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Sample records for sapphire window due

  1. Process for the Φ130 sapphire window element with long distance and high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zengqi; Su, Ying; Lei, Jianli; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Xinlong; Liu, Xuanmin; Sun, Taohui

    2016-10-01

    With the process test for the choice of materials, the test materials and the molds, the abrasives, the temperature and the different machining process monitoring parameters of the polishing machine, the process method and the quality control technology were figured out for the Φ130 sapphire window element with long distance and high resolution (hereinafter referred to as window element), meantime, the optimum process condition was determined to machine the element. The results were that the high resolution imaging window was processed with the surface roughness Ra of 0.639nm, the transmission distortion of λ/10 (λ=632.8nm), the parallel error of 5″, the resolution of 1.47″ and the focal length of 5 km, which can satisfy the imaging requirements better for the military photoelectric device for sapphire window with long distance and high resolution.

  2. Optical transmittance investigation of 1-keV ion-irradiated sapphire crystals as potential VUV to NIR window materials of fusion reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Iwano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optical transmittances of ion-irradiated sapphire crystals as potential vacuum ultraviolet (VUV to near-infrared (NIR window materials of fusion reactors. Under potential conditions in fusion reactors, sapphire crystals are irradiated with hydrogen (H, deuterium (D, and helium (He ions with 1-keV energy and ∼ 1020-m-2 s-1 flux. Ion irradiation decreases the transmittances from 140 to 260 nm but hardly affects the transmittances from 300 to 1500 nm. H-ion and D-ion irradiation causes optical absorptions near 210 and 260 nm associated with an F-center and an F+-center, respectively. These F-type centers are classified as Schottky defects that can be removed through annealing above 1000 K. In contrast, He-ion irradiation does not cause optical absorptions above 200 nm because He-ions cannot be incorporated in the crystal lattice due to the large ionic radius of He-ions. Moreover, the significant decrease in transmittance of the ion-irradiated sapphire crystals from 140 to 180 nm is related to the light scattering on the crystal surface. Similar to diamond polishing, ion irradiation modifies the crystal surface thereby affecting the optical properties especially at shorter wavelengths. Although the transmittances in the VUV wavelengths decrease after ion irradiation, the transmittances can be improved through annealing above 1000 K. With an optical transmittance in the VUV region that can recover through simple annealing and with a high transparency from the ultraviolet (UV to the NIR region, sapphire crystals can therefore be used as good optical windows inside modern fusion power reactors in terms of light particle loadings of hydrogen isotopes and helium.

  3. Due-window assignment scheduling with variable job processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Bin; Ji, Ping

    2015-01-01

    We consider a common due-window assignment scheduling problem jobs with variable job processing times on a single machine, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence (i.e., learning effect) or its starting time (i.e., deteriorating effect). The problem is to determine the optimal due-windows, and the processing sequence simultaneously to minimize a cost function includes earliness, tardiness, the window location, window size, and weighted number of tardy jobs. We prove that the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

  4. Due-Window Assignment Scheduling with Variable Job Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a common due-window assignment scheduling problem jobs with variable job processing times on a single machine, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence (i.e., learning effect or its starting time (i.e., deteriorating effect. The problem is to determine the optimal due-windows, and the processing sequence simultaneously to minimize a cost function includes earliness, tardiness, the window location, window size, and weighted number of tardy jobs. We prove that the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

  5. Optical Evaluation of Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) with UV-Grade Fused Silica, Sapphire, and Magnesium Fluoride Windows and Longterm Reflectance of Bare Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Travinsky, Anton; Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Raisanen, Alan; Robberto, Massimo; Heap, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Digital micromirror devices (DMDs) are commercial micro-electromechanical systems, consisting of millions of mirrors which can be individually addressed and tilted into one of two states (+/-12deg). These devices were developed to create binary patterns in video projectors, in the visible range. Commercially available DMDs are hermetically sealed and extremely reliable. Recently, DMDs have been identified as an alternative to microshutter arrays for space-based multi-object spectrometers (MOS). Specifically, the MOS at the heart of the proposed Galactic Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) uses the DMD as a reprogrammable slit mask. Unfortunately, the protective borosilicate windows limit the use of DMDs in the UV and IR regimes, where the glass has insufficient throughput. In this work, we present our efforts to replace standard DMD windows with custom windows made from UV-grade fused silica, low-absorption optical sapphire (LAOS) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). We present transmission measurements of the antireflection coated windows and the reflectance of bare (window removed) DMDs. Furthermore, we investigated the long-term stability of the DMD reflectance and experiments for coating DMD active area with a layer of pure aluminum (Al) to boost reflectance performance in the UV spectral range (200-400 nm).

  6. Thermal Conductance through Sapphire-Sapphire Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Tomaru, T.; Haruyama, T.; Shintomi, T.; Uchinyama, T.; Miyoki, S.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.

    2003-07-01

    Thermal conductance on sapphire-sapphire bonded interface has been investigated. Two pieces of single crystal sapphire bar with square cross section were bonded together by adhesion free bonding. In two sections of the bar, thermal conductivity was measured between 5 K to 300K. One section contains a bonded interface and the other section measured a thermal conductivity of the sapphire as a reference. No significant thermal resistance due to bonded interface was found from this measurement. Obtained thermal conductivity reaches κ 1 × 104 [W/m·K] in temperature range of T = 20 ˜ 30 K which is a planned operating temperature of a cryogenic mirror of the Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave telescope. It looks promising for sapphire bonding technique to improve a heat transfer from a large cryogenic mirror to susp ension wires.

  7. No-Wait Flexible Flow Shop Scheduling with Due Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hwa Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve capacity and reduce processing time, the flow shop with multiprocessors (FSMP system is commonly used in glass, steel, and semiconductor production. No-wait FSMP is a modern production system that responds to periods when zero work is required in process production. The production process must be continuous and uninterrupted. Setup time must also be considered. Just-in-time (JIT production is very popular in industry, and timely delivery is important to customer satisfaction. Therefore, it is essential to consider the time window constraint, which is also very complex. This study focuses on a no-wait FSMP problem with time window constraint. An improved ant colony optimization (ACO, known as ant colony optimization with flexible update (ACOFU, is developed to solve the problem. The results demonstrate that ACOFU is more effective and robust than ACO when applied to small-scale problems. ACOFU has superior solution capacity and robustness when applied to large-scale problems. Therefore, this study concludes that the proposed algorithm ACOFU performs excellently when applied to the scheduling problem discussed in this study.

  8. 蓝宝石红外窗口抗反射浮雕结构研究%Study on Antireflective Relief Periodic Structure of Sapphire Infrared Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳军; 冷雁冰; 董连和

    2011-01-01

    Subwavelength periodic structure on infrared material can achieve antirefiective function at infrared band. In harsh environment, infrared window may replace infrared antireflective film. And it can provide corrosion resistance, shock resistance, etc. This paper describe the design of subwavelength relief unit structure using effective medium theory, and fabrication of the relief structure on the surface of sapphire material by photolithograph and ion etching. The infrared transmittance improved about 10 percent. The relation of antireflective and Periodic, filling cycle, and unit depth etc are analyzed.%采用相应技术,在红外材料表面制成的亚波长浮雕结构能实现红外波段的减反功能.在恶劣环境中,红外窗口采用该结构代替红外减反膜能够提高其抗蚀、抗冲击等性能.通过等效媒质理论设计亚波长浮雕单元结构,采用光刻及离子蚀刻方法完成蓝宝石材料表面浮雕结构制作,经测试红外透过率整体提高大约10%.经分析,浮雕结构的周期、占空比、单元深度等因素都对减反结果影响很大.

  9. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  10. UNBOUNDED BATCH SCHEDULING WITH A COMMON DUE WINDOW ON A SINGLE MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongluan ZHAO; Guojun LI

    2008-01-01

    The common due window scheduling problem with batching on a single machine is dealt with to minimize the total penalty of weighted earliness and tardiness. In this paper it is assumed that a job incurs no penalty as long as it is completed within the common due window. It is the first time for the due window scheduling to be extended to this situation so that jobs can be processed in batches. An unbounded version of batch scheduling is also considered. Hence, jobs, no matter how many there are, can be processed in a batch once the machine is free. For two cases that the location of due window is either a decision variable or a given parameter, polynomial algorithms are proposed based on several optimal properties.

  11. Intracochlear Pressure Changes due to Round Window Opening: A Model Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mittmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To preserve residual hearing in cochlea implantation, the electrode design has been refined and an atraumatic insertion of the cochlea electrode has become one aspect of cochlea implant research. The opening of the round window can be assumed to be a contributing factor in an atraumatic concept. The aim of our study was to observe intracochlear pressure changes due to different opening conditions of an artificial round window membrane. The experiments were performed in an artificial cochlea model. A round window was simulated with a polythene foil and a pressure sensor was placed in the helicotrema area to monitor intraluminal pressure changes. Openings of the artificial round window membrane were performed using different ways. Opening the artificial round window mechanically showed a biphasic behaviour of pressure change. Laser openings showed a unidirectional pressure change. The lowest pressure changes were observed when opening the artificial round window membrane using a diode laser. The highest pressure changes were seen when using a needle. The openings with the CO2 laser showed a negative intracochlear pressure and a loss of fluid. In our model experiments, we could prove that the opening of the artificial round window membrane causes various intracochlear pressure changes.

  12. Due-Window Assignment and Scheduling with Multiple Rate-Modifying Activities under the Effects of Deterioration and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanguo Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses due-window assignment and scheduling with multiple rate-modifying activities. Multiple types of rate-modifying activities are allowed to perform on a single machine. The learning effect and job deterioration are also integrated concurrently into the problem which makes the problem more realistic. The objective is to find jointly the optimal location to perform multiple rate-modifying activities, the optimal job sequence, and the optimal location and size of the due window to minimize the total earliness, tardiness, and due-window-related costs. We propose polynomial time algorithms for all the cases of the problem under study.

  13. Hydrogen effect on the properties of sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevsky, Radion N.; Sharafutdinova, Liudmila G.; Nedilko, Sergiy; Gavrilov, Valeriy; Verbilo, Dmitriy; Mittl, Scott D.

    2009-05-01

    Sapphire is a widely used material for optical, electronic and semiconductor applications due to its excellent optical properties and very high durability. Optical and mechanical properties of sapphire depend on many factors such as the starting materials that are used to grow crystals, methods to grow sapphire crystals, etc. Demand for highest purity and quality of sapphire crystals increased ten fold for the last several years due to new applications for this material. In this work we studied the effect of starting materials and crystal growth methods on the optical and mechanical properties of sapphire, especially concentrating on the effect of hydrogen on the properties of sapphire. It was found that the infrared (IR) absorption which is traditionally used to measure the hydrogen content in sapphire crystals cannot be reliably used and the data obtained by this method provides a much lower hydrogen concentration than actual. We have shown for the first time that Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques can be successfully used to determine hydrogen concentration in sapphire crystals. We have shown that hydrogen concentration in sapphire can reach thousands of ppm if these crystals are grown from Verneuil starting material or aluminum oxide powder. Alternatively, the hydrogen concentration is very low if sapphire crystals are grown from High Purity Densified Alumina (HPDA®) as a starting material. HPDA® is produced by EMT, Inc through their proprietary patented technology. It was found that optical and mechanical properties of sapphire crystals grown using EMT HPDA® starting material are much better than those sapphire crystals grown using a starting material of Verneuil crystals or aluminum oxide powder.

  14. Intracochlear Pressure Changes due to Round Window Opening: A Model Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittmann, P; Ernst, A; Todt, I

    2014-01-01

    .... The experiments were performed in an artificial cochlea model. A round window was simulated with a polythene foil and a pressure sensor was placed in the helicotrema area to monitor intraluminal pressure changes...

  15. Intracochlear pressure changes due to round window opening: a model experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittmann, P; Ernst, A; Todt, I

    2014-01-01

    .... The experiments were performed in an artificial cochlea model. A round window was simulated with a polythene foil and a pressure sensor was placed in the helicotrema area to monitor intraluminal pressure changes...

  16. Solid-core fiber with ultra-wide bandwidth transmission window due to inhibited coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Thomas; Kuhlmey, Boris T; Argyros, Alexander; Coen, Stéphane; de Sterke, C Martijn

    2010-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate solid-core photonic crystal fibers that guide via the inhibited coupling mechanism. We measure an overall transmission window of more than an octave, as well as an uninterrupted width of almost one octave. The fiber is fabricated in polymer, with high-index ring-shaped inclusions. This type of fiber was conceived based on a simple model which shows that the cutoffs of the modes of a thin ring cluster around the cutoffs of planar waveguide modes. The model shows that such ring based fibers are closely related to kagome and square lattice hollow core fibers, and have transmission bandwidths that could in principle reach 1.6 octaves. Measured transmission properties are in good agreement with rigorous modelling.

  17. Dynamic scheduling with due dates and time windows: an application to chemotherapy patient appointment booking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocgun, Yasin; Puterman, Martin L

    2014-03-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which arriving patients require appointments at specific future days within a treatment specific time window. This research is motivated by a study of chemotherapy scheduling practices at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (Canada). We formulate this problem as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Since the resulting MDPs are intractable to exact methods, we employ linear-programming-based Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) to obtain approximate solutions. Using simulation, we compare the performance of the resulting ADP policies to practical and easy-to-use heuristic decision rules under diverse scenarios. The results indicate that ADP is promising in several scenarios, and that a specific easy-to-use heuristic performs well in the idealized chemotherapy scheduling setting we study.

  18. Effect of Propellant Combustion on Sapphire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Bundy

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Sapphire (Al2O3 is the window material of choice for laser beam transmission into the combustion chamber of laser-ignited guns. To evaluate the long-term effects of propellant combustion on an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ laser window, it is important to know the window temperature during firing. This paper presents temperature data on an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ sample located in the breech face of the gun where the laser window would be in a laser-ignited 155 mm(M199 cannon. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ sample is a substrate material of a commercially sold thin-film thermocouple, and is therefore thermally, if not optically, representative of an actual Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ laser window.

  19. A Heuristic for the Job Scheduling Problem with a Common Due Window on Parallel and Non-Identical Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we give a mathematical model for earliness-tardiness job scheduling problem with a common due window on parallel and non-identical machines. Because the job scheduling problem discussed in the paper contains a problem of minimizing make-span, which is NP-complete on parallel and uniform machines, a heuristic algorithm is presented to find an approximate solution for the scheduling problem after proving an important theorem. Two numerical examples illustrate that the heuristic algorithm is very useful and effective in obtaining the near-optimal solution.

  20. Secondary particle emission from sapphire single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnebaev, K.F., E-mail: minnebaev@mail.ru [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Khvostov, V.V.; Zykova, E.Yu.; Tolpin, K.A. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Colligon, J.S. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Yurasova, V.E. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Secondary ion emission from sapphire single crystal has been studied experimentally and by means of computer simulation. The particular oscillations of secondary ion energy spectra and two specific maxima of O{sup +} and Al{sup +} ions were observed under irradiation of (0001) sapphire face by 1 and 10 keV Ar{sup +} ions. We have explained this by the interplay of the charge exchange processes between moving particles and solids. The existence of two maxima in energy spectra of O{sup +} and Al{sup +} secondary ions can be also connected with special features of single-crystal sputtering: the low-energy peak can be formed by random sputtering and the high-energy peak from focusing collisions. In addition some similarity was found between the positions of low-energy maximum in energy spectra of Al{sup +} ions emitted from sapphire and the principal maxima of Al{sup +} ions ejected from the aluminum single crystal. This indicates a possibility to explain the presence of low-energy maximum in energy spectra of secondary ions ejecting from sapphire by emission of Al{sup +} ions from aluminum islands appearing in a number of cases on the sapphire surface due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. These different mechanisms of creating the energy spectra of ions emitted from sapphire should be taken in account.

  1. World's largest sapphire for many applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Chandra P.; Shetty, Raj; Schwerdtfeger, C. Richard; Ullal, Saurabh

    2016-10-01

    Sapphire has been used for many high technology applications because of its excellent optical, mechanical, high temperature, abrasion resistance and dielectric properties. However, it is expensive and the volume of sapphire used has been limited. The potential sapphire requirements for LED and consumer electronic applications are very high. Emphasis has been on producing larger sapphire boules to achieve significant cost reductions so these applications are realized. World's largest sapphire boules, 500 mm diameter 300+kg, have been grown to address these markets.

  2. Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the total weighted tardiness. A simulated annealing (SA) and metaheuristic for randomized priority search (Meta-RaPS) with the newly introduced composite dispatching rule, apparent piecewise tardiness cost with ready times (APTCR), are applied to the problem. Computational experiments compared the algorithms' solutions to optimal solutions for small problems and to each other for larger problems. To obtain optimal solutions, a mixed integer program with a piecewise weighted tardiness objective function was solved for up to 12 jobs. The results show that Meta-RaPS performs better in terms of average relative error but SA is more efficient.

  3. Pumping of titanium sapphire laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínková, H.; Vaněk, P.; Valach, P.; Hamal, K.; Kubelka, J.; Škoda, V.; Jelínek, M.

    1993-02-01

    Two methods of Ti:Sapphire pumping for the generation of tunable laser radiation in the visible region were studied. For coherent pumping, the radiation of the second harmonic of a Nd:YAP laser was used and a maximum output energy of E out=4.5 mJ was reached from the Ti:Sapphire laser. For noncoherent pumping, two different lengths of flashlamp pulses were used and a maximum of E out=300 mJ was obtained. Preliminary estimations of the wavelength range of tunability were made.

  4. Neutron Transmission through Sapphire Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapphire crystals are excellent filters of fast neutrons, while at the same time exhibit moderate to very little absorption at smaller energies. We have performed an extensive series of measurements in order to quantify the above effect. Alongside our experiments, we have performed a series...... of simulations, in order to reproduce the transmission of cold neutrons through sapphire crystals. Those simulations were part of the effort of validating and improving the newly developed interface between the Monte-Carlo neutron transport code MCNP and the Monte Carlo ray-tracing code McStas....

  5. Evaluation of the Quality of Sapphire Using X-Ray Rocking Curves and Double-Crystal X-Ray Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    hard, high-strength, chemically resistant optical windows; and sub- srates for the growth of epitaxial films. The quality of a sapphire crystal can... crystal diffractometer. Single- crystal sapphire may be grown by a variety of different methods, of which the more common are Verneuil (flame fusion...Linear features (L), which may represent slight variations in lattice parameter along the crystal growth front, or dislocation networks, ad small

  6. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  7. Supersmooth and modified surface of sapphire crystals: Formation, characterization, and applications in nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Vlasov, V. P.; Deryabin, A. N.; Roshchin, B. S.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The results of studying the state of the surface of sapphire crystals by a complex of methods in different stages of crystal treatment are considered by an example of preparing sapphire substrates with a supersmooth surface. The possibility of purposefully forming regular micro- and nanoreliefs and thin transition layers using thermal and thermochemical impacts are considered. The advantages of sapphire substrates with a modified surface for forming heteroepitaxial CdTe and ZnO semiconductor films and ordered ensembles of gold nanoparticles are described. The results of the experiments on the application of crystalline sapphire as a material for X-ray optical elements are reported. These elements include total external reflection mirrors and substrates for multilayer mirrors, output windows for synchrotron radiation, and monochromators working in the reflection geometry in X-ray spectrometers. In the latter case, the problems of the defect structure of bulk crystals sapphire and the choice of a method for growing sapphire crystals of the highest structural quality are considered.

  8. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  9. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why...

  10. Interface defects in GaN/sapphire studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and channeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Sinha; P K Barhai

    2004-06-01

    GaN on sapphire was grown by MOCVD technique. Rutherford backscattering spectra together with channeling along [0 0 0 1] axis were recorded to study the defects at the interface. Detailed calculation shows that the defects at GaN/sapphire interface are due to dislocations which are distributed into the whole thickness of the film and are mainly aligned on the growth direction.

  11. Ti:sapphire laser with long-pulse lamp pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koselja, Michael P.; Kubelka, Jiri; Kvapil, Jiri

    1992-06-01

    Lamp pumping of Ti:Sapphire has some advantages over laser pumping and represents some interest due to possible applications. The paper will present laser behavior of Ti:Sapphire under very long lamp pulse pumping. Pulse lamp duration (FWHM) was more than 100 times greater than the lifetime of Ti3+. Output energy with no tuning element was achieved greater than 1.5 J with 0.12% electrical-to-optical efficiency. Dimensions of the rod used was 7 mm in diameter and 148 mm in length. The doping level of Ti3+ was 0.09% Ti2O3 in the rod. Tuning characteristics with different tuning elements are also presented. Further development to obtain CW lamp pumping operation will be discussed.

  12. Color Enhancement by Diffusion of Beryllium in Dark Blue Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyungj in Kim; Yongkil Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of beryllium was performed on dark blue sapphire from China and Australia.The samples were heated with beryllium as a dopant in a furnace at 1 600 ℃ for 42 h in air.After beryllium diffusion,sam-ples were analyzed by UV-Vis,FTIR,and WD-XRF spectroscopy.After heat-treatment with Be as a catalyst, the irons of the ferrous state were changed to the ferric state.Therefore,reaction of Fe2+/Ti4+ IVCT was de-creased.The absorption peaks at 3 309 cm-1 attributed to OH radical were disappeared completely due to carry out heat treatment.Consequently,the intensity of absorption band was decreased in the visible region.Espe-cially,decreased absorption band in the vicinity of 570 nm was responsible for the lighter blue color.There-fore,we confirmed that the dark blue sapphires from China and Australia were changed to vivid blue.

  13. Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Scott, Brian [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Zhihao [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    facility in Terre Haute, Indiana. Due to business conditions at industrial partner and several logistical problems, this field test was not successful. An alternative high-temperature sensing system using sapphire wafer-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry was then developed as a significant improvement over the BPDI solution. From June 2006 to June 2008, three consecutive field tests were performed with the new sapphire wafer sensors at the TECO coal gasifier in Tampa, Florida. One of the sensors survived in the industrial coal gasifier for 7 months, over which time the existing thermocouples were replaced twice. The outcome of these TECO field tests suggests that the sapphire wafer sensor has very good potential to be commercialized. However packaging and sensor protection issues need additional development. During Phase III, several major improvements in the design and fabrication process of the sensor have been achieved through experiments and theoretical analysis. Studies on the property of the key components in the sensor head, including the sapphire fiber and sapphire wafer, were also conducted, for a better understanding of the sensor behavior. A final design based on all knowledge and experience has been developed, free of any issues encountered during the entire research. Sensors with this design performed well as expected in lab long-term tests, and were deployed in the sensing probe of the final coal-gasifier field test. Sensor packaging and protection was improved through materials engineering through testing of packaging designs in two blank probe packaging tests at Eastman Chemical in Kingsport, TN. Performance analysis of the blank probe packaging resulted in improve package designs culminating in a 3rd generation probe packaging utilized for the full field test of the sapphire optical sensor and materials designed sensor packaging.

  14. Sapphire Viewports for a Venus Probe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will demonstrate that sapphire viewports are feasible for use in Venus probes. TvU's commercial viewport products have demonstrated that...

  15. Thermal Control of a Dual Mode Parametric Sapphire Transducer

    CERN Document Server

    Belfi, Jacopo; De Michele, Andrea; Gabbriellini, Gianluca; Mango, Francesco; Passaquieti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to control the thermal stability of a sapphire dielectric transducer made with two dielectric disks separated by a thin gap and resonating in the whispering gallery (WG) modes of the electromagnetic field. The simultaneous measurement of the frequencies of both a WGH mode and a WGE mode allows one to discriminate the frequency shifts due to gap variations from those due to temperature instability. A simple model, valid in quasi equilibrium conditions, describes the frequency shift of the two modes in terms of four tuning parameters. A procedure for the direct measurement of them is presented.

  16. Window shopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.

    1990-03-01

    The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

  17. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...... these for the construction of a final installation that focuses on the construction of a dark room that provides artificial stimuli through a window with only artificial information. The abstract translation of sound to image through artificial light is a common endeavour in the history of arts and its aesthetics, since...

  18. Study on Inclusions in Large Sapphire Optical Crystal Grown by SAPMAC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-gen; ZHANG Ming-fu; ZUO Hong-bo; HE Xiao-dong; HAN Jie-cai

    2006-01-01

    The sapphire (Al2O3) single crystal is a kind of excellent infrared transmission window materials. A large-sized sapphire (Φ225 mm×205 mm, 27.5 kg) was grown by SAPMAC method (sapphire growth technique with micro-pulling and shoulder-expanding at cooled center). Several kinds of inclusion in the large sapphire crystal were investigated by means of an optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The experimental results show that most inclusions are consisted of solid metallic and non-metallic particles as well as gas pores caused by the impurity of alumina as the raw material, the thermal dissociation of aluminum oxide melt and the reaction of the melt to the crucible material (Mo) at high temperatures. It is also found that in different crystal regions the inclusions are of varied sizes, morphology and chemical compositions. Finally, the measures to reduce and eliminate the inclusions are proposed to improve the crystal quality.

  19. SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

    2002-09-10

    Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a wide range of industrial processes. Appropriate techniques and instrumentation are needed depending on the temperature measurement requirements in different industrial processes and working environments. Harsh environments are common in many industrial applications. These harsh environments may involve extreme physical conditions, such as high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive agents, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. Due to these severe environmental conditions, conventional temperature sensors are often difficult to apply. This situation has opened a new but challenging opportunity for the sensor society to provide robust, high-performance, and cost-effective temperature sensors capable of operating in those harsh environments. The focus of this research program has been to develop a temperature measurement system for temperature measurements in the primary and secondary stages of slagging gasifiers. For this application the temperature measurement system must be able to withstand the extremely harsh environment posed by the high temperatures and corrosive agents present in these systems. Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperature for the coal gasification process is important to realize the full economic potential of these gasification systems. Long life and stability of operation in the high temperature environment is essential for the temperature measurement system to ensure the continuous running of the coal gasification system over the long term. In this high temperature and chemically corrosive environment, rather limited high temperature measurement techniques such as high temperature thermocouples and optical/acoustic pyrometers are available, each with their own limitations. In this research program, five different temperature sensing schemes based on the single crystal sapphire

  20. Method of surface treatment on sapphire substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xin-huan; LIU Yu-ling; TAN Bai-mei; HAN Li-ying; ZHANG Jian-xin

    2006-01-01

    Sapphire single crystals are widely used in many areas because of the special physic properties and important application value. As an important substrate material,stringent surface quality requirements,i.e. surface finish and flatness,are required. The use of CMP technique can produce high quality surface finishes at low cost and with fast material removal rates. The sapphire substrate surface is treated by using CMP method. According to sapphire substrate and its product properties,SiO2 sol is chosen as abrasive. The particle size is 15-25 nm and the concentration is 40%. According to the experiment results,pH value is 10.5-11.5. After polishing and cleaning the sapphire surface,the surface roughness was measured by using AFM method and the lowest value of Ra 0.1 nm was obtained. From the results,it can be seen that using such method,the optimal sapphire surface can be gotten,which is advantageous for epitaxial growth and device making-up.

  1. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Rebecca L. [Sapphire Energy, Inc., Columbus, NM (United States). Columbus Algal Biomass Farm; Tyler, Mike [Sapphire Energy, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR

  2. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  3. A comparative study on methods to structure sapphire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunteanu, A.; Hoffmann, P.; Pollnau, M.; Buchal, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ti:sapphire is an attractive material for applications as a tunable or short-pulse laser and as a broadband light source in low-coherence interferometry. We investigated several methods to fabricate rib structures in sapphire that can induce channel waveguiding in Ti:sapphire planar waveguides. Thes

  4. Carbon nanotube assisted Lift off of GaN layers on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Feng, Xiaohui; Wei, Yang; Yu, Tongjun; Fan, Shoushan; Ying, Leiying; Zhang, Baoping

    2017-02-01

    Laser lift off (LLO) was one of the most essential processes in fabrication of vertical GaN-based LEDs. However, traditional laser lift off of GaN on sapphire substrates needed high laser energy threshold, which deteriorated the GaN crystal. In this paper, it was found that inserting carbon nanotube between GaN and sapphire could effectively reduce the laser energy threshold in GaN LLO, from 1.5 J /cm2 of conventional GaN/sapphire to 1.3 J /cm2 of CNT inserted GaN/sapphire. The temperature distributions at the GaN/sapphire interfaces with and without CNTs were simulated by the finite elements calculation under laser irradiation. It was found that, due to the higher laser absorption coefficient of CNT, the CNT played as a powerful heating wire, sending out the thermal outside to elevate the GaN's temperature, and thus reduce the laser threshold for LLO. Raman and photoluminescence measurements indicated that residual stress of GaN membranes was as small as 0.3 GPa by the carbon nanotube assisted LLO. This work not only opens new application of CNTs, but also demonstrates the potential of high performance blue and green LEDs.

