

  7. Inheritance of fibrosarcomatous liver tumours in White Leghorn chicks inoculated vu the chorioallantoic membrane with subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus: A four-allele genetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, P K; Naithani, S

    1990-10-01

    An investigation was made using White Leghorn fowl to study the genetic control of subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus-induced fibrosarcomatous liver tumours (LT) in chicks inoculated via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). A total of 723 CAM-inoculated embryos were hatched in three experiments. In Expt 1, CAM-susceptibility and LT-mortality were examined on a within sire family basis to ascertain the inter-relationship between the two parameters. In Expt 2, sires that had records of high or low LT(+) deaths in the families were selected to produce progeny within high and low incidence lines in the next generation to ascertain the amenability of the trait (LT death) to selection pressure. Survivors of LT-assay (Expt 1) were mated inter se in Expt 3 to study the inheritance of the two traits according to known or proposed genetic models. It was shown that LT mortality is a genetic trait because of its amenability to selection, with a high realised heritability (h(2)(R)= 1.16). In the three experiments, most CAM-susceptibles (S) died of LT(+), and most CAM-resistants(R) survived, but there were some conversely associated phenotypes i.e. S(LT-) and R(LT+). The conventional 2-allele model of the tva (tumour virus a) locus with pleiotropic effect, or a 2-locus model with linkage, were considered inadequate to explain the occurrence of conversely associated phenotypes on a within family basis. However, a 4-allele model of the tva locus showed a good fit to the results of this study.

  8. The Paradox of Feline Coronavirus Pathogenesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Wanderley Myrrha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline coronavirus (FCoV is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present results from different FCoV studies and attempt to elucidate existing theories on the pathogenesis of FCoV infection.

  9. A crystal structure of the catalytic core domain of an avian sarcoma and leukemia virus integrase suggests an alternate dimeric assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballandras, Allison; Moreau, Karen; Robert, Xavier; Confort, Marie-Pierre; Merceron, Romain; Haser, Richard; Ronfort, Corinne; Gouet, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Integrase (IN) is an important therapeutic target in the search for anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) inhibitors. This enzyme is composed of three domains and is hard to crystallize in its full form. First structural results on IN were obtained on the catalytic core domain (CCD) of the avian Rous and Sarcoma Virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin A (RSV-A) and on the CCD of HIV-1 IN. A ribonuclease-H like motif was revealed as well as a dimeric interface stabilized by two pairs of α-helices (α1/α5, α5/α1). These structural features have been validated in other structures of IN CCDs. We have determined the crystal structure of the Rous-associated virus type-1 (RAV-1) IN CCD to 1.8 Å resolution. RAV-1 IN shows a standard activity for integration and its CCD differs in sequence from that of RSV-A by a single accessible residue in position 182 (substitution A182T). Surprisingly, the CCD of RAV-1 IN associates itself with an unexpected dimeric interface characterized by three pairs of α-helices (α3/α5, α1/α1, α5/α3). A182 is not involved in this novel interface, which results from a rigid body rearrangement of the protein at its α1, α3, α5 surface. A new basic groove that is suitable for single-stranded nucleic acid binding is observed at the surface of the dimer. We have subsequently determined the structure of the mutant A182T of RAV-1 IN CCD and obtained a RSV-A IN CCD-like structure with two pairs of buried α-helices at the interface. Our results suggest that the CCD of avian INs can dimerize in more than one state. Such flexibility can further explain the multifunctionality of retroviral INs, which beside integration of dsDNA are implicated in different steps of the retroviral cycle in presence of viral ssRNA.

  10. A crystal structure of the catalytic core domain of an avian sarcoma and leukemia virus integrase suggests an alternate dimeric assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Ballandras

    Full Text Available Integrase (IN is an important therapeutic target in the search for anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV inhibitors. This enzyme is composed of three domains and is hard to crystallize in its full form. First structural results on IN were obtained on the catalytic core domain (CCD of the avian Rous and Sarcoma Virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin A (RSV-A and on the CCD of HIV-1 IN. A ribonuclease-H like motif was revealed as well as a dimeric interface stabilized by two pairs of α-helices (α1/α5, α5/α1. These structural features have been validated in other structures of IN CCDs. We have determined the crystal structure of the Rous-associated virus type-1 (RAV-1 IN CCD to 1.8 Å resolution. RAV-1 IN shows a standard activity for integration and its CCD differs in sequence from that of RSV-A by a single accessible residue in position 182 (substitution A182T. Surprisingly, the CCD of RAV-1 IN associates itself with an unexpected dimeric interface characterized by three pairs of α-helices (α3/α5, α1/α1, α5/α3. A182 is not involved in this novel interface, which results from a rigid body rearrangement of the protein at its α1, α3, α5 surface. A new basic groove that is suitable for single-stranded nucleic acid binding is observed at the surface of the dimer. We have subsequently determined the structure of the mutant A182T of RAV-1 IN CCD and obtained a RSV-A IN CCD-like structure with two pairs of buried α-helices at the interface. Our results suggest that the CCD of avian INs can dimerize in more than one state. Such flexibility can further explain the multifunctionality of retroviral INs, which beside integration of dsDNA are implicated in different steps of the retroviral cycle in presence of viral ssRNA.

  11. Kaposi sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 143. Lambert PF, Sugden B. Viruses and human cancer. In: ...

  12. COX-2/PGE2: molecular ambassadors of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus oncoprotein-v-FLIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Walia, N; Patel, K; Chandran, K; Marginean, A; Bottero, V; Kerur, N; Paul, A G

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) latent oncoprotein viral FLICE (FADD-like interferon converting enzyme)-like inhibitory protein (v-FLIP) or K13, a potent activator of NF-κB, has well-established roles in KSHV latency and oncogenesis. KSHV-induced COX-2 represents a novel strategy employed by KSHV to promote latency and inflammation/angiogenesis/invasion. Here, we demonstrate that v-FLIP/K13 promotes tumorigenic effects via the induction of host protein COX-2 and its inflammatory metabolite PGE2 in an NF-κB-dependent manner. In addition to our previous studies demonstrating COX-2/PGE2's role in transcriptional regulation of KSHV latency promoter and latent gene expression, the current study adds to the complexity that though LANA-1 (latency associated nuclear antigen) is utilizing COX-2/PGE2 as critical factors for its transcriptional regulation, it is the v-FLIP/K13 gene in the KSHV latency cluster that maintains continuous COX-2/PGE2 levels in the infected cells. We demonstrate that COX-2 inhibition, via its chemical inhibitors (NS-398 or celecoxib), reduced v-FLIP/K13-mediated NF-κB induction, and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-mediated signaling, mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) levels, and subsequently downregulated detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) resistance. vFLIP expression mediated the secretion of cytokines, and spindle cell differentiation activated the phosphorylation of p38, RSK, FAK, Src, Akt and Rac1-GTPase. The COX-2 inhibition in v-FLIP/K13-HMVECs reduced inflammation and invasion/metastasis-related genes, along with reduced anchorage-independent colony formation via modulating ‘extrinsic' as well as ‘intrinsic' cell death pathways. COX-2 blockade in v-FLIP/K13-HMVEC cells drastically augmented cell death induced by removal of essential growth/survival factors secreted in the microenvironment. Transformed cells obtained from anchorage-independent colonies of COX-2 inhibitor-treated v

  13. Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Bruce H; Peiffer, Robert L; Cullen, Cheryl L; Haines, Deborah M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of well-differentiated and anaplastic intraocular neoplasms of cats, and to develop a diagnostic algorithm for, and investigate the association of ruptured lenses with these neoplasms. Seventy-five feline globes with intraocular neoplasms were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Morphologic diagnoses included 33 intraocular sarcomas, 17 diffuse iris melanomas, 15 lymphosarcomas, three ciliary adenomas, one metastatic carcinoma, and six undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. Sections of these globes were then stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and immunohistochemical (IHC) labels for various cellular markers. Histochemical staining and IHC labeling confirmed cellular differentiation in 73/75 neoplasms but was discordant with morphologic diagnoses in 8/75. These included four neoplasms morphologically diagnosed as lymphosarcomas but which expressed differentiation antigens consistent with melanoma (n = 3) or ciliary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), and four tumors morphologically diagnosed as intraocular sarcomas that expressed differentiation antigens for melanoma (n = 2), metastatic carcinoma (n = 1), or remained undifferentiated (n = 1). Immunohistochemical labeling suggested a diagnosis in 5/6 morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms including one intraocular sarcoma, two diffuse iridal melanomas, and two ciliary adenocarcinomas. Based upon morphologic, histochemical, and IHC characterization, ruptured lens capsules were detected in 28/30 intraocular sarcomas, 3/24 diffuse iris melanomas and 1/11 lymphosarcomas, but not in ciliary epithelial neoplasms, metastatic carcinomas, or undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. An algorithm is provided that facilitates stain and IHC label selection for differentiating anaplastic intraocular feline neoplasms.

  14. Worldwide Occurrence of Feline Hemoplasma Infections in Wild Felid Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José L.; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L.; Vargas, Astrid; Martínez, Fernando; Roelke, Melody E.; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2007-01-01

    While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from Spain, 36 Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland, 31 European wildcats from France, 45 lions from Tanzania, and 110 Brazilian wild felids, including 12 wild felid species kept in zoos and one free-ranging ocelot. Using real-time PCR, feline hemoplasmas were detected in samples of the following species: Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, European wildcat, lion, puma, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, and ocelot. “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” was the most common feline hemoplasma in Iberian lynxes, Eurasian lynxes, Serengeti lions, and Brazilian wild felids, whereas “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis” was the most prevalent in European wildcats; hemoplasma coinfections were frequently observed. Hemoplasma infection was associated with species and free-ranging status of the felids in all animals and with feline leukemia virus provirus-positive status in European wildcats. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and the partial RNase P gene revealed that most hemoplasma isolates exhibit high sequence identities to domestic cat-derived isolates, although some isolates form different subclusters within the phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, 9 out of 15 wild felid species from three different continents were found to be infected with feline hemoplasmas. The effect of feline hemoplasma infections on wild felid populations needs to be further investigated. PMID:17301277

  15. Worldwide occurrence of feline hemoplasma infections in wild felid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L; Vargas, Astrid; Martínez, Fernando; Roelke, Melody E; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Leutenegger, Christian M; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2007-04-01

    While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from Spain, 36 Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland, 31 European wildcats from France, 45 lions from Tanzania, and 110 Brazilian wild felids, including 12 wild felid species kept in zoos and one free-ranging ocelot. Using real-time PCR, feline hemoplasmas were detected in samples of the following species: Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, European wildcat, lion, puma, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, and ocelot. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was the most common feline hemoplasma in Iberian lynxes, Eurasian lynxes, Serengeti lions, and Brazilian wild felids, whereas "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" was the most prevalent in European wildcats; hemoplasma coinfections were frequently observed. Hemoplasma infection was associated with species and free-ranging status of the felids in all animals and with feline leukemia virus provirus-positive status in European wildcats. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and the partial RNase P gene revealed that most hemoplasma isolates exhibit high sequence identities to domestic cat-derived isolates, although some isolates form different subclusters within the phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, 9 out of 15 wild felid species from three different continents were found to be infected with feline hemoplasmas. The effect of feline hemoplasma infections on wild felid populations needs to be further investigated.

  16. Isolated Kaposi Sarcoma of the Tonsil: A Case Report and Review of the Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittore, Barbara; Pelagatti, Carlo Loris; Deiana, Francesco; Ortu, Francesco; Maricosu, Elena; Cossu, Sergio; Sotgiu, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a tumour caused by human herpes virus 8, also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus. It usually affects the skin and oral mucosa; however, it can also sometimes affect the lungs, the liver, the stomach, the bowel, and lymph nodes. Several body sites may be affected simultaneously. The involvement of the tonsils is rare. We described an isolated localization of Kaposi's sarcoma of the right tonsil in a HIV-positive patient. PMID:25755902

  17. Isolated Kaposi Sarcoma of the Tonsil: A Case Report and Review of the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pittore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma is a tumour caused by human herpes virus 8, also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus. It usually affects the skin and oral mucosa; however, it can also sometimes affect the lungs, the liver, the stomach, the bowel, and lymph nodes. Several body sites may be affected simultaneously. The involvement of the tonsils is rare. We described an isolated localization of Kaposi’s sarcoma of the right tonsil in a HIV-positive patient.

  18. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

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    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  19. Hipertireoidismo felino Feline hyperthyroidism

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    Marina Gabriela Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O hipertireoidismo é considerado a endocrinopatia mais comum em felinos de meia idade a idosos, nos Estados Unidos e na Europa. No entanto, ainda existem poucos casos relatados no Brasil. O diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado tornam o prognóstico do animal mais favorável, podendo até se obter a cura do paciente. Devido à importância desta afecção em felinos, são abordados, nesta revisão, os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos do hipertireoidismo felino.Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrinopathy of middle aged and older cats in the United States and Europe, however there are few related cases in Brazil yet. The early diagnosis and the correct treatment become the prognosis more favorable, leading to patient cure. This paper reviews the clinical, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of feline hyperthyroidism.

  20. Molecular piracy of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Means, R E; Damania, B; Jung, J U

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most recently discovered human tumor virus and is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and Multicentric Casttleman's disease. KSHV contains numerous open reading frames with striking homology to cellular genes. These viral gene products play a variety of roles in KSHV-associated pathogenesis by disrupting cellular signal transduction pathways, which include interferon-mediated anti-viral responses, cytokine-regulated cell growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle control. In this review, we will attempt to cover our understanding of how viral proteins deregulate cellular signaling pathways, which ultimately contribute to the conversion of normal cells to cancerous cells.

  1. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  2. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Hora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account.

  3. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, A. S.; Tonietti, P. O.; Taniwaki, S. A.; Asano, K. M.; Maiorka, P.; Richtzenhain, L. J.; Brandão, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account. PMID:27243037

  4. Correction of feline lipoprotein lipase deficiency with adeno-associated virus serotype 1-mediated gene transfer of the lipoprotein lipase S447X beneficial mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Colin J. D.; Twisk, Jaap; Bakker, Andrew C.; Miao, Fudan; Verbart, Dennis; Rip, Jaap; Godbey, Tamara; Dijkhuizen, Paul; Hermens, Wim T. J. M. C.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Meulenberg, Janneke M.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Human lipoprotein lipase (hLPL) deficiency, for which there currently exists no adequate treatment, leads to excessive plasma triglycerides (TGs), recurrent abdominal pain, and life-threatening pancreatitis. We have shown that a single intramuscular administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV)

  5. Feline immunodeficiency. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane; Belák, Sándor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Horzinek, Marian C

    2009-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus. Most felids are susceptible to FIV, but humans are not. Feline immunodeficiency virus is endemic in domestic cat populations worldwide. The virus loses infectivity quickly outside the host and is susceptible to all disinfectants. Feline immunodeficiency virus is transmitted via bites. The risk of transmission is low in households with socially well-adapted cats. Transmission from mother to kittens may occur, especially if the queen is undergoing an acute infection. Cats with FIV are persistently infected in spite of their ability to mount antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. Infected cats generally remain free of clinical signs for several years, and some cats never develop disease, depending on the infecting isolate. Most clinical signs are the consequence of immunodeficiency and secondary infection. Typical manifestations are chronic gingivostomatitis, chronic rhinitis, lymphadenopathy, weight loss and immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Positive in-practice ELISA results obtained in a low-prevalence or low-risk population should always be confirmed by a laboratory. Western blot is the 'gold standard' laboratory test for FIV serology. PCR-based assays vary in performance. Cats should never be euthanased solely on the basis of an FIV-positive test result. Cats infected with FIV may live as long as uninfected cats, with appropriate management. Asymptomatic FIV-infected cats should be neutered to avoid fighting and virus transmission. Infected cats should receive regular veterinary health checks. They can be housed in the same ward as other patients, but should be kept in individual cages. At present, there is no FIV vaccine commercially available in Europe. Potential benefits and risks of vaccinating FIV-infected cats should be assessed on an individual cat basis. Needles and surgical instruments used on FIV-positive cats may transmit the virus to other cats

  6. Targeted Therapies in Sarcomas: Challenging the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martín Liberal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal malignancies that very often lead to death. Nowadays, chemotherapy is the only available treatment for most sarcomas but there are few active drugs and clinical results still remain very poor. Thus, there is an imperious need to find new therapeutic alternatives in order to improve sarcoma patient’s outcome. During the last years, there have been described a number of new molecular pathways that have allowed us to know more about cancer biology and tumorigenesis. Sarcomas are one of the tumors in which more advances have been made. Identification of specific chromosomal translocations, some important pathways characterization such as mTOR pathway or the insulin-like growth factor pathway, the stunning development in angiogenesis knowledge, and brand new agents like viruses have lead to the development of new therapeutic options with promising results. This paper makes an exhaustive review of preclinical and clinical evidence of the most recent targeted therapies in sarcomas and provides a future view of treatments that may lead to improve prognosis of patients affected with this disease.

  7. Breast sarcomas. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ryabchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the literature about breast sarcomas (nonepithelial malignances. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, with less than 1 % of all malignant tumors of the breast. Breast carcinomas cause an increased interest of the scientists due to their unique clinical and pathological features and unpredictable prognosis.

  8. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  9. Alternate Polypurine Tracts (PPTs) Affect the Rous Sarcoma Virus RNase H Cleavage Specificity and Reveal a Preferential Cleavage following a GA Dinucleotide Sequence at the PPT-U3 Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kevin W.; Julias, John G.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Oh, Jangsuk; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    Retroviral polypurine tracts (PPTs) serve as primers for plus-strand DNA synthesis during reverse transcription. The generation and removal of the PPT primer requires specific cleavages by the RNase H activity of reverse transcriptases; removal of the PPT primer defines the left end of the linear viral DNA. We replaced the endogenous PPT from RSVP(A)Z, a replication-competent shuttle vector based on Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), with alternate retroviral PPTs and the duck hepatitis B virus “PPT.” Viruses in which the endogenous RSV PPT was replaced with alternate PPTs had lower relative titers than the wild-type virus. 2-LTR circle junction analysis showed that the alternate PPTs caused significant decreases in the fraction of viral DNAs with complete (consensus) ends and significant increases in the insertion of part or all of the PPT at the 2-LTR circle junctions. The last two nucleotides in the 3′ end of the RSV PPT are GA. Examination of the (mis)cleavages of the alternate PPTs revealed preferential cleavages after GA dinucleotide sequences. Replacement of the terminal 3′ A of the RSV PPT with G caused a preferential miscleavage at a GA sequence spanning the PPT-U3 boundary, resulting in the deletion of the terminal adenine normally present at the 5′ end of the U3. A reciprocal G-to-A substitution at the 3′ end of the murine leukemia virus PPT increased the relative titer of the chimeric RSV-based virus and the fraction of consensus 2-LTR circle junctions. PMID:16227289

  10. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.

  11. An immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in various feline neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, S L; Rassnick, K M; Moore, A S; McDonough, S P

    2003-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of prostaglandins and exist as two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is a potent inducible mediator of inflammation. COX-2 is also upregulated in several human tumors and in canine squamous cell, renal cell, and transitional cell carcinomas, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and intestinal neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether COX-2 is expressed in various feline tumors. Results of this study may help determine whether COX-2 is a potential target for therapeutic and preventive strategies in cats. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissues using the amplified streptavidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase system. COX-2 was found in 7 of 19 (37%) feline transitional cell carcinomas and in 2 of 21 (9%) feline oral squamous cell carcinomas. No COX-2 immunoreactivity was detected in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (6), adenocarcinomas (nine mammary, eight pulmonary, seven intestinal), lymphomas (six nasal, six intestinal), or 10 vaccine-associated sarcomas. The widespread absence of COX-2 expression in most feline neoplasms might suggest that COX-2 inhibitors would have a low potential as anticancer agents.

  12. Trial of Dasatinib in Advanced Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Rhabdomyosarcoma; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors; Chondrosarcoma; Sarcoma, Ewing's; Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part; Chordoma; Epithelioid Sarcoma; Giant Cell Tumor of Bone; Hemangiopericytoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)

  13. Effect of the expression of an endogenous viral gene on the growth of tumours induced by Rous sarcoma virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachý, J; Korec, E; Hlozánek, I; Zdĕnková, E

    1985-01-01

    The endogenous group-specific antigen of avian retroviruses has been detected in feather pulp of chickens of the inbred CB line (WL breed). Expression of the gs antigen has been demonstrated by ELISA, whereas the classical methods have classified the CB line as gs-. The number of gs+ chickens decreased with increasing age after hatching, and all chickens were gs- already at 20 weeks of age. The longer duration of gs antigen expression in line CB chickens had an adverse effect on their ability to regress Rous sarcomas. Chickens from a closed flock of the BL breed that segregated to gs+ and gs- also significantly differed in the ability to regress Rous sarcomas.

  14. An outbreak of feline infectious peritonitis in a Taiwanese shelter: epidemiologic and molecular evidence for horizontal transmission of a novel type II feline coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Su, Bi-Ling; Hsieh, Li-En; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV can be divided into serotypes I and II. The virus that causes FIP (FIPV) is believed to occur sporadically and spread infrequently from cat to cat. Recently, an FIP outbreak from an animal shelter was confirmed in Taiwan. FCoV from all the cats in this shelter were analyzed to determine the epidemiology of this outbreak. Thirteen of 46 (28.2%) cats with typical signs of FIP were identifi...

  15. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen PH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peter Holmberg Jørgensen,1 Gunnar Schwarz Lausten,2 Alma B Pedersen3 1Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy; complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System. Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative

  16. Occurrence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats Ocorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência felina em gatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Lara

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV in Brazil has been previously described. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of FIV infection in 454 blood samples from healthy and sick domestic cats from 13 cities of São Paulo State, Brazil as well as to evaluate the risk factors associated with the infection. The results showed that 14.7% (67/454 of the cats were infected with FIV. The clinical evaluation showed that 29.2% of the FIV-positive animals were sick, while 7.3% did not show any type of clinical manifestation. In addition, the vast majority (23.1% of positive cases corresponded to free-roaming owned cats. The incidence of FIV infection was higher in males (20.3% than in females (9.7%. The results suggest that certain characteristics such as gender, health status and lifestyle may be associated with the risk of being infected with FIV in the population of cats studied.No Brasil, a ocorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV já foi descrita. Neste estudo, objetivou-se investigar a freqüência da infecção pelo FIV em 454 amostras de sangue de gatos domésticos doentes e sadios, oriundos de 13 cidades do Estado de São Paulo, assim como avaliar os fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo FIV. Os resultados demonstraram que 14,7% (67/454 dos gatos estavam infectados pelo FIV. A avaliação clínica dos animais investigados mostrou que 29,2% dos animais soropositivos para FIV estavam doentes, enquanto 7,3% não apresentavam nenhuma manifestação clínica. Além disso, a vasta maioria dos animais positivos (23,1% vivia em residências e tinha livre acesso à rua. A incidência da infecção pelo FIV foi maior nos gatos machos (20,3% do que nas fêmeas (9,7%. Os resultados sugerem que certas características como sexo, estilo de vida e estado de saúde podem estar associadas ao risco de contrair a infecção pelo FIV na população de gatos estudada.

  17. Cutaneous Metastatic Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma from a Mediastinal Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Do Seon; Park, Dong Hwa; Kim, Chi Yeon

    2015-06-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is a malignant neoplasm that arises in both soft tissue and bones. In 2002, the World Health Organization declassified malignant fibrous histocytoma as a formal diagnostic entity and renamed it 'undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma not otherwise specified.' It most commonly occurs in the lower extremities and rarely metastasizes cutaneously. We report a case of cutaneous metastatic undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the buttocks occurring in a 73-year-old man diagnosed with mediastinal sarcoma 4 years previously. He first noticed the mass approximately 2 months previously. Histological findings with immunomarkers led to a final diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic sarcoma from mediastinal undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

  18. Epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and its treatment, see the AIDSinfo website . Nonepidemic Gay-related Kaposi Sarcoma There is a type of ... trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website. ...

  19. Classic Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and its treatment, see the AIDSinfo website . Nonepidemic Gay-related Kaposi Sarcoma There is a type of ... trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website. ...

  20. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  1. Stages of Uterine Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are abnormal. This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Because uterine sarcoma begins inside the uterus, this cancer may not show up on the Pap test. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted ...

  2. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids.

  3. Uterine sarcoma ? current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Benson C; Miah AB

    2017-01-01

    Charlotte Benson,1 Aisha B Miah1,2 1Sarcoma Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, 2Department of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK Abstract: Uterine sarcomas comprise a group of rare tumors with differing tumor biology, natural history and response to treatment. Diagnosis is often made following surgery for presumed benign disease. Currently, preoperative imaging does not reliably distinguish between benign leiomyomas and other malignant pathology. Uterine leiom...

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat Accelerates Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Kaposin A-Mediated Tumorigenesis of Transformed Fibroblasts In Vitro as well as in Nude and Immunocompetent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is necessary but not sufficient to cause Kaposi sarcoma (KS. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, in the absence of antiretroviral suppressive therapy, drastically increases the risk of KS. Previously, we identified that HIV-1 transactivative transcription protein (Tat was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the potential of Tat to influence tumorigenesis induced by KSHV Kaposin A, a product of KSHV that was encoded by the open reading frame K12 (a KSHV-transforming gene. By using colony formation in soft agar, 3H-TdR incorporation, cell cycle, and microarray gene expression analyses, we demonstrated that Tat enhanced proliferation as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling induced by Kaposin A in NIH3T3 cells. Animal experiments further demonstrated that Tat accelerated tumorigenesis by Kaposin A in athymic nu/nu mice. Cells obtained from primary tumors of nude mice succeeded inducing tumors in immunocompetent mice. These data suggest that Tat can accelerate tumorigenesis induced by Kaposin A. Our data present the first line of evidence that Tat may participate in KS pathogenesis by collaborating with Kaposin A in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS patients. Our data also suggest that the model for Kaposin and Tat-mediated oncogenesis will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of AIDS-KS at the molecular level and may even be important in exploring a novel therapeutic method for AIDS-KS.

  5. Activation of PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signal pathways is required for the induction of lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by herpes simplex virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is causally linked to several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Regulation of viral lytic replication is critical to the initiation and progression of KS. Recently, we reported that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the possible signal pathways involved in HSV-1-induced reactivation of KSHV. Results By transfecting a series of dominant negative mutants and protein expressing constructs and using pharmacologic inhibitors, we found that either Janus kinase 1 (JAK1/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 or JAK1/STAT6 signaling failed to regulate HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. However, HSV-1 infection of BCBL-1 cells activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, also called AKT pathway and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway was found to be involved in HSV-1-induced KSHV reactivation. Additionally, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway also partially contributed to HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Conclusions HSV-1 infection stimulated PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signaling pathways that in turn contributed to KSHV reactivation, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanism controlling KSHV lytic replication, particularly in the context of HSV-1 and KSHV co-infection.

  6. AIDS-related cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a model of the interplay of the immune system, virus, and cancer. "On the offensive--the Trojan Horse is being destroyed"--Part A: Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tony W

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), aimed at controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has been associated with a dramatic decrease in the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) and the clinical manifestations of KS appear to be less aggressive. The pathogenesis of AIDS-related KS is related to a system of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6) driven by autocrine and paracrine loops. More recently, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), was discovered to be the putative etiological agent of this disease. This virus encodes several unique open reading frames that are homologs of human cellular proteins involved in cellular regulations, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune regulation. The treatment of this disease depends on whether it is "limited" disease or "extensive" disease. For "limited" disease, local therapy or non-bone marrow suppressive agents should be used. For "extensive" disease, new chemotherapeutic agents, such as liposomal anthracycline, which are active and have little adverse reactions, are indicated. The control of HIV infection continues to be essential. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease has led to the development of novel treatment strategies, aimed at the inflammatory or angiogenesis cytokines necessary for growth or at HHV-8 as the target of therapy.

  7. Detection in human breast carcinomas of an antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen of mouse mammary tumor virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Tejada, R; Keydar, I; Ramanarayanan, M; Ohno, T; Fenoglio, C; Spiegelman, S

    1978-03-01

    An antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen (gp52, a 52,000-dalton glycoprotein) of the mouse mammary tumor virus has been identified in paraffin sections of human breast cancers by means of the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The specificity of the reaction with antibody against mouse mammary tumor virus was examined by absorption of the IgG with the following: (a) purified gp52; (b) a number of virus preparations (mouse mammary tumor virus, Rauscher leukemia virus, simian sarcoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus); (c) normal plasma, leukocytes, breast tissue, milk, actin, collagen, and hyaluronic acid, all of human origin; (d) sheep erythrocytes and mucin. Only mouse mammary tumor virus (from C(3)H or Paris RIII strains and grown in either murine or feline cells) and purified gp52 eliminated the immunohistochemical reaction in the human breast tumors. Positive reactions were seen in 51 of 131 (39%) breast carcinomas of various histologic types, a minimal estimate in view of the limited number of sections from each tumor that could be examined. Negative reactions were obtained in all 119 benign breast lesions (cystic disease, fibroadenoma, papilloma, gynecomastia) and in all 18 normal breast tissues. With one exception, 99 carcinomas from 13 organs other than breast and 8 cystosarcomas were all negative.

  8. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Uterine Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Uterine Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  10. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus K15 protein contributes to virus-induced angiogenesis by recruiting PLCγ1 and activating NFAT1-dependent RCAN1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Kiran; Bosco, Raffaella; Gramolelli, Silvia; Haas, Darya A; Kati, Semra; Pietrek, Marcel; Hävemeier, Anika; Yakushko, Yuri; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Dittrich-Breiholz, Oliver; Kracht, Michael; Schulz, Thomas F

    2012-09-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), caused by Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), is a highly vascularised angiogenic tumor of endothelial cells, characterized by latently KSHV-infected spindle cells and a pronounced inflammatory infiltrate. Several KSHV proteins, including LANA-1 (ORF73), vCyclin (ORF72), vGPCR (ORF74), vIL6 (ORF-K2), vCCL-1 (ORF-K6), vCCL-2 (ORF-K4) and K1 have been shown to exert effects that can lead to the proliferation and atypical differentiation of endothelial cells and/or the secretion of cytokines with angiogenic and inflammatory properties (VEGF, bFGF, IL6, IL8, GROα, and TNFβ). To investigate a role of the KSHV K15 protein in KSHV-mediated angiogenesis, we carried out a genome wide gene expression analysis on primary endothelial cells infected with KSHV wildtype (KSHVwt) and a KSHV K15 deletion mutant (KSHVΔK15). We found RCAN1/DSCR1 (Regulator of Calcineurin 1/Down Syndrome critical region 1), a cellular gene involved in angiogenesis, to be differentially expressed in KSHVwt- vs KSHVΔK15-infected cells. During physiological angiogenesis, expression of RCAN1 in endothelial cells is regulated by VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) through a pathway involving the activation of PLCγ1, Calcineurin and NFAT1. We found that K15 directly recruits PLCγ1, and thereby activates Calcineurin/NFAT1-dependent RCAN1 expression which results in the formation of angiogenic tubes. Primary endothelial cells infected with KSHVwt form angiogenic tubes upon activation of the lytic replication cycle. This effect is abrogated when K15 is deleted (KSHVΔK15) or silenced by an siRNA targeting the K15 expression. Our study establishes K15 as one of the KSHV proteins that contribute to KSHV-induced angiogenesis.

  11. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus K15 protein contributes to virus-induced angiogenesis by recruiting PLCγ1 and activating NFAT1-dependent RCAN1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS, caused by Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV, is a highly vascularised angiogenic tumor of endothelial cells, characterized by latently KSHV-infected spindle cells and a pronounced inflammatory infiltrate. Several KSHV proteins, including LANA-1 (ORF73, vCyclin (ORF72, vGPCR (ORF74, vIL6 (ORF-K2, vCCL-1 (ORF-K6, vCCL-2 (ORF-K4 and K1 have been shown to exert effects that can lead to the proliferation and atypical differentiation of endothelial cells and/or the secretion of cytokines with angiogenic and inflammatory properties (VEGF, bFGF, IL6, IL8, GROα, and TNFβ. To investigate a role of the KSHV K15 protein in KSHV-mediated angiogenesis, we carried out a genome wide gene expression analysis on primary endothelial cells infected with KSHV wildtype (KSHVwt and a KSHV K15 deletion mutant (KSHVΔK15. We found RCAN1/DSCR1 (Regulator of Calcineurin 1/Down Syndrome critical region 1, a cellular gene involved in angiogenesis, to be differentially expressed in KSHVwt- vs KSHVΔK15-infected cells. During physiological angiogenesis, expression of RCAN1 in endothelial cells is regulated by VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor through a pathway involving the activation of PLCγ1, Calcineurin and NFAT1. We found that K15 directly recruits PLCγ1, and thereby activates Calcineurin/NFAT1-dependent RCAN1 expression which results in the formation of angiogenic tubes. Primary endothelial cells infected with KSHVwt form angiogenic tubes upon activation of the lytic replication cycle. This effect is abrogated when K15 is deleted (KSHVΔK15 or silenced by an siRNA targeting the K15 expression. Our study establishes K15 as one of the KSHV proteins that contribute to KSHV-induced angiogenesis.

  12. Immunotherapeutic Intervention against Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrazzoli, Simona Secondino, Vittorio Perfetti, Patrizia Comoli, Daniela Montagna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in systemic therapy for sarcoma have produced, over the last two decades, relatively short-term benefits for the majority of patient. Among the novel biologic therapeutics that will likely increase our ability to cure human cancer in the years to come, immunotherapy is one of the most promising approaches. While past attempts to use immunotherapy have failed to dramatically shift the paradigm of care for the treatment of patients with sarcoma, major advances in basic and translational research have resulted, in more recent years, in clinical trial activity that is now beginning to generate promising results. However, to move from “proof of principle” to large scale clinical applicability, we need well-designed, multi-institutional clinical trials, along with continuous laboratory research to explore further the immunological characteristics of individual sarcoma subtypes and the consequent tailoring of therapy.

  13. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor...... characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...

  14. Multifocal Retroperitoneal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodosios Theodosopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retroperitoneal sarcomas comprise a small proportion of all soft tissue sarcomas, and multiple factors influence their clinical behavior. Histopathological type and grade as well as complete surgical resection especially on the first operative attempt are well recognized as the main prognostic factors. Multifocality is another prognostic factor, which compromises therapy and finally makes prognosis worse due to multiple adverse implications. Case Presentation. A rare case of a 65-year-old male patient suffering from a multifocal retroperitoneal liposarcoma successfully treated in our hospital is presented herein. Discussion. Also, general considerations for these tumors are discussed, and especially multifocality is underlined as an ominous sign of retroperitoneal sarcomas behavior. Despite multifocality, once again complete surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment of these patients, as long as further systemic and local therapies do not provide durable results.

  15. [Association of Kaposi sarcoma--multiple myeloma. A new case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J D; Thomas, E; Garnier, N; Hellier, I; Durand, L; Guilhou, J J; Baldet, P; Blotman, F

    2000-11-01

    Kaposi's disease is an angiogenic multifocal cancer process that has several forms, namely Mediterranean, African, HIV-associated, and secondary to a preexisting immunodepressive state (hematological disorder, corticosteroid therapy, immunodepressive treatment). Whatever its form, Kaposi's sarcoma is probably associated with a chronic viral human herpes type 8 infection (HHV8). This virus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (17 cases recorded to date). In the present study, a further case of Kaposi's sarcoma associated with multiple myeloma has been reported. However, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C, HIV and HHV8 serologies were negative. Radiotherapy on the lower limbs was initiated. It is concluded that HHV8 does not appear to play a pathogenic role in cases of multiple myeloma, given the rarity of the association between Kaposi's sarcoma/multiple myeloma/HHV8.

  16. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  17. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...

  18. Comparative in vivo analysis of recombinant type II feline coronaviruses with truncated and completed ORF3 region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Bálint

    Full Text Available Our previous in vitro comparative study on a feline coronavirus (FCoV pair, differing only in the intactness of their ORF3abc regions, showed that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV. In the present study, we describe a challenge experiment with the same recombinant FCoVs in order to gain data on the in vivo characteristics on these viruses. While parent virus FIPV DF-2 developed feline infectious peritonitis in all the infected cats, its recombinant virus PBFIPV-DF-2, differing only in seven nucleotides, proved to be surprisingly low virulent, although caused an acute febrile episode similarly to the original FIPV DF-2. PBFIPV-DF-2 infection induced significantly lower virus neutralization titers than its parent virus, and lacked the second phase of viremia and development of fatal course of the disease. The recombinant PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i with completed ORF3abc gained biological properties that differentiate between the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV and FIPV biotypes such as intensive replication in the gut, absence of viremia and weak or no serological response. Using reverse genetic approaches our study is the first experimental proof that ORF3abc is indeed responsible for the restriction of FECV replication to the intestine in vivo.

  19. Short communication, Co-infection with feline and canine parvovirus in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Battilani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we reported a case of co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV type 2a and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV in a 3-month-old male kitten, with the presence of a parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between CPV and FPV. The report of a viral variant which contained FPV- and CPV-specific epitopes stresses the importance of the mechanism of multistep mutation in the production of new variants and in the emergence of new viruses. This type of multistep adaptation has already been documented during the emergence of CPV and on the basis of our results, it was hypothesized that CPV had presumably started a new process of readaptation in the feline host, confirming the importance of viral host switching as a mechanism for the emergence of new viruses.

  20. Microenvironmental targets in sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhnman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has lead to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject for larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells, but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma.

  1. FELINE AORTIC THROMBOEMBOLISM: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa A., Lizbeth; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Paz M., Ricardo; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Díaz C., Diego; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Dávila F., Roberto; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un felino Siamés de 13 años con tromboembolismo aórtico. Esta es una complicación asociada a una cardiomiopatía hipertrófica (CMH), enfermedad cardiaca más común del gato y que se caracteriza por la hipertrofia concéntrica ventricular izquierda. A case of a 13 year old Siamese cat whit feline aortic thromboembolism is presented. This is a devastating complication associated to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most common heart disease in cats characteriz...

  2. Methods for the differentiation of giant cells in canine and feline neoplasias in paraffin sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jösten, M; Rudolph, R

    1997-05-01

    In the following study cells with at least two cell nuclei are addressed as giant cells. In 47 biopsies of feline neoplasias (fibrosarcoma, haemangioendothelsarcoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, osteoidsarcoma, complex sarcoma), and 25 biopsies of canine neoplasias (malignant seminoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, haemangioendothelsarcoma, fibrosarcoma, osteoblastic sarcoma, complex sarcoma) giant cells are distinguished either as neoplastic giant cells or as reactive (non-neoplastic) giant cells. Cell nuclei of neoplastic giant cells which are labelled with the monoclonal antibody MIB 1 are mitotic active; cell nuclei are polymorph and can show atypical mitosis; the cytoplasmic reaction with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is negative. Negative reactions with MIB 1, positive TRAP staining and homogeneous cell nuclei are distinctive for osteoclast-like glant cells. Other non-neoplastic giant cells (e.g. foreign body cells, Langhans-giant cells) are negative with both MIB 1 and TRAP. Double staining of paraffin sections is possible. Routine formalin-fixation, embedding in paraffin and decalcifying tissue samples do not interfere with MIB 1 immunoreactions or TRAP reactions. Methodological modifications that were necessary for the preparation of paraffin sections from canine and feline tissue samples are discussed. As the presence of neoplastic giant tumour cells is an index for a poor prognosis in human medicine, not only the entity of the tumour must be named, but also the exact significance of the giant cell type:, e.g. fibrosarcoma with osteoclast-like giant cells, hepatic carcinoma with reactive giant cells, malignant seminoma with neoplastic giant cells, angiosarcoma with both neoplastic giant cells and osteoclast-like giant cells. This would enable the classification of further neoplasias dealing with clinical courses of the diseases. Over the past years our stains have remained stable. It is possible to carry out retrospective investigations with archived

  3. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  4. Viral and cellular requirements for the budding of feline endogenous retrovirus RD-114.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Aiko; Abe, Masumi; Urata, Shuzo; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Morikawa, Yuko; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Yasuda, Jiro

    2011-12-14

    RD-114 virus is a feline endogenous retrovirus and produced as infectious viruses in some feline cell lines. Recently, we reported the contamination of an infectious RD-114 virus in a proportion of live attenuated vaccines for dogs and cats. It is very difficult to completely knock out the RD-114 proviruses from cells, as endogenous retroviruses are usually integrated multiply into the host genome. However, it may be possible to reduce the risk of contamination of RD-114 virus by regulating the viral release from cells. In this study, to understand the molecular mechanism of RD-114 virus budding, we attempted to identify the viral and cellular requirements for RD-114 virus budding. Analyses of RD-114 L-domain mutants showed that the PPPY sequence in the pp15 region of Gag plays a critical role in RD-114 virus release as viral L-domain. Furthermore, we investigated the cellular factors required for RD-114 virus budding. We demonstrated that RD-114 virus release was inhibited by overexpression of dominant negative mutants of Vps4A, Vps4B, and WWP2. These results strongly suggest that RD-114 budding utilizes the cellular multivesicular body sorting pathway similar to many other retroviruses.

  5. Fibrosarcomas at presumed sites of injection in dogs: characteristics and comparison with non-vaccination site fibrosarcomas and feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascellari, M; Melchiotti, E; Bozza, M A; Mutinelli, F

    2003-08-01

    Fifteen fibrosarcomas, surgically excised from presumed sites of injection in dogs, and 10 canine fibrosarcomas excised from sites not used for injection were histologically and immunohistochemically compared with 20 feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas. Canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites were of grade I (3), of grade II (4) and grade III (8). Two fibrosarcomas from non-injection sites were of grade I, four of grade II and four of grade III. Feline samples were classified as grade I (2), grade II (4) and grade III (14). All fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites of both species showed lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration located at the tumour periphery, while two canine fibrosarcomas from non-injection sites showed perivascular inflammatory infiltration within the neoplasm. All samples were immunohistochemically examined for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin and desmin expression. All tumours were positive for vimentin. Ten canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites and all feline samples contained cells consistent with a myofibroblastic immunophenotype. Aluminium deposits were detected in eight canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites and 11 feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas by the aurintricarboxylic acid method. The present study identifies distinct similarities between canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites and feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas, suggesting the possibility of the development of post-injection sarcomas not only in cats, but also in dogs.

  6. Quantitative PCR detection of feline morbillivirus in cat urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Tetsuya; Wachi, Akiko; Sassa, Yukiko; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Nagai, Makoto; Fukushima, Ryuji; Shibutani, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Uematsu, Yosuke; Shirota, Kinji; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is a new virus species and its detection is important, since correlation has been reported between FmoPV virus infection and tubulointerstitial nephritis in cats. Here, we report a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR system that can detect the FmoPV L-gene sequence with more than 10-time higher sensitivity than a conventional PCR system, resulting in detection of less than 10 copies of the template DNA. The total FmoPV positive rate of urine samples from veterinary clinics and hospitals in Japan was 15.1% (25/166) using this system. This study demonstrates usefulness of the real-time RT-PCR system for detection of FmoPV for cat urine samples.

  7. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tissue Sarcoma Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version ...

  8. ELISA for the serology of FIP virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Kroon; R.M.S. Wirahadiredja

    1979-01-01

    textabstractAn enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus serology is described. The assay is analogous to a previously developed indirect heterologous immunofluorescence test (IFT) in which transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) viral antigen was used.

  9. Uterine sarcoma – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Benson,1 Aisha B Miah1,2 1Sarcoma Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, 2Department of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK Abstract: Uterine sarcomas comprise a group of rare tumors with differing tumor biology, natural history and response to treatment. Diagnosis is often made following surgery for presumed benign disease. Currently, preoperative imaging does not reliably distinguish between benign leiomyomas and other malignant pathology. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma, but other subtypes include endometrial stromal sarcoma (low grade and high grade, undifferentiated uterine sarcoma and adenosarcoma. Clinical trials have shown no definite survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy and have been hampered by the rarity and heterogeneity of these disease types. There is a role of adjuvant treatment in carefully selected cases following multidisciplinary discussion at sarcoma reference centers. In patients with metastatic disease, systemic chemotherapy can then be considered. There is activity of a number of agents, including doxorubicin, trabectedin, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, eribulin and pazopanib. Patients should be considered for clinical trial entry where possible. Close international collaboration is important to allow progress in this group of diseases. Keywords: sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, undifferentiated uterine sarcoma, leiomyoma

  10. Doxorubicin With Upfront Dexrazoxane Plus Olaratumab for the Treatment of Advanced or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-08

    Sarcoma, Soft Tissue; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Leiomyosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Synovial Sarcoma; Myxofibrosarcoma; Angiosarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Epithelioid Sarcoma

  11. Generation of a felinized swine endothelial cell line by expression of feline decay-accelerating factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Izuhara

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell research has facilitated the generation of many cell types for the production of tissues and organs for both humans and companion animals. Because ≥30% of pet cats suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD, xenotransplantation between pigs and cats has been studied. For a successful pig to cat xenotransplant, the immune reaction must be overcome, especially hyperacute rejection. In this study, we isolated the gene for feline decay-accelerating factor (fDAF, an inhibitor of complement proteins, and transfected a swine endothelial cell line with fDAF to "felinize" the pig cells. These fDAF-expressing cells were resistant to feline serum containing anti-pig antibodies, suggesting that felinized pig cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection. Our results suggest that a "felinized" pig kidney can be generated for the treatment of CKD in cats in the future.

  12. Prevalence and implications of feline coronavirus infections of captive and free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    OpenAIRE

    Heeney, J. L.; Evermann, J F; McKeirnan, A J; Marker-Kraus, L; Roelke, M E; Bush, M; Wildt, D E; Meltzer, D G; Colly, L; Lukas, J

    1990-01-01

    The extent and progression of exposure to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, was monitored by a world-wide serological survey with indirect fluorescent antibody titers to coronavirus. The indirect fluorescent antibody assay was validated by Western blots, which showed that all indirect fluorescent antibody-positive cheetah sera detected both domestic cat and cheetah coronavirus structural proteins. There was a poor correlation between indirect fluoresc...

  13. Suppression of feline coronavirus replication in vitro by cyclosporin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshikazu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV is a member of the feline coronavirus family that causes FIP, which is incurable and fatal in cats. Cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressive agent that targets the nuclear factor pathway of activated T-cells (NF-AT to bind cellular cyclophilins (CyP, dose-dependently inhibited FIPV replication in vitro. FK506 (an immunosuppressor of the pathway that binds cellular FK506-binding protein (FKBP but not CyP did not affect FIPV replication. Neither cell growth nor viability changed in the presence of either CsA or FK506, and these factors did not affect the NF-AT pathway in fcwf-4 cells. Therefore, CsA does not seem to exert inhibitory effects via the NF-AT pathway. In conclusion, CsA inhibited FIPV replication in vitro and further studies are needed to verify the practical value of CsA as an anti-FIPV treatment in vivo.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) American Cancer Society: What is the Ewing Family of Tumors? Disease InfoSearch: Ewing's Sarcoma KidsHealth from Nemours MalaCards: ewing ... II: interactions between two members of the TET family, EWS and hTAFII68, and subunits of ... Park YK. Ewing sarcoma: a chronicle of molecular pathogenesis. Hum Pathol. 2016 May 28. ...

  15. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  16. A patient with classical Kaposi's sarcoma and angiosarcoma: bad luck or a common aetiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M C; Smith, M E; Spittle, M F

    1997-01-01

    Classical Kaposi's sarcoma and angiosarcoma are rare malignant tumours arising from vascular tissue. However, they have distinct histological features and appear also to differ in their epidemiology and pathogenesis. We present the case history of a patient in whom both these tumours occurred simultaneously. The relationship between these events is discussed in the light of the new virus, human herpes virus 8.

  17. Thermal Inactivation of Feline Calicivirus in Pet Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, J; Patel, M; Knight, A I; Corley, D; Gibson, G; Schaaf, J; Moulin, J; Zuber, S

    2015-12-01

    Extrusion is the most common manufacturing process used to produce heat-treated dry dog and cat food (pet food) for domestic use and international trade. Due to reoccurring outbreaks of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases and their impact on international trade, experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the effectiveness of heat-treated extruded pet food on virus inactivation. The impact of extrusion processing in a pet food matrix on virus inactivation has not been previously reported and very few inactivation studies have examined the thermal inactivation of viruses in complex food matrices. The feline calicivirus vaccine strain FCV F-9 was used as a surrogate model RNA virus pathogen. Small-scale heat inactivation experiments using animal-derived pet food raw materials showed that a > 4 log10 reduction (log10 R) in infectivity occurred at 70 °C prior to reaching the minimum extrusion manufacturing operating temperature of 100 °C. As anticipated, small-scale pressure studies at extrusion pressure (1.6 MPa) showed no apparent effect on FCV F-9 inactivation. Additionally, FCV F-9 was shown not to survive the acidic conditions used to produce pet food palatants of animal origin that are typically used as a coating after the extrusion process.

  18. Feline viral papillomatosis: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberink, Herman; Thiry, Etienne; Möstl, Karin; Addie, Diane; Belák, Sándor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hosie, Margaret J; Hartmann, Katrin; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Truyen, Uwe; Horzinek, Marian C

    2013-07-01

    Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic and cause cutaneous lesions in man and several animal species, including cats. Cats most likely become infected through lesions or abrasions of the skin. Species-specific viruses have been detected but human and bovine related sequences have also been found, suggesting cross-species transmission. In cats, papillomaviruses are associated with four different skin lesions: hyperkeratotic plaques, which can progress into Bowenoid in situ carcinomas (BISCs) and further to invasive squamous cell carcinomas (ISCCs); cutaneous fibropapillomas or feline sarcoids; and cutaneous papillomas. However, papillomaviruses have also been found in normal skin. Papillomavirus-induced skin lesions can be diagnosed by demonstration of papillomavirus antigen in biopsies of skin lesions, or detection of papillomavirus-like particles by electron microscopy and papillomavirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Spontaneous regression might be expected. In cases of ISCC, complete excision should be considered if possible.