  5. Behaviors of optical and chemical state of Nb+ implanted sapphire after annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of the radiation damage of sapphire crystal, produced by implantation with 380 keV Nb+ ion followed by annealing in a series of steps from 500 to 1100℃C at reducing atmosphere, was investigated in optical absorption and XPS measurements. It is found that the implanted niobium in sapphire is in different local environments with different chemical states after the annealing. The changes in optical density (OD) from the bands, based on the well known F-type centers, show that the annealing behavior of the radiation damage may be divided into different stages due to different mechanisms.

  6. Revelation of Causes of Colour Change in Beryllium-Treated Sapphires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pichet Limsuwan; Siwaporn Meejoo; Asanee Somdee; Kheamrutai Thamaphat; Treedej Kittiauchawal; Atitaya Siripinyanond; Jurek Krzystck

    2008-01-01

    Blue sapphires are treated with Be in oxidizing atmosphere to change the blue colour into yellow. Untreated and Be-treated samples are examined using laser ablation inductively coupled-plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), electron spin resonance (ESR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The results show that the yellow colouration in Be-heated blue sapphires is not due to Be diffusion from the surface of sapphire. Be behaves as a sole catalyst in this process. We find that the charge transfer between the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) is the reason of the colour change. The above conclusions are confirmed by ESR measurements to determine the connections between the Fe3+ ions before and after Be-treated heat treatments.

  7. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    strategies for overheating or to communicate with people in a more user informed way. The people participating in the study lived in different houses and had different backgrounds. They were involved in the project over a period of 3-4 months. The prolonged participation was facilitated through a variety......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...

  8. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  9. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  10. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    SHY, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  11. Sapphire and other dielectric waveguide devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Different fabrication methods have been explored successfully and surface and buried channel waveguide lasers have been demonstrated in Ti:sapphire for the first time. Since the propagation losses of these first-generation waveguides are still rather high, substantial improvement is required in orde

  12. Sapphire and other dielectric waveguide devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    Different fabrication methods have been explored successfully and surface and buried channel waveguide lasers have been demonstrated in Ti:sapphire for the first time. Since the propagation losses of these first-generation waveguides are still rather high, substantial improvement is required in

  13. Single-crystal sapphire resonator at millikelvin temperatures: Observation of thermal bistability in high- Q factor whispering gallery modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Duty, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    Resonance modes in single crystal sapphire (α-Al2O3) exhibit extremely high electrical and mechanical Q factors ( ≈109 at 4 K), which are important characteristics for electromechanical experiments at the quantum limit. We report the cool down of a bulk sapphire sample below superfluid liquid-helium temperature (1.6 K) to as low as 25 mK. The electromagnetic properties were characterized at microwave frequencies, and we report the observation of electromagnetically induced thermal bistability in whispering gallery modes due to the material T3 dependence on thermal conductivity and the ultralow dielectric loss tangent. We identify “magic temperatures” between 80 and 2100 mK, the lowest ever measured, at which the onset of bistability is suppressed and the frequency-temperature dependence is annulled. These phenomena at low temperatures make sapphire suitable for quantum metrology and ultrastable clock applications, including the possible realization of the quantum-limited sapphire clock.

  14. Advanced thin dicing blade for sapphire substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Matsumaru, Atsushi Takata and Kozo Ishizaki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced thin dicing blades for cutting sapphire were fabricated and evaluated for cutting performance with respect to dicing blade wear and meandering of cutting lines. Three kinds of different commercial blades were used to compare the cutting performance. These blades had the same thickness and the same diamond grain size. The matrix material of one dicing blade was nickel–phosphorus alloy and two other were a vitric material. Newly developed dicing blades consisted of a vitric material with pore. A dicing machine was used for cutting sapphire. Turning velocity, cutting depth and feeding rate were 20,000 min−1, 200 μm and 1 mm s−1, respectivity. Cutting directions were 110 and 010. All blades could cut 1000 mm and more in the 110 direction. On the other hand, commercial dicing blades generated meandering lines and were broken only by 50 mm of cutting length in 010 direction. Fabricated blade can cut 1000 mm and more in 010 direction. The wear of fabricated dicing blade was the largest in the dicing blades. Although cutting performance of commercial dicing blades depended on the sapphire orientation, that of fabricated blade was independent of the sapphire orientation. It has been confirmed that the fabricated dicing blade was kept a cutting ability by flash diamonds on the dicing blade surface, which were created by wear of blade during cutting sapphire. Low cutting ability of commercial blades increased cutting force between with increase of cutting length. The increased cutting force produced to bend a blade and cutting lines, and finally a fracture of blade.

  15. 铁路客运站股道运用窗时排序模型与算法%Due Windows Scheduling Model and Algorithm of Track Utilization in Railway Passenger Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英贵; 雷定猷; 汤波; 王新宇

    2011-01-01

    Track utilization planning is the key point of realizing decentralized and self-regulated control in railway passenger stations under the condition of CTC.Taking timetables, tracks and platforms as research objects, combining with route arrangement, maintenance and train early and delay time windows, analyzing parallel processors scheduling and multicriteria scheduling of track utilization and applying the modern scheduling theory, the due windows and multicriteria scheduling I model is established with the minimum total costs and balanced track utilization as its objective functions.Adopting the basic and composite dispatching rules and local improvement strategies, the self-regulated optimization algorithm and three-step algorithm are designed to make and adjust plans of track utilization.Instance study demonstrates as follows: Averagely speaking, the rule and approximate solutions with soft time windows are better than those with hard time windows by 17.8 % and 14.1% respectively; the convergence speed of solutions with hard time windows is much faster, so better solutions can be achieved by using Rule θ with both soft and hard time windows; it is suitable to integrate all dispatching rules, especially Rules 6 and θ, to make plans and to utilize Rules 10 and 12 directly to adjust the plans.It is seen that plans of track utilization can be made quickly and reasonably by use of the proposed model and algorithms.Track utilization with time windows can be accomplished effectively and all resources in stations can be fully utilized.%股道运用计划是实现CTC条件下客运站分散自律控制的关键.以时刻表、股道和站台为研究对象,结合进路编排、维修和列车早晚点时间窗,在分析股道运用平行机排序和多目标排序问题的基础上,运用现代排序理论,以总费用最小和股道均衡使用为目标函数,建立股道运用第一类多目标窗时排序模型.采用基本和合成分派规则、解改进优

  16. Influence of Cr and W alloying on the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength in cast and directionally solidified sapphire NiAl composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Tiwari, R.; Tewari, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Sapphire-reinforced NiAl matrix composites with chromium or tungsten as alloying additions were synthesized using casting and zone directional solidification (DS) techniques and characterized by a fiber pushout test as well as by microhardness measurements. The sapphire-NiAl(Cr) specimens exhibited an interlayer of Cr rich eutectic at the fiber-matrix interface and a higher interfacial shear strength compared to unalloyed sapphire-NiAl specimens processed under identical conditions. In contrast, the sapphire-NiAl(W) specimens did not show interfacial excess of tungsten rich phases, although the interfacial shear strength was high and comparable to that of sapphire-NiAl(Cr). The postdebond sliding stress was higher in sapphire-NiAl(Cr) than in sapphire-NiAl(W) due to interface enrichment with chromium particles. The matrix microhardness progressively decreased with increasing distance from the interface in both DS NiAl and NiAl(Cr) specimens. The study highlights the potential of casting and DS techniques to improve the toughness and strength of NiAl by designing dual-phase microstructures in NiAl alloys reinforced with sapphire fibers.

  17. Use of Be(p,{alpha}) and Be(p,d) Reactions to Determine Be Content in Sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C. B. [Radiation Science Department, Necsa, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-12-13

    Since natural coloured sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) commands a high gem stone market price there is a need for a reliable method of identifying artificially coloured sapphire that has an inherently lower value. Diffusing beryllium into sapphire at high temperatures results in a coloured stone virtually indistinguishable from a natural one. Beryllium can occur naturally in sapphire but at levels of <1 ppma. Beryllium diffused sapphire typically contains >10 ppma, which is difficult to determine in a non destructive way. It is possible to utilize nuclear reaction analysis techniques to determine the beryllium content in a macroscopically non destructive way. Kinematically ideal reactions are Be(p,{alpha}) and Be(p,d) which, for Ep = 0.5 to 0.9 MeV, exhibit distinct reaction product signatures well separated from other proton induced reactions in aluminium or oxygen. Due to the lack of comprehensive cross section data for the Be(p,{alpha}) and Be(p,d) reactions in the energy range of interest, a series of measurements were made at the Van de Graaff accelerator facility at Necsa to create a new data base. A further outcome of these measurements was a deviation in reported values for the non-Rutherfordian proton back-scatter cross section. These new data bases, which extend to Ep = 2.6MeV, can now facilitate a procedure for determining beryllium content in sapphire.

  18. Surface modification of sapphire by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    The range of microstructures and properties of sapphire (single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that are produced by ion implantation are discussed with respect to the implantation parameters of ion species, fluence, irradiation temperature and the orientation of the ion beam relative to crystallographic axes. The microstructure of implanted sapphire may be crystalline with varying concentrations of defects or it may be amorphous perhaps with short-range order. At moderate to high fluences, implanted metallic ions often coalesce into pure metallic colloids and gas ions form bubbles. Many of the implanted microstructural features have been identified from studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling. The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties reflect the microstructures.

  19. The growth of sapphire single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEVAN DJURIC

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Sapphire (Al2O3 single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique both in air and argon atmospheres. The conditions for growing sapphire single crystals were calculated by using a combination of Reynolds and Grashof numbers. Acritical crystal diameter dc = 20 mm and the critical rate of rotation wc = 20 rpm were calculated from the hydrodynamics of the melt. The value of the rate of crystal growth was experimentally found to be 3.5 mm/h. According to our previous experiments, it was confirmed that three hours exposures to conc. H3PO4 at 593 K was suitable for chemical polishing. Also, three hours exposure to conc.H3PO4 at 523 K was found to be a suitable etching solution. The lattice parameters a = 0.47573 nm and c = 1.29893 nm were determined by X-ray powder diffraction. The obtained results are discussed and compared with published data.

  20. Gasochromic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, V.; Datz, M.; Ell, J.; Georg, A.; Graf, W.; Walze, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Gasochromic windows can change their transmittance over a wide range. This change is caused by a thin layer of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), covered by a very thin layer of platinum. Exposing this coating to diluted hydrogen gas leads to reduction of the WO{sub 3}, resulting in colouring. This process can be reversed by introducing diluted oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are produced by an electrolyser. Only small amounts of gas are needed for the switching process. The coatings are produced by sputtering. Water is needed in the WO{sub 3} films to allow rapid transport of the hydrogen. However, this water should not escape when the system is operated at higher temperatures, which can exceed 60 deg C. By adjusting the conditions of the sputtering process appropriately, a large amount of water can be incorporated in the films, which remains even up to temperatures above 100 deg C. The best transmittance values obtained for a coated double-glazed unit with a moderate film thickness (560 nm) and hydrogen concentrations below the combustion limit are 76% and 77% for solar and visual transmittance, respectively, in the bleached state and 5% and 6% for solar and visual transmittance, respectively, in the coloured state. Darker states can be obtained by applying thicker films of tungsten oxide without reducing the transmittance in the bleached state. Gasochromic coatings can also be deposited easily on plastic substrates and - because their coating structure is so simple - combined with prismatic microstructures, which allow light to be redirected. In addition, the gasochromic systems technology can be used with metal hydride systems. (Author)

  1. Photonic detection and characterization of DNA using sapphire microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Serpengüzel, Ali; Murib, Mohammed Sharif; Yeap, Weng-Siang; Martens, Daan; Bienstman, Peter; De Ceuninck, Ward; van Grinsven, Bart; Schoening, Michael J.; Michiels, Luc; Haenen, Ken; Ameloot, Marcel; Wagner, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A microcavity-based deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) optical biosensor is demonstrated for the first time using synthetic sapphire for the optical cavity. Transmitted and elastic scattering intensity at 1510 nm are analyzed from a sapphire microsphere (radius 500 mu m, refractive index 1.77) on an optical fiber half coupler. The 0.43 nm angular mode spacing of the resonances correlates well with the optical size of the sapphire sphere. Probe DNA consisting of a 36-mer fragment was covalently immob...

  2. Sapphire Multiple Filament and Large Plate Growth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-10-01

    for sapphire filaments is scrap white verneuil -grown sapphire boules. These boules are processed here at Tyco to achieve the proper mesh size...entrapped liquid freeze, they shrink, resulting in voids. Raw material for our growth process is provided by use of scap verneuil sapphire boules. In...J ;~ ;t" ,, ,, .. ::~ ,:~~\\i : i .<’\\ :1 ’ r .,l,, .. ’ ... :,J_ ’ ’~~ .. ;~ 1-.. i d;·, AFML-TR -7---190 1;).-- SAPPHIRE MULTIPLE

  3. REINFORCEMENT OF NICKEL CHROMIUM ALLOYS WITH SAPPHIRE WHISKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAPPHIRE, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, CERAMIC FIBERS , CERAMIC FIBERS , TITANIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, HYDRIDES, ADDITIVES, CHROMIUM ALLOYS, FIBER METALLURGY, IRON COMPOUNDS, ENCAPSULATION, DENSITY, SURFACE TENSION.

  4. High-power solid-state sapphire whispering gallery mode maser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Daniel L; Benmessaï, Karim; Tobar, Michael E; Hartnett, John G; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Kersale, Yann; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Giordano, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    We present new results on a cryogenic solid-state maser frequency standard, which relies on the excitation of whispering gallery (WG) modes within a doped monocrystalline sapphire resonator (alpha-Al2O3). Included substitutively within the highest purity HEMEX-grade sapphire crystal lattice are Fe2+ impurities at a concentration of parts per million, an unavoidable result of the manufacturing process. Mass conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+ ions was achieved by thermally annealing the sapphire in air. Above-threshold maser oscillation was then excited in the resonator at zero applied DC magnetic field by pumping high-Q WG modes coincident in frequency with the electron spin resonance (ESR) energy levels of the Fe3+ spin population. A 2 stage annealing process was undertaken for a sapphire resonator with exceptionally low Fe3+ concentration, resulting in an improvement of 6 orders of magnitude in output power for this particular crystal, and exceeding the previous best implementation of our scheme in another crystal by nearly 20 dB. This represents an output signal 7 orders of magnitude more powerful than a typical commercial hydrogen maser. At this power level, we estimate a limit on the frequency stability of order 1 x 10(-17)/square root(tau) due to the Schawlow-Townes fundamental thermal noise limit.

  5. Thermal Stresses and Cracks During the Growth of Large-sized Sapphire with SAPMAC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The finite-element method has been used to study the thermal stress distribution in large-sized sapphire crystals grown with the sapphire growth technique with micro-pulling and shoulder-expanding at cooled center (SAPMAC) method. A critical defect model has been established to explain the growth and propagation of cracks during the sapphire growing process. It is demonstrated that the stress field depends on the growth rate, the ambient temperature and the crystallizing direction. High stresses always exist near the growth interfaces, at the shoulder-expanding locations, the tailing locations and the sites where the diameters undergo sharp changes. The maximum stresses always occur at the interface of seeds and crystals. Cracks often form in the critical defect region and spread in the m-planes and a-planes under applied tensile stresses during crystal growth. The experimental results have verified that with the improved system of crystal growth and well-controlled techniques, the large-sized sapphire crystals of high quality can be grown due to absence of cracks.

  6. Superexciplex of Coumarin Molecules using Tunable Ti-Sapphire Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh Ali; Al-Dwayyan, Abdullah S.; Masilamani, Vadivel; Al-Saud, Turki Saud M.; Al-Salhi, Mohammed Saleh

    2003-10-01

    Certain highly polar dye molecules exhibit an additional optical gain band under pulsed laser excitation, while there is no such band under steady-state continuous wave (CW) lamp excitation. This new band is not due to an excimer, an exciplex or a two-photon fluorescence band but stems from the formation of a new molecular complex in which two excited molecules remain associated with a solvent molecule acting as a bridge. In this paper, the characteristics of superexciplexes of four related coumarin molecules are presented. All molecules were excited using a tunable Ti-sapphire laser pulse 10 ns in width. The distinct difference between the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra obtained with tunable laser and tunable lamp excitation demonstrated that twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) conformations might also assist in the formation of these superexciplexes.

  7. Structure of the Dislocation in Sapphire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen; Thölen, A. R.; Gooch, D. J.;

    1976-01-01

    of ⅓ 01 0 and are separated by two identical faults. The distance between two partials is in the range 75-135 Å, corresponding to a fault energy of 320±60 mJ/m2. Perfect 01 0 dislocations have also been observed. These dislocations exhibited either one or two peaks when imaged in the (03 0) reflection......Experimental evidence of the existence of 01 0 dislocations in the {2 0} prism planes in sapphire has been obtained by transmission electron microscopy. By the weak-beam technique it has been shown that the 01 0 dislocations may dissociate into three partials. The partials all have a Burgers vector...

  8. A novel vacuum window for megawatt gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, George Stephenson

    2001-08-01

    This thesis describes a new microwave output window for megawatt power level, 110 GHz gyrotrons. The window uses two spherically polished sapphire elements separated by a nearly uniform gap of about 1 mm. Pressurized, microwave transparent coolant flows through this gap and across the transmitting aperture, removing absorbed energy at the element face. The design differs from previous face- cooled windows because the sapphire elements have a modestly curved dome, rather than flat shape. This curved shape increases the element's capability to withstand coolant pressures without significantly increasing stresses from differential heating. Consequently, window power can be increased either through enhanced, high pressure cooling or by using thinner elements with reduced microwave absorption. A model was developed to predict window power capability as a function of design geometry. This model predicted an increase from 0.5 to 2.1 MW when flat elements were changed to curved. Both designs used full size, 100mm clear apertures, but the curved elements with 214 mm curvature radii were 1.3 rather than 1.75 mm thick. The model was also used to design a half size prototype experiment. This 50 mm clear aperture system used 60 mm OD x 0.47 mm thick x 107 mm surface radius elements. An initial piece was fabricated and statically tested to a pressure of 1.1 MPa well above the 0.5 MPa analytically predicted to be required for megawatt operation. The complete window structure was then fabricated, including instrumentation to simulate microwave heating and to measure induced temperatures and strains. Test results demonstrated an equivalent continuous Gaussian beam power capability of 700 kW using a coolant flow of 1.1 lps. Scaling from this measurement, fall size boiling limited power is expected to be 1.1 MW for a Gaussian microwave intensity profile, or 2.3 MW for a shaped profile typical of previous flat, face-cooled designs. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm

  9. Double Sided Si(Ge)/Sapphire/III-Nitride Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention is a double sided hybrid crystal structure including a trigonal Sapphire wafer containing a (0001) C-plane and having front and rear sides. The Sapphire wafer is substantially transparent to light in the visible and infrared spectra, and also provides insulation with respect to electromagnetic radio frequency noise. A layer of crystalline Si material having a cubic diamond structure aligned with the cubic direction on the (0001) C-plane and strained as rhombohedron to thereby enable continuous integration of a selected (SiGe) device onto the rear side of the Sapphire wafer. The double sided hybrid crystal structure further includes an integrated III-Nitride crystalline layer on the front side of the Sapphire wafer that enables continuous integration of a selected III-Nitride device on the front side of the Sapphire wafer.

  10. A window on urban sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  11. Rain Erosion Behavior of Silicon Dioxide Films Prepared on Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping FENG; Zhengtang LIU; Wenting LIU

    2005-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were prepared on sapphire (α-Al2O3) by radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering in order to in crease both transmission and rain erosion resistant performance of infrared domes of sapphire. Composition and structure of SiO2 films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD),respectively. The transmittance of uncoated and coated sapphire was measured using a Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectrometer. Rain erosion tests of the uncoated and coated sapphire were performed at 211 m/s impact velocity with an exposure time ranging from 1 to 8 min on a whirling arm rig. Results show that the deposited films can greatly increase the transmission of sapphire in mid-wave IR. After rain erosion test, decreases in normalized transmission were less than 1% for designed SiO2 films and the SiO2 coating was strongly bonded to the sapphire substrate. In addition, sapphires coated with SiO2 films had a higher transmittance than uncoated ones after rain erosion.

  12. Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowersox, G.W.; Foord, E.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Shigley, J.E.; Smith, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study provides detailed mining and gemological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble. Some facet-grade ruby has been recovered, but most of the material consists of semitransparent pink sapphire of cabochon or carving quality. The most common internal features are dense concentrations of healed and nonhealed fracture planes and lamellar twin planes. Color zoning is common, and calcite, apatite, zircon, mica, iron sulfide minerals, graphite, rutile, aluminum hydroxide, and other minerals are also present in some samples. Although the reserves appear to be large, future potential will depend on the establishment of a stable government and the introduction of modern mining and exploration techniques. ?? 2000 Gemological Institute of America.

  13. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  14. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  15. Synthesis of titanium sapphire by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morpeth, L.D.; McCallum, J.C.; Nugent, K.W. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1998-06-01

    Since laser action was first demonstrated in titanium sapphire (Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in 1982, it has become the most widely used tunable solid state laser source. The development of a titanium sapphire laser in a waveguide geometry would yield an elegant, compact, versatile and highly tunable light source useful for applications in many areas including optical telecommunications. We are investigating whether ion implantation techniques can be utilised to produce suitable crystal quality and waveguide geometry for fabrication of a Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waveguide laser. The implantation of Ti and O ions into c-axis oriented {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by subsequent thermal annealing under various conditions has been investigated as a means of forming the waveguide and optimising the fraction of Ti ions that have the correct oxidation state required for laser operation. A Raman Microprobe is being used to investigate the photo-luminescence associated with Ti{sup 3+} ion. Initial photoluminescence measurements of ion implanted samples are encouraging and reveal a broad luminescence profile over a range of {approx} .6 to .9 {mu}m, similar to that expected from Ti{sup 3+}. Rutherford Backscattering and Ion Channelling analysis have been used to study the crystal structure of the samples following implantation and annealing. This enables optimisation of the implantation parameters and annealing conditions to minimise defect levels which would otherwise limit the ability of light to propagate in the Ti:Al{sub 2O}3 waveguide. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Polishing Sapphire Substrates by 355 nm Ultraviolet Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate a novel polishing technology with high efficiency and nice surface quality for sapphire crystal that has high hardness, wear resistance, and chemical stability. A Q-switched 355 nm ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses was set up and used to polish sapphire substrate in different conditions in this paper. Surface roughness Ra of polished sapphire was measured with surface profiler, and the surface topography was observed with scanning electronic microscope. The effects of processing parameters as laser energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed, incident angle, scanning patterns, and initial surface conditions on surface roughness were analyzed.

  17. Influence of TMAl preflow on AlN epitaxy on sapphire

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding

    2017-05-12

    The trimethylaluminum (TMAl) preflow process has been widely applied on sapphire substrates prior to growing Al-polar AlN films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. However, it has been unclear how the TMAl preflow process really works. In this letter, we reported on carbon\\'s significance in the polarity and growth mode of AlN films due to the TMAl preflow. Without the preflow, no trace of carbon was found at the AlN/sapphire interface and the films possessed mixed Al- and N-polarity. With the 5 s preflow, carbon started to precipitate due to the decomposition of TMAl, forming scattered carbon-rich clusters which were graphitic carbon. It was discovered that the carbon attracted surrounding oxygen impurity atoms and consequently suppressed the formation of AlxOyNz and thus N-polarity. With the 40 s preflow, the significant presence of carbon clusters at the AlN/sapphire interface was observed. While still attracting oxygen and preventing the N-polarity, the carbon clusters served as randomly distributed masks to further induce a 3D growth mode for the AlN growth. The corresponding epitaxial growth mode change is discussed.

  18. High Power Widely Tunable Narrow Linewidth All-Solid-State Pulsed Titanium-Doped Sapphire Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xin; LI Xue; SHENG Quan; SHI Chun-Peng; YIN Su-Jia; LI Bin; YU Xuan-Yi; WEN Wu-Qi; YAO Jian-Quan

    2011-01-01

    We report a widely tunable, narrow linewidth, pulsed Ti:sapphire laser pumped by an all-solid-state Q-switched intra-cavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. By using four dense Bint glass prisms as intra-cavity dispersive elements, the output wavelength can be continuously tuned over 675-970 nm and the spectral linewidth is shortened to 0.5nm. The maximum output power of 6.65 W at 780 nm is obtained under 23.4 Wpump power with repetition rate of 5.5 kHz; corresponding to an conversion efficiency of 28.4%. Due to the gain-switching characteristics of the Ti:sapphire laser, the output pulse duration is as short as 17.6ns.%@@ We report a widely tunable,narrow linewidth,pulsed Th:sapphire laser pumped by an all-solid-state Q-switched intra-cavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser.By using four dense flint glass prisms as intra-cavity dispersive elements,the output wavelength can be continuously tuned over 675-970nm and the spectral linewidth is shortened to 0.5 nm.The maximum output power of 6.65 W at 780 run is obtained under 23.4 W pump power with repetition rate of 5.5 kHz,corresponding to an conversion efficiency of 28.4%.Due to the gain-switching characteristics of the Ti:sapphire laser,the output pulse duration is as short as 17.6ns.

  19. The frequency-dependent AC photoresistance behavior of ZnO thin films grown on different sapphire substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholula-Díaz, Jorge L; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Videa, Marcelo; Yin, Chunhai; Esquinazi, Pablo

    2017-09-13

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were grown by pulsed layer deposition under an N2 atmosphere at low pressures on a- and r-plane sapphire substrates. Structural studies using X-ray diffraction confirmed that all films had a wurtzite phase. ZnO thin films on a- and r-plane sapphire have grown with orientations along the [0002] and [112[combining macron]0] directions, respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements indicate that the presence of native point defects (interstitial zinc, oxygen vacancies, oxygen antisites and zinc vacancies) is more preponderant for ZnO thin films grown on the r-plane sapphire substrate than the sample grown on the a-plane sapphire substrate. Room temperature impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed in an alternating current frequency range from 40 to 10(5) Hz in the dark and under normal light. An unusual positive photoresistance effect is observed at frequencies above 100 kHz, which we suggest to be due to intrinsic defects present in the ZnO thin films. Furthermore, an analysis of the optical time response revealed that the film grown on the r-plane sapphire substrate responds faster (characteristic relaxation times for τ1, τ2 and τ3 of 0.05, 0.26 and 6.00 min, respectively) than the film grown on the a-plane sapphire substrate (characteristic relaxation times for τ1, τ2 and τ3 of 0.10, 0.73 and 4.02 min, respectively).

  20. Alkali-vapor cell with metal coated windows for efficient application of an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisyan, D.; Sarkisyan, A. S.; Guéna, J.; Lintz, M.; Bouchiat, M.-A.

    2005-05-01

    We describe the implementation of a cylindrical T-shaped alkali-vapor cell for laser spectroscopy in the presence of a longitudinal electric field. The two windows are used as two electrodes of the high-voltage assembly, which is made possible by a metallic coating which entirely covers the inner and outer sides of the windows except for a central area to let the laser beams in and out of the cell. This allows very efficient application of the electric field, up to 2kV/cm in a rather dense superheated vapor, even when significant photoemission takes place at the windows during pulsed laser irradiation. The body of the cell is made of sapphire or alumina ceramic to prevent large currents resulting from surface conduction observed in cesiated glass cells. The technique used to attach the monocrystalline sapphire windows to the cell body causes minimal stress birefringence in the windows. In addition, reflection losses at the windows can be made very small. The vapor cell operates with no buffer gas and has no magnetic part. The use of this kind of cell has resulted in an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement of parity violation in cesium vapor underway at ENS, Paris. The technique can be applied to other situations where a brazed assembly would give rise to unacceptably large birefringence in the windows.

  1. Buffer layers for high-Tc thin films on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. D.; Foltyn, S. R.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Cooke, D. W.; Pique, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.; Belohoubek, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buffer layers of various oxides including CeO2 and yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been deposited on R-plane sapphire. The orientation and crystallinity of the layers were optimized to promote epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films. An ion beam channeling minimum yield of about 3 percent was obtained in the CeO2 layer on sapphire, indicating excellent crystallinity of the buffer layer. Among the buffer materials used, CeO2 was found to be the best one for YBCO thin films on R-plane sapphire. High Tc and Jc were obtained in YBCO thin films on sapphire with buffer layers. Surface resistances of the YBCO films were about 4 mOmega at 77 K and 25 GHz.

  2. Study on the Anisotropy of Meniscus in the Growing Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Tai; ZUO Hong-bo; HAN Jie-cai; MENG Song-he; ZHANG Ming-fu; LI Chang-qing; Grigoryan Benik

    2006-01-01

    This study is aimed at predicting the relationship between the meniscus and the quality of the sapphire crystals produced by the micro-pulling and shoulder at cooled center (SAPMIC) technique. As with different orientations, the shapes of the meniscus vary, so an investigation into the anisotropy of the meniscus shapes is very important for the final quality of the sapphire crystal. An effective model to describe meniscus shapes and their formation process has been presented. The model has been applied to a sapphire crystal of 200 mm diameter in order to check its reliability. The results show that the model proves to be useful for forecasting the final shapes of the sapphire crystal made by the SAPMIC technique.

  3. Buffer layers for high-Tc thin films on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. D.; Foltyn, S. R.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Cooke, D. W.; Pique, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.; Belohoubek, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buffer layers of various oxides including CeO2 and yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been deposited on R-plane sapphire. The orientation and crystallinity of the layers were optimized to promote epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films. An ion beam channeling minimum yield of about 3 percent was obtained in the CeO2 layer on sapphire, indicating excellent crystallinity of the buffer layer. Among the buffer materials used, CeO2 was found to be the best one for YBCO thin films on R-plane sapphire. High Tc and Jc were obtained in YBCO thin films on sapphire with buffer layers. Surface resistances of the YBCO films were about 4 mOmega at 77 K and 25 GHz.

  4. Second generation 50 K dual-mode sapphire oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstie, James D; Hartnett, John G; Tobar, Michael E; Ivanov, Eugene N; Stanwix, Paul L

    2006-02-01

    Low-temperature, high-precision sapphire resonators exhibit a turning point in mode frequency-temperature dependence at around 10 K. This, along with sapphire's extremely low dielectric losses at microwave frequencies, results in oscillator fractional frequency stabilities on the order of 10(-15). At higher temperatures the lack of a turning point makes single-mode oscillators very sensitive to temperature fluctuations. By exciting two quasi-orthogonal whispering gallery (WG) modes in a single sapphire resonator, a turning point in the frequency-temperature dependence can be found in the beat frequency between the two modes. A temperature control technique based on mode frequency temperature dependence has been used to maintain the sapphire at this turning point and the fractional frequency instability of the beat frequency has been measured to be at a level of 4.3 X 10(-14) over 1 s, dropping to 3.5 X 10(-14) over 4 s integration time.

  5. Nanostructured sapphire optical fiber for sensing in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Kai; Ma, Yiwei; Tian, Fei; Du, Henry

    2017-05-01

    We describe an innovative and scalable strategy of transforming a commercial unclad sapphire optical fiber to an allalumina nanostructured sapphire optical fiber (NSOF) that overcomes decades-long challenges faced in the field of sapphire fiber optics. The strategy entails fiber coating with metal Al followed by subsequent anodization to form anodized alumina oxide (AAO) cladding of highly organized pore channel structure. We show that Ag nanoparticles entrapped in AAO show excellent structural and morphological stability and less susceptibility to oxidation for potential high-temperature surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). We reveal, with aid of numerical simulations, that the AAO cladding greatly increases the evanescent-field overlap both in power and extent and that lower porosity of AAO results in higher evanescent-field overlap. This work has opened the door to new sapphire fiber-based sensor design and sensor architecture.

  6. Neutron Transmission through Sapphire Crystals: Experiments and Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Filges, Uwe; Panzner, Tobias; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2013-01-01

    Sapphire crystals are excellent filters of fast neutrons, while at the same time exhibit moderate to very little absorption at smaller energies. We have performed an extensive series of measurements in order to quantify the above effect. Alongside our experiments, we have performed a series of simulations, in order to reproduce the transmission of cold neutrons through sapphire crystals. Thosesimulations were part of the effort of validating and improving the newly developed interface between...

  7. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  8. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  9. Windows 7 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Get more done and have more fun with Windows 7 Windows 7 is loaded with features, tools, and shortcuts designedto make life easier for all users. This handy guide is sure to makeWindows as clear as can be. It helps you get started, use foldersand files, find handy gadgets, and search on your PC or online. Open the book and find: Ways to find photos, music, and video on your PCAdvice on jazzing up the Windows 7 interfaceReasons for making the switch to Windows 7Tools for staying organizedSteps for setting up your user accounts and passwords

  10. Investigation of sapphire detector designed for single particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacheban, Olena; Hempel, Maria [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Levy, Itamar [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Lohmann, Wolfgang [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Novgorodova, Olga [Technical University, Dresden (Germany); Schuwalow, Sergej [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For beam halo and beam loss monitoring systems at accelerators extremely radiation hard sensors are needed. Single crystal sapphire is a promising material. Industrially grown sapphire wafers are available in large sizes, are low in cost and can be operated at room temperature. Currently sapphire sensors are used for a beam-loss monitor at FLASH,detecting bunches of particles crossing the sensors simultaneously. Here we present a multichannel detector designed for single minimum ionising particle detection using a stack of sapphire plates. The performance of the detector was studied in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY-II. The detector was operated together with the EUDET beam telescope, which allowed the reconstruction of the position of the hits at the detector. For each sapphire plate the charge collection efficiency was measured as a function of the bias voltage and the signal size as a function of the hit position with respect to the metal electrodes. The data confirms that mainly electrons contribute to the signal. Based on these results the next generation sapphire detector will be designed.

  11. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN dots on nitrided sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Dengel, Radu-Gabriel; Stebounova, LarissaV.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2007-04-20

    A series of self-assembled InN dots are grown by radio frequency (RF) plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) directly on nitrided sapphire. Initial nitridation of the sapphire substrates at 900 C results in the formation of a rough AlN surface layer, which acts as a very thin buffer layer and facilitates the nucleation of the InN dots according to the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode, with a wetting layer of {approx}0.9 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that well-confined InN nanoislands with the greatest height/width at half-height ratio of 0.64 can be grown at 460 C. Lower substrate temperatures result in a reduced aspect ratio due to a lower diffusion rate of the In adatoms, whereas the thermal decomposition of InN truncates the growth at T>500 C. The densities of separated dots vary between 1.0 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} and 2.5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} depending on the growth time. Optical response of the InN dots under laser excitation is studied with apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, although no photoluminescence is observed from these samples. In view of the desirable implementation of InN nanostructures into photonic devices, the results indicate that nitrided sapphire is a suitable substrate for growing self-assembled InN nanodots.

  12. Growth of p-CdTe thin films on n-GaN/sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Chun, Seunju; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jihyun

    2011-07-01

    CdTe thin film was successfully grown on GaN/Sapphire substrate using a close spaced sublimation (CSS) system for the applications in solar cells. CdTe thin film was characterized by SEM, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The growth rate was 1 μm/min. In addition, we confirmed that CdCl 2 treatment beneficially influenced the structure and composition of the CdTe thin films. CdCl 2 treatment which has been known that it improved the efficiency of the CdS/CdTe solar cells, produced similar positive effects such as increasing the CdTe grain size and reducing the number of pin-holes. The growth of the CdTe thin film by CSS method produced nominal effects on biaxial strain and carrier concentrations in the GaN/Sapphire substrate. The CdTe thin film grown on the GaN/Sapphire substrate holds great promise for use in solar cell applications due to its several advantages.

  13. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN dots on nitrided sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Dengel, Radu-Gabriel; Stebounova, LarissaV.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2007-04-20

    A series of self-assembled InN dots are grown by radio frequency (RF) plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) directly on nitrided sapphire. Initial nitridation of the sapphire substrates at 900 C results in the formation of a rough AlN surface layer, which acts as a very thin buffer layer and facilitates the nucleation of the InN dots according to the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode, with a wetting layer of {approx}0.9 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that well-confined InN nanoislands with the greatest height/width at half-height ratio of 0.64 can be grown at 460 C. Lower substrate temperatures result in a reduced aspect ratio due to a lower diffusion rate of the In adatoms, whereas the thermal decomposition of InN truncates the growth at T>500 C. The densities of separated dots vary between 1.0 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} and 2.5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} depending on the growth time. Optical response of the InN dots under laser excitation is studied with apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, although no photoluminescence is observed from these samples. In view of the desirable implementation of InN nanostructures into photonic devices, the results indicate that nitrided sapphire is a suitable substrate for growing self-assembled InN nanodots.

  14. Preparation, properties and application of sapphire single-crystal fibers grown by the EFG method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubát J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sapphire – the single crystal of aluminum oxide (Al2O3 – is one of the most important artificially produced materials. The sapphire fibres studied were grown in Crytur using the “edge-defined film-fed growth” (EFG technique. Their unique physical and chemical properties can be employed in various applications. Due to their high refractive index and a broad transmission band spanning the ultraviolet, visible and infrared bands, sapphire fibres are perfect waveguides in harsh environments. The current major applications are Er:YAG laser beam delivery and pyrometric and spectrometric measurements in furnaces, combustion engines, etc. In this paper we summarize an adjustment of the EFG method to grow thin filaments by giving possible molybdenum die designs. We investigated the fibres using an optical microscope and measured their transmission of an Er:YAG laser beam (2.94 μm. The attenuation of the tested samples is approximately 0.1 dB/cm.

  15. Ti : sapphire laser synchronised with femtosecond Yb pump laser via nonlinear pulse coupling in Ti : sapphire active medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, N. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Konyashchenko, D. A.; Kostryukov, P. V.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Lutsenko, A. P.; Mavritskiy, A. O.

    2017-02-01

    A laser system utilising the method of synchronous pumping of a Ti : sapphire laser by a high-power femtosecond Yb3+-doped laser is described. The pulse repetition rate of the Ti : sapphire laser is successfully locked to the repetition rate of the Yb laser for more than 6 hours without the use of any additional electronics. The measured timing jitter is shown to be less than 1 fs. A simple qualitative model addressing the synchronisation mechanism utilising the cross-phase modulation of oscillation and pump pulses within a Ti : sapphire active medium is proposed. Output parameters of the Ti : sapphire laser as functions of its cavity length are discussed in terms of this model.

  16. GaN on sapphire mesa technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfurth, Patrick; Men, Yakiv; Kohn, Erhard [Institute of Electron Devices and Circuits, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Roesch, Rudolph [Institute of Optoelectronics, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Carlin, Jean-Francois; Grandjean, Nicolas [Laboratory of Advanced Semiconductors for Photonics and Electronics, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-03-15

    This contribution reports on a GaN on sapphire mesa technology for lattice matched InAlN/GaN HEMTs similar to a silicon on insulator technology. Ultrathin buffer layers between 500 nm and 100 nm have been deep mesa etched down to the substrate to avoid cross talk between devices through the buffer and provide full transparency outside the active device area (of special interest to biochemical sensor applications).The heterostructure characteristics were: N{sub S}> 1.6 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, R{sub sh}< 600 {omega}/{open_square}. 0.25 {mu}m gate length HEMT device characteristics are moderate, but essentially similar down to 200 nm buffer thickness. Devices on 100 nm buffer layer are still difficult to reproduce. I{sub on}/I{sub off} was up to 10{sup 9} and sub-threshold slopes down to 90 mV/dec (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. 交货期窗口下小批量食品机械制造车间柔性调度%Research on flexible scheduling problem of small sized food machinery manufacturing job shop with due-date window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋娟

    2012-01-01

    生产调度是保证制造车间生产有序、稳定运行的决定性因素,传统算法很难针对多目标柔性调度问题进行建模和有效求解.在此提出一种动态交货期窗口下基于遗传算法和模拟退火算法的混合式智能优化算法,并针对该类大规模组合优化问题进行建模仿真,采用著名的FT06 Benchmark对该算法的调度性能进行基准测试.结果表明,所提出混合式优化算法针对多目标,小批量食品机械制造车间柔性调度问题搜索效率高,质量稳定,具有较好地全局优化能力.%Food processing and packaging machinery industry is an important technical foundation for the food industry. With higher requirements for food variety and quality, it is urgent for the food machinery manufacturing industry to innovate and update the traditional techniques. The production scheduling is a key of success in the orderly and stable job-shop production. The traditional scheduling method is hard to model and solve the multi-objective combinatorial optimizations in realistic manufacturing system. In this paper an hybrid optimal algorithm,integrating genttic algorithm with simulated annealing algorithm, is developed to optimize flexible scheduling objective of E/T with due-date window. In addition,mathematical model is established. To testify optimization feasibility,the proposed approach has been simulated on FT06 benchmarks. Simulation results show that the proposed can effectively improve search efficiency,achieve better solution quality and global optimization.

  18. Interferometric windows characterization up to 450 K for shock wave experiments: Hugoniot curves and refractive index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godefroit J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional shock wave experiments need interferometric windows in order to determine the equation of state of a large variety of metals. Lithium fluoride (LiF and sapphire are extensively used for that purpose because their optical transparencies enable the optical diagnostics at interfaces under a given range of shock pressure. In order to simulate and analyse the experiments it is necessary to gather a correct knowledge of the optical and mechanical properties of these windows. Therefore, our window supplies are systematically characterized and an experimental campaign under shock loading is conducted. Our preliminary work on LiF windows at 532 nm is in good agreement with literature data at room temperature and the new characterization at 450 K enables a better interpretation of our preheated target experiments. It confirms the predominant effect of density on optical properties under pressure and temperature. The present work demonstrates that the initial density determination is a key point and that the uncertainties need to be improved. For that purpose, complementary experiments are conducted on LiF windows with simplified target designs and enriched diagnostics, coupling VISAR (532 nm and PdV (1550 nm diagnostics. Furthermore, a similar campaign is conducted on sapphire windows with symmetric impact configuration.

  19. An Alkali-Vapor Cell with Metal Coated Windows for Efficient Application of an Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkisyan, D; Guena, J; Lintz, M; Bouchiat, M A; Sarkisyan, David; Gu\\'{e}na, Jocelyne; Lintz, Michel; Bouchiat, Marie-Anne

    2005-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a cylindrical T-shaped alkali-vapor cell for laser spectroscopy in the presence of a longitudinal electric field. The two windows are used as two electrodes of the high-voltage assembly, which is made possible by a metallic coating which entirely covers the inner and outer sides of the windows except for a central area to let the laser beams in and out of the cell. This allows very efficient application of the electric field, up to 2 kV/cm in a rather dense superheated vapor, even when significant photoemission takes place at the windows during pulsed laser irradiation. The body of the cell is made of sapphire or alumina ceramic to prevent large currents resulting from surface conduction observed in cesiated glass cells. The technique used to attach the monocrystalline sapphire windows to the cell body causes minimal stress birefringence in the windows. In addition, reflection losses at the windows can be made very small. The vapor cell operates with no buffer gas and has no ...

  20. Structural properties, crystal quality and growth modes of MOCVD-grown AlN with TMAl pretreatment of sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiding; Wu, Feng; tahtamouni, T. M. Al; Alfaraj, Nasir; Li, Kuang-Hui; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-10-01

    The growth of high quality AlN epitaxial films relies on precise control of the initial growth stages. In this work, we examined the influence of the trimethylaluminum (TMAl) pretreatment of sapphire substrates on the structural properties, crystal quality and growth modes of heteroepitaxial AlN films on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates. Without the pretreatment, the AlN films nucleated on the smooth surface but exhibited mixed crystallographic Al- (N-) polarity, resulting in rough AlN film surfaces. With increasing the pretreatment time from 1 to 5 s, the N-polarity started to be impeded. However, small islands were formed on sapphire surface due to the decompostion of TMAl. As a result, small voids became noticeable at the nucleation layer (NL) because the growth started as quasi three-dimensional (3D) but transformed to 2D mode as the film grew thicker and got coalesced, leading to smoother and Al-polar films. On the other hand, longer pretreatment time of 40 s formed large 3D islands on sapphire, and thus initiated a 3D-growth mode of the AlN film, generating Al-polar AlN nanocolumns with different facets, which resulted into rougher film surfaces. The epitaxial growth modes and their correlation with the AlN film crystal quality under different TMAl pretreatments are also discussed.

  1. The study on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Weng, Yung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire during nanomachining. The coated diamond probe is used to as a tool, and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) is as an experimental platform for nanomachining. To understand the effect of normal force on single-crystal sapphire machining, this study tested nano-line machining and nano-rectangular pattern machining at different normal force. In nano-line machining test, the experimental results showed that the normal force increased, the groove depth from nano-line machining also increased. And the trend is logarithmic type. In nano-rectangular pattern machining test, it is found when the normal force increases, the groove depth also increased, but rather the accumulation of small chips. This paper combined the blew by air blower, the cleaning by ultrasonic cleaning machine and using contact mode probe to scan the surface topology after nanomaching, and proposed the "criterion of nanomachining cutting model," in order to determine the cutting model of single-crystal sapphire in the nanomachining is ductile regime cutting model or brittle regime cutting model. After analysis, the single-crystal sapphire substrate is processed in small normal force during nano-linear machining; its cutting modes are ductile regime cutting model. In the nano-rectangular pattern machining, due to the impact of machined zones overlap, the cutting mode is converted into a brittle regime cutting model.

  2. Structural properties, crystal quality and growth modes of MOCVD-grown AlN with TMAl pretreatment of sapphire substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding

    2017-08-08

    The growth of high quality AlN epitaxial films relies on precise control of the initial growth stages. In this work, we examined the influence of the trimethylaluminum (TMAl) pretreatment of sapphire substrates on the structural properties, crystal quality and growth modes of heteroepitaxial AlN films on (0001) sapphire substrates. Without the pretreatment, the AlN films nucleated on the smooth surface but exhibited mixed crystallographic Al- (N-) polarity, resulting in rough AlN film surfaces. With increasing the pretreatment time from 1 to 5 s, the N-polarity started to be impeded. However, small islands were formed on sapphire surface due to the decompostion of TMAl. As a result, small voids became noticeable at the nucleation layer (NL) because the growth started as quasi three-dimensional (3D) but transformed to 2D mode as the film grew thicker and got coalesced, leading to smoother and Al-polar films. On the other hand, longer pretreatment time of 40 s formed large 3D islands on sapphire, and thus initiated a 3D-growth mode of the AlN film, generating Al-polar AlN nanocolumns with different facets, which resulted into rougher film surfaces. The epitaxial growth modes and their correlation with the AlN film crystal quality under different TMAl pretreatments are also discussed.

  3. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  4. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  5. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  6. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  7. A peek into the history of sapphire crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2003-09-01

    After the chemical compositions of sapphire and ruby were unraveled in the middle of the 19th century, chemists set out to grow artificial crystals of these valuable gemstones. In 1885 a dealer in Geneva began to sell ruby that is now believed to have been created by flame fusion. Gemnologists rapidly concluded that the stones were artificial, but the Geneva ruby stimulated A. V. L. Verneuil in Paris to develop a flame fusion process to produce higher quality ruby and sapphire. By 1900 there was brisk demand for ruby manufactured by Verneuil's method, even though Verneuil did not publicly announce his work until 1902 and did not publish details until 1904. The Verneuil process was used with little alteration for the next 50 years. From 1932-1953, S. K. Popov in the Soviet Union established a capability for manufacturing high quality sapphire by the Verneuil process. In the U.S., under government contract, Linde Air Products Co. implemented the Verneuil process for ruby and sapphire when European sources were cut off during World War II. These materials were essential to the war effort for jewel bearings in precision instruments. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Czochralski process was implemented by Linde and its successor, Union Carbide, to make higher crystal quality material for ruby lasers. Stimulated by a government contract for structural fibers in 1966, H. LaBelle invented edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG). The Saphikon company, which is currently owned by Saint-Gobain, evolved from this effort. Independently and simultaneously, Stepanov developed edge-defined film-fed growth in the Soviet Union. In 1967 F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki at the Army Materials Research Lab grew sapphire by the heat exchanger method (HEM). Schmid went on to establish Crystal Systems, Inc. around this technology. Rotem Industries, founded in Israel in 1969, perfected the growth of sapphire hemispheres and near-net-shape domes by gradient solidification. In the U.S., growth of near

  8. Evolution of the sapphire industry: Rubicon Technology and Gavish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2009-05-01

    A. Verneuil developed flame fusion to grow sapphire and ruby on a commercial scale around 1890. Flame fusion was further perfected by Popov in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and by Linde Air Products Co. in the U.S. during World War II. Union Carbide Corp., the successor to Linde, developed Czochralski crystal growth for sapphire laser materials in the 1960s. Stepanov in the Soviet Union published his sapphire growth method in 1959. Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth (EFG), which is similar to the Stepanov method, was developed by H. Labelle in the U. S. in the 1960s and 1970s. The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), invented by F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki in 1967 was commercialized in the 1970s. Gradient solidification was invented in Israel in the 1970s by J. Makovsky. The Horizontal Directional Solidification Method (HDSM) proposed by Kh. S. Bagdasorov in the Soviet Union in the 1960s was further developed at the Institute for Single Crystals in Ukraine. Kyropoulos growth of sapphire, known as GOI crystal growth in the Soviet Union, was developed by M. Musatov at the State Optical Institute in St. Petersburg in the 1970s and 1980s. At the Institute for Single Crystals in Ukraine, E. Dobrovinskaya characterized Verneuil, Czochralsky, Bagdasarov, and GOI sapphire. In 1995, she emigrated to the United States and joined S&R Rubicon, founded near Chicago by R. Mogilevsky initially to import sapphire and ruby. Mogilevsky began producing sapphire by the Kyropoulos method in 1999. In 2000 the company name was changed to Rubicon Technology. Today, Dobrovinskaya is Chief Scientist and Rubicon produces high quality Kyropoulos sapphire substrates for solid-state lighting. In 1995, H. Branover of Ben Gurion University and a sole investor founded Gavish, which is Hebrew for "crystal." They invited another veteran of the Ukrainian Institute for Single Crystals, V. Pishchik, to become Chief Scientist. Under Pishchik's technical leadership and J. Sragowicz's business leadership, Gavish now

  9. Scaling STI's sapphire cryocooler for applications requiring higher heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Abhijit; Fiedler, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Superconductor Technologies Inc. (STI) developed the Sapphire cryocooler specifically for the SuperLink® product; a high performance superconducting Radio Frequency (RF) front-end receiver used by wireless carriers such as Verizon Wireless and AT&T to improve network cell coverage and data speeds. STI has built and deployed over 6,000 systems operating 24 hours a day (24/7), 7 days a week in the field since 1999. Sapphire is an integrated free piston Stirling cycle cryocooler with a cooling capacity of 5 Watts at 77 Kelvin (K) with less than 100 Watts (W) input power. It has a field-proven Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of well over 1 million hours, requires zero maintenance and has logged over 250 million cumulative runtime hours. The Sapphire cooler is built on a scalable technology platform, enabling the design of machines with cooling capacities greater than 1 kilowatt (kW). This scalable platform also extends the same outstanding attributes as the Sapphire cooler, namely high reliability, zero maintenance, and compact size - all at a competitive cost. This paper will discuss emerging applications requiring higher heat loads and these attributes, describe Sapphire, and show a preliminary concept of a scaled machine with a 100 W cooling capacity.

  10. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    captures from Windows machines and the methodology for extracting digital artifacts from forensic memory captures. The two types of malware implemented on...proposed to improve upon the design implemented in the D3 JavaScript Visualization Tool. 7 II. Literature Review Due to the recent rise...18. Resource Slice Selected – Associated Process Nodes Highlighted. ... vice\\Nam~~~~~~~~ffi~~ iFr ~)~~~ ... vice\\NamedPipe\

  11. Radio frequency heating of ceramic windows in fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.D. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Ceramic windows will be used as material barriers for radio frequency plasma heating in fusion reactors. This report examines the theory behind rf heating phenomena. Heating calculations are presented for various window materials, thicknesses, wavelengths, and power densities. The most pertinent material properties are loss tangent, thermal conductivity, dielectric constant, strength, and radiation resistance. Calculations indicate that among candidate materials, beryllium oxide offers the most promise because of its large thermal conductivity and relatively low loss tangent and dielectric constant. On the other hand, beryllia is susceptible to neutron damage, and this may adversely affect its electrical properties. Another promising candidate is sapphire, particularly at lower temperatures where the thermal conductivity is high. Fused silica suffers from low thermal conductivity and large positive temperature coefficient for loss tangent, but it may be useful under some conditions. In summary, calculations of heating can lead to elimination of some candidate materials and selection of others for further study.

  12. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  13. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  14. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  15. Multi-functional windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  16. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  17. Voltage-Controlled Sapphire Oscillator: Design, Development, and Preliminary Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. T.; Dick, G. J.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2007-08-01

    We present the design for a new short-term frequency standard, the voltage-controlled sapphire oscillator, as a practical and lower-cost alternative to a cryogenic sapphire oscillator operating at liquid helium temperatures. Performance goals are a frequency stability of 1 x 10^-14 (1 second equal to or less than tau equal to or less than 100 seconds), more than 2 years of continuous operation, and practical operability. Key elements include the sapphire resonator, low-power and long-life cryocooler, frequency compensation method, and cryo-Pound design. We report the design verification, experimental results, and test results of the cryocooler environmental sensitivity, as well as a preliminary stability measurement.

  18. Clinical Application of the Sapphire Unfolder Lens Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiai Guo; Danying Zheng; Zhenyu Li; Yiyong Qian; Zhenping Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the clinical experience of 300 cases using the Sapphire unfloder intraocular lens (IOL) injection system.Methods: After the standard phacoemulsification, an AR40e IOL was implanted using the Sapphire Unfolder. The involved problems during and after the operation were observed and analyzed.Results:The complications occurred during the operation including the crack at the haptic-optic junction in 2 cases, slight kink in the haptic in 5 cases, IOL clamp into the cartridge in 2 cases, posterior capsular rupture in 2 cases and endothelium damage in the central small area in 4 cases. All the patients recovered successfully with IOLs in good position.Conclusion: IOL implantation with the Sapphire Unfolder led to no serious complications and got the satisfactory results.

  19. Sub-surface channels in sapphire made by ultraviolet picosecond laser irradiation and selective etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rüdiger; Ojha, Nirdesh; Kunzer, Michael; Schwarz, Ulrich T

    2011-11-21

    We demonstrate the realization of sub-surface channels in sapphire prepared by ultraviolet picosecond laser irradiation and subsequent selective wet etching. By optimizing the pulse energy and the separation between individual laser pulses, an optimization of channel length can be achieved with an aspect ratio as high as 3200. Due to strong variation in channel length, further investigation was done to improve the reproducibility. By multiple irradiations the standard deviation of the channel length could be reduced to 2.2%. The achieved channel length together with the high reproducibility and the use of a commercial picosecond laser system makes the process attractive for industrial application.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of VO2 thin films grown on various sapphire substrates by using RF sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Ho; So, Hyeon Seob; Ko, Kun Hee; Park, Jun Woo; Lee, Hosun; Nguyen, Trang Thi Thu; Yoon, Seokhyun

    2016-12-01

    VO2 thin films were grown on a-, c-, m-, and r-plane sapphire and SiO2/Si substrates under identical conditions by using RF sputtering deposition from a VO2 target. The structural and the morphological properties of all VO2 films were investigated. The grain sizes of the VO2 films varied between 268 nm and 355 nm depending on the substrate's orientation. The electrical and the optical properties of all VO2 thin films were examined in detail. The metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI) varied with the substrate's orientation. The (200)/(bar 211 )-oriented VO2 films on the a-plane sapphire showed the lowest TMI of about 329.3 K (56.3 °C) while the (020)/(002)-VO2 films on the c-plane sapphire displayed the highest TMI of about 339.6 K (66.6 °C). The VO2 films showed reversible changes in the resistivity as large as 1.19 × 105 and a hysteresis of 2 K upon traversing the transition temperature. The variations observed in the TMI with respect to the substrate's orientation were due to changes in the lattice strain and the grain size distribution. Raman spectroscopy showed that metal (rutile) - insulator (monoclinic) transitions occurred via the M2 phase for VO2 films on the c-plane substrate rather than the direct M1 to rutile transition. The shifts in the phonon frequencies of the VO2 film grown on various sapphire substrates were explained in terms of the strain along the V-V atomic bond direction (cR). Our work shows a possible correlation between the transition parameters ( e.g., TMI, sharpness, and hysteresis width) and the width ( σ) of the grain size distribution. It also shows a possible correlation between the TMI and the resistivities at the insulating and the metallic phases for VO2 films grown on various sapphire substrates.

  1. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  2. Blocks and residual stresses in shaped sapphire single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymov, V. M.; Nosov, Yu. G.; Bakholdin, S. I.; Maslov, V. N.; Shul‧pina, I. L.; Nikolaev, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of blocks and residual stresses in shaped sapphire crystals grown from the melt by the Stepanov method (EFG) has been studied. The probability of block formation is higher for the growth along the c axis compared to that grown in the a-axis direction. The distribution of residual stress in sapphire crystals of tubular, rectangular and round cross section was measured by the conoscopy method. It was found that the magnitude of the residual stress increases from the center to the periphery of the crystal and reaches up to about 20 MPa. Residual stress tensor components for solid round rod and tubular single crystals were determined by numerical integration.