  19. An immunohistochemical study of feline endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil da Costa, R M; Santos, M; Amorim, I; Lopes, C; Pereira, P Dias; Faustino, A M

    2009-05-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have to date been poorly characterized. The present immunohistochemical study describes the expression of the pancytokeratins AE1 and AE3, cytokeratin-14, vimentin, alpha-actin, cyclo-oxygenase-2, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, the progesterone receptor, the oestrogen receptor and caveolin-1 within normal feline uterine tissue and tissue from six cats with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Synthesis of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and reduced expression of progesterone receptors may be involved in the neoplastic transformation of feline endometrium. The loss of cellular adhesion that occurs within these tumours does not require down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is not a feature of these neoplasms.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08610-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-09 A26132( A26132 ) gag-abl-pol polyprotein - feline sarcoma virus (s... 65 4e-09 EF215421_1( EF215421...(Fgfr2)... 62 2e-08 J02088_1( J02088 |pid:none) Feline sarcoma virus gag polyprotein g... 62 2e-08 B54846(

  1. Cutaneous Metastatic Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma from a Mediastinal Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Do Seon; Park, Dong Hwa; Kim, Chi Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is a malignant neoplasm that arises in both soft tissue and bones. In 2002, the World Health Organization declassified malignant fibrous histocytoma as a formal diagnostic entity and renamed it 'undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma not otherwise specified.' It most commonly occurs in the lower extremities and rarely metastasizes cutaneously. We report a case of cutaneous metastatic undifferentiated pleomorphic sarc...

  2. Acroangiodermatitis mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-positive man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorney, B P; Newsham, J; Fitzgerald, D; Motta, L

    2018-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the commonest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related malignancy with its characteristic cutaneous morphological appearance and histopathological features. However, it can be simulated by other co-morbid opportunistic infections and unrelated dermatological conditions. We describe such a case of acroangiodermatitis in an HIV co-infected man, based on exclusion of KS histologically and the absence of human herpesvirus 8, the causative agent of KS.

  3. General Information about Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and its treatment, see the AIDSinfo website . Nonepidemic Gay-related Kaposi Sarcoma There is a type of ... trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website. ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and its treatment, see the AIDSinfo website . Nonepidemic Gay-related Kaposi Sarcoma There is a type of ... trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website. ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providers who are experts in treating cancer in children. Treatment for Ewing sarcoma may cause side effects. Five types of standard treatment are used: Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Surgery Targeted therapy High-dose chemotherapy ...

  7. General Information about Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providers who are experts in treating cancer in children. Treatment for Ewing sarcoma may cause side effects. Five types of standard treatment are used: Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Surgery Targeted therapy High-dose chemotherapy ...

  8. Kaposi Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland Resembling Epithelioid Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Huwait

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection are known to have increased risk of various neoplasms, including Kaposi sarcoma, which classically involves the skin and mucosal locations. The anaplastic variant of Kaposi sarcoma is rare and poorly documented in the literature. It is characterised clinically by a more aggressive behaviour and increased metastatic potential, and histologically by increased cellularity, mitotic rate, and rarely by epithelioid angiosarcoma-like morphology. We report herein a 64-year-old man with a long-standing history of human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed a right adrenal tumor with a high-grade anaplastic angiosarcoma-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry for human herpes virus-8 was strongly positive in the tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma in the adrenal gland.

  9. Existence of feline morbillivirus infection in Japanese cat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Tetsuya; Sassa, Yukiko; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Nagai, Makoto; Fukushima, Ryuji; Shibutani, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Uematsu, Yosuke; Shirota, Kinji; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is a member of a new virus species that has only been found in the Hong Kong cat population. For the first time, however, we have now detected nucleotide sequences similar to FmoPV in samples from Japanese cat populations. The positive rates for urine and blood samples from Japanese cats were 6.1 % (5/82) and 10 % (1/10), respectively. These sequences are similar to the previously reported FmoPV, with 92-94 % identity, and substantially different from all other morbilliviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the identified Japanese FmoPVs and other morbilliviruses demonstrated a pattern similar to those previously published for the FmoPV viruses isolated in Hong Kong. FmoPV RNA was also detected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) kidney tissues of cats with nephritis, with a positive rate of 40 % (4/10). By using nested-set primers based on the FmoPV sequence and RNA from FFPE tissues, we demonstrated the existence of FmoPV infection in Japanese cats and established the method for detection of the FmoPV RNA from kidney tissues prepared for pathology examinations, which is useful for studies on the pathogenicity of the virus.

  10. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

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    Altamura, Gennaro, E-mail: gennaro.altamura@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Corteggio, Annunziata, E-mail: ancorteg@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Pacini, Laura, E-mail: PaciniL@students.iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Conte, Andrea, E-mail: andreaconte88@hotmail.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria, E-mail: gmpieran@unina.it [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tommasino, Massimo, E-mail: tommasinom@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Accardi, Rosita, E-mail: accardir@iarc.fr [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Borzacchiello, Giuseppe, E-mail: borzacch@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting in upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. - Highlights: • FcaPV2 E6 binds to and deregulates feline p53 protein. • FcaPV2 E7 binds to and deregulates feline pRb protein. • FcaPV2 oncogenes inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis. • FcaPV2 E6E7 and E7 increase the lifespan of primary cells. • FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 are expressed at the mRNA level in feline SCC in vivo.

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in feline pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Shelley Joy; Mrkonjich, Ladonna

    2006-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-II) is an inducible enzyme that is responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is often upregulated in neoplastic conditions. Expression of COX-II is documented in the majority of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas and in many epithelial neoplasms in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to assess a series of feline pancreatic adenocarcinomas for the expression of COX-II. Eight feline pancreatic adenocarcinomas (5 poorly differentiated ductular variants and 3 well-differentiated acinar variants) were included. Immunohistochemical staining showed that COX-II was expressed in 2 (both poorly differentiated ductular variants) of the 8 neoplasms (25%). Approximately 10% of the epithelial cells from these 2 neoplasms expressed intense cytoplasmic staining. However, because feline pancreatic adenocarcinoma does not appear to consistently express COX-II, it is not a useful prognostic indicator for this group of feline neoplasms. In addition, COX-II inhibitors are not likely to be effective therapeutics for cats with this neoplasm.

  12. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of feline haemoplasma infection in New Zealand domestic cats using a real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kathryn S; Dittmer, Keren E; Marshall, Jonathan C; Tasker, Séverine

    2013-12-01

    Haemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are small epierythrocytic bacteria that have the potential to cause severe, life-threatening haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the current study was to evaluate feline haemoplasma prevalence using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from a convenience sample of New Zealand domestic cats, including blood film examination and a risk factor analysis. DNA was extracted from 200 blood samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for routine haematology over a 12-month period. Species-specific real-time PCR assays identified 62 cats that were positive for haemoplasma DNA, giving an overall prevalence of 31%. Twelve of the positive cats had dual infections. The prevalence of the three feline haemoplasmas was 25% for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', 7.5% for Mycoplasma haemofelis and 4.5% for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt). All samples were positive for an internal control (feline 28S rDNA) by real-time PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of blood smear examination for haemoplasma infection in this study was 9.7% and 97.8%, respectively. Retroviral infection was tested using the Idexx Snap Feline Triple test on all samples. Twenty cats (10%) were feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) positive and 11 cats (5.5%) were feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) positive. Statistical comparisons, using multivariate logistic regression, indicated that positive FIV status, male gender and non-pedigree breed were significantly (P prevalence of the three main feline haemoplasma species in New Zealand for the first time, with prevalences correlating with previous overseas studies. This is the first report of CMt in New Zealand.

  13. Temporal changes in characteristics of injection-site sarcomas in cats: 392 cases (1990-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephen C; Kent, Michael S; Gordon, Ira K; Collins, Cameron J; Greasby, Tamara A; Beckett, Laurel A; Hammond, Genevieve M; Skorupski, Katherine A

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate changes in characteristics of feline injection-site sarcomas (ISSs) from 1990 through 2006. Retrospective case series. 392 cats with a histologic diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma, or chondrosarcoma at potential injection sites. Classification and anatomic location of tumors and signalment of affected cats were compared between ISSs diagnosed before and after publication of the Vaccine Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force vaccination recommendations in 1996. From before to after publication of the vaccination recommendations, proportions of ISSs significantly decreased in the interscapular (53.4% to 39.5%) and right and left thoracic (10.2% to 3.6% and 9.1% to 1.3%, respectively) regions. On the other hand, proportions of ISSs significantly increased in the right thoracic limb (1.1% to 9.5%) and the combined regions of the right pelvic limb with right lateral aspect of the abdomen (12.5% to 25.0%) and the left pelvic limb with left lateral aspect of the abdomen (11.4% to 13.8%). Patterns of tumor classification and signalment did not change. Despite publication of the vaccination recommendations, a high proportion of tumors still developed in the interscapular region. There was also an increase in lateral abdominal ISSs, which are more difficult to treat and are likely attributable to aberrant placement of injections intended for the pelvic limbs. Veterinarians are complying with vaccination recommendations to some extent, but they need to focus on administering vaccines as distally as possible on a limb to allow for complete surgical margins if amputation of a limb is required.

  14. MicroRNA expression analysis of feline and canine parvovirus infection in vivo (felis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhou

    Full Text Available Feline panleukopenia is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, feline parvovirus (FPV and canine parvovirus (CPV variants are the pathogens of feline panleukopenia. Many studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions. Nevertheless, miRNA expression profiling of FPV (original virus or CPV-2b (new virus in cats has not been reported. To investigate these profiles, three 10-week-old cats were orally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of the viruses (FPV and CPV-2b, and the jejunums of one cat in each group were sectioned for miRNA sequencing at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi. This study is the first attempt to use miRNA analysis to understand the molecular basis of FPV and CPV infection in cats. The miRNA expression profiles of the jejunums of cats infected with FPV and CPV were obtained, and a subset of miRNAs was validated by real-time qPCR. The results show that a variety of metabolism-related pathways, cytokine- and pathogen-host interaction-related pathways, and pathology- and cellar structure-related pathways, as well as others, were affected. Specifically, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which is critical for cytokines and growth factors, was enriched. This description of the miRNAs involved in regulating FPV and CPV infection in vivo provides further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection and adaptation and might provide an alternative antiviral strategy for disease control and prevention.

  15. Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

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    Bradley J. Petek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic agent derived from the Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata. This drug has a number of potential mechanisms of action, including binding the DNA minor groove, interfering with DNA repair pathways and the cell cycle, as well as interacting with transcription factors. Several phase II trials have shown that trabectedin has activity in anthracycline and alkylating agent-resistant soft tissue sarcoma and suggest use in the second- and third-line setting. More recently, trabectedin has shown similar progression-free survival to doxorubicin in the first-line setting and significant activity in liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes. Trabectedin has shown a favorable toxicity profile and has been approved in over 70 countries for the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. This manuscript will review the development of trabectedin in soft tissue sarcomas.

  16. Radiological Findings of Primary Retroperitoneal Ewing Sarcoma

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    Ulusan, S.; Koc, Z.; Tuba Canpolat, E.; Colakoglu, T. [Depts. of Radiology, Pathology, and General Surgery, Baskent Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-09-15

    Ewing sarcomas are most commonly located in bone, while extra skeletal involvement of the retroperitoneum is extremely rare. We describe the radiologic and pathological findings in an adult patient with retroperitoneal extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma. Keywords: Color Doppler ultrasound; computed tomography; extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma; magnetic resonance imaging; ultrasound.

  17. Radiotherapy in three suspect cases of feline thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Hotz, B; Rohrer, C R; Fidel, J L; Nett, C S; Hörauf, A; Hauser, B

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy for three cases of suspect feline thymoma is described. The thymoma was controlled for 4 years in case no. 1. Case no. 2 responded well to radiation therapy but was euthanized after 2 months because of a nasal adenocarcinoma. Case no. 3 continues to do well more than 8 months after radiotherapy. Difficulties in diagnosing feline thymomas are discussed, and biological behavior as well as different treatment modalities of feline and human thymomas are compared.

  18. Xenotransplantation and high tumorigenicity of feline tumors in SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, K; Sugimoto, T; Suzuki, K; Shirota, K; Ejima, H; Nomura, T

    1995-10-01

    Nine feline tumors resected at surgery were subcutaneously xenotransplanted into SCID mice. The primary take rate of the benign and malignant tumors was 50% (1/2) and 100% (7/7) respectively. Six of the eight primary tumor xenografts transplanted and grown in the first recipient were successfully transplanted serially. One feline mammary adenocarcinoma xenograft metastasized to the lung of a SCID mouse. The primary take rate of feline tumors to SCID mice was high and the established xenografts appear to be valuable tools for investigating growth and metastasis mechanisms, and various therapies for feline neoplasms.

  19. Virucidal Effectiveness Testing Using Feline Calicivirus as Surrogate for Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents describe the effectiveness test using Feline Calicivirus as Surrogate for Norovirus, including initial and confirmatory testing and testing with pre-saturated or impregnated towelettes.

  20. Epithelioid sarcoma of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, X; Delobelle, A; Lefebvre, J L; Cabaret, V; Bloget, F; Vilain, M O

    1997-01-01

    A case of epithelioid sarcoma in the tongue is reported. The patient, a 35 year old woman, presented with a non-ulcerated painful lesion of the tongue. Microscopically, the tumour was characterised by multiple coalescent nodules with central geographic necrosis infiltrating the lingual muscle. The tumour cells were epithelioid with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and atypical nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells stained for vimentin, keratin, and epithelial membrane antigen. These morphological and immunohistochemical appearances led to the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma of the tongue. Seven years later, the patient died with metastatic dissemination to the scalp, lungs, and brain. No case of epithelioid sarcoma arising in the tongue has been described previously. Images PMID:9462274

  1. Targeting Angiogenesis in Childhood Sarcomas

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    Hemant K. Bid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis constitute two processes in the formation of new blood vessels and are essential for progression of solid tumors. Consequently, targeting angiogenesis, and to a lesser extent vasculogenesis, has become a major focus in cancer drug development. Angiogenesis inhibitors are now being tested in pediatric populations whereas inhibitors of vasculogenesis are in an earlier stage of development. Despite the initial enthusiasm for targeting angiogenesis for treatment of cancer, clinical trials have shown only incremental increases in survival, and agents have been largely cytostatic rather than inducing tumor regressions. Consequently, the role of such therapeutic approaches in the context of curative intent for childhood sarcomas is less clear. Here we review the literature on blood vessel formation in sarcomas with a focus on pediatric sarcomas and developments in targeting angiogenesis for treatment of these rare cancers.

  2. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

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    Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro Zago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started.

  3. Disseminated HIV-Associated Kaposi’s Sarcoma With High CD4 Cell Count And Low Viral Load

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    Diana Pereira Anjos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma is considered an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness and is caused by human herpesvirus 8. It has been associated with patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV who have CD4 T lymphocytes <200 cells/uL and high viral loads. We report a case of a 23-year old woman infected with HIV-1 and receiving antiretroviral treatment since diagnosis, with high CD4 cell count and low viral load that presented with disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Clinicians should be aware of the occurrence of Kaposi’s sarcoma despite robust CD4 cell counts.

  4. Epidemiology and therapies for metastatic sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankwah EK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ernest K Amankwah,1 Anthony P Conley,2 Damon R Reed2 1Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Sarcoma Department, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are cancers arising from the mesenchymal layer that affect children, adolescents, young adults, and adults. Although most sarcomas are localized, many display a remarkable predilection for metastasis to the lungs, liver, bones, subcutaneous tissue, and lymph nodes. Additionally, many sarcoma patients presenting initially with localized disease may relapse at metastatic sites. While localized sarcomas can often be cured through surgery and often radiation, controversies exist over optimal management of patients with metastatic sarcoma. Combinations of chemotherapy are the most effective in many settings, and many promising new agents are under active investigation or are being explored in preclinical models. Metastatic sarcomas are excellent candidates for novel approaches with additional agents as they have demonstrated chemosensitivity and affect a portion of the population that is motivated toward curative therapy. In this paper, we provide an overview on the common sarcomas of childhood (rhabdomyosarcoma, adolescence, and young adults (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and older adults (leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and undifferentiated high grade sarcoma in terms of the epidemiology, current therapy, promising therapeutic directions and outcome with a focus on metastatic disease. Potential advances in terms of promising therapy and biologic insights may lead to more effective and safer therapies; however, more clinical trials and research are needed for patients with metastatic sarcoma. Keywords: chemotherapy, pediatric sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma

  5. Natural History of a Recurrent Feline Coronavirus Infection and the Role of Cellular Immunity in Survival and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D.F.; van Dun, Jessica M.; van der Most, Robbert G.; de Groot, Raoul J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the natural history, viral dynamics, and immunobiology of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a highly lethal coronavirus infection. A severe recurrent infection developed, typified by viral persistence and acute lymphopenia, with waves of enhanced viral replication coinciding with fever, weight loss, and depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our combined observations suggest a model for FIP pathogenesis in which virus-induced T-cell depletion and the antiviral T-cell response are ...

  6. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, staging, and outcomes of individuals with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma at an university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    de Lima, Catarina Ten?rio; de Ara?jo, Paulo S?rgio Ramos; TEIXEIRA,Heberton Medeiros; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; da Silveira, Vera Magalh?es

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be the most common human immunodeficiency virus - associated neoplasm with considerable morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics, initial staging, and outcomes of aids patients with Kaposi's sarcoma at an university hospital of Recife, Pernambuco. Methods: This is a descriptive study with analytic character, retrospective, of a case series between 2004 and 2014. Results: Of the 22 patien...

  7. Crystalline inclusions in granulocytic sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauchen, James A; Gordon, Ronald E

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of granulocytic sarcoma were found to contain numerous crystalline inclusions identified on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections as clusters of pointed needlelike crystals present in foci of necrosis or within macrophages. The crystals were negative for chloroacetate esterase and myeloperoxidase. Electron microscopy demonstrated homogeneously dense, bipyramidal structures, indistinguishable from Charcot-Leyden crystals. Granulocytic sarcomas may contain crystalline inclusions similar to Charcot-Leyden crystals; these structures should be distinguished from crystalline immunoglobulin inclusions occurring in cases of plasma cell myeloma and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, which may have a similar appearance.

  8. Exposure to feline and canine pathogens in bobcats and gray foxes in urban and rural zones of a national park in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Seth P D; Foley, Janet; Chomel, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) to a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, a National Park in the San Francisco Bay Area, (California, USA) from 1992 to 1995. Testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus, Leptospira interrogans, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus, feline enteric coronavirus (FECV), feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Bartonella henselae. Testing was also performed for Dirofilaria immitis. Significantly more gray foxes were seropositive for CPV in the urban zone than in the rural zone. In addition, radio-tracking of gray foxes in the rural zone indicated that all three of the rural CPV-seropositive foxes had traveled into adjoining small towns, whereas only one of the 11 seronegative animals had done so. Significantly more bobcats were seropositive for FCV in the rural zone than in the urban zone. Individual bobcats with positive FCV antibody titers had patterns of movement that intercepted park inholdings where domestic cats lived. Bobcat samples were seronegative for all five of the other viral feline pathogens, with the exception of a FECV-seropositive bobcat. High seroprevalence was detected for B. henselae and T. gondii in both zones. Variation in the seroprevalence for different pathogens might be related to differences in the exposure of bobcats and foxes to domestic animals: in the urban zone, gray foxes were located in residential areas outside the park, whereas bobcats were not. Although for most of the pathogens examined there was no relationship between urbanization and exposure, our results for CPV in foxes and FCV in bobcats indicated that proximity to urban areas or contact with humans can increase the risk of disease exposure for wild carnivore populations. Combining behavioral

  9. Consensus of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology on the management and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Arruda

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal vascular lesion of low-grade potential that is most often present in mucocutaneous sites and usually also affects lymph nodes and visceral organs. The condition may manifest through purplish lesions, flat or raised with an irregular shape, gastrointestinal bleeding due to lesions located in the digestive system, and dyspnea and hemoptysis associated with pulmonary lesions. In the early 1980s, the appearance of several cases of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men was the first alarm about a newly identified epidemic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In 1994, it was finally demonstrated that the presence of a herpes virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma called HHV-8 or Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus and its genetic sequence was rapidly deciphered. The prevalence of this virus is very high (about 50% in some African populations, but stands between 2% and 8% for the entire world population. Kaposi's sarcoma only develops when the immune system is depressed, as in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which appears to be associated with a specific variant of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus. There are no treatment guidelines for Kaposi's sarcoma established in Brazil, and thus the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology and the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases developed the treatment consensus presented here.

  10. Frequency, clinicopathological features and phylogenetic analysis of feline morbillivirus in cats in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Tekelioglu, Bilge K; Gurel, Aydin; Bamac, Ozge E; Ozturk, Gulay Y; Cizmecigil, Utku Y; Altan, Eda; Aydin, Ozge; Yilmaz, Aysun; Berriatua, Eduardo; Helps, Chris R; Richt, Juergen A; Turan, Nuri

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) frequency, phylogeny and associated pathology in cats in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods Samples from sick (n = 96) and dead ( n = 15) cats were analysed using reverse transcription PCR. Blood and urine analyses and histopathology were also performed. Results FmoPV RNA was detected in six cats (5.4%), including three sick (in the urine) and three dead cats (tissues). A significantly greater proportion of FmoPV RNA-positive cats had street access compared with non-infected cats. Blood samples from the morbillivirus-positive cats were negative for morbillivirus RNA. Tubular parenchymal cells, lymphoid and plasma cells in kidney and hepatocytes, lymphoid and plasma cells in liver from dead cats were also positive by immunohistochemistry for the viral N protein. Two FmoPV-positive cats were also positive for feline coronavirus RNA and one cat for feline immunodeficiency virus RNA and feline leukaemia virus proviral DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the six FmoPV-positive cats showed that the strains were grouped into cluster D and had high similarity (98.5-100%) with strains from Japan and Germany. In the three FmoPV RNA-positive sick cats, respiratory, urinary and digestive system signs were observed as well as weight loss, fever and depression in some cats. Similar clinical signs were also seen in the morbillivirus RNA-negative sick cats. FmoPV RNA-positive cats had lower median red blood cell count, haemoglobin, albumin, albumin/globulin and urobilinogen and higher alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin compared with non-infected cats. Significant histopathology of FmoPV RNA-positive dead cats included tubulointerstitial nephritis characterised by severe granular and vacuolar degeneration of the epithelial cells of the cortical and medullary tubules as well as mononuclear cell infiltrates. Widespread lymphoid cell infiltrates were detected in the renal cortex and medullary

  11. Local immunotherapy of spontaneous feline fibrosarcomas using recombinant poxviruses expressing interleukin 2 (IL2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdier, T-M; Moste, C; Bonnet, M-C; Delisle, F; Tafani, J-P; Devauchelle, P; Tartaglia, J; Moingeon, P

    2003-12-01

    We tested the canarypox virus vector ALVAC and the genetically attenuated vaccinia virus vector NYVAC as vehicles for achieving local immunomodulation in domestic animals bearing spontaneous tumours. Following intratumoral administration of ALVAC-, or NYVAC-luciferase in dogs with melanoma, it was demonstrated that viral recombinants remained localized along the needle track, with no virus detectable in the periphery of the tumour. Given these distribution characteristics and their well-documented safety profile, ALVAC- or NYVAC-based recombinants expressing feline or human IL2, respectively, were administered to domestic cats, in order to prevent the recurrence of spontaneous fibrosarcomas. In the absence of immunotherapy, tumour recurrence was observed in 61% of animals within a 12-month follow-up period after treatment with surgery and iridium-based radiotherapy. In contrast, only 39 and 28% of cats receiving either NYVAC-human IL2 or ALVAC-feline IL2, respectively, exhibited tumour recurrences. Based on such results, and in the context of ongoing clinical studies conducted in humans, we discuss the utilization of ALVAC- or NYVAC-based recombinants as viable therapeutic modalities for local immunotherapy or therapeutic vaccination against cancer, both in humans and companion animals.

  12. Spinal Ewing sarcoma: Misleading appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.B.; Siegel, M.J.; Griffith, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    The plain radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) findings in two unusual cases of spinal Ewing sarcoma are reported. Radiographic features resembling neuroblastoma in one case and aneurysmal bone cyst in the other were present. These findings may be misleading and distinguishing characteristics in each case are discussed.

  13. [Imaging diagnostics of bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J A; Gübitz, R; Beck, L; Heindel, W; Vieth, V

    2014-06-01

    Bone tumors and especially bone sarcomas are rare lesions of the skeletal system in comparison to the much more frequently occurring bone metastases. Despite the relative rarity they are important differential diagnoses of bone lesions. The aim of this article is to give the reader an insight into the fundamentals of the primary imaging of bone sarcomas and to illustrate this with the help of two examples (e.g. osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma). The foundation of the imaging of bone sarcomas is the radiograph in two planes. This method delivers important information on bone tumors. This information should be analyzed with the help of the Lodwick classification, the configuration of periosteal reactions and a possible reaction of the cortex. A possible tumor matrix and the localization within the skeleton or within long bones also provide important information for differential diagnostic delimitation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with specific adapted bone tumor sequences allows an exact local staging of a bone sarcoma. In addition to local imaging a compartmental MRI which illustrates the entire extent of tumor-bearing bone and the adjacent joints should be performed to rule out possible skip lesions. The most common distant metastases of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma occur in the lungs; therefore, a computed tomography (CT) of the chest is part of staging. Other imaging methods, such as CT of the tumor, positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT), bone scan and whole body MRI supplement the imaging depending on tumor type.

  14. Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus Genome Persistence

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    Franceline Juillard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV has an etiologic role in Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman’s disease. These diseases are most common in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with AIDS. Similar to all herpesviruses, KSHV infection is lifelong. KSHV infection in tumor cells is primarily latent, with only a small subset of cells undergoing lytic infection. During latency, the KSHV genome persists as a multiple copy, extrachromosomal episome in the nucleus. In order to persist in proliferating tumor cells, the viral genome replicates once per cell cycle and then segregates to daughter cell nuclei. KSHV only expresses several genes during latent infection. Prominent among these genes, is the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA. LANA is responsible for KSHV genome persistence and also exerts transcriptional regulatory effects. LANA mediates KSHV DNA replication and in addition, is responsible for segregation of replicated genomes to daughter nuclei. LANA serves as a molecular tether, bridging the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes to ensure that KSHV DNA reaches progeny nuclei. N-terminal LANA attaches to mitotic chromosomes by binding histones H2A/H2B at the surface of the nucleosome. C-terminal LANA binds specific KSHV DNA sequence and also has a role in chromosome attachment. In addition to the essential roles of N- and C-terminal LANA in genome persistence, internal LANA sequence is also critical for efficient episome maintenance. LANA’s role as an essential mediator of virus persistence makes it an attractive target for inhibition in order to prevent or treat KSHV infection and disease.

  15. Newly Characterized Murine Undifferentiated Sarcoma Models Sensitive to Virotherapy with Oncolytic HSV-1 M002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K. Ring

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in conventional chemotherapy, surgical techniques, and radiation, outcomes for patients with relapsed, refractory, or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas are dismal. Survivors often suffer from lasting morbidity from current treatments. New targeted therapies with less toxicity, such as those that harness the immune system, and immunocompetent murine sarcoma models to test these therapies are greatly needed. We characterized two new serendipitous murine models of undifferentiated sarcoma (SARC-28 and SARC-45 and tested their sensitivity to virotherapy with oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1. Both models expressed high levels of the primary HSV entry molecule nectin-1 (CD111 and were susceptible to killing by interleukin-12 (IL-12 producing HSV-1 M002 in vitro and in vivo. M002 resulted in a significant intratumoral increase in effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and activated monocytes, and a decrease in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in immunocompetent mice. Compared to parent virus R3659 (no IL-12 production, M002 resulted in higher CD8:MDSC and CD8:T regulatory cell (Treg ratios, suggesting that M002 creates a more favorable immune tumor microenvironment. These data provide support for clinical trials targeting sarcomas with oncolytic HSV-1. These models provide an exciting opportunity to explore combination therapies for soft tissue sarcomas that rely on an intact immune system to reach full therapeutic potential.

  16. Atividade antiviral do extrato de própolis contra o calicivírus felino, adenovírus canino 2 e vírus da diarréia viral bovina Antiviral activity of propolis extracts against feline calicivirus, canine adenovirus 2, and bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cueto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as propriedades biológicas da própolis, a atividade antimicrobiana tem merecido destacada atenção. Neste artigo, descreve-se a atividade antiviral de dois extratos etanólicos de própolis (EP1 e EP2 frente aos vírus: calicivírus felino (FCV, adenovírus canino tipo 2 (CAV-2 e vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV. Um dos extratos (EP1 foi obtido por extração etanólica de própolis obtida da região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e o segundo (EP2, obtido comercialmente de uma empresa de Minas Gerais. A análise dos extratos de própolis através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE identificou a presença de flavonóides como: rutina, quercetina e ácido gálico. A atividade antiviral bem como a citotoxicidade dos extratos aos cultivos celulares foram avaliadas através do MTT [3- (4,5 dimetiltiazol-2yl-2-5-difenil-2H tetrazolato de bromo]. Ambos os extratos evidenciaram atividade antiviral frente ao BVDV e CAV-2 quando acrescidos ao cultivo celular anteriormente à inoculação viral. Os extratos foram menos efetivos contra o FCV em comparação aos resultados obtidos com os outros vírus, e a atividade antiviral neste caso foi observada apenas quando a própolis estava presente após a inoculação viral. O extrato obtido no laboratório (EP1 apresentou valores mais altos de índice de seletividade (IS=CC50/ CE50, quando comparado à outra amostra (EP2. Em resumo, a própolis apresentou atividade antiviral frente a três diferentes vírus, o que a torna alvo para o desenvolvimento de novos compostos naturais com atividade antiviral.Propolis is a resinous substance produced by bees for which several biological activities have been attributed. In this article, the antiviral activity of two propolis extracts was tested against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, and feline calicivirus (FCV. One of the extracts was obtained by ethanolic extraction of propolis from the Santa

  17. A retrospective clinical and epidemiological study on feline coronavirus (FCoV) in cats in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekelioglu, B K; Berriatua, E; Turan, N; Helps, C R; Kocak, M; Yilmaz, H

    2015-04-01

    The presence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), together with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen was investigated in 169 ill household and stray cats attending a veterinary surgery in Istanbul in 2009-14. The estimated FCoV and FIV seroprevalence (95% confidence intervals) were 37% (30-45%) and 11% (6-16%), respectively and FeLV prevalence was 1% (0-3%). FCoV seroprevalence increased until 2 years of age, was highest in 2014 and among household cats living with other cats and with outdoor access, and was lower in FIV seropositive compared to seronegative cats. Symptoms typically associated with wet feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) including ascites, abdominal distention or pleural effusion, coupled in many cases with non-antibiotic responsive fever, were observed in 19% (32/169) of cats, and 75% (24/32) of these cats were FCoV seropositive. FCoV seropositivity was also associated with a high white blood cell count, high plasma globulin, low plasma albumin and low blood urea nitrogen. The percentage of FCoV seropositive and seronegative cats that died in spite of supportive veterinary treatment was 33% (21/63) and 12% (13/106), respectively. These results indicate that FCoV is widespread and has a severe clinical impact in cats from Istanbul. Moreover, the incidence of FCoV infections could be rising, and in the absence of effective vaccination cat owners need to be made aware of ways to minimize the spread of this virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pazopanib in advanced vascular sarcomas: an EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollar, A.; Jones, R.L.; Stacchiotti, S.; Gelderblom, H.; Guida, M.; Grignani, G.; Steeghs, N.; Safwat, A.; Katz, D.; Duffaud, F.; Sleijfer, S.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Touati, N.; Litiere, S.; Marreaud, S.; Gronchi, A.; Kasper, B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with selective subtypes of advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who have previously received standard chemotherapy including anthracyclines. Data on the efficacy in vascular sarcomas are limited.

  19. Inactivation of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus during oyster fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Jina; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Changsun

    2014-12-01

    Fermented seafood is popular in Asian countries. This study examined the survival of feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) during oyster fermentation. Oysters spiked with FCV and MNV were fermented with 5% or 10% salt at 18 °C for 15 days, and MNV and FCV titers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, pH, and enzymatic activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days post-fermentation (DPF). Reductions in MNV and FCV were greater in 5% NaCl-supplemented oysters than in 10% NaCl-supplemented oysters. In 5% NaCl oysters, MNV and FCV titers significantly decreased by 1.60 log and 3.01 log, respectively, at 15 DPF. Populations of LAB increased from 3.62 log10 colony-forming units/g at 0 DPF to 8.77 log10 colony-forming units/g at 15 DPF during oyster fermentation supplemented with 5% NaCl supplementation, and the pH decreased gradually from 5.38 at 0 DPF to 4.17 at 15 DPF. During oyster fermentation, α-amylase, proteinase, and lipase were produced at higher levels in 5% salted oysters than in 10% salted oysters (P oysters could contribute to a reduction in foodborne viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  1. Sperm ubiquitination in epididymal feline semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Varesi, Sara; Nonnis, Simona; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Ubiquitin is a 8.5-kDa peptide that tags other proteins for proteasomal degradation. It has been proposed that ubiquitination might be responsible for the elimination of defective spermatozoa during transit through the epididymis in humans and cattle, but its exact biological function in seminal plasma has not yet been clarified. In the domestic cat (Felis catus), the percentage of immature, unviable, and abnormal spermatozoa decreases during the epididymal transit, indicating the existence of a mechanism that removes defective spermatozoa. Magnetic cell separation techniques, based on the use of magnetic beads coated with anti-ubiquitin antibodies, may allow the selective capture of ubiquitinated spermatozoa from semen, thus contributing to the identification of a potential correlation between semen quality and ubiquitination process. Moreover, the selective identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins in different epididymal regions could give a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in feline sperm maturation. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to verify the possibility of separating ubiquitinated spermatozoa with magnetic ubiquitin beads and identify the morphological and acrosomal differences between whole sample and unbound gametes, (2) to characterize all the ubiquitinated proteins in spermatozoa retrieved in the three epididymal regions by a proteomic approach. The data indicated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in cat epididymal semen. However, a correlation between abnormal and ubiquitinated spermatozoa has not been found, and ubiquitin cannot be considered as a biomarker of quality of epididymal feline spermatozoa. To the author's knowledge, this is the first identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins of cat spermatozoa collected from different epididymal regions. The proteomic pattern allows a further characterization of cat epididymal semen and represents a contribute to a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in

  2. Ribociclib and Doxorubicin in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Metastatic Angiosarcoma; Metastatic Epithelioid Sarcoma; Metastatic Fibrosarcoma; Metastatic Leiomyosarcoma; Metastatic Liposarcoma; Metastatic Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Metastatic Synovial Sarcoma; Metastatic Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Myxofibrosarcoma; Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma; Stage III Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Undifferentiated (Embryonal) Sarcoma

  3. Feline leprosy due to Mycobacterium lepraemurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carolyn R; Malik, Richard; Globan, Maria; Reppas, George; McCowan, Christina; Fyfe, Janet A

    2017-07-01

    This paper, the second in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Mycobacterium lepraemurium, the most common cause of feline leprosy worldwide. Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection. A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies. Sixty-five cats were definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection. Typically, cats were 1-3 years of age when first infected, with a male gender predilection. Affected cats were generally systemically well. All had outdoor access. Lesions tended to consist of one or more cutaneous/subcutaneous nodules, typically located on the head and/or forelimbs, possibly reflecting the most likely locations for a rodent bite as the site of inoculation for organisms. Nodules had the propensity to ulcerate at some stage in the clinical course. The cytological and histological picture varied from tuberculoid, with relatively low bacterial numbers, to lepromatous with moderate to high bacterial numbers. Treatment was varied, although most cats underwent surgical resection of lesions with adjunctive medical therapy, most often using a combination of oral clarithromycin and rifampicin. Prognosis for recovery was generally good, and in two cases there was spontaneous remission without the requirement for medical intervention. Untreated cats continued to enjoy an acceptable quality of life despite persistence of the disease, which extended locally but had no apparent tendency to disseminate to internal organs. M lepraemurium causes high bacterial index (lepromatous) or low bacterial index (tuberculoid) feline

  4. Oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähä-Koskela, Markus J V; Heikkilä, Jari E; Hinkkanen, Ari E

    2007-09-08

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising form of gene therapy for cancer, employing nature's own agents to find and destroy malignant cells. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to this very topical field of research and to point out some of the current observations, insights and ideas circulating in the literature. We have strived to acknowledge as many different oncolytic viruses as possible to give a broader picture of targeting cancer using viruses. Some of the newest additions to the panel of oncolytic viruses include the avian adenovirus, foamy virus, myxoma virus, yaba-like disease virus, echovirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, Saimiri virus, feline panleukopenia virus, Sendai virus and the non-human coronaviruses. Although promising, virotherapy still faces many obstacles that need to be addressed, including the emergence of virus-resistant tumor cells.

  5. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Ladra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric sarcomas represent a distinct group of pathologies, with approximately 900 new cases per year in the United States alone. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the local control of these tumors, which often arise adjacent to critical structures and growing organs. The physical properties of proton beam radiotherapy provide a distinct advantage over standard photon radiation by eliminating excess dose deposited beyond the target volume, thereby reducing both the dose of radiation delivered to non-target structures as well as the total radiation dose delivered to a patient. Dosimetric studies comparing proton plans to IMRT and 3D conformal radiation have demonstrated the superiority of protons in numerous pediatric malignancies and data on long-term clinical outcomes and toxicity is emerging. In this article, we review the existing clinical and dosimetric data regarding the use of proton beam radiation in malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

  6. Adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma in an Elderly Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Nishioka, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Tomaru, Takuya; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Tetsurou; Koshi, Hiromi; Segawa, Atsuki; Shimizu, Shin-Ichi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2018-02-15

    Ewing's sarcoma usually arises in the bones of children and adolescents. We herein report a 74-year-old man with Ewing's sarcoma in the adrenal gland. The diagnosis was confirmed by a genetic test, pathological studies, and several imaging studies. He already had multiple liver metastases when he was transferred to our hospital and died on the 37th day. The diagnosis was further confirmed by autopsy studies. Adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare, and our patient was older than other reported cases. Ewing's sarcoma should be considered even in elderly patients with adrenal tumors.

  7. Olaratumab for soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssonneau, Diego; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare malignant tumors. Unfortunately, the first-line doxorubicin-based treatment has not been improved since the 1970s. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha (PDGFR-α) and its ligands are co-expressed in many types of cancer, including sarcomas. They are involved in stimulating growth and regulating stromal-derived fibroblasts and angiogenesis. PDGFR-α and its ligand may play an important role in tumorigenesis and be a potential target in the treatment of sarcomas. Olaratumab is a fully human IgG1-type anti-PDGFR-α monoclonal antibody with a high affinity and a low 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Areas covered: The authors review the role of olaratumab in the treatment of STS by focusing on the recent, randomized Phase II JDGD trial that challenged patients with unresectable or metastatic STS with doxorubicin in the presence or absence of olaratumab. This trial showed a great improvement in overall survival (OS), with an increase in survival from 14.7 months to 26.5 months for patients in the experimental arm and showed acceptable toxicity. Expert opinion: Results seem promising. However, it must be qualified, as the study includes several uncertainties. These uncertainties should be addressed by the ongoing Phase 3 JGDJ confirmatory trial, for which the final efficacy analysis is expected by 2019.

  8. Viral oncogene-induced DNA damage response is activated in Kaposi sarcoma tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Koopal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma is a tumor consisting of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV-infected tumor cells that express endothelial cell (EC markers and viral genes like v-cyclin, vFLIP, and LANA. Despite a strong link between KSHV infection and certain neoplasms, de novo virus infection of human primary cells does not readily lead to cellular transformation. We have studied the consequences of expression of v-cyclin in primary and immortalized human dermal microvascular ECs. We show that v-cyclin, which is a homolog of cellular D-type cyclins, induces replicative stress in ECs, which leads to senescence and activation of the DNA damage response. We find that antiproliferative checkpoints are activated upon KSHV infection of ECs, and in early-stage but not late-stage lesions of clinical Kaposi sarcoma specimens. These are some of the first results suggesting that DNA damage checkpoint response also functions as an anticancer barrier in virally induced cancers.

  9. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Soft Tissue Sarcoma That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    FNCLCC Sarcoma Grade 2; FNCLCC Sarcoma Grade 3; Leiomyosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Stage I Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IA Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage II Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IIA Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma

  10. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcoma auricular izquierdo pleomórfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fulquet

    2006-07-01

    El estudio anatomopatológico muestra sarcoma de alto grado, áreas extensas de necrosis y un patrón variable de diferenciación. Se diagnostica sarcoma miofibroblástico con áreas diferenciadas de tumor de células gigantes (Fig. 2, izquierda y condrosarcoma (Fig. 2, derecha.

  12. AZD0530 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Locally Advanced or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma; Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

  13. Guardians' Knowledge and Husbandry Practices of Feline Environmental Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Pontes, Joana; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    Feline environmental enrichment can prevent numerous disorders including anxiety, stress, obesity, and feline idiopathic cystitis. Despite its easy implementation and low cost, it has received little attention. The main goal of this study was to assess guardians' knowledge concerning feline environmental enrichment and husbandry practices. A questionnaire was given to 130 companion animal guardians at the Lisbon Veterinary Faculty's Teaching Hospital. The applications of 22 environmental enrichment measures related to food/water, litter box, and space/entertainment areas were evaluated. The majority of the households studied (74.6%) had a moderately enriched environment. Hygiene-related measures were those most adopted by guardians, while those requiring guardians' commitment or previous awareness were the least implemented. A rating scale was proposed and applied to assess feline domestic environmental quality.

  14. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramos-da-Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS became a critical health issue with the emergence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in the 1980s. Four clinical-epidemiological forms of KS have been described: classical KS, endemic KS, iatrogenic KS, and AIDS-associated KS. In 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus type 8 was identified by Chang and colleagues, and has been detected worldwide at frequencies ranging from 80 to 100%. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of KSHV infection in KS lesions from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Brazil, as well as to review the current knowledge about KS transmission and detection. For these purposes, DNA from 51 cases of KS was assessed by PCR: 20 (39.2% cases of classical KS, 29 (56.9% of AIDS-associated KS and 2 (3.9% of iatrogenic KS. Most patients were males (7.5:1, M/F, and mean age was 47.9 years (SD = ± 18.7 years. As expected, HIV-positive KS patients were younger than patients with classical KS. On the other hand, patients with AIDS-associated KS have early lesions (patch and plaque compared to classical KS patients (predominantly nodular lesions. This is assumed to be the result of the early diagnose of KS in the HIV-positive setting. KSHV infection was detected by PCR in almost all cases (48/51; 94.1%, irrespectively of the clinical-epidemiological form of KS. These results show that KSHV is associated with all forms of KS in Brazilian patients, a fact that supports the role of this virus in KS pathogenesis.

  15. Penile epithelioid sarcoma: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikci, A.; Bayram, M.; Demirci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bakir, K. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Sarica, K. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 38-year-old man with epithelioid sarcoma of the penis is presented. It started as a firm, painless and slowly growing nodule at the base of his penis 6 months previously which caused pain radiating to the testis during coitus. It has been well known that sarcomas may well mimic reactive processes. Initial presentation of epithelioid sarcoma may provoke considerable diagnostic difficulty, and its differentiation from benign lesions, such as Peyronie`s disease and chronic inflammation, may be a clinical problem. In our present report the MR findings are compared with those of the epithelioid sarcomas of various locations reported in the literature and differential diagnosis of the entity is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the MR findings of the epithelioid sarcoma of penis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 16 refs.

  16. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  17. Kaposi′s sarcoma following immunosuppressive therapy for vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Bouattar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi′s sarcoma (KS is widely reported to develop after renal transplantation and is induced by activation of a latent human herpes virus 8. We report the clinical features and outcome of a 50-year-old woman who presented with KS 18 weeks after starting immuno-suppressive therapy for vasculitis. She had positive-titer IgG antibody to human herpes virus 8. Cyclophosphamide pulses were interrupted, and prednisone was decreased gradually to 10 mg/day. Skin lesions showed important regression with stabilization of the general state and renal function. Eight months later, the patient presented with a diffuse cutaneous KS that required the discontinuation of steroids. Within 1 month, her general status and renal function deteriorated, and she died with a disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome.

  18. Feline Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma: A Review and Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Alastair E.

    1988-01-01

    Feline gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas are the most common nonhematopoietic gastrointestinal tumors in cats. They are highly malignant tumors causing intestinal obstruction due to the annular, stenosing nature to their growth. Current literature is largely based on surveys of pathology records. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate clinical course and prognosis with surgical excision of the tumor. In published reports feline gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma represented 20...

  19. Socioeconomic factors and the risk for sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Moysich, Kirsten B; Marimuthu, Sathiya P; Ravi, Vinod; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel

    2014-11-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissue. Although several occupational exposures have been evaluated in association with sarcoma, little is known about the role of socioeconomic indicators such as education. Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with risk of development of several types of cancers, primarily lung, gastric, and cervical cancers. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of socioeconomic level with the risk for sarcoma. A total of 371 incident cases of sarcoma were matched in terms of age, sex, and year of enrollment in the study with 742 cancer-free controls. Education and income levels were evaluated as the indicators of socioeconomic status. Higher education (college level) was associated with a significantly lower risk for sarcoma [odds ratio (OR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.80], even after adjusting for important confounders. After stratifying by sex, significantly lower risk for sarcoma was observed among men who had college level education compared with men with a level of education of eighth grade or lower (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.19-0.74). A significant association between education and the risk for sarcoma remained after stratifying by income (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.86, among the low income group). When analyzed as a composite exposure, individuals with high education and high income status had significantly lower risk for sarcoma compared with those with low income and low education status (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.23-0.71). Thus, socioeconomic factors may play a significant role in determining the risk for sarcoma and should be explored further to elucidate the underlying factors that may explain these sociodemographic inequalities related to sarcoma.

  20. Coexistent lymphoma with tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma with tuberculosis occurring in lymph node in patients with AIDS: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, D N; Lanjewar, Sonali D; Chavan, Gajanan

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been a few reports of simultaneous infections and neoplasm in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, no reports of coexistent lymphoma with tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma with tuberculosis occurring in the same lymph node have been described. In this article, we describe coexistent lymphoma with tuberculosis in one case and Kaposi's sarcoma with tuberculosis in another case of human immune deficiency virus-infected individuals.

  1. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  2. Fractal organization of feline oocyte cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G De Vico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at verifying whether immature cat oocytes with morphologic irregular cytoplasm display selfsimilar features which can be analytically described by fractal analysis. Original images of oocytes collected by ovariectomy were acquired at a final magnification of 400 X with a CCD video camera connected to an optic microscope. After greyscale thresholding segmentation of cytoplasm, image profiles were submitted to fractal analysis using FANAL++, a program which provided an analytical standard procedure for determining the fractal dimension (FD. The presentation of the oocyte influenced the magnitude of the fractal dimension with the highest FD of 1.91 measured on grey-dark cytoplasm characterized by a highly connected network of lipid droplets and intracellular membranes. Fractal analysis provides an effective quantitative descriptor of the real cytoplasm morphology, which can influence the acquirement of in vitro developmental competence, without introducing any bias or shape approximation and thus contributes to an objective and reliable classification of feline oocytes.

  3. Electrodiagnostic evaluation in feline hypertrophic muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J; Jaggy, A; Busato, A; Gaschen, F

    2004-07-01

    Standard needle electromyography (EMG) of 56 muscles and nerve conduction velocities (NCV) of the ulnar and common peroneal nerves were investigated in each of six cats affected with hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy, 10 related heterozygote carriers and 10 normal cats. The EMG findings were considered normal in carrier and control cats, and consisted of 33% normal readings, 22% myotonic discharges, 18% fibrillation potentials, 11% prolonged insertional potentials, 10% complex repetitive discharges and 6% positive sharp waves in affected cats. Muscles of the proximal limbs were most frequently affected. No differences in NCV were found between the three cat groups. It was concluded that dystrophin-deficient dystrophic cats have widespread and frequent EMG changes, predominantly myotonic discharges and fibrillation potentials, which are most pronounced in the proximal appendicular muscles.