  3. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  4. Sea level characterization of a 1100 g sapphire bolometer

    CERN Document Server

    Pécourt, S; Bobin, C; Coron, N; Jesus, M D; Hadjout, J P; Leblanc, J W; Marcillac, P D

    1999-01-01

    A first characterization of a 1100 g sapphire bolometer, performed at sea level and at a working temperature of 40 mK, is presented. Despite perturbations coming from the high-radioactive background and cosmic rays, calibration spectra could be achieved with an internal alpha source and a sup 5 sup 7 Co gamma-ray source: the experimental threshold is 25 keV, while the FWHM resolution is 17.4 keV for the 122 keV peak. Possible heat release effects are discussed, and a new limit of 9x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 W/g is obtained for sapphire.

  5. Microstructure characterization and optical properties of sapphire after helium ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Mian; Yang, Liang [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Shen, Huahai [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Liu, Wei [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiang, Xia, E-mail: xiaxiang@uestc.edu.cn [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zheng, Wanguo, E-mail: wgzheng_caep@sina.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Guo, Decheng [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Huang, Jin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yuan, Xiaodong, E-mail: yxd66my@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The (0 0 0 1) sapphire samples are irradiated with 60 keV helium ions at the fluences of 5 × 10{sup 16}, 1 × 10{sup 17}and 5 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. After implantation, two broad absorption bands at 320–460 and 480–700 nm are observed and their intensities increase with the increasing ion fluence. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction results indicate that the {0 0 0 1} diffraction peaks of sapphire decrease and broaden due to the disorientation of the generated crystallites after ion irradiation. The microstructure evolution is examined by the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The surface becomes rough because of the aggregation of helium bubbles and migration towards the surface. There is a lattice expansion up to ∼4.5% in the implanted area and the lattice distortion measured from dispersion of (1 1 0) diffraction is ∼4.6°. Such strain of crystal lattice is rather large and leads to contrast fluctuation at scale of 1–2 nm (the bubble size). The laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) is investigated to understand the effect of helium ion beam irradiation on the laser damage resistance of sapphire components and the results show that the LIDT decreases from 5.4 to 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} due to the absorptive color centers, helium bubbles and defects induced by helium ion implantation. The laser damage morphologies of samples before and after ion implantation are also presented.

  6. Effect of initial growth on the quality of GaN on patterned sapphire substrate with ex situ physical vapor deposition AlN seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Daigo, Yoshiaki; Seino, Takuya; Ishibashi, Sotaro; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2016-10-01

    GaN epitaxy was explored on a cone-patterned sapphire substrate with an ex situ AlN seed layer prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The effect of initial growth on the quality of the GaN epilayer was investigated using both ex situ PVD-AlN seed layers with various thicknesses and various deposition parameters such as temperature and reactor pressure in metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). It was found that the quality of GaN is insensitive to both the thickness of the ex situ PVD-AlN seed layer and the MOVPE growth conditions. A high-quality GaN film was realized, as indicated by room-temperature CL mapping (dark spot density of 1.6 × 108 cm-2), on a patterned sapphire substrate with a wide growth condition window by simply employing an ex situ PVD-AlN seed layer.

  7. Managing customer arrivals with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Jiang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing container traffic and mega-ships, many seaports face challenges of huge amounts of truck arrivals and congestion problem at terminal gates, which affect port efficiency and generate serious air pollution. To solve this congestion problem, we propose a solution of managing truck...... arrivals with time windows based on the truck-vessel service relationship, specifically trucks delivering containers for the same vessel share one common time window. Time windows can be optimized with different strategies. In this paper, we first propose a framework for installing this solution...

  8. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  9. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  10. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  11. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  12. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  13. Changing of micromorphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface at irradiation by subthreshold energy X-radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A N; Skupov, V D; Filatov, D O

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface after pulse irradiation by the X-rays with the energy of <= 140 keV is studied. The study on the irradiated material surface is carried out by the methods of the atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The average roughness value after irradiation constitutes 7 nm. The change in the films surface microrelief occurs due to reconstruction of their dislocation structure under the action of elastic waves, originating in the X radiation

  14. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Bo Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al2O3 with the substitution of Si for Al.

  15. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  16. Proposal for a New Test of the Time Independence Of The Fine Structure Constant, alpha, Using Orthogonally Polarised Whispering Gallery Modes in a Single Sapphire Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Tobar, M E; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Hartnett, John Gideon

    2003-01-01

    A new experiment to test for the time independence of the fine structure constant, alpha, is proposed. The experiment utilizes orthogonally polarized Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Whispering Gallery Modes in a single sapphire resonator tuned to similar frequencies. When configured as a dual mode sapphire clock, we show that the anisotropy of sapphire makes it is possible to undertake a sensitive measurement from the beat frequency between the two modes. At infrared frequencies this is possible due to the different effect of the lowest phonon frequency on the two orthogonally polarized modes. At microwave frequencies we show that the phonon effect is too small. We show that the Electron Spin Resonance of paramagnetic impurities (such as Cr3+) in the lattice effects only one polarization with an alpha^6 dependence. This enables an enhancement of the sensitivity to temporal changes in a at microwave frequencies.

  17. Structure of shaped sapphire grown from multicapillary dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovinskaya, E. R.; Litvinov, L. A.; Pischik, V. V.

    1990-07-01

    Peculiarities in grain structure development have been studied in sapphire crystals grown with multicapillary channels in the die to feed melt to the crystallization zone. A new mechanism of grain boundary formation based on gas-bubble collapse at the crystal-melt interface is proposed.

  18. Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivas, C.; Shepherd, D.P.; May-Smith, T.C.; Eason, R.W.; Pollnau, M.

    2005-01-01

    Laser operation of Ti:sapphire rib waveguides fabricated using photolithography and ion beam etching in pulsed laser deposited layers is reported. Polarized laser emission was observed at 792.5 nm with an absorbed pump power threshold of 265 mW, which is more than a factor of 2 lower in comparison t

  19. Neurosurgery contact handheld probe based on sapphire shaped crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Stryukov, D. O.; Rossolenko, S. N.; Kiselev, A. M.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    A handheld contact probe based on sapphire shaped crystal is developed for intraoperative spectrally-resolved optical diagnostics, laser coagulation and aspiration of malignant brain tissue. The technology was integrated into the neurosurgical workflow for intraoperative real-time identification and removing of invasive brain cancer.

  20. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  1. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  2. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  3. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  4. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  5. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  6. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  7. Temperature-modulated annealing of c-plane sapphire for long-range-ordered atomic steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsui, Takashi; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2016-03-01

    High-quality single-crystalline sapphire is used to prepare various semiconductors because of its thermal stability. Here, we applied the tempering technique, which is well known in the production of chocolate, to prepare a sapphire substrate. Surprisingly, we successfully realised millimetre-range ordering of the atomic step of the sapphire substrate. We also obtained a sapphire atomic step with nanometre-scale uniformity in the terrace width and atomic-step height. Such sapphire substrates will find applications in the preparation of various semiconductors and devices.

  8. Integrated Optical Pumping of Cr & Ti-Doped Sapphire Substrates With III-V Nitride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-24

    the Cr in sapphire could also permit the construction of white light LEDs . Ultimately, an integrated III-V Nitride optical pump for Ti:Sapphire could...substrates by MOCVD. 2. Characterization of doped sapphire/ InGaN structures byPL to simulate electrical injection by laser or LED device structures Part 2 1...Cr:sapphire substrate. Solid line is the spectrum of blue and red light emitted by InGaN LED epitaxially grown on Cr:sapphire substrate. The light was collected

  9. Measurement and thermal modeling of sapphire substrate temperature at III-Nitride MOVPE conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, J. Randall; Coltrin, Michael E.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.

    2017-04-01

    Growth rates and alloy composition of AlGaN grown by MOVPE is often very temperature dependent due to the presence of gas-phase parasitic chemical processes. These processes make wafer temperature measurement highly important, but in fact such measurements are very difficult because of substrate transparency in the near-IR ( 900 nm) where conventional pyrometers detect radiation. The transparency problem can be solved by using a mid-IR pyrometer operating at a wavelength ( 7500 nm) where sapphire is opaque. We employ a mid-IR pyrometer to measure the sapphire wafer temperature and simultaneously a near-IR pyrometer to measure wafer pocket temperature, while varying reactor pressure in both a N2 and H2 ambient. Near 1300 °C, as the reactor pressure is lowered from 300 Torr to 10 Torr the wafer temperature drops dramatically, and the ∆T between the pocket and wafer increases from 20 °C to 250 °C. Without the mid-IR pyrometer the large wafer temperature change with pressure would not have been noted. In order to explain this behavior we have developed a quasi-2D thermal model that includes a proper accounting of the pressure-dependent thermal contact resistance, and also accounts for sapphire optical transmission. The model and experimental results demonstrate that at most growth conditions the majority of the heat is transported from the wafer pocket to the wafer via gas conduction, in the free molecular flow limit. In this limit gas conductivity is independent of gap size but first order in pressure, and can quantitatively explain results from 20 to 300 Torr. Further analysis yields a measure of the thermal accommodation coefficients; α(H2) =0.23, α(N2) =0.50, which are in the range typically measured.

  10. Predicting Electrochromic Smart Window Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman Engfeldt, Johnny

    2012-07-01

    The building sector is one of the largest consumers of energy, where the cooling of buildings accounts for a large portion of the total energy consumption. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows have a great potential for increasing indoor comfort and saving large amounts of energy for buildings. An EC device can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested in optical absorption, i.e. the optical absorption increases with increased state-of-charge (SOC) and decreases with decreased state-of-charge. It is the EC technology's unique ability to control the absorption (transmittance) of solar energy and visible light in windows with small energy effort that can reduce buildings' cooling needs. Today, the EC technology is used to produce small windows and car rearview mirrors, and to reach the construction market it is crucial to be able to produce large area EC devices with satisfactory performance. A challenge with up-scaling is to design the EC device system with a rapid and uniform coloration (charging) and bleaching (discharging). In addition, up-scaling the EC technology is a large economic risk due to its expensive production equipment, thus making the choice of EC material and system extremely critical. Although this is a well-known issue, little work has been done to address and solve these problems. This thesis introduces a cost-efficient methodology, validated with experimental data, capable of predicting and optimizing EC device systems' performance in large area applications, such as EC smart windows. This methodology consists of an experimental set-up, experimental procedures and a two dimensional current distribution model. The experimental set-up, based on camera vision, is used in performing experimental procedures to develop and validate the model and methodology. The two-dimensional current distribution model takes secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance, ohmic and time

  11. High Q-factor Sapphire Whispering Gallery Mode Microwave Resonator at Single Photon Energies and milli-Kelvin Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Creedon, Daniel L; Farr, Warrick; Martinis, John M; Duty, Timothy L; Tobar, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The microwave properties of a crystalline sapphire dielectric whispering gallery mode resonator have been measured at very low excitation strength (E/hf=1) and low temperatures (T = 30 mK). The measurements were sensitive enough to observe saturation due to a highly detuned electron spin resonance, which limited the loss tangent of the material to about 2e-8 measured at 13.868 and 13.259 GHz. Small power dependent frequency shifts were also measured which correspond to an added magnetic susceptibility of order 1e-9. This work shows that quantum limited microwave resonators with Q-factors > 1e8 are possible with the implementation of a sapphire whispering gallery mode system.

  12. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  13. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  14. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The handbook on windows and energy is a general description of windows with the main focus put on the energy performance. Common window products are described by commonly used nomenclature, description of frame and sash conctructions and description of commonly used glazing types.The energy...... transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... are described.A method for estimation of the net energy flow on a yearly basis and/or during the heating season is presented. The method is able to combine the influence of window orientation, window size and window shape, type of glazing, frame area relative to total window area and type of spacer in sealed...

  15. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    The importance of dynamic daylight to support health and well-being has been more and more recognized. People in hospitals and health care environments have a specific need for optimized daylight conditions. Daylight penetration through window openings is crucial to stimulate circadian rhythm...... and maintain a healthy sleep-awake pattern. At the same time, the window can provide a pleasant view and connection to the surroundings and enhance the perception of the interior space and materials. All three factors are recognized as important for human well-being and health, but never the less...

  16. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  17. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  18. Windows Azure mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Get up and running with Windows Azure Mobile Services Windows Azure Mobile Services (WAMS) is a turn-key backend solution for applications, mobile or otherwise, to utilize structured storage in the cloud. It includes basic data access functionality and built-in authentication with Microsoft Account, Facebook, Twitter and Google, as well as push notification to the client app. This compact, to the point book gives you just what you need to get up and running with these tools. Demonstrates how to add, update, delete and retrieve data using standard .NET classes or REST-based requestsDescribes h

  19. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  20. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  1. Improved SNR of MST RADAR Signals by Cosine Hyperbolic Window over Kaiser Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. B. Ramesh Reddy Dr. A. Subbarami Reddy Dr. P. Chandrashekar Reddy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of window shape parameter “” in Cosine Hyperbolic Window Function on the SNR values of MST RADAR returns has been investigated. Six sets of multibeam observations of the lower atmosphere made by the Indian Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST RADAR are used for the result analysis. Prior to the Fourier Transformation, the in-phase and quadrature components of the RADAR echo samples are weighted with the recently proposed new class of adjustable window based on the Cosine Hyperbolic Window Function. The effects of data weighting with the variation of the window shape parameter “” of the Cosine Hyperbolic Window Function is presented. It is observed that the increase of “” increases the SNR values and a good improvement is reported. Optimum value of the shape parameter “” for the Cosine Hyperbolic Window Function is suggested to analyze the MST RADAR signals. The results also shows that, the improvement of SNR of noisy data due to the effect of side lobe reduction and demands for the design of optimal windows.

  2. A GRASP for Next Generation Sapphire Image Acquisition Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an image acquisition scheduling problem for a Canadian surveillance-of-space satellite named Sapphire that takes images of deep space Earth-orbiting objects. For a set of resident space objects (RSOs that needs to be imaged within the time horizon of one day, the Sapphire image acquisition scheduling (SIAS problem is to find a schedule that maximizes the “Figure of Merit” of all the scheduled RSO images. To address the problem, we propose an effective GRASP heuristic that alternates between a randomized greedy constructive procedure and a local search procedure. Experimental comparisons with the currently used greedy algorithm are presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed algorithm in handling the SIAS problem.

  3. AlN growth on sapphire substrate by ammonia MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, V. G.; Nikitin, A. Yu.; Galitsyn, Yu. G.; Svitasheva, S. N.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Osvath, Z.; Dobos, L.; Horvath, Z. E.; Pecz, B.

    2007-03-01

    Kinetics of (0 0 0 1) Al 2O 3 surface nitridation and subsequent growth of AlN films on the sapphire substrate by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated. Surface morphology evolution during AlN growth is studied in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction and ex situ by atomic force microscopy. It is found that the surfaces of AlN layers thicker than 100 nm have two major features: a quite smooth background and noticeable amount of hillocks. The influence of growth conditions on the AlN surface morphology is studied in order to find a way for reducing of the hillocks density. A modification of nitridated sapphire surface by small amount of Al (1-2 monolayers) with subsequent treatment of the surface under ammonia flux is proposed. An improvement of AlN surface morphology of the layers grown on the modified surfaces is demonstrated.

  4. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, E. Frederick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zarick, Thomas Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sheridan, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preston, Eric F. [ITT Coporation, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  5. Ordered gold nanostructures on sapphire surfaces: Fabrication and optical investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Konovko, A. A. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Smirnov, I. S. [Moscow State University of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Roshchin, B. S.; Volkov, Yu. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Angelutz, A. A.; Andreev, A. V.; Shkurinov, A. P. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kanevskii, V. M.; Asadchikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    The possibilities of obtaining ordered gold nanoarrays on sapphire surfaces with oriented nanorelief are demonstrated. The structures are morphologically described using atomic force microscopy data. A study of the angular dependence of the reflectivity in the visible range of electromagnetic waves has revealed some features which are likely to indicate surface plasmon-polariton excitation at the air-gold interface under exposure to p-polarized radiation. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  6. Route to 100 TW Ti: Sapphire laser at repetitive mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Hao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a 100 TW-class femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser running at repetition rate of 0.1 Hz by adding a stage amplifier in the 20 TW/10 Hz laser facility (XL-II. Pumping the new stage amplifier with the 25 J green Nd:glass laser, we successfully upgraded the laser energy to 3.4 J with duration of 29 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 117 TW.

  7. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  8. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised...

  9. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  10. Windows and lighting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  12. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  13. Windows CE自定制Shell%Customizing Windows CE Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃朗; 雷跃明

    2010-01-01

    Shell是用户访问操作系统的接口.Shell开发在Windows CE操作系统开发中占据一定的重要性.对Windows CE Shell进行了概述,并通过建立Shell模型,讲述如何自定制Windows CE Shell和定制Shell必须注意的问题,对Windows CE Shell的定制进行深入研究.

  14. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  15. Process window metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  16. Duplication of Windows Services

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Zhiyong; Chiueh, Tzi-cker; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    OS-level virtualization techniques virtualize system resources at the system call interface, has the distinct advantage of smaller run-time resource requirements as compared to HAL-level virtualization techniques, and thus forms an important building block for virtualizing parallel and distributed applications such as a HPC clusters. Because the Windows operating system puts certain critical functionalities in privileged user-level system service processes, a complete OS-level virtualization ...

  17. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  18. Leveraging Python Interoperability Tools to Improve Sapphire's Usability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gezahegne, A; Love, N S

    2007-12-10

    The Sapphire project at the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) develops and applies an extensive set of data mining algorithms for the analysis of large data sets. Sapphire's algorithms are currently available as a set of C++ libraries. However many users prefer higher level scripting languages such as Python for their ease of use and flexibility. In this report, we evaluate four interoperability tools for the purpose of wrapping Sapphire's core functionality with Python. Exposing Sapphire's functionality through a Python interface would increase its usability and connect its algorithms to existing Python tools.

  19. Ga/Mg ratio as a new geochemical tool to differentiate magmatic from metamorphic blue sapphires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucat, J. J.; Ruffault, P.; Fritsch, E.; Bouhnik-Le Coz, M.; Simonet, C.; Lasnier, B.

    2007-10-01

    Using ICP-MS-LA analyses, we demonstrate that the use of the Ga/Mg ratio, in conjunction with the Fe concentration, is an efficient tool in discriminating between "metamorphic" and "magmatic" blue sapphires. Magmatic blue sapphires found in alkali basalts (e.g. southeastern Asia, China, Africa) are commonly medium-rich to rich in Fe (with average contents between 2000 and 11000 ppm), high in Ga (> 140 ppm), and low in Mg (generally 10). Conversely, metamorphic blue sapphires found in basalts (e.g. Pailin pastel) and in metamorphic terrains (e.g. Mogok, Sri Lanka, Ilakaka) are characterized by low average iron contents ( 60 ppm) with low average Ga/Mg ratios (< 10). Basaltic magmatic sapphires have Fe, Ga and Mg contents similar to those obtained for primary magmatic sapphires found in the Garba Tula syenite. This suggests that these both sets of sapphires have a possible common "syenitic" origin, as previously proposed from other criteria. In addition, plumasite-related sapphires and metamorphic sapphires also exhibit similar composition in trace elements. Based on results from the present study, we suggest that fluid circulations during a metamorphic stage produced metasomatic exchanges between mafic and acidic rocks (plumasite model), thus explaining the high Mg contents and converging Ga/Mg ratios observed in metamorphic sapphires.

  20. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning...

  1. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  2. Electron-beam irradiation effects on luminescence properties in subsurface regions of single-crystalline sapphires treated with and without hydrogen plasma exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo-Hyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: bhlee@daiyan.eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ito, Toshimichi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Electron irradiation effects on various insulating sapphires treated with and without hydrogen plasma have been investigated mainly by means of cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The samples examined included Be-diffusion-treated natural sapphire (BNS) and two types of synthetic sapphires grown by Verneuil and Czochralski methods. For all the samples examined, on one hand, their CL intensities of the F{sup +}-center-related emission peaked at {approx}3.8 eV rapidly increased with increasing the fluences of keV electrons, and were represented roughly by exponentially saturating curves. There occurred slight blue-shifts of the F{sup +}-center luminescence other than the intensity increases for some of the electron-irradiated specimens, suggesting possible presence of two components for the F{sup +}-center luminescence. On the other hand, a hydrogen plasma exposure to these sapphires resulted in sample-dependent changes in the optical property and in the beam-irradiation effect on the F{sup +}-center CL emission. Such variations were induced most strongly in the BNS sample, whose color changed from orange to pink due to substantial decreases in the absorbance after the hydrogen plasma treatment. Furthermore, the energy positions of both the Cr{sup 3+}-center luminescence peaked at {approx}1.8 eV and its satellite peaks were found to slightly shift for the untreated and H-plasma-treated BNS samples after the electron beam irradiations. Possible origins of these observations are discussed.

  3. Mobilní platforma Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Ženíšek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis describes to mobile operating system Windows Phone 8. That was introduced in half of the year 2012. The main aim this thesis is to introduce operating system Windows Phone 8. It includes all its parameters, features and technologies, which are necessary for future application development. Partial goal is to explain the possibilities and processes of the development not only for Windows Phone 8 but also for Windows 8. Another crucial goal is the illustrative example of usi...

  4. Nonlinear Phase Distortion in a Ti:Sapphire Optical Amplifier for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) has been considered for future high-luminosity colliders as it offers much faster cooling time in comparison to the micro-wave stochastic cooling. The OSC technique relies on collecting and amplifying a broadband optical signal from a pickup undulator and feeding the amplified signal back to the beam. It creates a corrective kick in a kicker undulator. Owing to its superb gain qualities and broadband amplification features, Titanium:Sapphire medium has been considered as a gain medium for the optical amplifier (OA) needed in the OSC*. A limiting factor for any OA used in OSC is the possibility of nonlinear phase distortions. In this paper we experimentally measure phase distortions by inserting a single-pass OA into one leg of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The measurement results are used to estimate the reduction of the corrective kick a particle would receive due to these phase distortions in the kicker undulator.

  5. Stealth dicing of sapphire wafers with near infra-red femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit; Kbashi, Hani; Kolpakov, Stanislav; Gordon, Neil; Zhou, Kaiming; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-05-01

    The quality of the reflecting faces after dicing is critical for the fabrication of efficient and stable laser diodes emitting in the green-violet region. However, high-quality faces can be difficult to achieve for devices grown on a sapphire substrate as this material is difficult to cleave cleanly. We have therefore investigated a technology known as "stealth dicing". The technology uses a pulsed laser to damage a plane of material inside of the wafer due to multi-photon absorption instead of cutting through the wafer surface. If the damage is induced in a line of stress points, the sample can then be cleaved easily along the damaged plane to leave a high-quality surface. The use of this technique also reduces thermal damage and debris.

  6. Single-crystal Sapphire Based Optical Polarimetric Sensor for High Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Wang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Optical sensors have been investigated and widely deployed in industrial andscientific measurement and control processes, mainly due to their accuracy, high sensitivityand immunity to electromagnetic interference and other unique characteristics. They areespecially suited for harsh environments applications, where no commercial electricalsensors are available for long-term stable operations. This paper reports a novel contactoptical high temperature sensor targeting at harsh environments. Utilizing birefringentsingle crystal sapphire as the sensing element and white light interferometric signalprocessing techniques, an optical birefringence based temperature sensor was developed.With a simple mechanically structured sensing probe, and an optical spectrum-codedinterferometric signal processor, it has been tested to measure temperature up to 1600 °Cwith high accuracy, high resolution, and long-term measurement stability.

  7. Low-E windows: lighting considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salares, V.; Russell, P. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Technical Research Div.

    1996-08-01

    New and retrofitted houses with low-E windows were surveyed to determine owner satisfaction with the product and to collect impressions and observations about occupants` health, plant growth, and lighting and low-E windows. Results indicated that senior citizens were more affected by inadequate lighting because of reduced transmission by the aging lens of the eye to transmit short wavelength light, i. e. the very same ones that are effectively filtered out by low-E coatings. Especially vulnerable were those with environmental hypersensitivity, and those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Plant growth was found to be improved, possibly due to the filtered light provided by low-E windows. On the other hand, lower levels of daylighting means that higher levels of supplemental lighting would be needed, which may, in turn, negate the energy saving from the low-E glazing. 10 refs.

  8. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  9. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  10. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  11. Beginner's guide to Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This concise, accessible and down-to-earth guide will help you get the most out of your computer using Windows 7, whether you're a complete beginner or upgrading from previous Microsoft operating systems. You'll learn about exciting new features of Windows 7, including how to work with Windows 7 Libraries, how to communicate using Windows Live Mail, how to use Windows Live Photo Gallery, how to browse and search the web using Internet Explorer, and Version 8 and Accelerators.

  12. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  13. Windows 8.1 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 400,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. Using a Visual approach, this book covers the new features of Windows 8.1 and provides step-by-step instructions for readers who are entirely new to the subject. Inside, you'll discover tasks on topics such as: Windows basics, creating movies, sharing their computer, working with and managing files, browsing the web, and new ways to customize Windows to w

  14. Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak power Ti:sapphire laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, Koichi; Aoyama, Makoto; Matsuoka, Shinichi; Akahane, Yutaka; Kase, Teiji; Nakano, Fumihiko; Sagisaka, Akito [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    We review progress in the generation of multiterawatt optical pulses in the 10-fs range. We describe a design, performance and characterization of a Ti:sapphire laser system based on chirped-pulse amplification, which has produced a peak power in excess of 100-TW with sub-20-fs pulse durations and an average power of 19-W at a 10-Hz repetition rate. We also discuss extension of this system to the petawatt power level and potential applications in the relativistic, ultrahigh intensity regimes. (author)

  15. Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers on Single Crystalline Sapphire Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang; King, Glen; Park, Yeonjoon

    2009-01-01

    SiGe is an important semiconductor alloy for high-speed field effect transistors (FETs), high-temperature thermoelectric devices, photovoltaic solar cells, and photon detectors. The growth of SiGe layer is difficult because SiGe alloys have different lattice constants from those of the common Si wafers, which leads to a high density of defects, including dislocations, micro-twins, cracks, and delaminations. This innovation utilizes newly developed rhombohedral epitaxy of cubic semiconductors on trigonal substrates in order to solve the lattice mismatch problem of SiGe by using trigonal single crystals like sapphire (Al2O3) as substrate to give a unique growth-orientation to the SiGe layer, which is automatically controlled at the interface upon sapphire (0001). This technology is different from previous silicon on insulator (SOI) or SGOI (SiGe on insulator) technologies that use amorphous SiO2 as the growth plane. A cubic semiconductor crystal is a special case of a rhombohedron with the inter-planar angle, alpha = 90 deg. With a mathematical transformation, all rhombohedrons can be described by trigonal crystal lattice structures. Therefore, all cubic lattice constants and crystal planes (hkl) s can be transformed into those of trigonal crystal parameters. These unique alignments enable a new opportunity of perfect lattice matching conditions, which can eliminate misfit dislocations. Previously, these atomic alignments were thought to be impossible or very difficult. With the invention of a new x-ray diffraction measurement method here, growth of cubic semiconductors on trigonal crystals became possible. This epitaxy and lattice-matching condition can be applied not only to SiGe (111)/sapphire (0001) substrate relations, but also to other crystal structures and other materials, including similar crystal structures which have pointgroup rotational symmetries by 120 because the cubic (111) direction has 120 rotational symmetry. The use of slightly miscut (less than

  16. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  17. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  18. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised...... the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most of the chemicals involved in the production process. A large number of aerogel glazing prototypes have been made with partly evacuated aerogel in between two layers of low iron...

  19. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  20. Laplacian magic windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    A transparent sheet, flat to unaided vision but with a gentle surface relief, can concentrate light onto a screen with intensity reproducing any desired image: the sheet is a ‘magic window’. When the ray deflections are sufficiently small that there are no caustics between the window and the screen, the image intensity is the Laplacian function of the relief height function—a very simple approximation to general freeform optics. Therefore the desired relief is obtained by solving Poisson’s equation. Numerical simulations indicate that the Laplacian image approximation will apply to realistic situations.

  1. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...... skaller, så facetternes sande størrelse vises, og danne en liste med alle mål. Både skallernes tredimensionelle og todimensionelle form kan eksporteres som DXF-filer til CAD programmer. Programmet indeholder stadig fejl - jeg arbejder på en ny version....

  2. Radiation controlling reversible window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A coated glass glazing system is presented including a transparent glass substrate having one surface coated with a radiation absorptive film which is overcoated with a radiation reflective film by a technique which renders the radiation reflective film radiation absorptive at the surface contracting the radiating absorptive film. The coated glass system is used as glazing for storm windows which are adapted to be reversible so that the radiation reflective surface may be exposed to the outside of the dwelling during the warm seasons to prevent excessive solar radiation from entering a dwelling and reversed during cold seasons to absorb solar radiation and utilize it to aid in keeping the dwelling interior warm.

  3. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  4. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a considerable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focussed on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... of the heating demand in typical single-family houses in Denmark and Greenland. The examined windows are typical new windows from Nordic countries and new proposals of improved windows with low thermal transmittance and high total solar energy transmittance. The results show that net energy gain can be increased...

  5. Crystal Quality and Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Concave Patterned Sapphire Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YewChung Sermon; Isabel, A Panimaya Selvi; Zheng, Jian-Hsuan; Lin, Bo-Wen; Li, Jhen-Hong; Lin, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-22

    The crystal quality and light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on concave patterned sapphire substrate (CPSS) were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality of GaN-based LEDs grown on CPSS improved with the decrease of the pattern space (percentage of c-plane). However, when the pattern space decreased to 0.41 μm (S0.41-GaN), the GaN crystallinity dropped. On the other hand, the light output power of GaN-based LEDs was increased with the decrease of the pattern space due to the change of the light extraction efficiency.

  6. Flashlamp pumped Ti-sapphire laser for ytterbium glass chirped pulse amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Ohzu, Akira; Sugiyama, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    A flashlamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser is designed for ytterbium glass chirped pulse amplification. A high quality Ti:sapphire rod and a high energy long pulse discharging power supply are key components. The primary step is to produce the output power of 10 J per pulse at 920 nm. (author)

  7. Ti:sapphire rib channel waveguide fabricated by reactive ion etching of a planar waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunteanu, A.; Jänchen, G.; Salathé, R.P.; Hoffmann, P.; Pollnau, M.; Eason, R.W.; Shepherd, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    We were successful in creating 1.4-µm high ribs in a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by reactive ion etching. Optical investigations of the obtained structure showed channel-waveguide fluorescence emission of the Ti:sapphire layer after Ar-ion excitation.

  8. Constraints on Relaxion Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2016-01-01

    We examine low energy phenomenology of the relaxion solution to the weak scale hierarchy problem. Assuming that the Hubble friction is responsible for the dissipation of relaxion energy, we identify the cosmological relaxion window which corresponds to the parameter region compatible with a given value of the acceptable number of inflationary $e$-foldings. We then discuss a variety of observational constraints on the relaxion window, while focusing on the case that the barrier potential to stabilize the relaxion is induced by new physics, rather than by low energy QCD dynamics. We find that majority of the parameter space with a relaxion mass $m_\\phi\\gtrsim 100$ eV or a relaxion decay constant $f\\lesssim 10^7$ GeV is excluded by existing constraints. There is an interesting small parameter region with $m_\\phi\\sim \\,0.2-1$ GeV and $f\\sim\\, {\\rm few}-10$ TeV, which is allowed by existing constraints, but can be probed soon by future beam dump experiment such as the SHiP experiment, or by improved EDM experiment...

  9. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  10. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  11. Fiber-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, G K; Devi, Kavita; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of efficient and high-power operation of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a simple, compact, continuous-wave (cw) fiber-laser-based green source. The pump radiation is obtained by direct single-pass second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of a 33-W, cw Yb-fiber laser in 30-mm-long MgO:sPPLT crystal, providing 11 W of single-frequency green power at 532 nm in TEM00 spatial profile with power and frequency stability better than 3.3% and 32 MHz, respectively, over one hour. The Ti:sapphire laser is continuously tunable across 743-970 nm and can deliver an output power up to 2.7 W with a slope efficiency as high as 32.8% under optimum output coupling of 20%. The laser output has a TEM00 spatial profile with M2<1.44 across the tuning range and exhibits a peak-to-peak power fluctuation below 5.1% over 1 hour.

  12. Temperature behavior of damage in sapphire implanted with light ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Marques, C. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); McHargue, Carl J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we compare and discuss the defect behavior of sapphire single crystals implanted with different fluences (1 x 10{sup 16}-1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}) of carbon and nitrogen with 150 keV. The implantation temperatures were RT, 500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C to study the influence of temperature on the defect structures. For all the ions the Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) results indicate a surface region with low residual disorder in the Al-sublattice. Near the end of range the channeled spectrum almost reaches the random indicating a high damage level for fluences of 1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photographs show a layered contrast feature for the C implanted sample where a buried amorphous region is present. For the N implanted sample the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping give evidence for the presence of a buried damage layer decorated with bubbles. Samples implanted at high temperatures (500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C) show a strong contrast fluctuation indicating a defective crystalline structure of sapphire.

  13. The effect of crystal orientation on the cryogenic strength of hydroxide catalysis bonded sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughian, K.; Douglas, R.; van Veggel, A. A.; Hough, J.; Khalaidovski, A.; Rowan, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    2015-04-01

    Hydroxide catalysis bonding has been used in gravitational wave detectors to precisely and securely join components of quasi-monolithic silica suspensions. Plans to operate future detectors at cryogenic temperatures has created the need for a change in the test mass and suspension material. Mono-crystalline sapphire is one candidate material for use at cryogenic temperatures and is being investigated for use in the KAGRA detector. The crystalline structure of sapphire may influence the properties of the hydroxide catalysis bond formed. Here, results are presented of studies of the potential influence of the crystal orientation of sapphire on the shear strength of the hydroxide catalysis bonds formed between sapphire samples. The strength was tested at approximately 8 K; this is the first measurement of the strength of such bonds between sapphire at such reduced temperatures. Our results suggest that all orientation combinations investigated produce bonds of sufficient strength for use in typical mirror suspension designs, with average strengths >23 MPa.

  14. Electronic structure analysis of GaN films grown on r- and a-plane sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna TC, Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Vihari, Saket [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-10-05

    Graphical abstract: Substrate orientation induced changes in surface chemistry, band bending, hybridization states, electronic properties and surface morphology of epitaxially grown GaN were investigated via photoemission spectroscopic and Atomic Force Microscopic measurements. - Highlights: • Electronic structure and surface properties of GaN film grown on r/a-plane sapphire. • Downward band bending (0.5 eV) and high surface oxide is observed for GaN/a-sapphire. • Electron affinity and ionization energy is found to be higher for GaN/a-sapphire. - Abstract: The electronic structure and surface properties of epitaxial GaN films grown on r- and a-plane sapphire substrates were probed via spectroscopic and microscopic measurements. X-ray photoemission spectroscopic (XPS) measurements were performed to analyse the surface chemistry, band bending and valence band hybridization states. It was observed that GaN/a-sapphire display a downward band bending of 0.5 eV and possess higher amount of surface oxide compared to GaN/r-sapphire. The valence band (VB) investigation revealed that the hybridization corresponds to the interactions of Ga 4s and Ga 4p orbitals with N 2p orbital, and result in N2p–Ga4p, N2p–Ga4s{sup ∗}, mixed and N2p–Ga4s states. The energy band structure and electronic properties were measured via ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopic (UPS) experiments. The band structure analysis and electronic properties calculations divulged that the electron affinity and ionization energy of GaN/a-sapphire were 0.3 eV higher than GaN/r-sapphire film. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) measurements revealed faceted morphology of GaN/r-sapphire while a smooth pitted surface was observed for GaN/a-sapphire film, which is closely related to surface oxide coverage.

  15. Defect analysis by transmission electron microscopy of epitaxial Al-doped ZnO films grown on (0001) ZnO and a-sapphire by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengachari, Mythili; Bikowski, André; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    Microstructural investigations by cross section Transmission Electron Microscopy have been carried out on Al-doped ZnO films epitaxially grown on (0001) ZnO and a-sapphire by RF magnetron sputtering, since it is known that crystallographic defects influence the physical properties of ZnO films. Threading dislocations and basal stacking faults were the predominant defects observed in these films, which were dependent on the type of the substrate and its orientation. The orientational relationship between the ZnO:Al film and the a-sapphire was determined to be ( 11 2 ¯ 0 )sapphire||(0001)ZnO:Al and [0001]sapphire||[ 11 2 ¯ 0 ]ZnO:Al. The density of dislocations in the heteroepitaxial film of ZnO:Al on a-sapphire was higher than that of the homoepitaxial film of ZnO:Al on undoped ZnO, due to the difference in the lattice mismatch, which also affected the crystallinity of the film.

  16. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  17. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  18. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a considerable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focussed on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy perform-ance of windows in a simple...

  19. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  20. Redefining the Axion Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Mescia, Federico; Nardi, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of axion searches is to reach inside the parameter space region of realistic axion models. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We consider hadronic axion models and classify the representations RQ of the new heavy quarks Q . By requiring that (i) the Q 's are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long-lived strongly interacting relics, (ii) no Landau poles are induced below the Planck scale; 15 cases are selected which define a phenomenologically preferred axion window bounded by a maximum (minimum) value of the axion-photon coupling about 2 times (4 times) larger than is commonly assumed. Allowing for more than one RQ, larger couplings, as well as complete axion-photon decoupling, become possible.

  1. Redefining the Axion Window

    CERN Document Server

    Di Luzio, Luca; Nardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of axion searches is to reach inside the parameter space region of realistic axion models. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We consider hadronic axion models and classify the representations $R_Q$ of the new heavy quarks $Q$. By requiring that $i)$ the $Q$ are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long lived strongly interacting relics, $ii)$ no Landau poles are induced below the Planck scale, fifteen cases are selected, which define a phenomenologically preferred axion window bounded by a maximum (minimum) value of the axion-photon coupling about twice (four times) larger than commonly assumed. Allowing for more than one $R_Q$, larger couplings, as well as complete axion-photon decoupling, become possible.

  2. Real Clifford Windowed Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mawardi BAHRI; Sriwulan ADJI; Ji Man ZHAO

    2011-01-01

    We study the windowed Fourier transform in the framework of Clifford analysis, which we call the Clifford windowed Fourier transform (CWFT). Based on the spectral representation of the Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), we derive several important properties such as shift, modulation,reconstruction formula, orthogonality relation, isometry, and reproducing kernel. We also present an example to show the differences between the classical windowed Fourier transform (WFT) and the CWFT. Finally, as an application we establish a Heisenberg type uncertainty principle for the CWFT.

  3. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  4. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  5. 探索Windows2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红

    2000-01-01

    Window S2000刚刚发布,微软就在开发其后继产品WindowS2001(产品代号Whistler),Windows 2001就是传说中的Windows Whistler,微软在.net计划中称之为“下个版本的Windows”,它将是第一个同时包含消费型和商业型操作系统代码的Windows,采用基于XML的全新用户界面(被称作“视觉风格”)。

  6. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  7. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  8. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  9. High-temperature sapphire optical sensor fiber coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desu, Seshu B.; Claus, Richard O.; Raheem, Ruby; Murphy, Kent A.

    1990-10-01

    the filter. These modes may be attributed to a number of material degradation mechanisms, such as thermal shock, oxidation corrosion of the material, mechanical loads, or phase changes in the filter material. Development of high temperature optical fiber (sapphire) sensors embedded in the CXF filters would be very valuable for both monitoring the integrity of the filter during its use and understanding the mechanisms of degradation such that durable filter development will be facilitated. Since the filter operating environment is very harsh, the high temperature sapphire optical fibers need to be protected and for some sensing techniques the fiber must also be coated with low refractive index film (cladding). The objective of the present study is to identify materials and develop process technologies for the application of claddings and protective coatings that are stable and compatible with sapphire fibers at both high temperatures and pressures.

  10. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  11. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  12. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  13. Room Temperature Experiments with a Macroscopic Sapphire Mechanical Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhill, Jeremy; Ivanov, Eugene; Tobar, Micahel

    2015-03-01

    We present initial results from a number of experiments conducted on a 0.53 kg sapphire ``dumbbell'' crystal. Mechanical motion of the crystal structure alters the dimensions of the crystal, and the induced strain changes the permittivity. These two effects frequency modulate resonant microwave whispering gallery modes, simultaneously excited within the crystal. A novel microwave readout system is described allowing extremely low noise measurements of this frequency modulation with a phase noise floor of -160 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz, near our modes of interest. Fine-tuning of the crystal's suspension have allowed for the optimisation of mechanical Q-factors in preparation for cryogenic experiments, with a value of 8 x 107 achieved so far. Finally, results are presented that demonstrate the excitation of mechanical modes via radiation pressure force. These are all important steps towards the overall goal of the experiment; to cool a macroscopic device to the quantum ground state.

  14. The charge state of iron implanted into sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J.; Sklad, P.S.; White, C.W.; Farlow, G.C.; Perez, A.; Kornilios, N.; Marest, G.

    1987-08-01

    Several techniques (RBS, TEM, CEMS) have been used to characterize sapphire single crystals implanted with iron at room temperature to fluences of 10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 17/ ions cm/sup -2/. At low fluences the as-implanted iron is found mainly in the ferrous state. As the fluence is increased, Fe/sup 3 +/ and metallic iron clusters became dominant. There is a strong correlation between the probability of finding specific configurations of iron ions within four cation coordination shells and the relative amounts of each charge state observed. The superparamagnetic behavior of the clusters suggest that they are of the order of 2 nm in size but the large amount of irradiation-induced damage and residual stress has prevented their imaging by TEM. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Numerical computation of sapphire crystal growth using heat exchanger method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Chen

    2001-05-01

    The finite element software FIDAP is employed to study the temperature and velocity distribution and the interface shape during a large sapphire crystal growth process using a heat exchanger method (HEM). In the present study, the energy input to the crucible by the radiation and convection inside the furnace and the energy output through the heat exchanger is modeled by the convection boundary conditions. The effects of the various growth parameters are studied. It is found that the contact angle is obtuse before the solid-melt interface touches the sidewall of the crucible. Therefore, hot spots always appear in this process. The maximum convexity decreases significantly when the cooling-zone radius (RC) increases. The maximum convexity also decreases significantly as the combined convection coefficient inside the furnace (hI) decreases.

  16. Adapting a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Doeleman, Sheperd; Rogers, Alan; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael; Nand, Nitin; 10.1086/660156

    2011-01-01

    Extension of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to observing wavelengths shorter than 1.3mm provides exceptional angular resolution (~20 micro arcsec) and access to new spectral regimes for the study of astrophysical phenomena. To maintain phase coherence across a global VLBI array at these wavelengths requires that ultrastable frequency references be used for the heterodyne receivers at all participating telescopes. Hydrogen masers have traditionally been used as VLBI references, but atmospheric turbulence typically limits (sub) millimeter VLBI coherence times to ~1-30 s. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) have better stability than Hydrogen masers on these time scale and are potential alternatives to masers as VLBI references. Here, We describe the design, implementation and tests of a system to produce a 10 MHz VLBI frequency standard from the microwave (11.2 GHz) output of a CSO. To improve long-term stability of the new reference, the CSO was locked to the timing signal from the Global Positionin...

  17. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatherley, V. E.; Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; DiDomizio, R. A.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Pollack, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  18. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatherley, V. E., E-mail: vef@lanl.gov; Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); DiDomizio, R. A.; Pollack, M. J. [EnvirOptics, Inc., Colmar, Pennsylvania 18915 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  19. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatherley, V E; Bingham, D A; Cartelli, M D; DiDomizio, R A; Griego, J R; Herrmann, H W; Lopez, F E; Oertel, J A; Pollack, M J

    2016-11-01

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  20. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science - Gems & Jewelry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanthanachaisaeng, B. [Gems Enhancement Research Unit, Faculty of Gems, Burapha University, Chanthaburi Campus, Chanthaburi 22170 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam analysis is an effective method for detecting trace elements. • Ion beam treatment is able to improve optical and color appearances of the blue sapphire from Rwanda. • These alternative methods can be extended to jewelry industry for large scale application. - Abstract: Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV–Vis–NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  1. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  2. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  3. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance and neighbourh......Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  4. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The handbook on windows and energy is a general description of windows with the main focus put on the energy performance. Common window products are described by commonly used nomenclature, description of frame and sash conctructions and description of commonly used glazing types.The energy...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  5. Securing Applications in Windows Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkat Sandeep

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Windows Phone 7 has been planned with speed in mind. Windows phone is the new baby from Microsoft which is impressed by its features. More than 80,000 apps have now been published in the Windows Phone Marketplace and new content is currently being added at the rate of 340 apps per day [1]. Although there are many benefits, these are not without risks. Most of today’s mobile applications are transaction based, the security is even greater. In this paper we will discuss about the security in mobile devices, and how the windows phone has supported in developing secure applications. Also discuss about the isolated storage feature in windows phone. As security is more important for the Mobile devices, this also discusses how the additional security is provided to the apps.

  6. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... with the minimum acceptable surface temperature regarding surface condensation or mold growth, implemented in the Danish Building Regulations in 2010, and the calculation method for this temperature based on international standards is discussed. The introduction of the minimum acceptable surface temperature has...

  7. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    of the heating demand in typical single-family houses in Denmark and Greenland. The examined windows are typical new windows from Nordic countries and new proposals of improved windows with low thermal transmittance and high total solar energy transmittance. The results show that net energy gain can be increased...... considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... bridges achieve this. Applying shutters or low emissivity coated roller blinds incorporated in the glazing that are activated during night time can improve the energy performance of windows. The results from this work show that it is possible to develop windows with a positive net energy in a fairly...

  8. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  9. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  10. Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zewu; Ju, Li; Eon, François; Gras, Slawomir; Zhao, Chunnong; Jacob, John; Blair, David G.

    2004-03-01

    Rayleigh scattering in test masses can introduce noise and reduce the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In this paper, we present laser Rayleigh scattering imaging as a technique to investigate sapphire test masses. The system provides three-dimensional Rayleigh scattering mapping of entire test masses and quantitative evaluation of the Rayleigh scattering coefficient. Rayleigh scattering mapping of two sapphire samples reveals point defects as well as inhomogeneous structures in the samples. We present results showing significant non-uniform scattering within two 4.5 kg sapphire test masses manufactured by the heat exchanger method.

  11. Conformal ALON® and spinel windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Smith, Mark; Ramisetty, Mohan; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2017-05-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft based reconnaissance systems are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. ALON consists primarily of aluminum and oxygen, similar to that of alumina, with a small amount of nitrogen added to help stabilize the cubic gamma-AlON phase. ALON's chemical similarity to alumina, translates into a robust manufacturing process. This ease of processing has allowed Surmet to produce ALON windows and domes in a wide variety of geometries and sizes. Spinel (MgAl2O4) contains equal molar amounts of MgO and Al2O3, and is a cubic material, that transmits further into the Infrared than ALON. Spinel is produced via powder processing techniques similar to those used to produce ALON. Surmet is now applying the lessons learned with ALON to produce conformal spinel windows and domes as well.

  12. Modeling of dopant segregation in sapphire single crystal fibre growth by Micro-Pulling-Down method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia, Su; Duffar, Thierry; Nehari, Abdeljelil; Kononets, Valerii; Lebbou, Kheirreddine

    2017-09-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations are conducted in order to study the causes and solutions for the Ti inhomogeneity problem in Ti doped sapphire Micro-Pulling-Down (μ-PD) growth. The measurement and modeling of the thermal and flow fields, electromagnetic field, Ti concentration in the molten zone and along the fibre axis are compared. For the mean Ti concentration along the fibre and temperature along the iridium crucible, the modeling results are consistent with experiments. Results showed that for high pulling rate, the mass transfer in the capillary is dominated by convection. Marangoni convection is strong in the meniscus due to the large temperature gradient, which has great impact on the Ti distribution for different fibre radii. For high pulling rate, Ti concentration increases quickly from the seed along the fibre axis, and reaches a constant value after about 0.5-2 mm. Radial segregation is high for large diameter fibres. The constant Ti concentration along the fibre axis is increasing when increasing the fibre radius from 0.2 to 0.6 mm. For 0.8 mm, it decreases due to the change of the vortex. At low growth rate, the transport in the capillary is diffusive, back to the crucible, which leads to a Scheil-like Ti distribution, in full agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Frequency-doubled diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    A single-pass frequency doubled high-power tapered diode laser emitting nearly 1.3 W of green light suitable for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The pump efficiencies reached 75 % of the values achieved with a commercial solid-state pump laser....... However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20...... fs are measured. These results open the opportunity of establishing diode laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers for e.g. biophotonic applications like retinal optical coherence tomography or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS microscopy....

  14. MBE growth and characterization of ZnTe epilayers on m-plane sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, Wei-Che; Yamashita, Sotaro; Aiba, Takayuki; Taguri, Kosuke [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Asahi, Toshiaki [Technology Development Center, JX Nippon Mining and Metals Corporation, Hitachi 317-0056 (Japan); Togo, Hiroyoshi [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, Atsugi 243-0198 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    ZnTe epilayers were grown on transparent (10-10) oriented (m -plane) sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Pole figure imaging was used to study the domain distribution within the layer. (211)-oriented ZnTe domains were formed on m -plane sapphire. The presence of only one kind of (211) ZnTe domain formed on the 2 -tilted m -plane sapphire substrates was confirmed. Thus, single domain (211) ZnTe epilayers can be grown on the m -plane sapphire using MBE. Although differences in the crystal structure and lattice mismatch are large, precise control of the substrate surface lattice arrangement result in the formation of high-quality epitaxial layers. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Annealing effects of sapphire substrate on properties of ZnO films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Z. [South China Normal University, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Guangzhou (China); Xu, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai (China)

    2007-09-15

    The annealing effects of sapphire substrates on the quality of epitaxial ZnO films grown by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were studied. The atomic steps formed on (0001) sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates surface by annealing at high temperature were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Their influence on the growth of ZnO films was examined by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that the film quality is strongly affected by annealing treatment of the sapphire substrate surface. The optimum annealing temperature of sapphire substrates for ZnO grown by magnetron sputtering is 1400 C for 1 h in air. (orig.)

  16. Dislocation Analysis for Large-sized Sapphire Single Crystal Grown by SAPMAC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, large-sized sapphire (Φ230×210 mm, 27.5 kg) was grown by SAPMAC method (sapphire growth technique with micro-pulling and shoulder-expanding at the cooled center). Dislocation peculiarity in large sapphire boule (0001) basal plane was investigated by chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray topography method. The triangular dislocation etch pit measured is 7.6×101~8.0×102 cm-2, in which relative high-density dislocations were generated at both initial and final stages of crystal growth. The analysis of single-crystal X-ray topography shows that there are no apparent sub-grain boundaries; the dislocation lines are isolated and straight. Finally, the origins of low-density dislocation in sapphire crystal are discussed by numerical analysis method.

  17. Advances in Trace Element "Fingerprinting" of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F Lin Sutherland; Khin Zaw; Sebastien Meffre; Tzen-Fui Yui; Kyaw Thu

    2015-01-01

    ... corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents...

  18. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  19. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  20. Room temperature ferromagnetism in epitaxial Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on r-sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punugupati, Sandhyarani, E-mail: spunugu@ncsu.edu; Narayan, Jagdish; Hunte, Frank [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    We report on the epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on r-sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) (2θ and Φ) and TEM characterization confirm that the films are grown epitaxially. The r-plane (011{sup ¯}2) of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grows on r-plane of sapphire. The epitaxial relations can be written as [011{sup ¯}2] Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} ‖ [011{sup ¯}2] Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (out-of-plane) and [1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}20] Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} ‖ [1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}20] Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in-plane). The as-deposited films showed ferromagnetic behavior up to 400 K but ferromagnetism almost vanishes with oxygen annealing. The Raman spectroscopy data together with strain measurements using high resolution XRD indicate that ferromagnetism in r-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films is due to the strain caused by defects, such as oxygen vacancies.

  1. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  2. Quasi-3D modeling, design, and analysis of symmetric on-chip inductors in silicon-on-sapphire technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wan-Chul; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Lim, Cheng-Chew; Wong, Louis

    2004-03-01

    A design and analysis of symmetric on-chip planar inductors are presented based in 0.5 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS process of Peregrine Semiconductor. Compared to conventional CMOS processes, an insulating thick sapphire (Al2O3) substrate enables higher quality factor inductors due to low energy loss in the substrate. In addition, symmetric cross-coupled configuration of identical asymmetric inductors of thick top metalization minimizes the insertion loss. Such differentially connected inductors are simulated on 2.5D electromagnetic field environment and a modeling method of quasi-3D structures is introduced for the metal strips. Maximum quality factor of 53.6 with 2.34 nH at 8.9 GHz is achieved by optimizing the symmetric circular inductors. This inductor is used in the design of a low power (0.42 mW) LC VCO operating at 5.8 GHz and exhibits a phase noise of -120.6 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz offset frequency.

  3. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  4. Skin thermal response to sapphire contact and cryogen spray cooling: a comparative study based on measurements in a skin phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jorge H.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Tanenbaum, B. S.; Anvari, Bahman

    2000-05-01

    Non-specific thermal injury to the epidermis may occur as a result of laser treatment of cutaneous hypervascular malformations (e.g. port wine stains) and other dermatoses. Methods to protect the epidermis from thermal injury include sapphire contact cooling (SCC) and cryogen spray cooling (CSC). Evaluation of the skin thermal response to either cooling method and better understanding of the heat transfer process at the skin surface are essential for further optimization of cooling technique during laser therapy. We present internal temperature measurements in an epoxy resin phantom in response to both SCC and CSC, and use the results in conjunction with a mathematical model to predict the temperature distributions within human skin. Based on our results, a conductive heat transfer process at the skin interface appears to be the primary mechanism for both SCC and CSC. In the case of CSC, 'film cooling' rather than 'evaporative cooling' seems to be the dominant mode during the spurt duration. Currently, due to the lower temperature of the cryogen film and its shorter time of application, CSC produces larger temperature reductions at the skin surface and smaller temperature reductions at depths greater than 200 micrometer (i.e., higher spatial selectivity) when compared to SCC. However, SCC can potentially induce temperature reductions comparable to those produced by CSC if a sapphire temperature similar to that for a cryogen could be achieved in practice.

  5. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  6. Newly designed multilayer thin film mirror for dispersion compensation in Ti: sapphire femtosecond lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyan Liao; Jianda Shao; Jianbing Huang; Zhengxiu Fan; Hongbo He

    2005-01-01

    @@ There are two different effects to generate group delay dispersion by multilayer thin film mirrors: chirper effect and Gires-Tournois effect. Both effects are employed to introduce desired dispersion in the designed mirror. Thus the designed mirror provides large dispersion throughout broad waveband. Such mirror can be used for dispersion compensation in Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers. Most group delay dispersion of a 5-mm Ti:sapphire crystal can be compensated perfectly with only four bounces of the designed mirror.

  7. Growth of crystalline ZnO films on the nitridated (0001) sapphire surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.; Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Kondratev, O. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Vasil’ev, A. L.; Rakova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Babaev, V. A.; Ismailov, A. M. [Dagestan State University (Russian Federation); Vovk, E. A.; Nizhankovsky, S. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Single Crystals (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    The surface morphology and structure of (0001) sapphire substrates subjected to thermochemical nitridation in a mixture of N{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2} gases are investigated by electron and probe microscopy and X-ray and electron diffraction. It is shown that an aluminum nitride layer is formed on the substrate surface and heteroepitaxial ZnO films deposited onto such substrates by magnetron sputtering have a higher quality when compared with films grown on sapphire.

  8. Determining residual impurities in sapphire by means of electron paramagnetic resonance and nuclear activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletskan, D. I.; Bratus', V. Ya.; Luk'yanchuk, A. R.; Maslyuk, V. T.; Parlag, O. A.

    2008-07-01

    Sapphire (α-Al2O3) single crystals grown using the Verneuil and Kyropoulos methods have been analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance and γ-ray spectroscopy with 12-MeV bremsstrahlung excitation. It is established that uncontrolled impurities in the final sapphire single crystals grown by the Kyropoulos method in molybdenum-tungsten crucibles are supplied both from the initial materials and from the furnace and crucible materials

  9. Jones calculus modeling and analysis of the thermal distortion in a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seryeyohan; Jeong, Jihoon; Yu, Tae Jun

    2016-06-27

    The mathematical modeling of an anisotropic Ti:sapphire crystal with a significant thermal load is performed. The model is expressed by the differential Jones matrix. A thermally induced distortion in the chirped-pulse amplification process is shown by the solution of the differential Jones matrix. Using this model, the thermally distorted spatio-temporal laser beam shape is calculated for a high-power and high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire amplifier.

  10. High power all-solid-state quasi-continuous-wave tunable Ti: sapphire laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zou; Xin Ding; Yue Zou; Hongmei Ma; Wuqi Wen; Peng Wang; Jianquan Yao

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a high power, all-solid-state, quasi-continuous-wave tunable Ti:sapphire laser system pumped by laser diode (LD) pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The maximum tuned output power of 4.2 W (797 nm) and tuned average power of 3.7 W were achieved when fixing the Ti:sapphire broadband output power at 5.0 W and applying 750-850 nm broadband coated mirror.

  11. Aleutian disease of mink: the antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Aleutian disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Hadlow, W J; Chesebro, B

    1975-10-01

    The specific antiviral antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Pullman strain of ADV has been examined. Sapphire mink inoculated with from 300,000-3 LD50 developed high levels of specific antibody and AD. Pastel mink inoculated with parallel doses of ADV also produced antibody but did not develop AD. The low incidence of AD in pastel mink inoculated with Pullman strain of ADV is probably related to factors other than antiviral antibody.