  4. Evaluation of cytologic findings in feline conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillström, Anna; Tvedten, Harold; Källberg, Maria; Hanås, Sofia; Lindhe, Anna; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2012-06-01

    Cytologic examination of smears prepared from ocular swabs of conjunctiva from cats with conjunctivitis permits identification of the type of inflammation and possibly specific microorganisms. Results of studies of the diagnostic utility of cytology for detection of infectious causes of feline conjunctivitis have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to describe cytologic findings in cats with conjunctivitis and to compare those findings with results of PCR analysis for feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), Chlamydophila felis (C felis), and Mycoplasma felis (M felis). Conjunctival smears from 88 cats with conjunctivitis and 10 healthy control cats were stained with a Romanowsky stain and evaluated for the type of inflammation and evidence of an infectious agent. PCR analysis for FHV-1, C felis, and M felis was performed. Infectious agents identified by PCR analysis were FHV-1 in 9 cats (10%), C felis in 8 cats (9%), and M felis in 6 cats (7%). Inclusions interpreted as chlamydial inclusions were found in all cytologic smears from cats positive for C felis by PCR analysis and in 3 PCR-negative cats. Inclusions interpreted as Mycoplasma organisms were found in 3 of 6 cats that were PCR-positive for M felis and in 1 PCR-negative cat. FHV-1 inclusion bodies were not detected on cytologic examination. Cytologic examination can be diagnostic for C felis infection when many typical inclusions are present. Cytologic examination was unreliable in diagnosing M felis infection, and viral inclusions of FHV-1 were not found in specimens stained with Romanowsky stains. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. [Isolated myeloid sarcoma involving the mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić-Puskarić, Biljana; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Sustercić, Dunja; Pazur, Marina; Vrhovac, Radovan; Radić-Kristo, Delfa; Gredelj-Simec, Njetocka; Kovacević, Dragica Obad; Plasćak, Jasmina; Gasparov, Slavko; Jaksić, Branimir

    2011-09-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary solid tumor consisting of immature myeloid cells and most commonly involving the bone, skin, lymph nodes, soft tissue, gastrointestinal tract and testis. Mediastinal myeloid sarcoma is very rare. There are two major types of myeloid sarcoma: granulocytic sarcoma and monoblastic sarcoma, according to immature cell type. Myeloid sarcoma is found in 2%-8% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Myeloid sarcoma may develop before or concurrently with AML, or may be the initial manifestation of AML relapse in previously treated patients. Blast transformation of some form of myeloproliferative neoplasm or myelodysplastic syndrome may also manifest as myeloid sarcoma. A major differential diagnostic problem is isolated primary myeloid sarcoma without bone marrow and peripheral blood involvement, which may precede leukemic stage for months or years, and which is frequently misdiagnosed, mostly as malignant lymphoma. A case is presented of a 56-year-old female patient complaining of weakness, vertigo, dry cough and breathing difficulties. Clinical examination revealed enhanced vascular pattern on the right chest and right arm edema. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed an expansive growth measuring 11 cm craniocaudally in the anterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration cytology of tumor mass yielded a scarcely cellular sample with individual atypical immature cells, fine chromatin structure and scarce cytoplasm with occasional granules and Auer rods. Considering the morphological, cytochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics of immature cells, the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma was made and verified by histopathology of tumor biopsy sample. Immature cells were not found by analysis of bone marrow puncture sample, immunophenotyping of bone marrow cells and bone biopsy analysis. As immature cell proliferation was not detected in bone marrow and peripheral blood, while spread of the disease beyond the mediastinum

  6. AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery in a Feline Model of Sandhoff Disease Corrects Lysosomal Storage in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Rockwell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandhoff disease (SD is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex, resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models. In this study, we treated presymptomatic SD cats with AAVrh8 vectors expressing feline Hex in the thalamus combined with intracerebroventricular (Thal/ICV injections. Treated animals showed clearly improved neurologic function and quality of life, manifested in part by prevention or attenuation of whole-body tremors characteristic of untreated animals. Hex activity was significantly elevated, whereas storage of GM2 and GA2 was significantly decreased in tissue samples taken from the cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, and cervical spinal cord. Treatment also increased levels of myelin-enriched cerebrosides and sulfatides in the cortex and thalamus. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of AAV for feline SD and suggests a similar potential for human SD patients.

  7. Intrahost Diversity of Feline Coronavirus: A Consensus between the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Strains and the Internal Mutation Hypotheses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S. Hora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the most controversial issue concerning current feline coronavirus (FCoV virology, the coexisting hypotheses of the intrahost and interhost origins of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV in regard to the pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, this study aimed to assess the molecular diversity of the membrane gene FCoVs in 190 samples from 10 cats with signs of FIP and in 5 faecal samples from cats without signs of FIP. All samples from the non-FIP cats and 25.26% of the samples from the FIP cats were positive for the FCoV membrane (M gene. Mutations in this gene consisted of SNP changes randomly scattered among the sequences; few mutations resulted in amino acid changes. No geographic pattern was observed. Of the cats without FIP that harboured FECoV, the amino acid sequence identities for the M gene were 100% among cats (Cats 1–3 from the same cattery, and the overall sequence identity for the M gene was ≥91%. In one cat, two different lineages of FCoV, one enteric and one systemic, were found that segregated apart in the M gene tree. In conclusion, the in vivo mutation transition hypothesis and the circulating high virulent-low virulent FCoV hypothesis have been found to be plausible according to the results obtained from sequencing the M gene.

  8. Intrahost Diversity of Feline Coronavirus: A Consensus between the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Strains and the Internal Mutation Hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Aline S.; Asano, Karen M.; Guerra, Juliana M.; Mesquita, Ramon G.; Maiorka, Paulo; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J.; Brandão, Paulo E.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the most controversial issue concerning current feline coronavirus (FCoV) virology, the coexisting hypotheses of the intrahost and interhost origins of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) in regard to the pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), this study aimed to assess the molecular diversity of the membrane gene FCoVs in 190 samples from 10 cats with signs of FIP and in 5 faecal samples from cats without signs of FIP. All samples from the non-FIP cats and 25.26% of the samples from the FIP cats were positive for the FCoV membrane (M) gene. Mutations in this gene consisted of SNP changes randomly scattered among the sequences; few mutations resulted in amino acid changes. No geographic pattern was observed. Of the cats without FIP that harboured FECoV, the amino acid sequence identities for the M gene were 100% among cats (Cats 1–3) from the same cattery, and the overall sequence identity for the M gene was ≥91%. In one cat, two different lineages of FCoV, one enteric and one systemic, were found that segregated apart in the M gene tree. In conclusion, the in vivo mutation transition hypothesis and the circulating high virulent-low virulent FCoV hypothesis have been found to be plausible according to the results obtained from sequencing the M gene. PMID:23589704

  9. Feline cowpoxvirus infections in Germany: clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appl, Caroline; von Bomhard, Wolf; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Meyer, Hermann; Bettenay, Sonya; Mueller, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cats with cowpox in Germany from the years 2004 to 2010 are described and discussed. Questionnaires were sent to veterinarians and owners of affected cats identified with the help of a number of pathology laboratories. Of 69 mailed questionnaires, 45 veterinary and 26 owner questionnaires were returned and a total of 46 feline poxcases were evaluated. The cases were distributed all over Germany although there was an accumulation of cases in specific geographic areas. The clinical and epidemiological observations match those of other studies. The majority of cats were outdoor cats, came from a rural environment and developed clinical signs in late summer or autumn. All cats showed skin lesions which were predominantly localized on the anterior part of the body, 61% of the cats showed other clinical signs in addition to the skin lesions. Approximately half of the cats lived in a multi-pet household, but in only one case clinical signs typical for cowpox were observed in another cat of the household. In two cases a cat-to-human transmission was assumed. In addition, to evaluate the prevalence of pox virus infections in outdoor cats in areas with previous reports of such infections, 92 apparently unaffected outdoor cats were tested for orthopoxvirus antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Sixteen (17%) of the tested serum samples were seropositive against orthopoxvirus (titre between 1:20 and 1:40).This is a higher serum prevalence than in previously published studies from Germany. A possible explanation is selection of a population of outdoor cats from regions with previous known clinical cases.

  10. Primary osteogenic sarcoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akang Effiong E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary extra-osseous osteogenic sarcomas have been reported in many tissues of the body but their occurrence in the breast is extremely rare. It can arise as a result of osseous metaplasia in a pre-existing benign or malignant neoplasm of the breast or as non-phylloides sarcoma from the soft tissue of a previously normal breast. Case presentation A 40 year-old Nigerian woman was clinically diagnosed to have carcinoma of the left breast. The histology report of core-needle biopsy of the mass showed a malignant neoplasm comprising islands of chondroblastic and osteoblastic stromal cells. This report changed the diagnosis from carcinoma to osteogenic sarcoma of the breast. She had a left modified radical mastectomy, however there was significant post surgery skin deficit. A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap was used to cover the anterior chest wall defect. Sections from the mastectomy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma. She died six months after mastectomy. Conclusion A diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma of the breast was made based on histology report and after excluding an osteogenic sarcoma arising from underlying ribs and sternum. This is the second documented case of primary osteogenic sarcoma of the breast coming from Nigeria

  11. Differential effects of Bartonella henselae on human and feline macro- and micro-vascular endothelial cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berrich, Moez; Kieda, Claudine; Grillon, Catherine; Monteil, Martine; Lamerant, Nathalie; Gavard, Julie; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    ... lines.To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development...

  12. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. [Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär [Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Scheeles väg 2, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Coutard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, AFMB-CNRS-ESIL, Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Tucker, Paul A., E-mail: tucker@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  13. Reversible and cachexia-associated feline skin fragility syndrome in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furiani, Nicla; Porcellato, Ilaria; Brachelente, Chiara

    2017-10-01

    Feline skin fragility syndrome (FSFS) is an acquired disorder characterized by altered collagen production resulting in an extremely thin and fragile skin. FSFS is associated with diseases characterized by excessive steroidal hormones that can inhibit collagen synthesis. It is also described concomitantly with severe inflammatory, infectious or neoplastic conditions where the pathogenesis remains largely unknown. To describe three cases of FSFS in cats that become cachectic secondary to different causes without glucocorticoid involvement. To describe the histopathological features of connective tissue for both fragile skin and the skin after healing. All cats developed cachexia in less than two months (body condition score ranging from 1-1.5). Concomitant diseases were diagnosed in Case 1 (aspiration pneumonia due to mega-oesophagus) and Case 2 (feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)). In Case 3, malnutrition was suspected as a primary cause. The main histological feature of fragile skin was an atrophic dermis with pale eosinophilic, thin and irregular collagen fibres with numerous red cores observed with Masson's stain. Elastic fibres were normal. Postrecovery histopathological findings at 11 (Case 1) and six months (Case 3) after diagnosis, indicated normalization of the collagen and of the whole skin as compared with controls. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing a reversible, nonsteroid-induced FSFS, associated with rapidly developing cachexia in cats. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. New diagnostic modalities in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S

    1999-01-01

    Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of soft tissue sarcoma has provided a vast amount of new genetic information over the past 10 years. Recent advances in genetic technology, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and positional cloning techniques have greatly increased the rate of new discoveries and soon may bring cytogenetic and molecular analysis to standard pathology laboratories. Karotypic analysis of soft tissue tumors have demonstrated specific cytogenetic aberrations which have proved to be extremely useful diagnostically and have solidified and improved soft tissue tumor classification systems. Objective and reproducible prognostication in soft tissue sarcoma remains problematic. Presently, the grade and size of the sarcoma are the most important factors used to estimate risk of relapse and overall survival. Assigning a pathologic grade to an individual sarcoma as a means of predicting clinical behavior is often difficult with a 40% discordance rate even between expert sarcoma pathologists. There is mounting evidence that the composition of membrane phospholipid in tumor tissue is an important indicator of a tumor's cellularity, proliferative capacity, and differentiation state. However, there is a lack of information on the biochemical determinants of sarcoma proliferation and differentiation. To address these problems, novel quantitative ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been applied to determine the biochemical changes in tissue lipid for soft tissue sarcoma. The biochemical changes in tissue lipid have been found to correlate with sarcoma cellularity, growth rate, and differentiation. Continued prospective NMR analysis of tissue lipid biochemistry in soft tissue tumors will permit the development of a clinically relevant biochemical system of prognostic determinants for soft tissue sarcoma in the future.

  15. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... clinical signs, particularly lesions on the oral mucosa, noted and recorded each day. (iv) If three of... observed each day during the prechallenge period. If unfavorable reactions occur, including oral lesions...

  16. Primary clear cell sarcoma of rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersekli, Murat Ali [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University Medical Faculty, Adana Medical Center, Yuregir Adana (Turkey); Ozkoc, Gurkan; Akpinar, Sercan; Ozalay, Metin; Tandogan, Reha N. [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Adana (Turkey); Bircan, Sema [Suleyman Demirel University Medical Faculty, Department of Pathology, Adana (Turkey); Tuncer, Ilhan [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Pathology, Adana (Turkey)

    2005-03-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft tissues) is a very rare soft tissue neoplasm. It generally arises in tendons and aponeuroses. Although metastasis of malignant melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is an extremely rare neoplasm. To our knowledge five cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of bone in a 28-year-old woman arising in the left ninth rib. We treated the patient with total excision of the mass and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well without local recurrence or distant metastasis at 33 months after surgery. (orig.)

  17. Soft tissue sarcomas or intramuscular haematomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, Sophie [Department of Radiology, Centre Oscar Lambret, 03, rue Frederic Combemale, BP 307, 59020 Lille Cedex (France)], E-mail: s-taieb@o-lambret.fr; Penel, Nicolas [Department of Oncology, Centre Oscar Lambret, 03, rue Frederic Combemale, BP 307, 59020 Lille Cedex (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Department of Surgery, Centre Oscar Lambret, 03, rue Frederic Combemale, BP 307, 59020 Lille Cedex (France); Ceugnart, Luc [Department of Radiology, Centre Oscar Lambret, 03, rue Frederic Combemale, BP 307, 59020 Lille Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    Haematomas are common and sarcomas are rare. However the absence of trauma or a light trauma should alert the clinician to the possibility that the abnormality may represent haemorrhage into a tumor and not just haematoma, even in a haemophilic patient. Clinical findings, sonography with Doppler assessment and magnetic resonance images with contrast administration will help in the differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of a high grade sarcoma must be considered in these patients and any doubt should be resolved with a biopsy to avoid tragic consequences of missed sarcoma.

  18. Nanoparticulate vacuolar ATPase blocker exhibits potent host-targeted antiviral activity against feline coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Che-Ming Jack; Chang, Wei-Shan; Fang, Zih-Syun; Chen, You-Ting; Wang, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Hsiao-Han; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Takano, Tomomi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu; Chen, Hui-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by a mutated feline coronavirus, is one of the most serious and fatal viral diseases in cats. The disease remains incurable, and there is no effective vaccine available. In light of the pathogenic mechanism of feline coronavirus that relies on endosomal acidification for cytoplasmic entry, a novel vacuolar ATPase blocker, diphyllin, and its nanoformulation are herein investigated for their antiviral activity against the type II feline infectious per...

  19. Therapeutic Angiotensin-(1-7) in Treating Patients With Metastatic Sarcoma That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Bone Cancer; Chondrosarcoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma

  20. Children with Kaposi Sarcoma in Two Southern African Hospitals: Clinical Presentation, Management, and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruin, G.P.; Stefan, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2010 more than 3 million children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were living in Sub-Saharan Africa. The AIDS epidemic has contributed to an abrupt increase of the frequency of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), especially in Southern Africa. There is a need to describe the clinical features of this disease, its management, and its outcome in HIV positive children in Southern Africa. The aim of the study is to describe two different populations with HIV and KS from two African hosp...

  1. Endemic Kaposi’s sarcoma in a HIV-negative patient

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla-López, José; Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Mendoza-Fabián, Raúl; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Sociedad Científica de San Fernando.; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Sociedad Científica de San Fernando.; Rosales-Zúñiga, Josias; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Sociedad Científica de San Fernando.; Chalco-Huamán, Joel; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Sociedad Científica de San Fernando.

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric, inflammatory angioproliferative cancer associated with herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).It has four clinico-epidemiological types: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic, or HIV associated. Clinically it maybe indolent or aggressive, mainly affecting mucocutaneous areas with eventual visceral and lymph node involvement.It is often present and in a more aggressive form in the HIV-positive population. We report a case of a 27-year-old HIVnegativemale patient wi...

  2. Immunosuppressive Therapy-Related Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and its treatment, see the AIDSinfo website . Nonepidemic Gay-related Kaposi Sarcoma There is a type of ... trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website. ...

  3. Chemotherapy in Ewing′s sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing′s sarcoma constitutes three per cent of all pediatric malignancies. Ewing′s sarcoma has generally been more responsive to chemotherapy than adult-type sarcomas, and chemotherapy is now recommended for all patients with this disease. It is essential to integrate local control measures in the form of surgery and/or radiotherapy at the appropriate time, along with chemotherapy to eradicate the disease. This approach has improved the survival substantially to the tune of 70% in localized disease, although outcome for metastatic disease remains dismal. Newer therapeutic approaches are required to improve outcome for metastatic and recurrent or refractory Ewing′s sarcoma in organized co-operative group trials.

  4. Kaposi’s Sarcoma in Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. WAGNER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma, a historically rare, indolent cutaneous malignancy of elderly men emerged as a frequent and easily recognizable cutaneous manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in the 1980s. Since these tumors were often visible to the public, Kaposi’s sarcoma quickly became a stigmatizing marker for those infected, and predicted the high mortality risk from comorbid opportunistic infections. English language films released from 1985-2008 are analyzed for their depictions of Kaposi’s sarcoma, and the role(s it played in these films. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection, Kaposi’s sarcoma has once again become relatively rare.

  5. [Molecular biology for sarcoma: useful or necessary?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Agnès; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Chibon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors. Their diagnosis is based on morphology and immunohistochemical profile, with categories of tumors according to the type of tissue that they resemble. Nevertheless, for several tumors, cellular origin is unknown. Molecular analysis performed in recent years allowed, combining histophenotype and genomics, better classifying such sarcomas, individualizing new entities and grouping some tumors. Simple and recurrent genetic alterations, such as translocation, mutation, amplification, can be identified in one of two sarcomas and appear as new diagnostic markers. Their identification in specialized laboratories in molecular pathology of sarcomas is often useful and sometimes necessary for a good diagnosis, leading to a heavy and multidisciplinary multi-step treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Kaposi sarcoma - lesion on the foot (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi sarcoma lesion on the foot. This once-rare malignancy of the blood vessels is now associated with AIDS. It is ... users. The malignancy results in purplish grape-like lesions in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and other organs.

  7. GAPDH Pseudogenes and the Quantification of Feline Genomic DNA Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is broadly used to detect and quantify nucleic acid targets. In order to determine cell copy number and genome equivalents, a suitable reference gene that is present in a defined number in the genome is needed, preferably as a single copy gene. For most organisms, a variable number of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH pseudogenes have been reported. However, it has been suggested that a single-copy of the GAPDH pseudogene is present in the feline genome and that a GAPDH assay can therefore be used to quantify feline genomic DNA (gDNA. The aim of this study was to determine whether one or more GAPDH pseudogenes are present in the feline genome and to provide a suitable alternative qPCR system for the quantification of feline cell copy number and genome equivalents. Bioinformatics and sequencing results revealed that not just one but several closely related GAPDH-like sequences were present in the cat genome. We thus identified, developed, optimized, and validated an alternative reference gene assay using feline albumin (fALB. Our data emphasize the need for an alternative reference gene, apart from the GAPDH pseudogene, for the normalization of gDNA levels. We recommend using the fALB qPCR assay for future studies.

  8. Fibromyxoid sarcoma of the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old female with an atypical plaque-like lesion of the lower leg is presented in this article. Histologic investigation revealed a rare low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (pT1a cN0 cM0; stage Ia of suprafascial localization. Staging of the patient did not reveal metastatic spread. The tumor was surgically removed with wide safety margins. The defect was closed using a mesh graft transplant and vacuum-assisted closure. Healing was complete. Regular follow-up for at least 5 years is recommended. Besides the rareness of this tumor, this case is also remarkable because of the localization on the lower leg and the suprafascial soft tissue.

  9. Acroangiodermatitis (Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acroangiodermatitis or Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a rare angioproliferative entity, related to chronic venous insufficiency or certain other vascular anomalies. It is often associated with chronic venous insufficiency, arteriovenous malformation of the legs, chronic renal failure treated with dialysis, paralyzed legs and amputation stumps. We hereby describe a case of 45 year old female presenting with pitting pedal edema, multiple ulcers over bilateral lower limbs with irregular margins with erythema and hyperpigmentation of the surrounding skin. Color Doppler study of bilateral lower limbs was normal. Histopathological examination from one of the lesions showed hyperplastic epidermis, proliferation of capillaries in dermis, hemosiderin deposits and lymphocytic infiltrate. These features thus confirmed the diagnosis of Acroangiodermatitis.

  10. Synovial sarcoma of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khalili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is a relatively common soft tissue tumor but only 6%-7% of cases are diagnosed in the head and neck region. It typically occurs in young adults and is slightly more common in males. The most common sites in the head and neck region are hypopharynx and parapharyngeal spaces. However, SS can also occur in tonsils, tongue, and orofacial soft tissues. It is not difficult to diagnose SS microscopically with its classic biphasic appearance, but the diagnosis of monophasic forms is more challenging especially in unusual locations. In this article, we report a rare case of monophasic SS of the mandible. The clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features are discussed and compared with previously reported cases in the literature. To our knowledge, only six primary involvements have been reported in the jaws. Therefore, our case represents the seventh reported case of SS in the area.

  11. Synovial sarcoma of the mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Maryam; Eshghyar, Nosratollah; Ensani, Fereshteh; Shakib, Pouyan Amini

    2012-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a relatively common soft tissue tumor but only 6%-7% of cases are diagnosed in the head and neck region. It typically occurs in young adults and is slightly more common in males. The most common sites in the head and neck region are hypopharynx and parapharyngeal spaces. However, SS can also occur in tonsils, tongue, and orofacial soft tissues. It is not difficult to diagnose SS microscopically with its classic biphasic appearance, but the diagnosis of monophasic forms is more challenging especially in unusual locations. In this article, we report a rare case of monophasic SS of the mandible. The clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features are discussed and compared with previously reported cases in the literature. To our knowledge, only six primary involvements have been reported in the jaws. Therefore, our case represents the seventh reported case of SS in the area. PMID:23833586

  12. Depsipeptide (Romidepsin) in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  13. [Uterine sarcoma. Analytic study of 37 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra Zurita, R; Ruiz Moreno, J A; Kably Ambe, A

    1998-04-01

    The lack of uniformity in the nomenclature of the uterine sarcomas, it have contributed to a variety and variability of classifications. Fortunately the sarcomas of uterus are rare. The incidence of this tumor is of 3-5% of all the uterine cancers or of 1.7/100,000 women of 20 years or more. The clinical presentation of these tumors is diverse could come bleed uterine abnormal, abdominal pain, pelvic mass, discharge or cervix prominent mass. Clinical discoveries associated with exist the sarcomas how they are the obesity and high blood pressure in a 30% of the patients it are also observed antecedents of pelvic radiation in a 5-10% of the cases. The genomic alterations that is reported the chromosomes in the literature is associated with 1, 7 11 playing an important paper in the initiation or progression of the sarcomas. We was carried out a retrospective analysis of 37 cases of uterine sarcoma managed in the National Institute of Cancerology at one time of 5 years. Being that the leiomiosarcomas comes in the 51.3% of the cases, followed by the stromal sarcoma, bleed uterine abnormal it was the clinical fact of high importance, detecting these patients in Ia and IIa stadiums predominantly. We observed an increment in the incidence of the uterine sarcoma in patients of 40 years or more. 17 patients were managed exclusively with surgery, 17 patients with surgery and radiotherapy and 5 patients with surgery and chemotherapy (2 patients were managed with surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy). The index of failure was from the 45.1% to two years in general form, coming metastasic illness in lung, liver and breast mainly. In conclusion, the adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy to the hysterectomy doesn't increase the index of survivor in the several subtype of uterine sarcomas.

  14. Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Presenting As Puberty Menorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Prabhakaran Nair

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal sarcomas are rare uterine tumours usually seen in perimenopausal females. We report here a case of low grade malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma in an adolescent girl, presenting as puberty menorrhagia. She underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic node sampling. She also received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She is disease free at completion of one year of follow-up.

  15. Fibrosarcoma with typical features of postinjection sarcoma at site of microchip implant in a dog: histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascellari, M; Melchiotti, E; Mutinelli, F

    2006-07-01

    A 9-year-old, male French Bulldog was examined for a subcutaneous mass located at the site of a microchip implant. Cytologic examination of the mass was suggestive of a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm. Histologically, the mass was confirmed as a high-grade infiltrative fibrosarcoma, with multifocal necrosis and peripheral lymphoid aggregates. By immunohistochemistry, the sample was investigated for vimentin, smooth-muscle actin (SMA), CD3, CD79alpha, and CD18. All the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin. Scattered cells at the periphery of the lesion were also positive for SMA, highlighting a myofibroblastic phenotype. The lymphoid cells were positive for CD18 and CD3. No aluminum deposits were detected by the aurintricarboxylic acid method. A diagnosis of fibrosarcoma morphologically similar to feline postinjection sarcomas was made. Fibrosarcomas at the site of injections have been reported in dogs and ferrets. Furthermore, neoplastic growth at the site of microchip implant in dog and laboratory rodents has been described.

  16. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THE RETROPERITONEAL SARCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Eržen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retroperitoneal sarcomas are malignant tumors with an aggressive course of disease. Cause of death is local disease in 50% and disseminated disease in only 25%. We made a retrospective analysis of surgical treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas in order assess the effect of this treatment modality on the course of the disease.In the years between 1975 and 2000, 155 patients were surgically treated for primary retroperotneal sarcoma at the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana. Only 81 of 155 patients received the first treatment at our Institute, while other patients had been at least once operated on elsewhere before the admission to our Institute. Of these patients, 40 required a second surgery for the residual disease and 31 for recurrence. In 23 patients, metastatic spread was found at diagnosis. Our treatment approach was aggressive. We surgically removed the recurrent sarcomas and metastases wherever accessible. Operability at the first surgical treatment performed at the Institute of Oncology was 92%. Therefore, 44 patients underwent 3 or more surgeries for sarcoma. The highest number of operations performed in one patients was 9 (2 patients. In 127 patients, the tumor block resection involved at least one additional organ (up to 6.Results. Complications were not sparse; perioperative mortality was 8.4%. The survival depended upon the metastatic spread at diagnosis, tumor grade and oncologic surgery type.Conclusions. Despite complications, only complete resection without microscopic resuduum and contamination yields a long-term survival to the patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma.