  12. Structural and electronic characterization of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred onto sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joucken, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.joucken@unamur.be; Colomer, Jean-François; Sporken, Robert; Reckinger, Nicolas

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • CVD graphene is transferred onto sapphire. • Transport measurements reveal relatively low charge carriers mobility. • Scanning probe microscopy experiments reveal the presence of robust contaminant layers between the graphene and the sapphire, responsible for the low carriers mobility. - Abstract: We present a combination of magnetotransport and local probe measurements on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil and subsequently transferred onto a sapphire substrate. A rather strong p-doping is observed (∼9 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}) together with quite low carrier mobility (∼1350 cm{sup 2}/V s). Atomic force and tunneling imaging performed on the transport devices reveals the presence of contaminants between sapphire and graphene, explaining the limited performance of our devices. The transferred graphene displays ridges similar to those observed whilst graphene is still on the copper foil. We show that, on sapphire, these ridges are made of different thicknesses of the contamination layer and that, contrary to what was reported for hBN or certain transition metal dichalcogenides, no self-cleansing process of the sapphire substrate is observed.

  13. Cellular and humoral antibody responses of normal pastel and sapphire mink to goat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J; Munoz, J J

    1971-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10(6) cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE.

  14. High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Hanson, Theodore R.; Long, Ezra M.; Montanez, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) uses commercial waveguide windows on the output waveguide of Ka-band (32 GHz) low-noise amplifiers. Mechanical failure of these windows resulted in an unacceptable loss in tracking time. To address this issue, a new Ka-band WR-28 waveguide window has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The window uses a slab of low-loss, low-dielectric constant foam that is bonded into a 1/2-wave-thick waveguide/flange. The foam is a commercially available, rigid, closed-cell polymethacrylimide. It has excellent electrical properties with a dielectric constant of 1.04, and a loss tangent of 0.01. It is relatively strong with a tensile strength of 1 MPa. The material is virtually impermeable to helium. The finished window exhibits a leak rate of less than 3x10(exp -3)cu cm/s with helium. The material is also chemically resistant and can be cleaned with acetone. The window is constructed by fabricating a window body by brazing a short length of WR-28 copper waveguide into a standard rectangular flange, and machining the resulting part to a thickness of 4.6 mm. The foam is machined to a rectangular shape with a dimension of 7.06x3.53 mm. The foam is bonded into the body with a two-part epoxy. After curing, the excess glue and foam are knife-trimmed by hand. The finished window has a loss of less than 0.08 dB (2%) and a return loss of greater than 25 dB at 32 GHz. This meets the requirements for the DSN application. The window is usable for most applications over the entire 26-to-40-GHz waveguide band. The window return loss can be tuned to a required frequency by var y in g the thickness of the window slightly. Most standard waveguide windows use a thin membrane of material bonded into a recess in a waveguide flange, or sandwiched between two flanges with a polymer seal. Designs using the recessed window are prone to mechanical failure over time due to constraints on the dimensions of the recess that allow the bond to fail. Designs using the

  15. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    the paper describes how the net energy gain from a complete typical window can be increased in a fairly simple way by reducing the frame width and using glass with low iron content. The changes primary increase the g-value. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  16. Laser surface and subsurface modification of sapphire using femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, G., E-mail: eberle@iwf.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 21, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmidt, M. [Chair of Photonic Technologies, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 3-5, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Pude, F. [Inspire AG, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Wegener, K. [Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 21, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Inspire AG, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Single and multipulse ablation threshold of aluminium oxide is determined. • Laser ablation, and in-volume modification followed by wet etching are demonstrated. • Quality following laser processing and laser-material interactions are studied. - Abstract: Two methods to process sapphire using femtosecond laser pulses are demonstrated, namely ablation (surface), and in-volume laser modification followed by wet etching (subsurface). Firstly, the single and multipulse ablation threshold is determined and compared with previous literature results. A unique application of ablation is demonstrated by modifying the entrance aperture of water jet orifices. Laser ablation exhibits advantages in terms of geometric flexibility and resolution, however, defects in the form of edge outbreaks and poor surface quality are evident. Secondly, the role of material transformation, polarisation state and formation of multi-focus structures after in-volume laser modification is investigated in order to explain their influence during the wet etching process. Laser scanning and electron microscopy as well as electron backscatter diffraction measurements supported by ion beam polishing are used to better understand quality and laser-material interactions of the two demonstrated methods of processing.

  17. Local dielectric permittivity profiles of sapphire/polypropylene interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Ranjan, V.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.; Bernholc, J.

    2009-03-01

    Recently, the need for high-power-density capacitors has stimulated research to develop composite dielectric materials with high-k nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix. In these materials, surfaces and interfaces may play an important role in determining the overall dielectric properties. We present first-principles investigations of the dielectric permittivity profiles across slabs and interfaces of sapphire(α-Al2O3)/isotactic-polypropylene(iPP). Our results indicate that the permittivity profile at interface strongly depends on the nanoscale averaging procedure. We propose an averaging model that ensures near-locality of the dielectric function. We find that: (i) the dielectric permittivity approaches the corresponding bulk value just a few atomic layers away from the interface or surface; (ii) the dielectric constant is enhanced at the surfaces of the isolated α-Al2O3 slabs, while no enhancement is observed at the iPP slab surfaces; and (iii) the dielectric transition at the αAl2O3/iPP is mainly confined in the αAl2O3 side.

  18. Q-Switching the Flash Ti: Sapphire Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, Kelly

    2003-09-05

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) uses a flash lamp pumped Ti:Sapphire laser to generate the electron beam inside of the Linac. This laser system was installed at the SLAC Polarized Light Source in 1993. During the past, the system has been upgraded in several steps (eg. installation of Rhodium coated reflectors, cavity redesign, and remote controlled wavelength tunability). Q-switching the laser cavity to increase the peak pulse energy was successfully investigated and further improves the capabilities of the laser system for future polarized beam experiments. Two Pockels cells were used to perform the Q-switch and various diagnostics were used to characterize the modified laser pulse. The timing in relation to the laser trigger, pulse width, and pulse shape applied to the Q-switching Pockels cells (PC) were optimized. No damage to the laser cavity or optical elements occurred. At optimal conditions of Q-switching, the pulse energy of the laser increased from 0.4 mJ to over 3 mJ in a 300 ns pulse. The Q-switched pulse energy can be further increased by extending the hold-off pulse applied to the PC. The laser pulse produced by the Q-switch was long enough (full width half maximum (FWHM) > 200 ns) for pulse shaping and demonstrated good intensity stability (< 0.5% jitter). The increase in output power suggests that Q-switching will be used for future accelerator projects.

  19. Origin of Difference in Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO (002 Grown on a- and c-Face Sapphire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The oriented (002 ZnO films were grown on a- and c-face sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the oriented (002 ZnO films were epitaxially grown on the substrate successfully. The sample on a-face sapphire had higher crystal quality. However, the photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B degradation of ZnO film on c-face sapphire was higher than that on a-face sapphire. The Raman spectrum and XPS analysis suggested that the sample on a-face sapphire had higher concentration of defects. The result of the contact angle measurement revealed that the sample on c-face sapphire had higher surface energy. And the investigation of the surface conductance implied that the higher light conductance was helpful for the photocatalytic activity.

  20. Effects of sapphire substrates surface treatment on the ZnO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinzhen [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail: agwyz@yahoo.com.cn; Chu Benli [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2008-06-01

    The surface treatment effects of sapphire substrate on the ZnO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering were studied. The sapphire substrates properties have been investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction rocking curves (XRCs). The results show that sapphire substrate surfaces have the best quality by CMP with subsequent chemical etching. The surface treatment effects of sapphire substrate on the ZnO thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Results show that the intensity of (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrates treated by CMP with subsequent chemical etching was strongest, FWHM of (0 0 2) diffraction peak is the narrowest and the intensity of UV peak of PL spectrum is strongest, indicating surface treatment on sapphire substrate preparation may improve ZnO thin films crystal quality and photoluminescent property.

  1. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-12-23

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  2. Shock Induced Emission from Sapphire in High-Pressure Phase of Rh2O3 (Ⅱ) Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dai-Yu; LIU Fu-Sheng; HAO Gao-Yu; SUN Yu-Huai

    2007-01-01

    @@ A distinct optical emission from the Rh2 O3 (Ⅱ) structural sapphire is observed under shock compression of 125,132, and 143 Gpa. The emission intensity continuously increases with the thickness of shocked sapphire. The colour temperature is determined to be about 4000K, which is obviously smaller than the reported value of the alpha phase alumina at the pressures below 80 Gpa. The present results suggest that the structural transformation will cause an obvious change of optical property in sapphire.

  3. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  4. 拥抱Windows 10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春海

    2015-01-01

    微软新一代操作系统Windows10已正式发布,新系统统一PC、平板、手机和Xbox等多个平台,在性能、安全性和用户体验方面都有全面提升,并对系统底层、开始菜单、操作中心等做出多项改进,包括更智慧的Cortana语音助理、全新多桌面体验和新的开始选单等。除此之外,Windows10还加强了安全性的设计,Windows10的内核版本直接从Windows8.1的6.4提升到了10.0,操作系统的底层架构和安全特性发生了多项重大变化。在初次使用Windows10的时候,可以看到“手机、平板”的风格到处都是。

  5. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  6. Polarization-independent transparency window induced by complementary graphene metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei Bing; Liu, Ji Long; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhen Guo

    2017-01-01

    A fourfold symmetric graphene-based complementary metasurface featuring a polarization-independent transparency window is proposed and numerically analysed in this paper. The unit cell of the metamaterial consists of a monolayer graphene perforated with a cross and four identical split-ring resonators deposited on a substrate. Our analysis shows that the transparency window can be interpreted as a plasmonic analogy of Autler-Townes splitting. The polarization independence is achieved due to the fourfold symmetry of graphene’s complementary structure. In addition, the frequency range of the transparency window can be dynamically tuned over a broad band by changing the chemical potential of graphene, and the width of the transparency window can also be controlled by changing the split-gap orientation. This work may lead to potential applications in many area, such as slow-light devices and optical sensing.

  7. Guidebook to R graphics using Microsoft Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Takezawa, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Introduces the graphical capabilities of R to readers new to the software Due to its flexibility and availability, R has become the computing software of choice for statistical computing and generating graphics across various fields of research. Guidebook to R Graphics Using Microsoft® Windows offers a unique presentation of R, guiding new users through its many benefits, including the creation of high-quality graphics. Beginning with getting the program up and running, this book takes readers step by step through the process of creating histograms, boxplots, strip charts, time series gra

  8. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  9. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  10. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  11. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  12. Windows 7 Server名称之谜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    按理说,Windows 7 Server 也算得上是一款新系统,为何不见其介绍呢?其实“Windows 7 Server”只是我们这些Windows拥戴者给它的命名,微软在研发Windows7的服务器版本时,并没有用“Windows 7 Server”作为开发代号,而是命名为“Windows Server 2008 R2”,这表示Windows7的服务器版本并不像是从Windows 2000 Server到Windows Server 2003式的重大产品升级,只是对现有Windows Server2008的一次更新,或者说是Windows Seryer 2008的增强版。

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigations of electronic and atomic structure of Si-nanocrystals formed in sapphire by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainstein, D; Kovalev, A; Tetelbaum, D; Mikhailov, A [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, 2-nd Baumanskaya str. 9/23, CNIICHERMET, office 475, Moscow, 105005 (Russian Federation); Bulutay, C; Aydinli, A [Department of Physics and National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 Turkey (Turkey)], E-mail: admin@sprg.ru

    2008-03-15

    The semiconductor nanocomposites based on Si nanocrystals in dielectric matrices attract a great amount of attention due to their ability for luminescence in visible and near-IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Si nanocrystals in sapphire matrix were formed by Si{sup +} ion implantation with doses from 5x10{sup 16} to 3x10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} at an accelerating voltage 100 kV and post-implantation annealing at 500 - 1100 {sup 0}C for 2 hours. Depth distribution of lattice defects, impurities and Si nanocrystals, the peculiarities of interband electronic transitions were investigated by XPS and HREELS. The molecular orbitals and local electronic structure of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix with Si nanocrystals was calculated using an atomistic pseudopotential technique. The electronic structure of Si nanocrystals as determined from HREELS measurements is in good agreement with the theoretically calculated electronic structure for Si nanocrystals.

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigations of electronic and atomic structure of Si-nanocrystals formed in sapphire by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, D.; Kovalev, A.; Tetelbaum, D.; Mikhailov, A.; Bulutay, C.; Aydinli, A.

    2008-03-01

    The semiconductor nanocomposites based on Si nanocrystals in dielectric matrices attract a great amount of attention due to their ability for luminescence in visible and near-IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Si nanocrystals in sapphire matrix were formed by Si+ ion implantation with doses from 5×1016 to 3×1017 cm-2 at an accelerating voltage 100 kV and post-implantation annealing at 500 - 1100 °C for 2 hours. Depth distribution of lattice defects, impurities and Si nanocrystals, the peculiarities of interband electronic transitions were investigated by XPS and HREELS. The molecular orbitals and local electronic structure of the Al2O3 matrix with Si nanocrystals was calculated using an atomistic pseudopotential technique. The electronic structure of Si nanocrystals as determined from HREELS measurements is in good agreement with the theoretically calculated electronic structure for Si nanocrystals.

  15. Influence of patterned sapphire substrates with different symmetry on the light output power of InGaN-based LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the light output power (LOP) of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) with different symmetry. The GaN epitaxial layers grown on the hexagonal lattice arrangement PSS (HLAPSS) have a lower compressive strain than the ones grown on the square lattice arrangement PSS (SLAPSS). The quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) is also affected by the residual compressive strain. Based on the experimentally measured data and the ray tracing simulation results, the InGaN-based LED with the HLAPSS has a higher LOP than the one with the SLAPSS due to the weaker QCSE within multiple-quantum wells (MQWs). PMID:25392706

  16. Half-percent terahertz generation efficiency from cryogenically cooled lithium niobate pumped by Ti:sapphire laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaojun; Huang, Wenqian Ronny; Zhou, Chun; Zalden, Peter; Rossi, Giulio M; Cirmi, Giovanni; Muecke, Oliver D; Kaertner, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    We obtained an optical-to-terahertz (THz) energy conversion efficiency of 0.5% using the tilted-pulse-front technique in lithium niobate at a cryogenically cooled temperature of 100 K pumped by amplified Ti:sapphire laser pulses with ~150 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. Compared with the optimized conversion efficiency of 0.18% achieved at room temperature, we achieved more than 2.5 times enhancement in conversion efficiency upon cryogenically cooling the crystal due to reduction of THz absorption. Further improvements to the conversion efficiency can be made by optimizing the out-coupling of the THz radiation, transportation of pump energy and by further decreasing the THz absorption in the lithium niobate crystal.

  17. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...

  18. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  19. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  20. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  1. Experimental study of plasma window

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Liang, Shi; Kun, Zhu; Yuan-Rong, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Plasma window is an advanced apparatus which can work as the interface between vacuum and high pressure region. It can be used in many applications which need atmosphere-vacuum interface, such as gas target, electron beam welding, synchrotron radiation and spallation neutron source. A test bench of plasma window is constructed in Peking University. A series of experiments and corresponding parameter measurements have been presented in this article. The experiment result indicates the feasibility of such a facility acting as an interface between vacuum and high pressure region.

  2. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  3. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    the paper describes how the net energy gain from a complete typical window can be increased in a fairly simple way by reducing the frame width and using glass with low iron content. The changes primary increase the g-value. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  4. Nanoscratch Characterization of GaN Epilayers on c- and a-Axis Sapphire Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hua-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we used metal organic chemical vapor deposition to form gallium nitride (GaN epilayers on c- and a-axis sapphire substrates and then used the nanoscratch technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM to determine the nanotribological behavior and deformation characteristics of the GaN epilayers, respectively. The AFM morphological studies revealed that pile-up phenomena occurred on both sides of the scratches formed on the GaN epilayers. It is suggested that cracking dominates in the case of GaN epilayers while ploughing during the process of scratching; the appearances of the scratched surfaces were significantly different for the GaN epilayers on the c- and a-axis sapphire substrates. In addition, compared to the c-axis substrate, we obtained higher values of the coefficient of friction (μ and deeper penetration of the scratches on the GaN a-axis sapphire sample when we set the ramped force at 4,000 μN. This discrepancy suggests that GaN epilayers grown on c-axis sapphire have higher shear resistances than those formed on a-axis sapphire. The occurrence of pile-up events indicates that the generation and motion of individual dislocation, which we measured under the sites of critical brittle transitions of the scratch track, resulted in ductile and/or brittle properties as a result of the deformed and strain-hardened lattice structure.

  5. Growth and Crystal Orientation of ZnTe on m-Plane Sapphire with Nanofaceted Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, Wei-Che; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Asahi, Toshiaki

    2016-11-01

    ZnTe thin films on sapphire substrate with nanofaceted structure have been studied. The nanofaceted structure of the m-plane (10-10) sapphire was obtained by heating the substrate at above 1100°C in air, and the r-plane (10-12) and S-plane (1-101) were confirmed. ZnTe layers were prepared on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The effect of the nanofaceted structure on the orientation of the thin films was examined based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) pole figures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also employed to characterize the interface structures. The ZnTe layer on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrate exhibited (331)-plane orientation, compared with (211)-plane without the nanofaceted structure. After thermal treatment, the m-plane surface vanished and (211) layer could not be formed because of the lack of surface lattice matching. On the other hand, (331)-plane thin film was formed on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrate, since the (111) ZnTe domains were oriented on the S-facet. The orientation of the ZnTe epilayer depended on the atomic ordering on the surface and the influence of the S-plane.

  6. Variable Energy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of GaN Grown on Sapphire Substrates with MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yi-Fan; C.D. Beling; S. Fung

    2005-01-01

    @@ Depth profiled Doppler broadening of positron annihilation spectroscopy (DBPAS), which is also called the variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy (VEPAS), is used in characterization of GaN grown on sapphire substrates with metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The GaN film and the film/substrate interface are investigated. The VEPFIT (variable energy positron fit) software was used for analysing the data,and the positron diffusion length of the sapphire is obtained. The results suggest that there is a highly defected region near the GaN/sapphire interface. This thin dislocated region is generated at the film/substrate interface to relieve the strain. Effects of implantation dose on defect formation, for the GaN/Sapphire samples, which implanted by Al+ ions, are also investigated. Studies on Al+ implanted GaN films (not including the interface and sapphire) have revealed that there are two different regions of implantation damage. For the low Al+ implantation dose samples, in the region close to the surface, defects are mainly composed of vacancy pairs with small amount of vacancy clusters, and in the interior region of the film the positron traps are vacancy clusters without micro-voids. For the highest dose sample, however, some positron trap centres are in the form of micro-voids in the second region.

  7. Sapphire scintillation tests for cryogenic detectors in the Edelweiss dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, M

    2007-07-15

    Identifying the matter in the universe is one of the main challenges of modern cosmology and astrophysics. An important part of this matter seems to be made of non-baryonic particles. Edelweiss is a direct dark matter search using cryogenic germanium bolometers in order to look for particles that interact very weakly with the ordinary matter, generically known as WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). An important challenge for Edelweiss is the radioactive background and one of the ways to identify it is to use a larger variety of target crystals. Sapphire is a light target which can be complementary to the germanium crystals already in use. Spectroscopic characterization studies have been performed using different sapphire samples in order to find the optimum doping concentration for good low temperature scintillation. Ti doped crystals with weak Ti concentrations have been used for systematic X ray excitation tests both at room temperature and down to 30 K. The tests have shown that the best Ti concentration for optimum room temperature scintillation is 100 ppm and 50 ppm at T = 45 K. All concentrations have been checked by optical absorption and fluorescence. After having shown that sapphire had interesting characteristics for building heat-scintillation detectors, we have tested if using a sapphire detector was feasible within a dark matter search. During the first commissioning tests of Edelweiss-II, we have proved the compatibility between a sapphire heat scintillation detector and the experimental setup. (author)

  8. Effect of Measurement Volume Shift and Fringe Distortion Due to Beam Refractions through the Plane Window for LDA Applications%激光多普勒测速中平板窗口对测量体位置及形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋; 闫清东; 魏巍; 崔骊水

    2015-01-01

    Using laser Doppler anemometer(LDA) to measure velocities in inner flow field, due to the refraction after the laser beams through the flat window vertically or aslant, the measuring volume position and shape change, and affect the measured velocity. For studying the refraction effect on measuring volume shift and velocity direction, a mathematical model of the laser beams through the flat window refraction was established, using this model to study the refraction effect under the different working conditions(the beams incident angleθ, the beams half angleα1, the refractive index of the flow n3, plane thickness d and LDA probe location);for studying the refraction effect on measurement of fringe distortion under differentθ, the LDA calibration test system was established. Results show that the refraction effect can be ignored within 10° ofθ, 5° ofα1.The refractive index of both the plane sides as close as possible, will reduce the refraction effect; Along the length of the measurement volume direction after refraction, fringe spacing increases linearly, and with the increase ofθ, fringe spacing tend to be uniform.%应用激光多普勒测速仪(Laser Doppler anemometer, LDA)进行内流场测试时,激光光束光轴垂直和倾斜经过平板窗口后,由于折射效应导致LDA系统测量体位置和形态发生改变,进而影响所测速度大小和方向。为了研究折射效应对测量体位置和速度方向的影响,建立激光光路经平板窗口折射的数学模型,应用此模型进行不同工况(光束入射角θ、光束半夹角α1、内流场介质折射率n3、平板厚度d和LDA探头位置)下的理论研究;为了研究折射效应对测量体形态(即条纹畸变)的影响,建立 LDA 标定试验系统,进行不同光束入射角试验研究。研究结果表明,控制θ在10°以内可以忽略其折射效应影响;α1对于测量体位置偏差影响较小,但对于速度偏角

  9. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  10. Sapphire hard X-ray Fabry-Perot resonators for synchrotron experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi Wei; Wu, Yu Hsin; Chang, Ying Yi; Liu, Wen Chung; Liu, Hong Lin; Chu, Chia Hong; Chen, Pei Chi; Lin, Pao Te; Fu, Chien Chung; Chang, Shih Lin

    2016-05-01

    Hard X-ray Fabry-Perot resonators (FPRs) made from sapphire crystals were constructed and characterized. The FPRs consisted of two crystal plates, part of a monolithic crystal structure of Al2O3, acting as a pair of mirrors, for the backward reflection (0 0 0 30) of hard X-rays at 14.3147 keV. The dimensional accuracy during manufacturing and the defect density in the crystal in relation to the resonance efficiency of sapphire FPRs were analyzed from a theoretical standpoint based on X-ray cavity resonance and measurements using scanning electron microscopic and X-ray topographic techniques for crystal defects. Well defined resonance spectra of sapphire FPRs were successfully obtained, and were comparable with the theoretical predictions.

  11. High Temperature Testing with Sapphire Fiber White-Light Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, A.; Pedrazzani, J.; May, R.; Murphy, K.; Tran, T.; Coate, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the design of new aerospace materials, developmental testing is conducted to characterize the behavior of the material under severe environmental conditions of high stress, temperature, and vibration. But to test these materials under extreme conditions requires sensors that can perform in harsh environments. Current sensors can only monitor high temperature test samples using long throw instrumentation, but this is inherently less accurate than a surface mounted sensor, and provides no means for fabrication process monitoring. A promising alternative is the use of sapphire optical fiber sensors. Sapphire is an incredibly rugged material, being extremely hard (9 mhos), chemically inert, and having a melting temperature (over 2000 C). Additionally, there is a extensive background of optical fiber sensors upon which to draw for sapphire sensor configurations.

  12. Stability of trapped charges in sapphires and alumina ceramics: Evaluation by secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbout, K.; Si Ahmed, A.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.; Goeuriot, D.; Kallel, A.

    2008-03-01

    The stability of trapped charges in sapphires and alumina ceramics is characterized via an experimental parameter expressing the variation of the secondary electron emission yield between two electron injections performed in a scanning electron microscope. Two types of sapphires and polycrystalline alumina, which differ mainly by their impurity content, are investigated in the temperature range 300-663K. The stable trapping behavior in sapphires is attributed to trapping in different defects, whose nature depends on the purity level. In alumina ceramics, the ability to trap charges in a stable way is stronger in samples of high impurity content. In the low impurity samples, stable trapping is promoted when the grain diameter decreases, whereas the reverse is observed in high impurity materials. These behaviors can stem from a gettering effect occurring during sintering. The strong dependence of the variation of the secondary electron emission yield on the grain diameter and impurities enables a scaling of the stable trapping ability of alumina materials.

  13. Temperature and thermal stress evolutions in sapphire crystal during the cooling process by heat exchanger method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wencheng; Zhao, Wenhan; Wu, Ming; Ding, Guoqiang; Liu, Lijun

    2017-09-01

    Transient numerical calculations were carried out to predict the evolutions of temperature and thermal stress in sapphire single crystal during the cooling process by heat exchanger method (HEM). Internal radiation in the semitransparent sapphire crystal was taken into account using the finite volume method (FVM) in the global heat transfer model. The numerical results seem to indicate that the narrow bottom region of the sapphire crystal is subjected to high thermal stress during the cooling process, which could be responsible for the seed cracking of the as-grown crystal, while the thermal stress is relatively small in the central main body of the crystal, and is less than 10 MPa during the whole cooling process. The fast decrease of the thermal stress in the bottom region of the crystal during the initial stage of cooling process is dominated by the reduction of the cooling helium gas in the heat exchanger shaft, and is not significantly affected by the heating power reduction rate.

  14. Rate of F center formation in sapphire under low-energy low-fluence Ar+ irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epie, E. N.; Wijesundera, D. N.; Tilakaratne, B. P.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chu, W. K.

    2016-03-01

    Ionoluminescence, optical absorption spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channelling (RBS-C) have been used to study the rate of F center formation with fluence in 170 keV Ar+ irradiated single crystals of α-Al2O3 (sapphire) at room temperature. Implantation fluences range between 1013 cm-2 and 5 ×1014 cm-2. F center density (NF) has been found to display an initial rapid linear increase with Ar+ fluence followed by saturation to a maximum value of 1.74 ×1015 cm-2. Experimental results show a 1-1 correlation between radiation damage in the oxygen sublattice and F center density. This suggest F center kinetics in sapphire under low-energy low-fluence Ar irradiation is a direct consequence of dynamic competition between oxygen defect creation and recombination. An attempt has also been made to extend this discussion to F center kinetics in sapphire under swift heavy ion irradiation.

  15. Three-dimensional laser window formation for industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Kowalski, David

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional, compound-curvature laser windows to extreme accuracies. These windows represent an integral component of specialized nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems that are used in a variety of compressor and turbine research testing facilities. These windows are molded to the flow surface profile of turbine and compressor casings and are required to withstand extremely high pressures and temperatures. This method of glass formation could also be used to form compound-curvature mirrors that would require little polishing and for a variety of industrial applications, including research view ports for testing devices and view ports for factory machines with compound-curvature casings. Currently, sodium-alumino-silicate glass is recommended for three-dimensional laser windows because of its high strength due to chemical strengthening and its optical clarity. This paper discusses the main aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities that are associated with the formation of these windows.

  16. Stability and Phase Noise Tests of Two Cryo-Cooled Sapphire Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.

    1998-01-01

    A cryocooled Compensated Sapphire Oscillator (CSO), developed for the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment, and operating in the 8K - 10K temperature range was previously demonstrated to show ultra-high stability of sigma(sub y) = 2.5 x 10 (exp -15) for measuring times 200 seconds less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 600 seconds using a hydrogen maser as reference. We present here test results for a second unit which allows CSO short-term stability and phase noise to be measured for the first time. Also included are design details of a new RF receiver and an intercomparison with the first CSO unit. Cryogenic oscillators operating below about 10K offer the highest possible short term stability of any frequency sources. However, their use has so far been restricted to research environments due to the limited operating periods associated with liquid helium consumption. The cryocooled CSO is being built in support of the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment and is designed to operate continuously for periods of a year or more. Performance targets are a stability of 3-4 x 10 (exp -15) (1 second less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 100 seconds) and phase noise of -73dB/Hz @ 1Hz measured at 34 GHz. Installation in 5 stations of NASA's deep space network (DSN) is planned in the years 2000 - 2002. In the previous tests, actual stability of the CSO for measuring times tau less than or equal to 200 seconds could not be directly measured, being masked by short-term fluctuations of the H-maser reference. Excellent short-term performance, however, could be inferred by the success of an application of the CSO as local oscillator (L.O.) to the JPL LITS passive atomic standard, where medium-term stability showed no degradation due to L.O. instabilities at a level of (sigma)y = 3 x 10 (exp -14)/square root of tau. A second CSO has now been constructed, and all cryogenic aspects have been verified, including a resonator turn-over temperature of 7.907 K

  17. High-pressure sapphire cell for phase equilibria measurements of CO2/organic/water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Pamela; Ethier, Amy L; Senter, James C; Eckert, Charles A; Liotta, Charles L

    2014-01-24

    The high pressure sapphire cell apparatus was constructed to visually determine the composition of multiphase systems without physical sampling. Specifically, the sapphire cell enables visual data collection from multiple loadings to solve a set of material balances to precisely determine phase composition. Ternary phase diagrams can then be established to determine the proportion of each component in each phase at a given condition. In principle, any ternary system can be studied although ternary systems (gas-liquid-liquid) are the specific examples discussed herein. For instance, the ternary THF-Water-CO2 system was studied at 25 and 40 °C and is described herein. Of key importance, this technique does not require sampling. Circumventing the possible disturbance of the system equilibrium upon sampling, inherent measurement errors, and technical difficulties of physically sampling under pressure is a significant benefit of this technique. Perhaps as important, the sapphire cell also enables the direct visual observation of the phase behavior. In fact, as the CO2 pressure is increased, the homogeneous THF-Water solution phase splits at about 2 MPa. With this technique, it was possible to easily and clearly observe the cloud point and determine the composition of the newly formed phases as a function of pressure. The data acquired with the sapphire cell technique can be used for many applications. In our case, we measured swelling and composition for tunable solvents, like gas-expanded liquids, gas-expanded ionic liquids and Organic Aqueous Tunable Systems (OATS)(1-4). For the latest system, OATS, the high-pressure sapphire cell enabled the study of (1) phase behavior as a function of pressure and temperature, (2) composition of each phase (gas-liquid-liquid) as a function of pressure and temperature and (3) catalyst partitioning in the two liquid phases as a function of pressure and composition. Finally, the sapphire cell is an especially effective tool to gather

  18. The Influence of Surface Anisotropy Crystalline Structure on Wetting of Sapphire by Molten Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin

    2013-05-01

    The wetting of sapphire by molten aluminum was investigated by the sessile drop technique from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C) at PO2 <10-15 Pa under Ar atmosphere. This study focuses on sapphire crystalline structure and its principle to the interface. The planes " a" and " b" are oxygen terminated structures and wet more by Al, whereas the " c" plane is an aluminum terminated structure. A wetting transition at 1273 K (1000 °C) was obtained and a solid surface tension proves the capillarity trends of the couple.

  19. Synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals in sapphire by ion implantation and vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, C.; Franco, N.; Alves, L. C.; da Silva, R. C.; Alves, E.; Safran, G.; McHargue, C. J.

    2007-04-01

    The synthesis of embedded ZnO nanoparticles in m-cut sapphire was achieved through high fluence Zn ion implantation, 0.9 × 1017 cm-2 at room temperature, followed by annealing at 1000 °C in vacuum. In c-cut samples subjected to similar annealing conditions only buried precipitates of Zn form. TEM results in these samples show a high concentration of faceted precipitates distributed along the c-plane and the presence of Kirkendall voids distributed along the entire implanted region. In both cases a strong loss of Zn is observed upon annealing, which depends on the sapphire host orientation.

  20. Tunable Sum Frequency Mixing of a Ti∶sapphire Laser and a Nd∶YAG Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xin; YAO Jianquan; YU Yizhong; YU Xuanyi; XU Jingjun; ZHANG Guangyin

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical and experimental results of sum-frequency mixing of a Ti∶sapphire laser and a 1.064 μm Nd∶YAG laser are presented. By using two KTP crystals cut at θ=76° and 85° (φ=90° in both crystals), respectively, the sum-frequency mixing tuning range from 459.3 to 509.6 nm in one Ti∶sapphire laser setup is experimentally achieved. The maximum output energy was 14.6 mJ and the energy conversion efficiency was up to 15.2%.

  1. Synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals in sapphire by ion implantation and vacuum annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, C. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Franco, N. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, R.C. da [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, E. [LFI, Dep. Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); McHargue, C.J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The synthesis of embedded ZnO nanoparticles in m-cut sapphire was achieved through high fluence Zn ion implantation, 0.9 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} at room temperature, followed by annealing at 1000 deg. C in vacuum. In c-cut samples subjected to similar annealing conditions only buried precipitates of Zn form. TEM results in these samples show a high concentration of faceted precipitates distributed along the c-plane and the presence of Kirkendall voids distributed along the entire implanted region. In both cases a strong loss of Zn is observed upon annealing, which depends on the sapphire host orientation.

  2. Birefringence measurements in single crystal sapphire and calcite shocked along the a axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Gareth R.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    Calcite and sapphire were shock compressed along the direction (a axis) in a plate impact configuration. Polarimetery and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery (PDV) were used to measure the change in birefringence with particle velocity in the shock direction. Results for sapphire agree well with linear photoelastic theory and current literature showing a linear relationship between birefringence and particle velocity up to 310 m s-1. A maximum change in birefringence of 5% was observed. Calcite however showed anomolous behaviour with no detectable change in birefringence (less than 0.1%) over the range of particle velocities studied (up to 75 m s-1).

  3. Intracavity frequency doubling of CW Ti:Sapphire laser utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    Utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal frequency doubling a Ti:Sapphire CW laser gave 100 mW at 405 nm and 53 mW at 392 nm. Stability proved excellent without servo control. Broad tunability was shown around 392 nm.......Utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal frequency doubling a Ti:Sapphire CW laser gave 100 mW at 405 nm and 53 mW at 392 nm. Stability proved excellent without servo control. Broad tunability was shown around 392 nm....

  4. Measurement for titanium density distribution on Ti:sapphire rods for high intensity pump source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Tsutomu; Nishimura, Akihiko; Sugiyama, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    A Ti:sapphire rod of 190 mm length made by Czochralski (CZ) technique was used in the flashlamp pumped high intensity laser for Yb:glass chirped pulse amplification. In the absorption spectroscopy of the rod immersed in an index matching liquid of methylene iodide, heterogeneous Ti{sup 3+} density distribution was measured along the direction of length. It has been first clarified that the Ti:sapphire rod grown by the CZ technique has 20% difference of the Ti{sup 3+} density at the both ends. (author)

  5. Sapphire: Relation between luminescence of starting materials and luminescence of single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevsky, R.; Nedilko, S.; Sharafutdinova, L.; Burlay, S.; Sherbatskii, V.; Boyko, V.; Mittl, S.

    2009-10-01

    A relation between photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of different starting materials used for crystal growth and un-doped sapphire single crystals manufactured using various methods of crystal growth (Kyropolus, HEM, Czochralski, and EFG) was found. The crystals grown using the Verneuil starting material exhibited significant PL when any method of crystal growth was used. On the contrary, sapphire samples grown by the same technologies wherein the starting material was EMT HPDA R revealed very low PL. (HPDA R is produced by EMT, Inc., with proprietary and patented technology.)

  6. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    windows have already been developed and prototypes constructed for laboratory test and a third generation of the window design is now in the developing and designing face in a new project. The first window constructed was made of wood profiles and a low-energy double glazing unit. The second and third......This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...

  7. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathave forensic values. This paper also discusses how the Windows Registry forensic keys can be applied in intrusion detection.

  8. Windows 8 and Office 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Learn to: Navigate the Windows 8 Start screenCreate user accounts and set passwordsUse Word, Excel®, PowerPoint®, and Outlook® Master the basics of Windows 8 and Office 2013! Windows and Office work together to turn your PC into a productivity tool. The unique Windows 8 interface combines with updates to Office 2013 to create a new computing experience. This book offers quick answers for when you get stuck. Learn your way around the Windows 8 Start screen and Charms bar as well as Office 2013 applications.The new Windows - see how to laun

  9. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  10. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  11. Direct Growth of a-Plane GaN on r-Plane Sapphire Substrate by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Masahiro; Mochimizo, Noriaki; Hoshino, Katsuyuki; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2007-02-01

    We have investigated the direct growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN layers on an r-plane sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). A high-density nucleation of GaN islands was obtained on the r-plane sapphire substrate at the initial stage of the high-temperature growth without a buffer layer, which resulted in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. We studied the effects of V/III ratio growth conditions on the surface morphology and growth features of an a-plane GaN layer. The results showed that a high density of pits with an inverse-pyramidal shape were formed at a high V/III ratio, whereas a relatively low density of pits were formed at a low V/III ratio due to the increase in the rate of lateral growth along the c-axis direction. We successfully grew a-plane GaN layers with a flat and pit-free surface using the “two-step growth method”. The method consisted of growing a first layer at a high V/III ratio and growing a second layer at a low V/III ratio. We found that the first layer plays an important role in GaN layer growth. The formation of a void-free GaN layer with sidewall facets in the first step leads to a flat and pit-free layer grown at a high rate of lateral growth along the c-axis direction in the second step.

  12. Weight of Production of Emeralds, Rubies, Sapphires, and Tanzanite from 1995 Through 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas R.; Menzie, W. David; Olson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historically has not attempted to report comprehensive world production of gemstones on a country basis. This was because estimation of gemstone production is inherently difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the industry, the lack of governmental oversight or reporting in many countries where colored gemstones are mined, and the wide variation in quality between individual gemstones. Unlike diamonds, which, with the exception of the alluvial stones of West Africa, are mainly produced by large international mining companies and evaluated, cut, and marketed through a highly developed pricing structure and complex commercial arrangements, colored gemstones are mainly mined by individuals or small companies and have less developed evaluation and marketing arrangements. The trading centers for colored gems are smaller and less well known than the diamond centers. Colored gemstones, like alluvial diamonds, have the potential to be used to fund civil conflicts and other illegal activities, and because trade in colored gemstones is less organized than that of diamonds, they offer less opportunity for effective regulation of their trade. And, like diamond, until the recent advent of the Kimberley Process no generally accepted estimates of colored gemstone production globally or by producing country have existed. The present paper is a first attempt to develop production statistics for the three precious gems -emeralds, rubies, and sapphires - and tanzanite tanzanite, a semi-precious gem. The data consist of the weight of production of each of the gemstones from 1995 through 2005. Preliminary data on the weights of gemstone production were presented as a poster session at the Gemological Institute of America's Gemological Research Conference in San Diego, CA, in 2006, and as a published abstract (Yager, 2006) in an attempt to gather response to the estimates. The USGS continues to welcome information and suggestions that would improve the

  13. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  14. Electrochromic windows - Applications for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Caroline S.; Greenberg, Charles B.

    1989-04-01

    A transparent, solid-state, electrochromic device is described. It demonstrates deep switching in the near infrared and visible spectral regions and good room temperature cycling stability. The response appears reasonably uniform over a 14 cm x 28 cm area, which gives hope for achieving large parts for cockpit and cabin windows. The reversible darkening of the transparency, controlled by an applied voltage or current, has potential application in aircraft to reduce glare and solar heat load to pilots and passengers. The active material in the device is a thin tungsten oxide film which is incorporated into a complex, multilayered structure, essentially that of a transparent battery. The performance of the window is discussed in terms of its configuration, its similarities with commercial batteries and issues critical to aircraft.

  15. A Window of Chinese Folklore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    PRESENI-DAY Chinese folk-lore is a window throughwhich one can see Chineseculture;one can see contemporarylife,but mostly one views traditional folk culture.China’s 5,000 years ofhistory,civilization,vast lands and national background have brought afascinating variety of local customsto China’s 56 nationalities.The fol-lowing is a brief introduction to their religious beliefs,sacrificial ritesand festive gatherings.

  16. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Mojaza, Matin; Ryttov, Thomas A; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according to a spinorial representation. We investigate the phase diagram using a purely perturbative four loop analysis, the all-orders beta function and the ladder approximation.

  17. Conformal window and Landau singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Grunberg, G

    2001-01-01

    A physical characterization of Landau singularities is emphasized, which should trace the lower boundary N_f^* of the conformal window in QCD and supersymmetric QCD. A natural way to disentangle ``perturbative'' from ``non-perturbative'' contributions below N_f^* is suggested. Assuming an infrared fixed point is present in the perturbative part of the QCD coupling even in some range below N_f^* leads to the condition gamma(N_f^*)=1, where gamma is the critical exponent. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion, one gets 4window. Some evidence for such a fixed point in QCD is provided through a modified Banks-Zaks expansion. Conformal window amplitudes, which contain power contributions, are show...

  18. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  19. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... windows have already been developed and prototypes constructed for laboratory test and a third generation of the window design is now in the developing and designing face in a new project. The first window constructed was made of wood profiles and a low-energy double glazing unit. The second and third...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  20. Material selection for spallation neutron source windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordo, F. [ETSII/Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, J. Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Abanades, A. [ETSII/Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, J. Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es; Lafuente, A.; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII/Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, J. Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM)/ETSII/Universidad Politecnica, Madrid, J. Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    High performance neutron sources are being proposed for many scientific and industrial applications, ranging from material studies, hybrid reactors and transmutation of nuclear wastes. In the case of transmutation of nuclear wastes, accelerator driven systems (ADS) are considered as one of the main technical options for such purpose. In ADS a high performance spallation neutron source becomes an essential element for its operation and control. This spallation source must fulfil very challenging nuclear and thermo-mechanical requirements, because of the high neutron rates needed in ADS. The material selection for this key component becomes of paramount importance, particularly the source window that separates the vacuum accelerator tube from the spallation material where the accelerated protons impinge. In this paper, an integral analysis of spallation sources is done, taking as a reference the projects in this field proposal in the framework of European projects. Our analysis and calculations show that titanium and vanadium alloys are more suitable than steel as structural material for an industrial ADS beam window, mostly due to its irradiation damage resistance.

  1. Microsoft Windows Intune 20 Quickstart Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Overton, David

    2012-01-01

    This book is a concise and practical tutorial that shows you how to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs. If you are an administrator or partner who wants to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs then this book is for you . You should have a basic understanding of Windows administration, however, knowledge of Windows Intune would not be required.

  2. Windows Embedded创新不断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    本刊讯 2月19日,微软Windows Embedded技术交流活动在微软办公室举行。微软的MVP(最有价值专家)详细介绍微软Windows Embedded的技术、开发和应用,包括:Windows EmbeddedCE、Windows XP Embedded、WEPOS等。

  3. Windows shell扩展技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐东明

    2005-01-01

    Windows shell提供了很多扩展编程接口,可使程序编制人员丰富Windows shell的功能.文中详细阐述了Windows shell的扩展技术,并讲解了如何用ATL开发Win-dows shell扩展组件的技术和方法.

  4. Windowing Waveform Relaxation of Initial Value Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-lin Jiang

    2006-01-01

    We present a windowing technique of waveform relaxation for dynamic systems. An effective estimation on window length is derived by an iterative error expression provided here. Relaxation processes can be speeded up if one takes the windowing technique in advance. Numerical experiments are given to further illustrate the theoretical analysis.

  5. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    of confocal elliptic windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows...

  6. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows. The proposed method...

  7. Femtosecond Ti:sapphire cryogenic amplifier with high gain and MHz repetition rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Laurat, Julien; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate high gain amplification of 160-femtosecond pulses in a compact double-pass cryogenic Ti:sapphire amplifier. The setup involves a negative GVD mirrors recompression stage, and operates with a repetition rate between 0.2 and 4 MHz with a continuous pump laser. Amplification factors...

  8. Fully-depleted silicon-on-sapphire and its application to advanced VLSI design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offord, Bruce W.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the widely recognized advantages of full dielectric isolation, e.g., reduced parasitic capacitance, transient radiation hardness, and processing simplicity, fully-depleted silicon-on-sapphire offers reduced floating body effects and improved thermal characteristics when compared to other silicon-on-insulator technologies. The properties of this technology and its potential impact on advanced VLSI circuitry will be discussed.

  9. Deep-ultraviolet frequency metrology with a narrowband titanium:sapphire laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, S.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis resaerch project a narrow band titanium:sapphire laser was built. It provides nanosecond pulses that are subsequently upconverted to the deep ultraviolet frequency range. Absolute frequency calibration is achieved by linking the injection seeding light to a

  10. Low Temperature Rhombohedral Single Crystal SiGe Epitaxy on c-plane Sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Current best practice in epitaxial growth of rhombohedral SiGe onto (0001) sapphire (Al2O3) substrate surfaces requires extreme conditions to grow a single crystal SiGe film. Previous models described the sapphire surface reconstruction as the overriding factor in rhombohedral epitaxy, requiring a high temperature Al-terminated surface for high quality films. Temperatures in the 850-1100 C range were thought to be necessary to get SiGe to form coherent atomic matching between the (111) SiGe plane and the (0001) sapphire surface. Such fabrication conditions are difficult and uneconomical, hindering widespread application. This work proposes an alternative model that considers the bulk sapphire structure and determines how the SiGe film nucleates and grows. Accounting for thermal expansion effects, calculations using this new model show that both pure Ge and SiGe can form single crystal films in the 450-550 C temperature range. Experimental results confirm these predictions, where x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy show the films fabricated at low temperature rival the high temperature films in crystallographic and surface quality. Finally, an explanation is provided for why films of comparable high quality can be produced in either temperature range.

  11. Laser-assisted microstructuring for Ti:sapphire channel-waveguide fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunteanu, A.; Pollnau, Markus; Jänchen, G.; Hibert, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Salathé, R.P.; Eason, R.W.; Shepherd, D.P.

    We report on the fabrication of Ti:sapphire channel waveguides. Such channel waveguides are of interest, e.g., as low-threshold tunable lasers. We investigated several structuring methods including ion beam implantation followed by wet chemical etching strip loading by polyimide spin coating and

  12. Neutron reflectivity study of substrate surface chemistry effects on supported phospholipid bilayer formation on (1120) sapphire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleson, Timothy A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sahai, Nita [University of Akron; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Dura, Joseph A [ORNL; Majkrzak, Charles F [ORNL; Giuffre, Anthony J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Oxide-supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) used as biomimetric membranes are significant for a broad range of applications including improvement of biomedical devices and biosensors, and in understanding biomineralization processes and the possible role of mineral surfaces in the evolution of pre-biotic membranes. Continuous-coverage and/or stacjed SPBs retain properties (e.,g. fluidity) more similar to native biological membranes, which is desirable for most applications. Using neutron reflectivity, we examined face coverage and potential stacking of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers on the (1120) face of sapphire (a-Al2O3). Nearly full bilayers were formed at low to neutral pH, when the sapphire surface is positively charged, and at low ionic strength (l=15 mM NaCl). Coverage decreased at higher pH, close to the isoelectric point of sapphire, and also at high I>210mM, or with addition of 2mM Ca2+. The latter two effects are additive, suggesting that Ca2+ mitigates the effect of higher I. These trends agree with previous results for phospholipid adsorption on a-Al2O3 particles determined by adsorption isotherms and on single-crystal (1010) sapphire by atomic force microscopy, suggesting consistency of oxide surface chemistry-dependent effects across experimental techniques.

  13. Growth and characterisation of epitaxially ordered zinc aluminate domains on c-sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowska, J.; Rajendra Kumar, R.T. [School of Physical Sciences/National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University (Ireland); McGlynn, E. [School of Physical Sciences/National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University (Ireland)], E-mail: enda.mcglynn@dcu.ie; Nanda, K.K. [School of Physical Sciences/National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University (Ireland); Newcomb, S.B. [Glebe Scientific Ltd., Newport, Co. Tipperary (Ireland); McNally, P.J.; O' Reilly, L. [School of Electronic Engineering/Research Institute for Networks and Communications Engineering, Dublin City University (Ireland); Mosnier, J.-P.; Henry, M.O. [School of Physical Sciences/National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University (Ireland)

    2008-02-29

    Epitaxially ordered zinc aluminate domains with sub-micron dimensions are formed on bare c-sapphire substrates using a vapour phase method (with vapour generated by carbothermal reduction of ZnO) at various temperatures and growth durations. A zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) layer is formed by reaction of the source materials (Zn and O) with the substrate. We observe crystallites with a well-defined epitaxial relationship on the sapphire substrate in addition to polycrystalline material. The epitaxially oriented deposit displays the form of characteristically twinned (singly or multiply) grains of sub-micron dimensions with three variants, consistent with the c-sapphire substrate symmetry. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the formation of these grains is associated with the presence of extended defects in the sapphire substrate. Epitaxially ordered grains formed at higher temperatures show a change in the nature of the twin boundaries and epitaxial relations as a function of growth time, attributed to the effects of annealing during growth.

  14. Multiphoton imaging with a novel compact diode-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Karsten; Andersen, Peter E.; Le, Tuan;

    2015-01-01

    Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy commonly relies on bulky and expensive femtosecond lasers. We integrated a novel minimal-footprint Ti:sapphire oscillator, pumped by a frequency-doubled distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode laser, into a clinical multiphoton tomograph and evaluated its...

  15. New sapphire and ruby components and their manufacture using diamond abrasives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauser, D.

    The properties of synthetic aluminum oxides (sapphire and ruby) and their applications in watchmaking (watch bearings and watchglasses) and as hard-wearing components such as centering devices for optical fibres and water jet nozzles for material cutting are discussed. Examples are given of the use of diamonds tools for machining such components, including sawing, drilling, grinding and polishing operations.

  16. Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin; Sutherland, Lin; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Meffre, Sebastien; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    Rubies and sapphires are of both scientific and commercial interest. These gemstones are corundum colored by transition elements within the alumina crystal lattice: Cr3+ yields red in ruby and Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ ionic interactions color sapphires. A minor ion, V3+ induces slate to purple colors and color change in some sapphires, but its role in coloring rubies remains enigmatic. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition provide genetic signatures for natural corundum and assist geographic typing. Here, we show that V can dominate chromophore contents in Mogok ruby suites. This raises implications for their color quality, enhancement treatments, geographic origin, exploration and exploitation and their comparison with rubies elsewhere. Precise LA-ICP-MS analysis of ruby and sapphire from Mogok placer and in situ deposits reveal that V can exceed 5,000 ppm, giving V/Cr, V/Fe and V/Ti ratios up to 26, 78, and 97 respectively. Such values significantly exceed those found elsewhere suggesting a localized geological control on V-rich ruby distribution. Our results demonstrate that detailed geochemical studies of ruby suites reveal that V is a potential ruby tracer, encourage comparisons of V/Cr-variation between ruby suites and widen the scope for geographic typing and genesis of ruby. This will allow more precise comparison of Asian and other ruby fields and assist confirmation of Mogok sources for rubies in historical and contemporary gems and jewelry.

  17. "You Hafta Push": Using Sapphire's Novel to Teach Introduction to American Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Using fiction in the classroom can dramatize public policy issues and political science concepts, therefore, making them more real and relevant to students. Sapphire's 1996 novel "Push" puts a face on welfare, rape, incest, child abuse, educational inequalities, homophobia, and AIDS. I also use this novel to discuss the public policy process,…

  18. A century of sapphire crystal growth: origin of the EFG method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2009-08-01

    A. Verneuil developed flame fusion to grow sapphire and ruby on a commercial scale around 1890. Flame fusion was further perfected by Popov in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and by Linde Air Products Co. in the U.S. during World War II. Union Carbide Corp., the successor to Linde, developed Czochralski crystal growth for sapphire laser materials in the 1960s. Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth (EFG) was invented by H. Labelle in the 1960s and the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) was invented by F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki in 1967. Both methods were commercialized in the 1970s. Gradient solidification was invented in Israel in the 1970s by J. Makovsky. The Horizontal Directional Solidification Method (HDSM) was invented by Kh. S. Bagdasorov in the Soviet Union in the 1960s. Kyropoulos growth of sapphire, known as GOI crystal growth in the Soviet Union, was developed by M. Musatov at the State Optical Institute in St. Petersburg in the 1970s. Today, half of the world's sapphire is produced by the GOI method.

  19. Nanostructures graphene plasmon works close to near-infrared window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhongli; Li, Tao; Almdal, Kristoffer

    concepts with existing mature technologies in the near-infrared region. We investigate localized graphene plasmons supported by graphene nanodisks and experimentally demonstrated graphene plasmon working at 2 μm with the aid of a fully scalable block copolymer selfassembly method. Our results show......Due to strong mode-confinement, long propagation-distance, and unique tunability, graphene plasmons have been widely explored in the mid-infrared and terahertz windows. However, it remains a big challenge to push graphene plasmons to shorter wavelengths in order to integrate graphene plasmon...... a promising way to promote graphene plasmons for both fundamental studies and potential applications in the near-infrared window....

  20. Novel process windows for enabling, accelerating, and uplifting flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Volker; Kralisch, Dana; Kockmann, Norbert; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi

    2013-05-01

    Novel Process Windows make use of process conditions that are far from conventional practices. This involves the use of high temperatures, high pressures, high concentrations (solvent-free), new chemical transformations, explosive conditions, and process simplification and integration to boost synthetic chemistry on both the laboratory and production scale. Such harsh reaction conditions can be safely reached in microstructured reactors due to their excellent transport intensification properties. This Review discusses the different routes towards Novel Process Windows and provides several examples for each route grouped into different classes of chemical and process-design intensification.

  1. Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Ji-Su, E-mail: sonjisu@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, C3-1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, C3-1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Honda, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masahito; Amano, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, C3-1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, C3-1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Baik, Kwang Hyeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yong Gon; Hwang, Sung-Min [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi-do 463-816 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We report on the characteristics of a-plane GaN films directly grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates. Various shapes and sizes of silicon dioxide patterns were considered with the aim of achieving fully coalescent a-plane GaN films with a smooth surface and high crystalline quality. The omega full widths at half maximum of the (11–20) X-ray rocking curve values of optimized a-plane GaN films with regular hexagonal patterns of 1 μm window width and 6 μm mask width were measured to be 597 arc sec along the c-axis direction and 457 arc sec along the m-axis direction. Atomic force microscopy images revealed a significant reduction in the density of submicron pits in the mask region. Plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images showed that basal stacking faults and threading dislocation densities were reduced from ∼ 5.7 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −1} and ∼ 1 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} in the window region to ∼ 1.8 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −1} and ∼ 2.1 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} in the mask region, respectively. - Highlights: • Optimal hexagonal patterns (OHP) with 1 μm window width and 6 μm mask width. • Fully coalescent α-plane GaN with smooth surface and high crystalline quality. • Decreased anisotropy and defect density in α-plane GaN with SiO{sub 2} OHP.

  2. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Advanced Polymer Composite Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub

    geometry can be optimized in terms of the thermal transmittance, size and material use. The optimization process can be conducted by designing very large number of window frame geometries and evaluating their thermal properties, preferably in an automated way. A large part of this study is devoted......Even though the window frames cover a relatively small fraction of the entire building envelope, they are responsible for a major amount of heat loss, due to their poor insulation properties compared to the other envelope elements. With the current trends to reduce energy use in buildings......, it is obvious that the thermal performance of contemporary frames needs to be improved, so that buildings can fulfill the new, more rigorous demands. This study will focus on improving the thermal performance of window frames made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP). This material has been recently...

  3. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Advanced Polymer Composite Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub

    : a weighted sum method and a genetic algorithm. Another objective of the project was to develop a new combination of materials that could be used in improved window frames. This combination consists of a high strength composite laminate on the outside and highly insulating foam on the inside. As a result......Even though the window frames cover a relatively small fraction of the entire building envelope, they are responsible for a major amount of heat loss, due to their poor insulation properties compared to the other envelope elements. With the current trends to reduce energy use in buildings......, it is obvious that the thermal performance of contemporary frames needs to be improved, so that buildings can fulfill the new, more rigorous demands. This study will focus on improving the thermal performance of window frames made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP). This material has been recently...

  4. Transient Radiation Darkening Features in VISAR Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. D. Stevens; K. J. Moy

    2001-06-01

    We have studied and characterized radiation-induced changes in the index of refraction of materials used in Z experiments. Interferometric measurements of the radiation-induced change in the real part, n, of the complex index of refraction, N = n + iK, have been made in lithium fluoride (LiF), sapphire, and fused silica samples. Our results indicate that the index changes are small, with {delta}n/n {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5}/kGy. In addition, we have characterized the dose dependence of the radiation-induced transient radiation darkening (TRD) of these materials, which is related to K, the imaginary part of the refractive index. We have also measured time-resolved spectral profiles of TRD in LiF and sapphire, and have examined the results in terms of known color centers and possible colloid aggregation.

  5. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  6. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  7. Selecting Glass Window with Film for Buildings in a Hot Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopparat Khamporn

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the developing parameters and relationships for selecting a proper glass window applied with film as building envelopes for buildings located in a hot climate based on its thermal performances. Thermal comfort of the occupants sitting near the glass window is the thermal performance that needed to be considered besides the heat transmission in selecting a proper type of glass to use as a glass window for the building. The predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD is chosen as a thermal comfort index. 45 types of film and 1280 glass windows with film are investigated in this study. It can be shown that the thermal comfort index is dependent on the optical properties (total transmittance and total absorptance and the overall heat transfer coefficient of glass windows with film. Glass window with film which has high transmittance shall have more discomfort due to solar radiation effect. Glass window with film which has high absorptance shall have more discomfort due to surface temperature effect. The discomfort from the surface temperature effect for double pane glass window with film is also dependent on the glass thickness other than the absorptance and the change in overall heat transfer coefficient. Expressions for predicting the performance of the glass windows with film in terms of thermal comfort are developed.