  17. Feline dental radiography and radiology: A primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2014-11-01

    Information crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of feline oral diseases can be ascertained using dental radiography and the inclusion of this technology has been shown to be the best way to improve a dental practice. Becoming familar with the techniques required for dental radiology and radiography can, therefore, be greatly beneficial. Novices to dental radiography may need some time to adjust and become comfortable with the techniques. If using dental radiographic film, the generally recommended 'E' or 'F' speeds may be frustrating at first, due to their more specific exposure and image development requirements. Although interpreting dental radiographs is similar to interpreting a standard bony radiograph, there are pathologic states that are unique to the oral cavity and several normal anatomic structures that may mimic pathologic changes. Determining which teeth have been imaged also requires a firm knowledge of oral anatomy as well as the architecture of dental films/digital systems. This article draws on a range of dental radiography and radiology resources, and the benefit of the author's own experience, to review the basics of taking and interpreting intraoral dental radiographs. A simplified method for positioning the tubehead is explained and classic examples of some common oral pathologies are provided. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  18. Isolated Limb Perfusion of Melphalan With or Without Tumor Necrosis Factor in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Arm or Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    Stage IVB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIC Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IVA Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  19. Oncopig soft-tissue sarcomas recapitulate key transcriptional features of human sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Liu, Yingkai; Makelainen, Suvi; Madsen, Ole; Rund, Laurie A.; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-01

    Human soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare mesenchymal tumors with a 5-year survival rate of 50%, highlighting the need for further STS research. Research has been hampered by limited human sarcoma cell line availability and the large number of STS subtypes, making development of STS cell lines

  20. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  1. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Guimarães Sanchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Being often subject to stressful situations, animals kept in captivity are more susceptible to immunosuppression. When in the presence of concurrent infections or under situations of stress, Mycoplasma haemofelis may develop the clinical symptoms of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis. The transmission of M. haemofelis occurs through hematophagous arthropod vectors, such as fleas, ticks, and lice. Infections range from hemolytic anemia with risk of imminent death to subtle chronic anemia. Administration of imidocarb to treat wild felines infected with hemoplasms may show greater effectiveness due to its injectable nature and smaller number of applications when compared to the use of doxycycline orally for a longer period. As a prophylactic measure for wild cats, environmental enrichment seems to be more effective when compared to other prevention ways usually adopted in domestic cats. This article aims to report a case of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca and address its relation to the immunosuppression caused by stress conditions in captivity.

  2. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Guimaraes Sanchioli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Being often subject to stressful situations, animals kept in captivity are more susceptible to immunosuppression. When in the presence of concurrent infections or under situations of stress, Mycoplasma haemofelis may develop the clinical symptoms of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis. The transmission of M. haemofelis occurs through hematophagous arthropod vectors, such as fleas, ticks, and lice. Infections range from hemolytic anemia with risk of imminent death to subtle chronic anemia. Administration of imidocarb to treat wild felines infected with hemoplasms may show greater effectiveness due to its injectable nature and smaller number of applications when compared to the use of doxycycline orally for a longer period. As a prophylactic measure for wild cats, environmental enrichment seems to be more effective when compared to other prevention ways usually adopted in domestic cats. This article aims to report a case of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca and address its relation to the immunosuppression caused by stress conditions in captivity.

  3. Gene Expression Music Algorithm-Based Characterization of the Ewing Sarcoma Stem Cell Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sebastian Staege

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene Expression Music Algorithm (GEMusicA is a method for the transformation of DNA microarray data into melodies that can be used for the characterization of differentially expressed genes. Using this method we compared gene expression profiles from endothelial cells (EC, hematopoietic stem cells, neuronal stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and defined a set of genes that can discriminate between the different stem cell types. We analyzed the behavior of public microarray data sets from Ewing sarcoma (“Ewing family tumors,” EFT cell lines and biopsies in GEMusicA after prefiltering DNA microarray data for the probe sets from the stem cell signature. Our results demonstrate that individual Ewing sarcoma cell lines have a high similarity to ESC or EC. Ewing sarcoma cell lines with inhibited Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWSR1-FLI1 oncogene retained the similarity to ESC and EC. However, correlation coefficients between GEMusicA-processed expression data between EFT and ESC decreased whereas correlation coefficients between EFT and EC as well as between EFT and MSC increased after knockdown of EWSR1-FLI1. Our data support the concept of EFT being derived from cells with features of embryonic and endothelial cells.

  4. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in treating soft tissue sarcomas: sunitinib in non-GIST sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homet Moreno, Blanca; Garralda Cabanas, Elena; Hitt, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Sarcomas are uncommon malignancies that represent more than 50 different tumor types. Surgery remains the mainstay of treating localised disease. Anthracycline and ifosfamide-based chemotherapy is an option for advanced disease; however, effective treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma remains a challenge. Advances in understanding the genetic nature of cancer have led to the development of new treatment options for sarcoma. Sunitinib malate is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic properties and promising activity in the treatment of GIST refractory to imatinib, however in either soft tissue sarcoma, experience with sunitinib is under development in different clinical trials. In this review we offer the experience with this small molecular target in non-GIST sarcomas.

  5. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löfling, Jonas [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R. [Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Varki, Ajit, E-mail: a1varki@ucsd.edu [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  6. Polymorphisms in the feline TNFA and CD209 genes are associated with the outcome of feline coronavirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Hsieh, Li-En; Dai, Yu-Rou; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection, is a highly lethal disease without effective therapy and prevention. With an immune-mediated disease entity, host genetic variant was suggested to influence the occurrence of FIP. This study aimed at evaluating cytokine-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), receptor-associated SNPs, i.e., C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209), and the five FIP-associated SNPs ide...

  7. A comparison between immunofluorescence staining on smears from Membrana nictitans (M3 test), immunohistopathology and routine pathology in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hök, K

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence method using smears from membrana nictitans (M3 test) to diagnose feline corona virus (FCV) infection was compared with immunohistopathology (using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFFA) performed on organs (IFO], and routine pathology (RP) in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A close correlation between the 2 immunofluorescence methods (IFO and M3) was observed. Although the M3 test requires samples from only 1 organ per animal, both the sensitivity and specificity were high (80%), when compared to IFO (using samples from an average of 5 organs per animal). In 21% of the cats with suspected FIP typical pathological lesions were found. As the M3 test is relatively easy to perform, it could reduce work-load of pathology laboratories and provide valuable data for clinical and epidemiological use.

  8. Disparities in Spatial Prevalence of Feline Retroviruses due to Data Aggregation: A Case of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal K. Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the spatial distribution feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections, which are untreatable, can inform on their risk factors and high-risk areas to enhance control. However, when spatial analysis involves aggregated spatial data, results may be influenced by the spatial scale of aggregation, an effect known as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP. In this study, area level risk factors for both infections in 28,914 cats tested with ELISA were investigated by multivariable spatial Poisson regression models along with MAUP effect on spatial clustering and cluster detection (for postal codes, counties, and states by Moran’s I test and spatial scan test, respectively. The study results indicate that the significance and magnitude of the association of risk factors with both infections varied with aggregation scale. Further more, Moran’s I test only identified spatial clustering at postal code and county levels of aggregation. Similarly, the spatial scan test indicated that the number, size, and location of clusters varied over aggregation scales. In conclusion, the association between infection and area was influenced by the choice of spatial scale and indicates the importance of study design and data analysis with respect to specific research questions.

  9. Metastatic undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma causing intraoperative stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Reed; Koumoundouros, Theodoros; Parker, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma was historically the most commonly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma of adults. In 2002, the World Health Organization declassified malignant fibrous histiocytoma as a formal diagnostic entity. They recommended renaming the disease "Pleomorphic Undifferentiated Sarcoma". Current thoughts about the origin of this tumor are being debated. We report a case of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that metastasized to the lung within one year. The histologic morphology of the metastasis was more aggressive than the primary lesion, and was consistent with a pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma. Following surgical resection of the metastatic pulmonary lesion, the patient never fully regained consciousness. He expired the day following his surgery. At autopsy, the patient was found to have died from a massive hemorrhagic stroke involving almost the entire left cerebrum. Tumor emboli from the pulmonary metastasis were seen in the left middle cerebral artery, causing the cerebral infarct. The embolic lesion was consistent with a pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma. This case illustrates the evolution that soft tissue sarcomas can undergo as they metastasize and become increasingly undifferentiated, and confirms the surgical risk of resecting such lesions.

  10. Immunotherapy for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenori Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have improved clinical outcomes of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas, the prognosis of patients has plateaued over these 20 years. Immunotherapies have shown the effectiveness for several types of advanced tumors. Immunotherapies, such as cytokine therapies, vaccinations, and adoptive cell transfers, have also been investigated for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Cytokine therapies with interleukin-2 or interferons have limited efficacy because of their cytotoxicities. Liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE, an activator of the innate immune system, has been approved as adjuvant therapeutics in combination with conventional chemotherapy in Europe, which has improved the 5-year overall survival of patients. Vaccinations and transfer of T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors have shown some efficacy for sarcomas. Ipilimumab and nivolumab are monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit immune checkpoint mechanisms. These antibodies have recently been shown to be effective for patients with melanoma and also investigated for patients with sarcomas. In this review, we provide an overview of various trials of immunotherapies for bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and discuss their potential as adjuvant therapies in combination with conventional therapies.

  11. Microsatellite Instability in Sarcoma: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monument, Michael J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Randall, Rl. Tx.

    2012-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a unique molecular abnormality, indicative of a deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. Described and characterized in the colorectal cancer literature, the MSI-positive phenotype is predictive of disease susceptibility, pathogenesis, and prognosis. The clinical relevance of MSI in colorectal cancer has inspired similar inquisition within the sarcoma literature, although unfortunately, with very heterogeneous results. Evolving detection techniques, ill-defined sarcoma-specific microsatellite loci and small study numbers have hampered succinct conclusions. The literature does suggest that MSI in sarcoma is observed at a frequency similar to that of sporadic colorectal cancers, although there is little evidence to suggest that MSI-positive tumors share distinct biological attributes. Emerging evidence in Ewing sarcoma has demonstrated an intriguing mechanistic role of microsatellite DNA in the activation of key EWS/FLI-target genes. These findings provide an alternative perspective to the biological implications of microsatellite instability in sarcoma and warrant further investigation using sophisticated detection techniques, sensitive microsatellite loci, and appropriately powered study designs. PMID:23401795

  12. Epithelioid sarcoma : Still an only surgically curable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visscher, Sebastiaan A. H. J.; van Ginkel, Robbert J.; Wobbes, Theo; Veth, Rene P. H.; ten Heuvel, Suzanne E.; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Hoekstra, Harad J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with a known high propensity for locoregional recurrence and distant metastases. The clinical behavior and prognostic factors that influence the survival of patients with epithelioid sarcoma were studied. METHODS. Twenty-three patients,

  13. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) of the sacrum: initial manifestation of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, S L; Nicol, T L; Fishman, E K

    1998-02-01

    We present an unusual case of a granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) of the sacrum which predated the initial clinical manifestation of acute myelogenous leukemia. Although granulocytic sarcomas occur in up to 9.1% of cases of acute myelogenous leukemia they usually present concurrently with the leukemic presentation. Although granulocytic sarcomas can involve several different organ systems, bone is the most common site.

  14. Uterine sarcoma Part II—Uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma: The TAG systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Cheng Horng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal tumors are rare uterine tumors (<1%. Four main categories include endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG-ESS, and uterine undifferentiated sarcoma (UUS. This review is a series of articles discussing the uterine sarcomas. LG-ESS, a hormone-dependent tumor harboring chromosomal rearrangement, is an indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, but characterized by late recurrences even in patients with Stage I disease, suggesting the requirement of a long-term follow-up. Patients with HG-ESS, based on the identification of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B (YWHAE-FAM22A/B gene fusion, typically present with advanced stage diseases and frequently have recurrences, usually within a few years after initial surgery. UUS is, a high-grade sarcoma, extremely rare, lacking a specific line of differentiation, which is a diagnosis of exclusion (the wastebasket category, which fails to fulfill the morphological and immunohistochemical criteria of translocation-positive ESS. Surgery is the main strategy in the management of uterine sarcoma. Due to rarity, complex biological characteristics, and unknown etiology and risk factors of uterine sarcomas, the role of adjuvant therapy is not clear. Only LG-ESS might respond to progestins or aromatase inhibitors.

  15. Vismodegib and Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Unclassified Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Chondrosarcoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Conjunctival Kaposi Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Unclassified Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Kaposi Sarcoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Unclassified Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone

  16. Endoscopic Appearance of Oropharyngeal and Upper GI Kaposi’s Sarcoma in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Darr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS usually manifests as a cutaneous disease but GI manifestation is often rare. It is associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8 and seen in immunocompromised patients. In the USA, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has drastically reduced incidence of KS in HIV patients. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU with cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to hyperkalemia of 7.5 meq/L. Following placement of orogastric and endotracheal tube (ETT, a significant amount of blood was noticed in the ETT. Hemoglobin trended down from 9.6 mg/dL to 6.7 mg/dL over five days. Stool guaiac was positive. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD was performed and revealed multiple large hypervascularized violaceous submucosal nodular lesions with stigmata of bleeding seen on the soft palate and pharynx and within the cricopharyngeal area close to the vocal cords. Biopsy of the soft palate lesions showed proliferation of neoplastic spindle shaped cells arranged in bundles with slit-like capillary spaces containing erythrocytes consistent with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Biopsy was positive for HHV-8. Colonoscopy was unremarkable. There were no cutaneous manifestations of the disease. Conclusion. GI involvement of Kaposi’s sarcoma must be considered in immunocompromised patients and can be confirmed by endoscopic methods.

  17. Felines and Female Divinities: The Association of Cats with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cats, great and small, have been associated with female figures and divinities. Their power, intelligent self-awareness, and mysterious shape-shifting characteristics have exerted a profound influence on humankind. But, why divine females, in particular, should have become so closely associated with felines is a question ...

  18. Feline Hemangiosarcoma. Retrospective Study of 19 Cases (2006-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    de Jaureguizar Tesas, Maria Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Póster Hemangiosarcoma (HSA)is a malignant neoplasm derived from precursor vascular endothelial cells. HSA is an uncommonneoplasm in domestic animals, being more common in dogs than in cats. For that reason the information that we have about feline HSA is poor.

  19. Feline toxicological emergencies: when to suspect and what to do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Tobias W; Boag, Amanda K

    2010-11-01

    Confirmed or suspected intoxications with a wide variety of agents represent a small but important group of feline emergency cases. Generally it is thought that toxicities are less common in cats compared with dogs, with a higher proportion relating to dermal as opposed to oral exposure. Once toxicity is suspected or diagnosed, it must be recognised that treatment regimes may need modification compared with those established for dogs. Different drugs or different dosages may be warranted and the choice of available drugs may be reduced. This review draws on published studies, case reports and clinical experience to summarise key features of the general management of the intoxicated feline patient before describing some of the more serious and common intoxications in more detail. The focus throughout the review is on the peculiarities of feline metabolism and how they may impact on presentation and treatment. The aim is to assist companion animal and feline practitioners, who are in the frontline when it comes to managing these emergency cases. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction and characterization of efficient, stable and safe replication-deficient foamy virus vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastone, P.; Romen, F.; Liu, W.; Wirtz, R.; Koch, U.; Josephson, N.; Langbein, S.; Löchelt, M.

    2007-01-01

    As serious side effects affected recent virus-mediated gene transfer studies, novel vectors with improved safety profiles are urgently needed. In the present study, replication-deficient retroviral vectors based on feline foamy virus (FFV) were constructed and analyzed. The novel FFV vectors are

  1. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovač, K; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Banjac, M

    2009-01-01

    optimized and applied to the concentration of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of norovirus (NoV), from water samples. Two-step real-time RT-qPCR was used for quantitation of the virus concentration in the chromatographic fractions. Positively charged CIM QA (quaternary...

  2. Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Abdomen and Pelvis: Radiologic-Pathologic Features, Part 2-Uncommon Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Angela D; Manning, Maria A; Miettinen, Markku M

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis are an uncommon but important group of malignancies. Recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of soft-tissue tumors include the movement of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into the soft-tissue tumor classification. GIST is the most common intraperitoneal sarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is the second most common. GIST, liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma account for the majority of sarcomas encountered in the abdomen and pelvis and are discussed in part 1 of this article. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, solitary fibrous tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal chondro-osseous sarcomas, vascular sarcomas, and sarcomas of uncertain differentiation uncommonly arise in the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall. Although these lesions are rare sarcomas and their imaging features overlap, familiarity with the locations where they occur and their imaging features is important so they can be diagnosed accurately. The anatomic location and clinical history are important factors in the differential diagnosis of these lesions because metastasis, more-common sarcomas, borderline fibroblastic proliferations (such as desmoid tumors), and endometriosis have imaging findings that overlap with those of these uncommon sarcomas. In this article, the clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings of uncommon soft-tissue sarcomas of the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall are reviewed, with an emphasis on their differential diagnosis.

  3. Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bunch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. Surgical resection and postoperative management of these tumors has not been previously described in pregnancy. Case. A 38-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for evaluation of a right thoracic mass found on chest radiography at 26 weeks of gestation. A computed tomography-guided biopsy was subsequently completed and demonstrated a high-grade neoplasm. A right pneumonectomy was performed at 28 weeks of gestation due to pulmonary decompensation, and pathological examination revealed a pulmonary synovial sarcoma. The patient developed a postpartum pulmonary embolism and expired 6 weeks after delivery. Conclusion. Aggressive intervention for pulmonary malignancies during pregnancy may be necessary. Complete tumor resection is the most important prognostic factor in primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma.

  4. Generalized intramuscular granulocytic sarcoma mimicking polymyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Jan; Claussen, Claus D.; Pereira, Philippe L.; Horger, Marius S. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogel, Wichard [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Wehrmann, Martin [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Pathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We report a case of granulocytic sarcoma exclusively manifesting as diffuse intramuscular infiltration of the proximal upper and lower limb girdle and the torso muscles in a patient with previous history of acute myelogenous leukemia 5a. Whole-body CT showed widespread distribution of ill-defined intramuscular, homogeneously enhancing lesions. On whole-body MRI, lesions were homogeneously hyperintense on fat saturated T2-weighted images, isointense on T1-weighted images and strongly enhancing after intravenous gadolinium contrast administration. Histopathology revealed muscular infiltration of blast cells with identical immunochemistry to the initial manifestation of leukemia, diagnostic for an extramedullary relapse manifesting as granulocytic sarcoma. CT and MRI characteristics of this previously undocumented manifestation of granulocytic sarcoma should assist in the identification of such cases. (orig.)

  5. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  6. Pulmonary metastasectomy for sarcoma-Essen experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafencu, Dumitrita Alina; Welter, Stefan; Cheufou, Danjouma Housmanou; Ploenes, Till; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin; Theegarten, Dirk; Taube, Christian; Bauer, Sebastian; Aigner, Clemens

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary metastasectomy is an established treatment modality for patients with soft as well as bone tissue sarcomas. Aim of this study is to describe the Essen experience in the surgical management of patients with pulmonary sarcoma metastases. This is a retrospective single center analysis of perioperative outcome of patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy for sarcoma metastases from 1997-2017 and a summary of published papers on this topic. During the observation period 327 patients (49.23% female) underwent pulmonary metastasectomy for metastases of extrathoracic sarcomas in curative intent. The number of resected metastases was 1-3 in 283 cases (86.54%), 4-9 in 31 cases (9.48%) and 10 or more lesions in 14 cases (4.28%). Wedge resections or precision excisions with laser or electrocautery were performed in 278 cases (85.02%), anatomical segmental resections in 16 patients (4.89%) and lobectomies in 33 patients (10.09%). Bilateral procedures were performed in 98 cases (29.96%). Lymphadenectomy was performed in 122 patients. Positive lymph nodes were found only in 6 cases. All of these cases were patients with soft tissue sarcoma as primary tumor. Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment was performed in 79 patients (24.15%) with chemotherapy, in 54 patients (16.51%) with radiochemotherapy and in 10 patients (3.05%) with radiotherapy. Major postoperative complications were observed in 2.75% of all patients. Thirty-day mortality was 0%. Pulmonary metastasectomy in sarcoma patients is a feasible and safe treatment strategy even in patients with bilateral metastases and multiple lesions. Thoracic lymph node metastases are rare and did not influence survival in our cohort.

  7. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Related Solid Lymphoma Involving the Heart and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV has been associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, particularly in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The disorders most strongly linked to KSHV are multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD, primary effusion lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. We report an unusual case of KSHV-associated lymphoma in an HIV-infected patient manifesting with myocardial and central nervous system involvement. We discuss this case in the context of increasing array of KSHV-associated lymphomas. In the HIV-infected patient with a mass lesion, a history of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and prolonged immunosuppression should alert clinicians as to the possibility of KSHV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, in order to establish a timely diagnosis.

  8. Cellular immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Fishman, Mayer; Conley, Anthony P.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with approximately 9,000 new cases in the United States every year. Unfortunately, there is little progress in the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in the past two decades beyond the standard approaches of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a modality complementary to conventional therapy,. It is appealing because functional anti-tumor activity could affect both local-regional and systemic disease and act over a prolonged period of time. In this report, we review immunotherapeutic investigative strategies being developed, including several tumor vaccine, antigen vaccine, and dendritic cell vaccine strategies. PMID:22401634

  9. Soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooper, T M

    2012-02-03

    A retrospective review of 33 cases of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity presenting over a 10 year period was undertaken. The history, patterns of referral, diagnostic investigations, procedures undertaken and outcomes were studied. We found there was a frequent delay in diagnosis and sometimes misinterpretation of biopsy specimens. Patients were seen by a variety of specialists from disciplines such as general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and rheumatology. Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, often allowing local control of the tumour without amputation. We believe there should be early referral of patients having these tumours to a centre where a combined multidisciplinary approach can be undertaken.

  10. Observation, Radiation Therapy, Combination Chemotherapy, and/or Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-07

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  11. Presence of adenovirus species C in infiltrating lymphocytes of human sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kosulin

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses are known to persist in T-lymphocytes of tonsils, adenoids and intestinal tract. The oncogenic potential of different adenovirus types has been widely studied in rodents, in which adenovirus inoculation can induce multiple tumors such as undifferentiated sarcomas, adenocarcinomas and neuroectodermal tumors. However, the oncogenic potential of this virus has never been proven in human subjects. Using a highly sensitive broad-spectrum qRT-PCR, we have screened a set of different human sarcomas including leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and gastro intestinal stroma tumors. Primers binding the viral oncogene E1A and the capsid-coding gene Hexon were used to detect the presence of adenovirus DNA in tumor samples. We found that 18% of the tested leiomyosarcomas and 35% of the liposarcomas were positive for the presence of adenovirus DNA, being species C types the most frequently detected adenoviruses. However, only in one sample of the gastro intestinal stroma tumors the virus DNA could be detected. The occurrence of adenovirus in the tumor sections was confirmed by subsequent fluorescence in-situ-hybridization analysis and co-staining with the transcription factor Bcl11b gives evidence for the presence of the virus in infiltrating T-lymphocytes within the tumors. Together these data underline, for the first time, the persistence of adenovirus in T-lymphocytes infiltrated in muscular and fatty tissue tumor samples. If an impaired immune system leads to the viral persistence and reactivation of the virus is involved in additional diseases needs further investigation.

  12. The HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Ikoma, Minako; Gachelet, Eliora; Gray, Matthew; Geballe, Adam P; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey; Lagunoff, Michael; Vieira, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated cancer worldwide and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality in some regions. Antiretroviral (ARV) combination regimens have had mixed results for KS progression and resolution. Anecdotal case reports suggest that protease inhibitors (PIs) may have effects against KS that are independent of their effect on HIV infection. As such, we evaluated whether PIs or other ARVs directly inhibit replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the gammaherpesvirus that causes KS. Among a broad panel of ARVs tested, only the PI nelfinavir consistently displayed potent inhibitory activity against KSHV in vitro as demonstrated by an efficient quantitative assay for infectious KSHV using a recombinant virus, rKSHV.294, which expresses the secreted alkaline phosphatase. This inhibitory activity of nelfinavir against KSHV replication was confirmed using virus derived from a second primary effusion lymphoma cell line. Nelfinavir was similarly found to inhibit in vitro replication of an alphaherpesvirus (herpes simplex virus) and a betaherpesvirus (human cytomegalovirus). No activity was observed with nelfinavir against vaccinia virus or adenovirus. Nelfinavir may provide unique benefits for the prevention or treatment of HIV-associated KS and potentially other human herpesviruses by direct inhibition of replication.

  13. Enhancing anti-tumor efficacy of Doxorubicin by non-covalent conjugation to gold nanoparticles - in vitro studies on feline fibrosarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wójcik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumors of mesenchymal origin, the treatment of which is a challenge for veterinary practitioners. Methods of treatment include radical surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The most commonly used cytostatic drugs are cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine. However, the use of cytostatics as adjunctive treatment is limited due to their adverse side-effects, low biodistribution after intravenous administration and multidrug resistance. Colloid gold nanoparticles are promising drug delivery systems to overcome multidrug resistance, which is a main cause of ineffective chemotherapy treatment. The use of colloid gold nanoparticles as building blocks for drug delivery systems is preferred due to ease of surface functionalization with various molecules, chemical stability and their low toxicity. METHODS: Stability and structure of the glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles non-covalently modified with doxorubicin (Au-GSH-Dox was confirmed using XPS, TEM, FT-IR, SAXRD and SAXS analyses. MTT assay, Annexin V and Propidium Iodide Apoptosis assay and Rhodamine 123 and Verapamil assay were performed on 4 feline fibrosarcoma cell lines (FFS1WAW, FFS1, FFS3, FFS5. Statistical analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 (USA. RESULTS: A novel approach, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (4.3 +/- 1.1 nm in diameter non-covalently modified with doxorubicin (Au-GSH-Dox was designed and synthesized. A higher cytotoxic effect (p<0.01 of Au-GSH-Dox than that of free doxorubicin has been observed in 3 (FFS1, FFS3, FFS1WAW out of 4 feline fibrosarcoma cell lines. The effect has been correlated to the activity of glycoprotein P (main efflux pump responsible for multidrug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that Au-GSH-Dox may be a potent new therapeutic agent to increase the efficacy of the drug by overcoming the resistance to doxorubicin in feline fibrosarcoma cell lines

  14. agglutination of red blood cells by canine distemper.virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemagglutination of red blood cells by morbilliviruses such as measles virus and peste des petits ruminants ... with chicken red blood cells (RBC), pig RBC, .... With Pseudo- rinderpest in Nigerian dwarf goats. Bull. Epizool. Dis. Afri., 16:411 417. JOHNSON, RH. (1971); Seroliogical. 61 procedures for the study of feline.

  15. Effective prevention of pseudothrombocytopenia in feline blood samples with the prostaglandin I2 analogue Iloprost

    OpenAIRE

    Riond, Barbara; Waßmuth, Andrea Katharina; Hartnack, Sonja; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro platelet aggregation in feline blood samples is a well-known phenomenon in veterinary clinical laboratories resulting in high numbers of pseudothrombocytopenia. Several attempts have been made to prevent or dissolve platelet aggregates in feline blood samples and to increase the reliability of feline platelet counts. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) is the most powerful endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation but unstable. Iloprost is a stable PGI2 analogue. The aims of the p...

  16. Bone tumor and soft tissue sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Jesus Garcia Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available When we evaluate a rheumatologic patient we have to think aboutthe differential diagnosis among primary bone tunors, secondarybone tumors and soft tissue sarcomas. Muscle skeletal tumors,like rheumatologic diseases, have a predilection for old patients.Their knowledge is very important for a correct diagnosis andtreatment.

  17. Treatment of classical Kaposi's sarcoma with gemcitabine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, L; Labianca, R; Ferrucci, SM; Taglioni, M; Boneschi, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Background: Several drugs are active in aggressive classical Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS); chemotherapeutic agents with fewer side-effects, more rapid response and able to overcome resistance to previous treatment are advisable when treating patients in a second line. Gemcitabine, an analogue of

  18. The Value of Surgery for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Gholami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retroperitoneal sarcomas are uncommon large malignant tumors. Methods. Forty-one consecutive patients with localized retroperitoneal sarcoma were retrospectively studied. Results. Median age was 58 years (range 20–91 years. Median tumor size was 17.5 cm (range 4–41 cm. Only 2 tumors were <5 cm. Most were liposarcoma (44% and high-grade (59%. 59% were stage 3 and the rest was stage 1. Median followup was 10 months (range 1–106 months. Thirty-eight patients had an initial complete resection; 15 (37% developed recurrent sarcoma and 12 (80% had a second complete resection. Patients with an initial complete resection had a 5-year survival of 46%. For all patients, tumor grade affected overall survival (=.006. Complete surgical resection improved overall survival for high-grade tumors (=.03. Conclusions. Tumor grade/stage and complete surgical resection for high-grade tumors are important prognostic variables. Radiation therapy or chemotherapy had no significant impact on overall or recurrence-free survival. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice for patients with initial and locally recurrent retroperitoneal sarcoma.

  19. A case of clear cell sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have ma...

  20. Piracy of PGE2/EP receptor mediated signaling by Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) for latency gene expression: Strategy of a successful pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arun George; Sharma-Walia, Neelam; Kerur, Nagaraj; White, Carl; Chandran, Bala

    2010-01-01

    KSHV is implicated in the pathogenesis of KS, a chronic inflammation associated malignancy. COX-2 and its metabolite PGE2, two pivotal proinflammatory/oncogeneic molecules, are proposed to play roles in the expression of major KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1). Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES), PGE2 and its receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) were detected in KS lesions with the distinct staining of EP2/EP4 in KS lesions. In latently infected endothelial TIVE-LTC cells, EP receptor antagonists down-regulated LANA-1 expression as well as Ca2+, p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCζ/λ, and p-NF-κB, which are also some of the signal molecules proposed to be important in KS pathogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 and EP receptor agonists induced the LANA-1 promoter in 293 cells, and YY1, Sp1, Oct-1, Oct-6, C/EBP and c-Jun transcription factors appear to be involved in this induction. PGE2/EP receptor induced LANA-1 promoter activity was down-regulated significantly by the inhibition of Ca2+, p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCζ/λ, and p-NF-κB. These findings implicate the inflammatory PGE2/EP receptors and the associated signal molecules in herpes virus latency and uncover a novel paradigm that demonstrates the evolution of KSHV genome plasticity to utilize inflammatory response for its survival advantage of maintaining latent gene expression. This data also suggests that potential use of anti-COX-2 and anti-EP receptor therapy may not only ameliorate the chronic inflammation associated with KS but could also lead to elimination of the KSHV latent infection and the associated KS lesions. PMID:20388794

  1. Sarcomas primitivos do pulmão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caeiro

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Os sarcomas primitivos do pulmão são raros, representando 0.1 % de todas as neoplasias pulmonares malignas.No presente trabalho os autores reveem 5 casos clinicos diagnosticodos no periodo compreendido entre 1985 e 1997.A série inclui 4 doentes do sexo musculino e l do sexo femimino, com idades entre os 21 e os 73 anos. Apenas um doente era fumador.A sintomatologia mais frequente foi a toracalgia, a tosse seca. a dispneia e a expeetoração hemoptoica.O diagnóstieo hislopatológico foi feito em 3 casos através da peça operatória e cm 2 por biópsia brôm quica. Os tipos histológicos encontrados foram: 2 leiomiossarcomas, I rabdomiossarcoma, 1 careinos-sarcoma e 1 sarcoma poueo diferenciado.No que sc refere à terapêutica, todos os doentes tratados foram submetidos a cirurgia, tendo efectua-do cm 3 casos terapêutica adjuvante com quimiote-rapia ou quimioterapia+radioterapia.Após o dingnóstieo, os doentes sobreviveram entre 6 dias e 49 meses. Apesar da maioria ter sido submetida a cirurgia. apenas um doente sobreviveu para além dos 3 anos, o que está de acordu cum a agressividade destas neoplasias.REV PORT PNEUMOL 1998; IV (4: 403-412 ABSTRACT: Primary pulmonary sarcomas represent 0.1% of all primary lung neoplasms.In this work w e reviewed a consecutive serie of patients with this diagnosis, treated al our department between the period of 1985 and 1997.Four patients were males and I female, aged between 21 and 72 years old. Only one was a smoker.The most frequent symptoms were chest pain, cough, dyspnea and hemoptoic sputum.The diagnosis was obtained by surgery in 3 patients and by bronchial biopsy in 2 cases. The histologic types observed w ere 2 leiomyossareomas. 1 rabdomyossarcoma, I carcinossarcoma and I low diferentiated sarcoma.Four patients were treated with pulmonary surgery and in 3 cases plus thoracic irradiation and chemotherapy or simply chemotherapy.After the diagnosis, patients had survived between 6 days and

  2. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Diesel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction detecting feline coronavirus mutations in effusion and serum/plasma of cats to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandra Felten; Christian M Leutenegger; Hans-Joerg Balzer; Nikola Pantchev; Kaspar Matiasek; Gerhard Wess; Herman Egberink; Katrin Hartmann

    2017-01-01

    Background Feline coronavirus (FCoV) exists as two pathotypes, and FCoV spike gene mutations are considered responsible for the pathotypic switch in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) pathogenesis...

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase 1: role in sarcoma biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Jawad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In carcinomas stromal cells participate in cancer progression by producing proteases such as MMPs. The expression MMP1 is a prognostic factor in human chondrosarcoma, however the role in tumor progression is unknown. Laser capture microdissection and In Situ hybridization were used to determine cellular origin of MMP1 in human sarcomas. A xenogenic model of tumor progression was then used and mice were divided in two groups: each harboring either the control or a stably MMP1 silenced cell line. Animals were sacrificed; the neovascularization, primary tumor volumes, and metastatic burden were assessed. LCM and RNA-ISH analysis revealed MMP1 expression was predominantly localized to the tumor cells in all samples of sarcoma (p = 0.05. The percentage lung metastatic volume at 5 weeks (p = 0.08 and number of spontaneous deaths secondary to systemic tumor burden were lower in MMP1 silenced cell bearing mice. Interestingly, this group also demonstrated a larger primary tumor size (p<0.04 and increased angiogenesis (p<0.01. These findings were found to be consistent when experiment was repeated using a second independent MMP1 silencing sequence. Prior clinical trials employing MMP1 inhibitors failed because of a poor understanding of the role of MMPs in tumor progression. The current findings indicating tumor cell production of MMP1 by sarcoma cells is novel and highlights the fundamental differences in MMP biology between carcinomas and sarcomas. The results also emphasize the complex roles of MMP in tumor progression of sarcomas. Not only does metastasis seem to be affected by MMP1 silencing, but also local tumor growth and angiogenesis are affected inversely.

  5. Virus como inductores de neoplasias cutáneas

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Puccio, Francisco; Facultad de Medicina “Alberto Hurtado”, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico dermatólogo.

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV). Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell pol...

  6. Sequential segmental classification of feline congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Schneider, Matthias; Bonagura, John D

    2015-12-01

    Feline congenital heart disease is less commonly encountered in veterinary medicine than acquired feline heart diseases such as cardiomyopathy. Understanding the wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular disease demands a familiarity with a variety of lesions, occurring both in isolation and in combination, along with an appreciation of complex nomenclature and variable classification schemes. This review begins with an overview of congenital heart disease in the cat, including proposed etiologies and prevalence, examination approaches, and principles of therapy. Specific congenital defects are presented and organized by a sequential segmental classification with respect to their morphologic lesions. Highlights of diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis are offered. It is hoped that this review will provide a framework for approaching congenital heart disease in the cat, and more broadly in other animal species based on the sequential segmental approach, which represents an adaptation of the common methodology used in children and adults with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota-Aizawa, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Ko; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-05-18

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto [s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequences showed high similarities with those from human patients with gastric diseases (99%). There were no significant differences between Helicobacter spp.-positive and -negative cats in the severity of chronic gastritis (P=0.69). This is the first extensive epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

  8. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  9. Differential Effects of Bartonella henselae on Human and Feline Macro- and Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cells: e20204

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moez Berrich; Claudine Kieda; Catherine Grillon; Martine Monteil; Nathalie Lamerant; Julie Gavard; Henri Jean Boulouis; Nadia Haddad

    2011-01-01

    .... To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development...

  10. A report of 7 cases of feline vulval adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jim B; Best, Susan J; Yager, Julie A; Foster, Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Seven cases of feline vulval adenocarcinoma are reported. Follow-up information was available for 5 cats, and all but 1 of these was euthanized within 2-18 mo of diagnosis (median 9.2 mo) for reoccurrence of local disease (3 cases) and/or clinical signs consistent with metastases (3 cases). There was no relationship between histological features of the tumor and outcome.

  11. A report of 7 cases of feline vulval adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Jim B.; Best, Susan J.; Yager, Julie A.; Foster, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Seven cases of feline vulval adenocarcinoma are reported. Follow-up information was available for 5 cats, and all but 1 of these was euthanized within 2–18 mo of diagnosis (median 9.2 mo) for reoccurrence of local disease (3 cases) and/or clinical signs consistent with metastases (3 cases). There was no relationship between histological features of the tumor and outcome.

  12. Sampling sites for detection of feline herpesvirus-1, feline calicivirus and Chlamydia felis in cats with feline upper respiratory tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Catharina; Hartmann, Katrin; Mueller, Ralf S; Helps, Chris; Schulz, Bianka S

    2015-12-01

    Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV) and Chlamydia felis are involved in feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD). Clinical signs caused by these agents can overlap, and the involvement of certain pathogens is often unpredictable. The objectives of this study were to compare detection rates of FHV-1, FCV and C felis at different sampling sites, and to investigate the correlation between positive test results and clinical signs in cats with FURTD. Swabs were taken from the nose, pharynx, tongue and conjunctiva of 104 cats with signs of FURTD. Real-time PCR was performed on all samples for the detection of FHV-1, FCV and C felis. Infectious agents were identified in 93 (89.4%) cats. Of these, 55.8% were positive for FHV-1, 50.0% for FCV and 35.6% for C felis. FCV was found more frequently in the oropharynx (92.3% of FCV-positive cats) and on the tongue (90.4%) than the conjunctiva (38.5%) (P cats, 96.2% of FCV-positive cats and 81.1% of C felis-positive cats would have been detected. The oropharynx can be recommended as the preferred single sampling site for the detection of FCV, FHV-1 and C felis if only one sample can be taken; however, taking samples at different sites significantly increases the detection rate for all pathogens studied. Interestingly, sampling from a site with FURTD-associated lesions did not increase the likelihood of detecting the infectious agents. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  13. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  15. Morphologic and molecular analysis of 39 spontaneous feline pulmonary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, S; Yoon, B-I; Kim, D-Y; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Williams, M; Kim, Y

    2012-11-01

    The present study was performed to determine the morphologic change and selected molecular features of spontaneous lung tumors in cats examined at the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Thirty-nine primary lung carcinomas represented 0.69% of all feline cases admitted to the hospital. Most lung tumors were observed in aged cats (P adenocarcinoma (64.1%), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (20.5%), and adenosquamous carcinoma (15.4%). Metastasis was observed in about 80% of 39 cases, with decreasing order of intrapulmonary metastasis, intrathoracic carcinomatosis, regional lymph nodes, and distant organs, including digits. The size of the largest tumor mass was significantly associated with metastatic potential (P feline lung tumors were positively labeled with either surfactant protein A or thyroid transcription factor 1. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutant and p53 proteins were detected in approximately 20% (5 of 24) and 25% (6 of 24) of the feline lung tumor cases, respectively. Limited sequencing analysis of K-ras and p53 genes in 3 selected normal and neoplastic lung tissues did not reveal any alteration. Results indicate that primary lung carcinomas are rare but aggressive tumors in cats, thereby warranting further studies on molecular carcinogenesis.

  16. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Pressanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other limbs. Cytological and histopathological examinations showed lesions consistent with an atypical form of feline eosinophilic dermatosis associated with secondary bacterial infection. In both cats, antibiotics combined with immunosuppressive treatment partially improved the lesions, which continued to progress on a waxing and waning course, even in the absence of treatment. Allergy work-up did not permit the identification of an underlying allergic triggering factor. The severity of the lesions, the unusual presentation and the unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive therapy in two feline littermates suggested a genetic form of eosinophilic dermatosis.

  17. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Joanne L; Lobetti, Remo G; Schoeman, Johan P

    2014-11-14

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  18. Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

    2010-12-01

    The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for treatment of AIDS-related mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1992-06-01

    Since 1975, Phase I/II studies have demonstrated the successfulness of hematoporphyrin derivative photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of various malignancies of the skin, eye, bladder, lung, and head and neck. Moreover, in 1981 two cases of traditional Western cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (TKS) have been treated with photodynamic therapy with both early and late complete response. To date, attempts to cure and palliation of the more aggressive AIDS-related oral Kaposi's sarcoma with conventional radiation, chemotherapy or immunotherapy, or surgical excision have been limited and often associated with debilitating mucositis and further immunosuppression. Certain aspects of photodynamic therapy may be efficacious for treatment of mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma: (1) the selective retention of hematoporphyrin derivative by neoplastic lesions (endothelial cell tumors); (2) a tumor- specific cytotoxic agent (i.e., free oxygen radical); (3) absence of systemic toxicity from immunosuppression; (4) the potential for retreatment without increasing side effects; and (5) porphyrin-mediated photoinactivation of enveloped viruses. Herein presented are seven cases of AIDS-related KS (EKS) with diffuse, superficial, and nodular mucocutaneous lesions treated with dihematoporphyrin derivative and photodynamic therapy with subsequent dramatic early partial and complete responses.

  20. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF6 gene is essential in viral lytic replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Peng

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV is associated with Kaposis's sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes at least 8 open reading frames (ORFs that play important roles in its lytic DNA replication. Among which, ORF6 of KSHV encodes an ssDNA binding protein that has been proved to participate in origin-dependent DNA replication in transient assays. To define further the function of ORF6 in the virus life cycle, we constructed a recombinant virus genome with a large deletion within the ORF6 locus by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type and BACΔ6 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T-BAC36 and 293T-BACΔ6 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA and sodium butyrate, infectious virus was detected from the 293T-BAC36 cell supernatants only and not from the 293T- BACΔ6 cell supernatants. DNA synthesis was defective in 293T-BACΔ6 cells. Expression of ORF6 in trans in BACΔ6-containing cells was able to rescue both defects. Our results provide genetic evidence that ORF6 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. The stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 and BACΔ6 genomes could be used as tools to investigate the detailed functions of ORF6 in the lytic replication of KSHV.

  1. The Roles of Sox Family Genes in Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Shen, Jacson; Wang, Kunzheng; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Sox (SRY-related HMG-box) family genes are important regulators of cell development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Deregulation of certain members of the Sox gene family has been implicated in a number of human malignancies, including in sarcoma. Accumulating evidence suggests that Sox genes play crucial roles in sarcoma cell pathogenesis, growth, and proliferation. Here, we review the biological relevance of Sox2 and Sox9 genes in osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and chordoma; Sox2, Sox6, and Sox17 genes in Ewing's sarcoma; Sox2, Sox9, and Sox10 genes in synovial sarcoma; Sox2 gene in fibrosarcoma; and Sox21 gene in liposarcoma. These findings potentiate the targeting of Sox genes for novel therapeutic interventions in sarcoma and may also hold valuable clinical potential to improve the care of patients with sarcoma.

  2. Management of metastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma: a consensus approach from the Transatlantic Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Working Group (TARPSWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, A J; Van Houdt, W J; Swallow, C J; Gronchi, A

    2018-02-07

    Retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is a rare disease accounting for 0.1-0.2% of all malignancies. Management of RPS is complex and requires multidisciplinary, tailored treatment strategies at all stages, but especially in the context of metastatic or multifocal recurrent disease. Due to the rarity and heterogeneity of this family of diseases, the literature to guide management is limited. The Trans-Atlantic Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Working Group (TARPSWG) is an international collaboration of sarcoma experts from all disciplines convened in an effort to overcome these limitations. The TARPSWG has compiled the available evidence surrounding metastatic and multifocally recurrent RPS along with expert opinion in an iterative process to generate a consensus document regarding the complex management of this disease. The objective of this document is to guide sarcoma specialists from all disciplines in the diagnosis and treatment of multifocal recurrent or metastatic RPS. All aspects of patient assessment, diagnostic processes, local and systemic treatments, and palliation are reviewed in this document, and consensus recommendations provided accordingly. Recommendations were guided by available evidence, in conjunction with expert opinion where evidence was lacking. This consensus document combines the available literature regarding the management of multifocally recurrent or metastastic RPS with the practical expertise of high-volume sarcoma centers from multiple countries. It is designed as a tool for decision-making in the complex multidisciplinary management of this condition and is expected to standardize management across centers, thereby ensuring that patients receive the highest quality care.

  3. Genogrouping of vaccine breakdown strains (VBS) of feline calicivirus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, K; Sakai, S; Takahasi, T; Sunaga, F; Murakami, M; Kiuchi, A; Fukuyama, M; Furuhata, K; Hara, M; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    2007-05-01

    Although prevention of feline calcivirus (FCV) infection by vaccination has been attempted, and isolation of FCV, development of the disease, and a few fatal cases in vaccinated cats have been reported. Fifteen FCV strains isolated from cats that had been vaccinated with commercially available FCV vaccines (F9, FCV-255, and FC-7) were genogrouped. Molecular analysis of viral genomes involved the construction of a phylogenetic tree of capsid genes using the NJ method. Cat anti-F9 serum and rabbit anti-FCV-255 serum were used for virus neutralization tests. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of 15 virus isolates and those of the previously published and GenBank-deposited 9 global and 14 Japanese strains showed that 8 (53%) of the 15 virus isolates as well as the vaccine strains F9 and FCV-255 belonged to genogroup I (G(A)I), and 7 (47%) belonged to genogroup II (G(A)II). Of the 8 G(A)I strains, 2 were isolated from cats that had been vaccinated with an F9 strain live vaccine, 5 from cats vaccinated with an FCV-255-derived vaccine, and 1 from a cat vaccinated with an FC-7-derived vaccine. Of the 7 GAll strains, 5 were isolated from cats that had been vaccinated with the F9 strain live vaccine, 1 from a cat vaccinated with the FCV-255-derived vaccine, and 1 from a cat vaccinated with the FC-7-derived vaccine. These results indicate that more vaccine breakdown strains isolated from the cats vaccinated with the F9 strain-derived vaccine belong to G(A)II than to G(A)I, whereas more vaccine breakdown strains isolated from the cats vaccinated with the FCV-255 strain-derived vaccine belong to G(A)I than to G(A)II, and that when the FC-7 strain-derived vaccine is used, the vaccine breakdown strains belong almost equally to G(A)I and G(A)II. Thus, the genogroups of virus isolates varied with the vaccine strain used (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the neutralizing titres of feline anti-F9 serum and rabbit anti-FCV-255 serum against the 15 isolates were

  4. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) of the sacrum: initial manifestation of leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, S.L.; Fishman, E.K. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Nicol, T.L. [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    1998-02-01

    We present an unusual case of a granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) of the sacrum which predated the initial clinical manifestation of acute myelogenous leukemia. Although granulocytic sarcomas occur in up to 9.1% of cases of acute myelogenous leukemia they usually present concurrently with the leukemic presentation. Although granulocytic sarcomas can involve several different organ systems, bone is the most common site. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  5. Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Nicolazzo; Angela Gradilone

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells can be detected from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Their prognostic value has been established in the last 10 years for metastatic colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. On the contrary their presence in patients affected by sarcomas has been poorly investigated. The discovery of EpCAM mRNA expression in different sarcoma cell lines and in a small cohort of metastatic sarcoma patients supports further investigations on these rare tumors to deepen the impor...

  6. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Feline Interleukin-2 Immunomodulator, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 ] Immunomodulator, Live... Interleukin-2 Immunomodulator, Live Canarypox Vector. Field Test Locations: Georgia, North Carolina, New York...

  7. The isoflavone content of commercially-available feline diets in New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    To identify and quantify concentrations of the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin in commercially-prepared feline diets sold in New Zealand. METHODS: Feline diets (n=138) were collected from supermarkets, pet stores and veterinary clinics in New Zealand. Diets were

  8. Cell lines derived from feline fibrosarcoma display unstable chromosomal aneuploidy and additionally centrosome number aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Erichsen, J; Hecht, W; Löhberg-Gruene, C; Reinacher, M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate clonality and presence of numerical chromosomal and centrosomal aberrations in 5 established feline fibrosarcoma cell lines and in a fetal dermal fibroblast cell line as a control. The clonality of all cell lines was examined using limited-dilution cloning. The number of chromosomes was counted in metaphase spreads. The immunocytochemical analysis of centrosome numbers was performed by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody that targets γ-tubulin, a well-characterized component of centrosomes. Monoclonal cell populations could be established from all cell lines. In all feline fibrosarcoma cell lines, the number of chromosomes deviated abnormally from the normal feline chromosome number of 2n = 38, ranging from 19 to 155 chromosomes per cell. Centrosome hyperamplification was observed in all 5 feline fibrosarcoma cell lines with a proportion of cells (5.7 to 15.2%) having more than 2 centrosomes. In the control cell line, only 0.6% of the cells had more than 2 centrosomes. In conclusion, the examinations revealed that centrosome hyperamplification occurs in feline fibrosarcoma cell lines. The feline fibrosarcoma cell lines possessed 10 to 25 times as many cells with centrosome hyperamplification as the control cell line. These observations suggest an association of numerical centrosome aberrations with karyotype instability by increasing the frequency of chromosome missegregation. The results of this study may be helpful for further characterization of feline fibrosarcomas and may contribute to the knowledge of cytogenetic factors that may be important for the pathogenesis of feline fibrosarcomas.

  9. Deep-seated sarcomas of the penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal neoplasias represent 5% of tumors affecting the penis. Due to the rarity of such tumors, there is no agreement concerning the best method for staging and managing these patients. Sarcomas of the penis can be classified as deep-seated if they derive from the structures forming the spongy body and the cavernous bodies. Superficial lesions are usually low-grade and show a small tendency towards distant metastasis. In contrast, deep-seated lesions usually show behavior that is more aggressive and have poorer prognosis. The authors report 3 cases of deep-seated primary sarcomas of the penis and review the literature on this rare and aggressive neoplasia.

  10. Thyroid carcino-sarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An adult male greyhound was diagnosed with a thyroid carcino-sarcoma by means of histopathology and positive immuno-histochemistry staining for cytokeratin and vimentin. Surgery and radiotherapy of the area were successful in local tumour control. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended to treat and prevent further metastasis. The use of carboplatin, metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and toceranib failed to control the progression of distant metastasis. The survival time was seven months from the time of diagnosis. This is the eighth case of carcino-sarcoma of the thyroid documented in veterinary medicine and the first one treated with a multimodal approach based on surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. As documented in human medicine, chemotherapy appeared to be ineffective to prevent or delay the progression of the metastatic disease in this case.

  11. Childhood Ewing Sarcoma of the Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaar, Ahmad S; Zamzam, Manal; Abdalla, Badr; Magdi, Ranin; El-Kinaai, Naglaa

    2015-08-01

    In the span of the last 48 years, only 33 cases of children with orbital Ewing sarcoma have been reported. This study is to present 3 cases that were admitted to Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt 57357, during the period from 2009 to 2013. We have 2 cases treated using the hospital standard Ewing sarcoma treatment protocol, to completion, whereas the third discontinued treatment. All tumors have confirmed CD99 positivity, although translocation (11;22) was positive in 1 patient and negative in the third. With earlier diagnosis and adequate surgical resection and integration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy 1 patient survived for about 4 years, whereas the other 2 cases died due to disease progression or recurrence.

  12. Protein-RNA linkage and posttranslational modifications of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus VPg proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Olspert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Caliciviridae family of positive sense RNA viruses cause a wide range of diseases in both humans and animals. The detailed characterization of the calicivirus life cycle had been hampered due to the lack of robust cell culture systems and experimental tools for many of the members of the family. However, a number of caliciviruses replicate efficiently in cell culture and have robust reverse genetics systems available, most notably feline calicivirus (FCV and murine norovirus (MNV. These are therefore widely used as representative members with which to examine the mechanistic details of calicivirus genome translation and replication. The replication of the calicivirus RNA genome occurs via a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is then used as a template for the production of new positive sense viral RNA, which is covalently linked to the virus-encoded protein VPg. The covalent linkage to VPg occurs during genome replication via the nucleotidylylation activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using FCV and MNV, we used mass spectrometry-based approach to identify the specific amino acid linked to the 5′ end of the viral nucleic acid. We observed that both VPg proteins are covalently linked to guanosine diphosphate (GDP moieties via tyrosine positions 24 and 26 for FCV and MNV respectively. These data fit with previous observations indicating that mutations introduced into these specific amino acids are deleterious for viral replication and fail to produce infectious virus. In addition, we also detected serine phosphorylation sites within the FCV VPg protein with positions 80 and 107 found consistently phosphorylated on VPg-linked viral RNA isolated from infected cells. This work provides the first direct experimental characterization of the linkage of infectious calicivirus viral RNA to the VPg protein and highlights that post-translational modifications of VPg may also occur during the viral life cycle.

  13. Current Immunotherapies for Sarcoma: Clinical Trials and Rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demytra Mitsis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma tumors are rare and heterogeneous, yet they possess many characteristics that may facilitate immunotherapeutic responses. Both active strategies including vaccines and passive strategies involving cellular adoptive immunotherapy have been applied clinically. Results of these clinical trials indicate a distinct benefit for select patients. The recent breakthrough of immunologic checkpoint inhibition is being rapidly introduced to a variety of tumor types including sarcoma. It is anticipated that these emerging immunotherapies will exhibit clinical efficacy for a variety of sarcomas. The increasing ability to tailor immunologic therapies to sarcoma patients will undoubtedly generate further enthusiasm and clinical research for this treatment modality.

  14. Primary Intimal Sarcoma of Thoracic Aorta Presenting as Hypertensive Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-I; Su, Min-I; Tsai, Cheng-Ting

    2015-11-01

    We report a 45-year-old woman who presented to our facility in a hypertensive crisis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a thoracic aortic tumor, and tissues obtained via endovascular biopsy revealed undifferentiated sarcoma. A final diagnosis of intimal sarcoma was made by intra-operative pathological examination. Despite undergoing surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient died from progressive multiple metastasis and severe sepsis. Although aortic sarcoma is rarely diagnosed, it should be considered a possible etiology of hypertensive crisis. Aortic tumor; Endovascular biopsy; Hypertension crisis; Intimal sarcoma.

  15. An Unusual Location of Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Geens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. ES also occurs as a primary soft tissue neoplasm without involvement of bone. We report the second case of extraosseous (EO ES emerging from the omentum and a review of the relevant literature. EO ES should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms in the abdomen.

  16. An Unusual Location of Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Lisanne; Robays, Johan Van; Geert, Verswijvel; der Speeten, Kurt Van

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. ES also occurs as a primary soft tissue neoplasm without involvement of bone. We report the second case of extraosseous (EO) ES emerging from the omentum and a review of the relevant literature. EO ES should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms in the abdomen. PMID:23898272

  17. Multimodality Local Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paryani, Nitesh N.; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Swanson, Erika L.; Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Hochwald, Steven N. [Department of General Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Soft-tissue sarcomas of the retroperitoneum are rare tumors comprising less than 1% of all malignancies. Although surgery continues as the mainstay of treatment, the large size of these tumors coupled with their proximity to critical structures make resection with wide margins difficult to achieve. The role and timing of radiotherapy are controversial. This study updates our institutional experience using multimodality local therapy for resectable retroperitoneal sarcoma and identifies prognostic factors impacting disease control and survival. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 2007, 58 patients with nonmetastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma were treated with surgery and radiation at University of Florida. The median age at radiotherapy was 57 years old (range, 18-80 years). Forty-two patients received preoperative radiotherapy and 16 received postoperative radiotherapy. Nineteen patients received 1.8 Gy once daily and 39 patients received 1.2 Gy twice daily. Variables analyzed for prognostic value included age, grade, kidney involvement, histology, de novo versus recurrent presentation, tumor diameter, margin status, radiotherapy sequencing (preoperative vs. postoperative), total radiation dose, fractionation scheme, and treatment era. Results: The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rates were 49%, 58%, and 62%, respectively. Nearly two-thirds of disease failures involved a component of local progression. On multivariate analysis, only margin status was significantly associated with improved 5-year local control (85%, negative margins; 63%, microscopic positive margins; 0%, gross positive margins; p < 0.0001) and 5-year overall survival (64%, negative margins; 56%, microscopic positive margins; 13%, gross positive margins; p = 0.0012). Thirty-one Grade 3 or greater toxicities were observed in 22 patients, including two treatment-related deaths (3%). Conclusion: For retroperitoneal sarcoma, local control remains a

  18. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS Sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico em paciente com Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few indolent lesions to an aggressive diffuse disease. Advanced Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, typically those on the lower extremities, are often associated with lymphedema. In this paper, we report a case of a patient with a rare form of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma called lymphangiectatic Kaposis's sarcoma.O sarcoma de Kaposi é uma neoplasia originária do endotélio linfatico, que apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações, com quatro formas clínicas: sarcoma de Kaposi clássico, endêmico, iatrogêncio e epidêmico ou associado ao HIV. Em pacientes imunocompetentes, a doença é tipicamente limitada às extremidades. Porém em pacientes imunideprimidos, o sarcoma de Kaposi é uma doença sistêmica multifocal. Apresenta cursos clínicos diferentes, desde simples lesões cutâneas isoladas até lesões agressivas e difusas, com ou sem envolvimento sistêmico. Lesões avançadas de sarcoma de Kaposi, principalmente as localizadas nas extremidades, podem apresentar linfedema. Neste trabalho, reportamos caso de paciente com forma rara de Sarcoma de Kaposi associado a Aids, chamada de sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico.

  19. The prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 genotypes in Kaposi\\\\\\'s sarcoma in Iran by using molecular technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shah Siah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Mediterranean region , Kaposi's sarcoma (KS has a high prevalence especially in patients with AIDS. Iran is located close to the Mediterranean region and the HIV prevalence is increasing in our country . In some stages, Kaposi's sarcoma is morphologically similar to other vascular tumors. Owing to the presence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 in all cases of Kaposi's sarcoma , detection of virus DNA by PCR method can help in the identification of non-diagnostic cases. Moreover, the prevalence of HHV-8 genotypes is different in various regions of the world and in different races. There are limited studies performed on the HHV-8 genotypes in Iranian population. Methods: Patients with Kaposi's sarcoma from 2001 to 2011 who refer to Tehran Razi Hospital were enrolled in this study. HHV-8 DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks and amplification of the virus genome was performed by PCR method . Finally, the target DNA fragment was used for sequencing and genotype determination. Results: PCR was performed on 53 cases. In 8 cases with suspicious morphology, PCR was negative and they were excluded from study. Of remaining 45 cases, 35 had positive PCR results, 7 had negative results and 3 had low PCR product. Samples from 28 cases that had positive PCR results, which were acceptable for genotyping, were chosen for sequencing. Twenty cases had genotype C, 7 cases had genotype A and one case was negative. The results are consistent with other studies in our geographical area. No correlation was found between the different microscopic stages and HHV-8 Genotypes. Conclusion: Since the HHV-8 is obtained in almost 100% of KS lesions and PCR s ensitivity in detection of the virus is close to 100 %, KS diagnosis can be confirmed in suspicious cases by detection of HHV-8 DNA on paraffin blocks. Moreover the prevalence of HHV-8 genotype was determined in Iran.

  20. Sarcomas: etiología y síntomas Sarcomas: etiology and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gabriel Albín Cano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la amplia diversidad de sarcomas, casi son inexistentes los textos que incluyen todas las variedades de este tipo de cáncer. Generalmente, su descripción y revisión se incluyen en las del sistema de órganos afectados específicamente, y la literatura que los aborda está muy fragmentada en las diferentes especialidades médicas. Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica sobre la etiología y síntomas de la mayor parte de los diferentes tipos de sarcomas. Es objetivo de esta revisión, lograr unir la información más actual disponible acerca de la etiología y síntomas de los sarcomas. Se han identificado diferentes factores de riesgo y factores etiológicos, tanto genéticos, infecciosos, como ambientales. Los grandes descubrimientos en relación con los mecanismos genéticos involucrados en los diferentes tipos de sarcoma, han abierto un camino de inestimable valor para introducir nuevos tratamientos, que incluyen ensayos con anticuerpos monoclonales y nuevos fármacos de terapia génica.

    Due to the wide diversity of sarcomas, almost no texts include all varieties of this type of cancer. Generally, their description and review is included in those of the specifically affected organ system, and the literature containing that information is very fragmented in different medical specialties. We performed a literature review on the etiology and symptoms of most types of sarcomas. It is aimed at achieving a recompilation of most current information available on the causes and symptoms of sarcomas. Different risks and etiologic factors have been identified regarding genetics, infections, and environment. The great discoveries regarding genetic mechanisms involved in different types of sarcomas, have opened an invaluable way to introduce new treatments, including monoclonal antibodies and new drugs of gene therapy.

  1. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Clove and Ginger Aqueous Extracts against Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Nauertz, Andrew; Luong, Nhungoc T; Agrawal, Shivani; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Youssef, Mohammed M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus, are a concern for public health, especially in fresh vegetables and other minimally processed foods that may not undergo sufficient decontamination. It is necessary to explore novel nonthermal techniques for preventing foodborne viral contamination. In this study, aqueous extracts of six raw food materials (flower buds of clove, fenugreek seeds, garlic and onion bulbs, ginger rhizomes, and jalapeño peppers) were tested for antiviral activity against feline calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for human norovirus. The antiviral assay was performed using dilutions of the extracts below the maximum nontoxic concentrations of the extracts to the host cells of FCV, Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No antiviral effect was seen when the host cells were pretreated with any of the extracts. However, pretreatment of FCV with nondiluted clove and ginger extracts inactivated 6.0 and 2.7 log of the initial titer of the virus, respectively. Also, significant dosedependent inactivation of FCV was seen when host cells were treated with clove and ginger extracts at the time of infection or postinfection at concentrations equal to or lower than the maximum nontoxic concentrations. By comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, eugenol (29.5%) and R-(-)-1,2-propanediol (10.7%) were identified as the major components of clove and ginger extracts, respectively. The antiviral effect of the pure eugenol itself was tested; it showed antiviral activity similar to that of clove extract, albeit at a lower level, which indicates that some other clove extract constituents, along with eugenol, are responsible for inactivation of FCV. These results showed that the aqueous extracts of clove and ginger hold promise for prevention of foodborne viral contamination.

  2. Molecular characterization of a feline calicivirus isolated from tiger and its pathogenesis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Dafei; Liu, Yongxiang; Wu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yanmei; Zu, Shaopo; Liu, Chunguo; Sun, Xue; Liu, Jiasen; Qu, Liandong

    2016-08-30

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus that causes respiratory disease in cats. In this study, the FCV TIG-1 was isolated from Siberian tiger feces collected in 2014 in Heilongjiang Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis among TIG-1 and other FCVs showed that TIG-1 does not share the same lineage with other FCV isolates from Heilongjiang or other regions in China but is located in the same cluster with the FCV strain Urbana, which was isolated from the United States. The growth kinetics in vitro and the pathogenicity in cats between TIG-1 and the domestic cat-origin FCV strain F9 (vaccine strain) and strain 2280 were compared. We found that the growth kinetics of strains TIG-1 and 2280 were faster than that of strain F9 from 12h to 36h post-infection, indicating that strains TIG-1 and 2280 produce infectious virions and reach peak yields earlier. Challenge experiments in cats showed that TIG-1 grew faster than the other two strains in the lungs of cats and that TIG-1 is a virulent FCV with 100% morbidity and lethality. In addition, the histopathological results showed that the virulent TIG-1 strain directly led to severe lung tissue damage and indirectly led to intestinal damage. The results presented here show that a tiger-origin FCV exhibits high virulence in cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sarcoma de kaposi endemico en un paciente VIH negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Revilla-López

    Full Text Available El sarcoma de Kaposi (SK es un cáncer angioproliferativo inflamatorio multifocal asociado a herpes virus 8 (VHH-8. Se han descrito cuatro variantes clínico-epidemiológicas: clásico, endémico, iatrogénico y epidémico o asociado a VIH. Clínicamente puede ser indolente o agresivo, afecta principalmente áreas mucocutáneas con eventual compromiso visceral y de ganglios linfáticos. Se presenta frecuentemente y de forma más agresiva en la población VIH positiva. Presentamos un caso de un paciente varón de 27 años VIH negativo con lesión tumoral sangrante en el anillo de Waldeyer, múltiples adenopatías y lesiones exofíticas en pie que remiten con quimioterapia de emergencia basada en antraciclinas. El SK VIH negativo es una condición poco frecuente. Es importante tener en cuenta al Perú como región endémica para el VHH-8. La afectación oral del SK es una manifestación rara y de mal pronóstico, sin embargo, el factor VIH negativo podría conferirle un buen pronóstico

  4. A Rare Case of Synovial Sarcoma of the Prostate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AbStRACt. Prostatic synovial sarcomas are exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, only six primary cases have been reported so far. We herein describe a primary synovial sarcoma of the prostate seen in a 25- year-old male patient, the youngest patient seen with this disease to date. He was referred to our department with ...

  5. Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft tissue sarcomas can form almost anywhere in the body, but are most common in the head, neck, arms, legs, truck, and abdomen. Find out about risk and genetic factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for soft tissue sarcoma.

  6. (q24: q12) translocation is common in Ewing's sarcoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-06-09

    Jun 9, 2005 ... 5 and T RAJKUMAR. 1,. *. 1Department of Molecular Oncology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Biochemistry, ... Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumour in south Indian patients; J. Biosci. 30 371–376]. 1. ... traditionally describes a group of undifferentiated pediatric sarcomas that ...

  7. SARCOMAS OF THE HEAD AND NECK AT KENYATTA NATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-05

    May 5, 2000 ... Objective: To determine the pattern of occurrence of sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial region. Design: A retrospective study (1982-1991). Setting: Cancer ... of most patients with a sarcoma of the head and neck region is due to its .... associated with the cheek, maxiliary sinus, pharynx, palate,.

  8. Survival Following Resection for Soft Tissue Sarcomas | Igun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For intermediate grade lesions, Kaposi's sarcoma carried the lowest mean survival time (MST) of 1 year, fibroblastic fibrosarcoma 2 years and undifferentiated sarcoma 3 years. The average MST for all high grade lesions was 2 years. Upper extremity lesions carried the worst prognosis with a MST of 1½ years, head, neck, ...

  9. Tumor - host immune interactions in Ewing sarcoma : implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on various aspects of tumor - host (immune) interactions in Ewing sarcoma patients with the aim to obtain leads for immunotherapeutic or targeted treatment strategies. We demonstrate a key role for interferon gamma (IFNg) in enhancing both Ewing sarcoma immunogenicity and

  10. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  11. Establishment and characterization of eight feline mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Rina; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yazawa, Mitsuhiro; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishimura, Ryohei; Sasaki, Nobuo

    2005-12-01

    Eight new feline mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from either primary or metastatic lesions were established. The morphology of all the cell lines was epithelioid and round to spindle in shape, with cell growth occurring in a monolayer fashion. On immunohistochemistry, these cells reacted with anti-keratin and anti-vimentin antisera. The doubling time of these cells was between 19 and 54 hr. Tumor masses were developed in nude mice by subcutaneous inoculation of the cells that were histologically identical to their original mammary tumor lesions. Telomerase activities measured using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay revealed high telemetric activity in all of the cells.

  12. LeishVet update and recommendations on feline leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad; Bourdeau, Patrick; Koutinas, Alek; Miró, Guadalupe; Oliva, Gaetano; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2015-06-04

    Limited data is available on feline leishmaniosis (FeL) caused by Leishmania infantum worldwide. The LeishVet group presents in this report a review of the current knowledge on FeL, the epidemiological role of the cat in L. infantum infection, clinical manifestations, and recommendations on diagnosis, treatment and monitoring, prognosis and prevention of infection, in order to standardize the management of this disease in cats. The consensus of opinions and recommendations was formulated by combining a comprehensive review of evidence-based studies and case reports, clinical experience and critical consensus discussions. While subclinical feline infections are common in areas endemic for canine leishmaniosis, clinical illness due to L. infantum in cats is rare. The prevalence rates of feline infection with L. infantum in serological or molecular-based surveys range from 0% to more than 60%. Cats are able to infect sand flies and, therefore, they may act as a secondary reservoir, with dogs being the primary natural reservoir. The most common clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities compatible with FeL include lymph node enlargement and skin lesions such as ulcerative, exfoliative, crusting or nodular dermatitis (mainly on the head or distal limbs), ocular lesions (mainly uveitis), feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome, mucocutaneous ulcerative or nodular lesions, hypergammaglobulinaemia and mild normocytic normochromic anaemia. Clinical illness is frequently associated with impaired immunocompetence, as in case of retroviral coinfections or immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosis is based on serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cytology, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) or culture. If serological testing is negative or low positive in a cat with clinical signs compatible with FeL, the diagnosis of leishmaniosis should not be excluded and additional diagnostic methods (cytology, histology with IHC, PCR, culture) should be employed. The most

  13. Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions an unsolved enigma in veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Alexander M; Mendoza, Krista A

    2002-07-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature on feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORLs), including etiopathogenesis, prevalence and predisposition, classification, histopathologic appearance, diagnosis, and treatment. Approximately one-third of all domestic cats may develop FORLs during their life span, and the risk of developing FORLs increases with age. Sophisticated dental treatments promise neither cure nor permanent improvement of affected teeth. Extraction is the current treatment of choice. Research on the etiology of FORLs has not been rewarding in recent years, and the causative factors contributing to the development of FORLs are still unknown.

  14. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Musculoskeletal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and a greater accessibility to cross-sectional imaging techniques the editors have included five new chapters covering the basics of the different imaging modalities with particular reference to their use in musculoskeletal imaging. Comparisons are drawn between the different techniques and a generous use...... of the manual makes it ideal for use in general practice as well as being a rich source of information for students and newly qualified veterinary surgeons. However, the depth of information supplied by an international panel of authors makes the BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Musculoskeletal Imaging second...

  15. Zoonotic parasites associated with felines from the Patagonian Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Horacio Fugassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Feline coprolites were examined for parasites with the aim of studying ancient infections that occurred in the Patagonian region during the Holocene period. Eggs compatible to Trichuris sp., Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Nematodirus sp., Oesophagostomum sp. (Nematoda, Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda and Eimeria macusaniensis (Coccidia were recovered from faecal samples. The results obtained from the analysis provide evidence of consumption by felids of the viscera of both rodents and camelids. This knowledge allows for improved explanations as to the distribution of parasitism and its significance to the health of humans and animals inhabiting the area under study during the Middle Holocene.

  16. Cats are not small dogs: the emergence of feline medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Amy

    2006-11-01

    Cats have finally garnered the attention they deserve in veterinary medicine, however, there is still much to learn about this unique species and new challenges surface daily. For example, at the time of writing, avian influenza in cats is being closely monitored by world veterinary and health officials. Controversial topics, such as how to manage the homeless cat population, declawing, and cloning will continue to spark active debate. However, the future appears promising for cats as more veterinarians, researchers, and organizations increase their focus on felines.

  17. Variations of Surveillance Practice for Patients with Bone Sarcoma: A Survey of Australian Sarcoma Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lewin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. After treatment, bone sarcoma patients carry a high chance of relapse and late effects from multimodal therapy. We hypothesize that significant variation in surveillance practice exists between pediatric medical oncology (PO and nonpediatric medical oncology (NP sarcoma disciplines. Methods. Australian sarcoma clinicians were approached to do a web based survey that assessed radiologic surveillance (RS strategies, late toxicity assessment, and posttreatment psychosocial interventions. Results. In total, 51 clinicians responded. No differences were identified in local disease RS. In metastatic disease response assessment, 100% of POs (23/23 and 93% of NPs (24/26 conducted CT chest. However, this was more likely to occur for NPs in the context of a CT chest/abdomen/pelvis (NP: 10/26; PO: 1/23; p=0.006. POs were more likely to use CXR for RS (p=0.006. POs showed more prescriptive intensity in assessment of heart function (p=0.001, hearing (p<0.001, and fertility (p=0.02. POs were more likely to deliver written information for health maintenance/treatment summary (p=0.04. The majority of respondents described enquiring about psychosocial aspects of health (n=33/37, 89%, but a routine formal psychosocial screen was only used by 23% (n=6/26. Conclusion. There is high variability in bone sarcoma surveillance between PO and NP clinicians. Efforts to harmonize approaches would allow early and late effects recognition/intervention and facilitate improved patient care/transition and research.

  18. The susceptibility to cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated lysis of chemically induced sarcomas from immunodeficient and normal mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, I M; Engel, A M; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1997-01-01

    A panel of sarcomas induced with 3-methylcholanthrene in normal and immunodeficient mice was studied for their capacity to present antigen by the endogenous, MHC class I restricted pathway. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was used to infect cultured tumour cells, and the infected cells were...... tested for susceptibility to cytolysis by virus specific cytotoxic T cells. Tumour cells originating from tumours induced in immunocompetent C.B.-17 mice presented virus antigen more efficiently than tumour cells from immunodeficient SCID mice. No significant difference in virus antigen presentation...... was found between tumours from nude and nu/+ BALB/c mice. The sensitivity of target cells from the individual tumours to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) mediated lysis correlated negatively with their sensitivity to natural killer (NK) cell mediated lysis. There was a positive correlation between...

  19. Assessing the Diversity of Rodent-Borne Viruses: exploring of high-throughput sequencing and classical amplification/sequencing approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drewes, S.; Straková, Petra; Drexler, J. F.; Jacob, J.; Ulrich, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2017), s. 61-108 ISSN 0065-3527 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : hepatitis-e virus * squirrels sciurus-vulgaris * dependent dna-polymerase * korean hemorrhagic-fever * beaver castor-canadensis * mouse micromys-minutus * rats rattus-norvegicus * rous-sarcoma-virus * west-nile-virus * population-cycles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Origin of Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Ewing's sarcoma is a subject of much debate. Once thought to be derived from primitive neuroectodermal cells, many now believe it to arise from a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC. Expression of the EWS-FLI1 fusion gene in MSCs changes cell morphology to resemble Ewing's sarcoma and induces expression of neuroectodermal markers. In murine cells, transformation to sarcomas can occur. In knockdown experiments, Ewing's sarcoma cells develop characteristics of MSCs and the ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. However, it cannot be concluded that MSCs are the cell of origin. The concept of an MSC still needs to be rigorously defined, and there may be different subpopulations of mesenchymal pluripotential cells. Furthermore, EWS-FLI1 by itself does not transform human cells, and cooperating mutations appear to be necessary. Therefore, while it is possible that Ewing's sarcoma may originate from a primitive mesenchymal cell, the idea needs to be refined further.