  8. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  9. Windows Vista已亮相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Windows Vista企业版已于11月底发布,而个人版将于明年1月30日推出。权威调研机构IDC本周三预计,Vista明年的销量可达到9000万套。在明年新售PC机中,90%的个人PC将安装Vista操作系统,而企业PC安装Vista的比例将只有35%。

  10. EFEKTIFITAS VARIASI NILAI WINDOW LEVEL TERHADAP KUALITAS HASIL CT SCAN THORAX LUNG WINDOW

    OpenAIRE

    dani, Rahma

    2014-01-01

    EFEKTIFITAS VARIASI NILAI WINDOW LEVEL TERHADAP KUALITAS HASIL CT SCAN THORAX LUNG WINDOW Rahmadani Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar 90245, Indonesia Pembimbing Utama : Prof. Dr. H. Halmar Halide, M.Sc Pembimbing Pertama : Dahlang Tahir, M.Sc. Phd ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui efek variasi nilai window level terhadap kualitas hasil CT Scann thorax lung window dengan pengaturan window width 1000,1500, 2000 dengan varias...

  11. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  12. Laser welding of fused silica glass with sapphire using a non- stoichiometric, fresnoitic Ba2TiSi2O8·3 SiO2 thin film as an absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablos-Martín, A.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Höche, Th.

    2017-07-01

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials is challenging, due to their difference in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE). In this work, fused silica-to-sapphire joints were achieved by employment of a ns laser focused in the intermediate Si-enriched fresnoitic glass thin film sealant. The microstructure of the bonded interphase was analyzed down to the nanometer scale and related to the laser parameters used. The crystallization of fresnoite in the glass sealant upon laser process leads to an intense blue emission intensity under UV excitation. This crystallization is favored in the interphase with the silica glass substrate, rather than in the border with the sapphire. The formation of SiO2 particles was confirmed, as well. The bond quality was evaluated by scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). The substrates remain bonded even after heat treatment at 100 °C for 30 min, despite the large CTE difference between both substrates.

  13. Accurate determination of optical bandgap and lattice parameters of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O epitaxial films (0{<=}x{<=}0.3) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laumer, Bernhard [Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Schuster, Fabian; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bergmaier, Andreas; Dollinger, Guenther [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Eickhoff, Martin [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2013-06-21

    Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O epitaxial films with Mg concentrations 0{<=}x{<=}0.3 were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire substrates. Precise determination of the Mg concentration x was performed by elastic recoil detection analysis. The bandgap energy was extracted from absorption measurements with high accuracy taking electron-hole interaction and exciton-phonon complexes into account. From these results a linear relationship between bandgap energy and Mg concentration is established for x{<=}0.3. Due to alloy disorder, the increase of the photoluminescence emission energy with Mg concentration is less pronounced. An analysis of the lattice parameters reveals that the epitaxial films grow biaxially strained on a-plane sapphire.

  14. Improvement of luminous intensity of InGaN light emitting diodes grown on hemispherical patterned sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Jeong-Tak; Park, Jin-Sub; Kim, Je-Won; Kim, Yong-Chun; Lee, Jeong-Wook; Cho, Hyung-Koun

    2006-06-01

    To improve the external quantum efficiency, high quality GaN film was grown on hemispherical patterned sapphire by controlling the V/III ratio during the initial growth stage. The luminous intensity of white flash light emitting diode (LED) grown on hemispherical patterned sapphire (HPS) was estinated to be 5.8 cd at a forward current of 150 mA, which is improved by 20% more than that of LED grown on conventional sapphire substrate. The improvement of luminous intensity was explained by considering not only an increase of the extraction efficiency via the suppressed total internal reflection at the corrugated interface but also a decrease of dislocation density.

  15. Programme Implementation of Windows Sockets in Network Communication%Windows Sockets控件在网络通信中的程序实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万鹏

    2014-01-01

    The Windows Sockets specification defines an API for Microsoft Windows based on the TCP/IP reference model. It is widely applied due to its open and multi-protocol supporting mechanism. The paper discussed the commu-nication mechanism of Windows Sockets and the process of network communication implementation through Visual Basic programming.%Windows Sockets是基于TCP/IP参考模型,应用于微软Windows系统的网络编程接口,因其具有开放和支持多协议的机制而得到了广泛应用。讨论了 Windows Sockets 的通信机理及通过 Visual Basic 编程实现网络通信的过程。

  16. Broken Windows and Collective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The broken windows thesis posits that signs of disorder increase crime and fear, both directly and indirectly. Although considerable theoretical evidence exists to support the idea that disorder is positively related to fear of crime, the empirical literature on examining the indirect effect of the individual’s perception of incivilities on fear of crime is limited, especially in developing countries. This research was conducted to assess the indirect relationship between perceived disorder and fear of crime through collective efficacy. A total of 235 households from Penang, Malaysia, participated in this study. Results reveal that high perception of disorder is negatively associated with collective efficacy. High collective efficacy is associated with low fear of crime. Moreover, a significant and indirect effect of disorder on fear of crime exists through collective efficacy. The results provide empirical support for the broken windows theory in the Malaysian context and suggest that both environmental conditions and interactions of residents play a role in the perceived fear of crime.

  17. Sangre segura en ausencia de infecciones virales por VHB, VHC y VIH en período de ventana serológica de donadores Safe blood in the absence of viral infections due to HBV, HCV and HIV in serological window period in donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infecciones virales (VHB, VHC y VIH en período de ventana serológica en donadores de sangre evaluados con la prueba de ácidos nucleicos (NAT. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron donadores de sangre evaluados de 2008 a 2009 con pruebas serológicas y moleculares del VHB, VHC y VIH. El período de ventana serológica se definió con la prueba de NAT positiva y la prueba serológica negativa. RESULTADOS: Durante un año se evaluaron 47 847 donadores de sangre; no se identificó ningún caso con infección viral (VHB, VHC y VIH en período de ventana serológica; únicamente se demostró NAT positivo en donadores con pruebas serológicas positivas: 26 de 78 con VHB, 56 de 318 con VHC y 16 de 155 con VIH. CONCLUSIÓN: Este es el primer estudio en México que demostró en donadores de sangre la ausencia de infecciones virales (VHB, VHC y VIH en período de ventana serológica con la prueba de NAT.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of viral infections (HBV, HCV and HIV in serological window period in blood donors screened with nucleic acid testing (NAT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed all blood donors from July 2008 to June 2009 at the Central Blood Bank of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Medical history was made and provided an information brochure and self-exclusion questionnaire. All blood donors were tested with serological tests (Ag-HBVs, Anti-HCV and Anti-HIV and molecular testing with NAT for HBV, HCV and HIV. The window period was defined with the positive NAT and negative serological test. RESULTS: During one year, we evaluated 47 847 blood donors. None subject was identified with viral infection (HBV, HCV and HIV in serological window period. Positive serological testing were found for HBV in 78 (0.2%, 318 (0.7% for HCV and 155 (0.3% for HIV. Positive NAT was demonstrated only in donors with positive serology: 26 of 78 with HBV, 56 of 318 with HCV and 16 of 155 with HIV. CONCLUSION

  18. Challenger Center's Window on the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Smith, S.; Bobrowsky, M.; Radnofsky, M.; Perelmuter, J.-M.; Jaggar, L.

    2001-11-01

    Challenger Center for Space Science Education's Window on the Universe program aims to create a network of under-served communities across the nation dedicated to sustained science, math, and technology education. Window communities presently include Broken Arrow, OK; Muncie, IN; Moscow, ID; Nogales, AZ; Tuskegee, AL; Marquette, MI; Altamont, KS; Washington, D.C.; and other emerging sites. Window uses themes of human space flight and the space sciences as interdisciplinary means to inspire entire communities. Practicing scientists and engineers engaged in these disciplines are invited to volunteer to become a part of these communities for a week, each visitor reaching roughly 2000 K-12 students through individual classroom visits and Family Science Night events during an intense Window on the Universe Week. In the same Window Week, Challenger Center scientists and educators present a workshop for local educators to provide training in the use of a K-12 educational module built around a particular space science and exploration theme. Window communities follow a 3-year development: Year 1, join the network, experience Window Week presented by Challenger Center and visiting researchers; Year 2, same as Year 1 plus workshop on partnering with local organizations to develop sources of visiting researchers and to enhance connections with local resources; Year 3 and subsequent, the community stages its own Window Week, with Challenger Center providing new education modules and training workshops for "master educators" from the Window community, after which the master educators return home to conduct training workshops of their own. Challenger Center remains a resource and clearinghouse for Window communities to acquire experience, technical information, and opportunities for distance collaboration with other Window communities. Window on the Universe is dedicated to assessing degree of success vs. failure in each program component and as a whole, using pre- and post

  19. Achieving strong doubling power by optical phase-locked Ti:sapphire laser and MOPA system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Peng; Baike Lin; Qiang Wang; Yang Zhao; Ye Li; Jianping Cao; Zhanjun Fang; Erjun Zang

    2012-01-01

    We show two external cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generations of 922 nm with periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal,whose doubling cavities are locked separately with Hansch-Couillaud and intra-modulation methods.The outputs of second-harmonic generation reach 310 mW,54.8% of the conversion efficiency from the Ti;sapphire laser with the crystal length of 10 mm,and 208 mW,59% of the conversion efficiency from the MOPA system with the crystal length of 30 mm.It consists of heterodyning the Ti;sapphire laser and the MOPA system,and compares the phase of the beat frequency signal with the phase of a reference RF local oscillator.The resulting phase error is used as a feedback signal and fed back to the reference cavity of the Ti;sapphire laser to lock the two lasers in phase.A stable blue power of 520 mW is obtained,which supplies enough power for the cooling and trapping step of the strontium (Sr) optical lattice clock.Four stable isotopes of Sr,84Sr,86Sr,87Sr,and 88Sr,are detected by probing the laser during a strong 460.7-nm cycling transition (5s21S0-5s5p1P1).%We show two external cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generations of 922 nm with periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, whose doubling cavities are locked separately with Hansch-Couillaud and intra-modulation methods. The outputs of second-harmonic generation reach 310 mW, 54.8% of the conversion efficiency from the Ti:sapphire laser with the crystal length of 10 mm, and 208 mW, 59% of the conversion efficiency from the MOPA system with the crystal length of 30 mm. It consists of heterodyning the Ti:sapphire laser and the MOPA system, and compares the phase of the beat frequency signal with the phase of a reference RF local oscillator. The resulting phase error is used as a feedback signal and fed back to the reference cavity of the Ti:sapphire laser to lock the two lasers in phase. A stable blue power of 520 mW is obtained, which supplies enough power for the cooling

  20. Reduction of Residual Stresses in Sapphire Cover Glass Induced by Mechanical Polishing and Laser Chamfering Through Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jeh Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sapphire is a hard and anti-scratch material commonly used as cover glass of mobile devices such as watches and mobile phones. A mechanical polishing using diamond slurry is usually necessary to create mirror surface. Additional chamfering at the edge is sometimes needed by mechanical grinding. These processes induce residual stresses and the mechanical strength of the sapphire work piece is impaired. In this study wet etching by phosphate acid process is applied to relief the induced stress in a 1” diameter sapphire cover glass. The sapphire is polished before the edge is chamfered by a picosecond laser. Residual stresses are measured by laser curvature method at different stages of machining. The results show that the wet etching process effectively relief the stress and the laser machining does not incur serious residual stress.

  1. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  2. Editorial - Opening windows onto data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of Internet Archaeology's strengths and 'unique selling points' not yet replicated by (many other e-journals, is that data is integrated into articles rather than being 'supplementary' or offered for download. The aim has always been for the narrative to be a wave driving readers towards the underlying data. Opening windows onto the data from within the text is one of the things I think the journal does best and is a feature used throughout Emma Durham's article 'Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain'. Archaeological data does not speak for itself. It needs a narrative. It needs context. But by intermeshing data with interpretation, readers can dip into the data and start to explore it while reading the article, allowing a more immediate understanding of the bigger picture.

  3. Waggle Dances and Azimuthal Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Duangphakdee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the waggle dances of honeybees contain celestial components, modifications of the dances occur with changing celestial moves relative to a honeybee nest. Since the direction of a particular resource is static, the dances must alter to compensate for the sun's passage. The position of the sun is seasonal between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn so that turns at the end of waggle runs will vary with season and latitude. The bees are confronted with a new difficulty when the sun closely approaches its zenith because only slight errors in the bees' estimation of the relative positions of the sun and zenith generate very large errors. So, the sun compass loses its usefulness when at its zenith. We review experiments and observations on both foraging and absconding in relation to the azimuth. The honeybees' solution for the paradox of the azimuth includes an azimuthal lull, preferences, and time windows.

  4. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  5. Erbium-doped crystalline YAG planar and ridge waveguides on quartz and sapphire substrates: deposition and material characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, G.; Zappettini, A.; Canali, A.; Martinelli, M.; Gabetta, G.; Tallarida, G.

    2001-06-01

    Er-doped Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet (YAG) planar and ridge waveguides have been grown on quartz and sapphire substrates. The waveguides have been structurally, morphologically and stoichiometrically characterised by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Doping concentrations up to 5% have been successfully demonstrated. Deposition of channel waveguide on sapphire substrate results in a correct ridge shape.

  6. Stator Blade Laser Window Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugas, Grant A.

    2004-01-01

    All turbofan engines used in modern aviation contain a series of fan blades and compressor blades which are all connected to one drive shaft. Inside the jet engine between each set of blades are stator blades, which are pitched opposite of the fan and compressor blades, the stator blades are both rotational and axial fixed in place. The project that I was assigned to involves the QAT 22 fan test rig; which is currently under final design review and very soon will be fabricated. The purpose of this research facility is to better understand the effects of stator blades. Stator blades are used to straiten the air in a turbine. The researcher's primary aim is to determine what the airflow is like at both the leading edge and the trailing edge of a stator blade. My work focused on designing the windows usable for both a compressor rig and a test fan rig. The difference between the two is the test fan application will be looking into a stator blade array rather than just looking at the rotor. My discussion will include a detailed explanation of how the PIV laser window system functions fiom start to finish. I will also discuss how the information is gathered and organized. Further more I plan to talk about the purpose of this kind of research and the advantages to using this technology to determine the airflow characteristics of blade designs. Finally I will discuss the researcher s conclusion on the relationship between aerodynamics of a blade and how noise is produced. NASA's main goal with this particular facility is find ways to quiet engine noise by reducing the amount of cavitations that occurs around the blades of a turbofan engine. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. Stator Blade Laser Window Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugas, Grant A.

    2004-01-01

    All turbofan engines used in modern aviation contain a series of fan blades and compressor blades which are all connected to one drive shaft. Inside the jet engine between each set of blades are stator blades, which are pitched opposite of the fan and compressor blades, the stator blades are both rotational and axial fixed in place. The project that I was assigned to involves the QAT 22 fan test rig; which is currently under final design review and very soon will be fabricated. The purpose of this research facility is to better understand the effects of stator blades. Stator blades are used to straiten the air in a turbine. The researcher's primary aim is to determine what the airflow is like at both the leading edge and the trailing edge of a stator blade. My work focused on designing the windows usable for both a compressor rig and a test fan rig. The difference between the two is the test fan application will be looking into a stator blade array rather than just looking at the rotor. My discussion will include a detailed explanation of how the PIV laser window system functions fiom start to finish. I will also discuss how the information is gathered and organized. Further more I plan to talk about the purpose of this kind of research and the advantages to using this technology to determine the airflow characteristics of blade designs. Finally I will discuss the researcher s conclusion on the relationship between aerodynamics of a blade and how noise is produced. NASA's main goal with this particular facility is find ways to quiet engine noise by reducing the amount of cavitations that occurs around the blades of a turbofan engine. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  8. Formation of silicon nanocrystals in sapphire by ion implantation and the origin of visible photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerci, S.; Serincan, U.; Dogan, I.; Tokay, S.; Genisel, M.; Aydinli, A.; Turan, R.

    2006-10-01

    Silicon nanocrystals, average sizes ranging between 3 and 7nm, were formed in sapphire matrix by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Evolution of the nanocrystals was detected by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Raman spectra display that clusters in the matrix start to form nanocrystalline structures at annealing temperatures as low as 800°C in samples with high dose Si implantation. The onset temperature of crystallization increases with decreasing dose. Raman spectroscopy and XRD reveal gradual transformation of Si clusters into crystalline form. Visible photoluminescence band appears following implantation and its intensity increases with subsequent annealing process. While the center of the peak does not shift, the intensity of the peak decreases with increasing dose. The origin of the observed photoluminescence is discussed in terms of radiation induced defects in the sapphire matrix.

  9. Growth and Characterization of InN Thin Films on Sapphire by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zi-Li; ZHANG Rong; XIU Xiang-Qian; LIU Bin; LI Liang; HAN Ping; GU Shu-Lin; SHI Yi; ZHENG You-Dou

    2007-01-01

    Indium nitride thin films are grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition(MOCVD).By employing three-step layer buffers,the mirror-like layers on two-inch sapphire wafers have been obtained.The structural,optical and electrical characteristics of InN are investigated by x-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,atomic force microscopy,photoluminescence and infrared optical absorpton.The photoluminescence and the absorption studies of the materials reveal a marked energy bandgap structure around 0.70 eV at room temperature.The room-temperature Hall mobility and carrier concentration of the film are typically 939 cm2/Vs,and 3.9×1018cm-3,respectively.

  10. Degradation of picosecond temporal contrast of Ti:sapphire lasers with coherent pedestals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakovskiy, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Mikhail; Gontier, Emilien; Falcoz, Franck; Paul, Pierre-Mary

    2016-10-01

    Recompressed pulses from Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse lasers are accompanied by a slowly decaying post-pulse pedestal that is coherent with the main pulse. The pedestal typically consists of numerous pulses with temporal separation in the picosecond range. The source of this artifact lies in the Ti:sapphire active medium itself, both in the Kerr-lens mode-locked oscillator and in subsequent amplifiers. In the presence of substantial self-phase modulation, after recompression the post-pedestal generates a mirror-symmetric pre-pulse pedestal. This pedestal severely degrades the leading edge of the output pulse. This degradation is far more limiting than the original post-pedestal and severely lowers the achievable temporal contrast.

  11. Achieving λ/10 resolution CW STED nanoscopy with a Ti:Sapphire oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Liu

    Full Text Available In this report, a Ti:Sapphire oscillator was utilized to realize synchronization-free stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy. With pump power of 4.6 W and sample irradiance of 310 mW, we achieved super-resolution as high as 71 nm. With synchronization-free STED, we imaged 200 nm nanospheres as well as all three cytoskeletal elements (microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments, clearly demonstrating the resolving power of synchronization-free STED over conventional diffraction limited imaging. It also allowed us to discover that, Dylight 650, exhibits improved performance over ATTO647N, a fluorophore frequently used in STED. Furthermore, we applied synchronization-free STED to image fluorescently-labeled intracellular viral RNA granules, which otherwise cannot be differentiated by confocal microscopy. Thanks to the widely available Ti:Sapphire oscillators in multiphoton imaging system, this work suggests easier access to setup super-resolution microscope via the synchronization-free STED.

  12. Characterization of superconducting magnesium-diboride films on glassy carbon and sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E.; Zavala, E. P. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rocha, M. F. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, IPN, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Jergel, M.; Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    IBA methods were applied to measure elemental depth profiles of precursors and superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films deposited on glassy carbon (Good Fellows) and sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates. For each type of substrates we obtained a pair of samples i.e. one amorphous precursor and one superconducting film which were then characterized. A 3{sup H}e{sup +} beam was used to bombard both, precursors and superconducting films in order to obtain the samples elemental composition profiles. The zero resistance T{sub co} and the middle of transition T{sub cm} values were 26.0 K and 29.7 K for the MgB{sub 2} film deposited on glassy carbon substrate. In the case of sapphire substrate the T{sub co} and T{sub cm} values were 25.0 K and 27.9 K, respectively. (Author)

  13. Nearly octave-spanning frequency comb generation in AlN-on-sapphire microresonators

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xianwen; Xiong, Bing; Wang, Lai; Wang, Jian; Han, Yanjun; Hao, Zhibiao; Li, Hongtao; Luo, Yi; Yan, Jianchang; Wei, Tongbo; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi

    2016-01-01

    We report a nearly octave-spanning optical frequency comb generation with a coverage of $\\sim$1000 nm in continuous-wave pumped aluminum nitride (AlN)-on-sapphire microring resonators. Thanks to optimized device design and fabrication process, high-quality-factor AlN microrings with high cavity finesse and low insertion loss are demonstrated. By tailoring the cavity dimension, a broadband anomalous dispersion is secured to facilitate the frequency comb generation. Blue-shifted dispersive wave emission as well as stimulated Raman scattering is observed, which helps extend the comb spectrum coverage. Our work suggests that AlN-on-sapphire can be an appealing platform for integrated nonlinear optics.

  14. Structural, transport and microwave properties of 123/sapphire films: Thickness effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predtechensky, MR.; Smal, A.N.; Varlamov, Y.D. [Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The effect of thickness and growth conditions on the structure and microwave properties has been investigated for the 123/sapphire films. It has been shown that in the conditions of epitaxial growth and Al atoms do not diffuse from substrate into the film and the films with thickness up to 100nm exhibit the excellent DC properties. The increase of thickness of GdBaCuO films causes the formation of extended line-mesh defects and the increase of the surface resistance (R{sub S}). The low value of surface resistance R{sub S}(75GHz,77K)=20 mOhm has been obtained for the two layer YBaCuO/CdBaCuO/sapphire films.

  15. Management of heat in laser tissue welding using NIR cover window material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Savage, Howard; Katz, Alvin; Muthukattil, Ronex; Alfano, Robert R

    2011-12-01

    Laser tissue welding (LTW) is a novel method of surgical wound closure by the use of laser radiation to induce fusion of the biological tissues. Molecular dynamics associated with LTW is a result of thermal and non-thermal mechanisms. This research focuses exclusively on better heat management to reduce thermal damage of tissues in LTW using a near infrared laser radiation. An infrared continuous-wave (CW) laser radiation at 1,450 nm wavelength corresponding to the absorption band from combination vibrational modes of water is used to weld together ex vivo porcine aorta. In these studies we measured the optimal laser power and scan speed, for better tensile strength of the weld and lesser tissue dehydration. Significant amount of water loss from the welded tissue results in cellular death and tissue buckling. Various thermally conductive optical cover windows were used as heat sinks to reduce thermal effects during LTW for the dissipation of the heat. The optimal use of the method prevents tissue buckling and minimizes the water loss. Diamond, sapphire, BK7, fused silica, and IR quartz transparent optical cover windows were tested. The data from this study suggests that IR-quartz as the material with optimal thermal conductivity is ideal for laser welding of the porcine aorta. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Windows 7 Annoyances Tips, Secrets, and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2010-01-01

    Windows 7 may be faster and more stable than Vista, but it's a far cry from problem-free. David A. Karp comes to the rescue with the latest in his popular Windows Annoyances series. This thorough guide gives you the tools you need to fix the troublesome parts of this operating system, plus the solutions, hacks, and timesaving tips to make the most of your PC. Streamline Windows Explorer, improve the Search tool, eliminate the Green Ribbon of Death, and tame User Account Control promptsExplore powerful Registry tips and tools, and use them to customize every aspect of Windows and solve its sho

  17. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...... showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  18. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  19. Windows 8.1 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling book on Windows, now updated for the new 8.1 features Microsoft has fine-tuned Windows 8 with some important new features, and veteran author Andy Rathbone explains every one in this all-new edition of a long-time bestseller. Whether you're using Windows for the first time, upgrading from an older version, or just moving from Windows 8 to 8.1, here's what you need to know. Learn about the dual interfaces, the new Start button, how to customize the interface and boot operations, and how to work with programs and files, use the web and social media, manage music and photos, and

  20. Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security co

  1. Evaluation of heat extraction through sapphire fibers for the GW observatory KAGRA

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaidovski, Alexander; Hofmann, Gerd; CHEN, DAN; Komma, Julius; Schwarz, Christian; Tokoku, Chihiro; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Scheie, Allen O.; Majorana, Ettore; Nawrodt, Ronny; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the Japanese gravitational wave laser interferometer KAGRA is under construction in the Kamioka mine. As one main feature, it will employ sapphire mirrors operated at a temperature of 20K to reduce the impact from thermal noise. To reduce seismic noise, the mirrors will also be suspended from multi-stage pendulums. Thus the heat load deposited in the mirrors by absorption of the circulating laser light as well as heat load from thermal radiation will need to be extracted through th...

  2. High energy terahertz pulses from organic crystals: DAST and DSTMS pumped at Ti:sapphire wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Monoszlai, B; Jazbinsek, M; Hauri, C P

    2013-01-01

    High energy terahertz pulses are produced by optical rectification (OR) in organic crystals DAST and DSTMS by a Ti:sapphire amplifier system centered at 0.8 microns. The simple scheme provides broadband spectra between 1 and 5 THz, when pumped by collimated 60 fs near-infrared pump pulse and it is scalable in energy. Fluence-dependent conversion efficiency and damage threshold are reported as well as optimized OR at visible wavelength.

  3. Silicon-on-Sapphire Waveguides: Mode-converting Couplers and Four-wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    width of the waveguides was between 1600 and 1900 nm . Figure 1 shows gain bands for a waveguide with 500- nm height and 1700 - nm width, demonstrating...1. Calculated conversion efficiency of four-wave mixing in 1700 - nm wide silicon-on-sapphire waveguide. Color bar indicates conversion efficiency in...dominance. Previous investigations show that this spectral range is of interest for applications that include free-space communications, laser radar

  4. ZnO Nanostructures Grown on AlN/Sapphire Substrates by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hong-Yuan; HU Wei-Guo; ZHANG Pan-Feng; LIU Xiang-Lin; ZHU Qin-Sheng; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanorods and nanotubes are successful synthesized on AlN/sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The different morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanorods and nanotubes are found to be affected by the A1N under-layer. The photoluminescence spectra show the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods and nanotubes, in which a blueshift of UV emission is observed and is attributed to the surface effect.

  5. Femtosecond Ti:sapphire cryogenic amplifier with high gain and MHz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantan, Aurélien; Laurat, Julien; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-07-09

    We demonstrate high gain amplification of 160-femtosecond pulses in a compact double-pass cryogenic Ti:sapphire amplifier. The setup involves a negative GVD mirrors recompression stage, and operates with a repetition rate between 0.2 and 4 MHz with a continuous pump laser. Amplification factors as high as 17 and 320 nJ Fourier-limited pulses are obtained at a 800 kHz repetition rate.

  6. Direct pumping of ultrashort Ti:sapphire lasers by a frequency doubled diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser. Autocorrelation measurements show that pulse widths of less than 20 fs can be expected with an average power of 52 mW when using our laser. These results indicate the high potential of direct diode laser pumped Ti: sapphire lasers to be used in applications...... like retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS (coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy) microscopy....

  7. A microwave exciter for Cs frequency standards based on a sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Y; McNeilage, C; Searls, J H; Ohshima, S

    2001-01-01

    A low noise and highly stable microwave exciter system has been built for Cs atomic frequency standards using a tunable sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator (SLCO), which works at room temperature. This paper discusses the successful implementation of a control system for locking the SLCO to a long-term reference signal and reports an upper limit of the achieved frequency tracking error 6 x 10(-15) at tau = 1 s.

  8. Amplified spontaneous emission and its restraint in a terawatt Ti:sapphire amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and its restraint in a femtosecond Ti: sapphire chirped_pulse amplifier were investigated. The noises arising from ASE were effectively filtered out in the spatial, temporal and spectral domain. Pulses as short as 38 fs were amplified to peak power of 1.4 TW. The power ratio between the amplified femtosecond pulse and the ASE was higher than 106:1.

  9. Milli-electronvolt monochromatization of hard X-rays with a sapphire backscattering monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueev, I.; Wille, H.-C.; Hermann, R. P.; Bessas, D.; Shvyd’ko, Yu. V.; Zając, M.; Rüffer, R.

    2011-01-01

    A sapphire backscattering monochromator with 1.1 (1) meV bandwidth for hard X-rays (20–40 keV) is reported. The optical quality of several sapphire crystals has been studied and the best crystal was chosen to work as the monochromator. The small energy bandwidth has been obtained by decreasing the crystal volume impinged upon by the beam and by choosing the crystal part with the best quality. The monochromator was tested at the energies of the nuclear resonances of 121Sb at 37.13 keV, 125Te at 35.49 keV, 119Sn at 23.88 keV, 149Sm at 22.50 keV and 151Eu at 21.54 keV. For each energy, specific reflections with sapphire temperatures in the 150–300 K region were chosen. Applications to nuclear inelastic scattering with these isotopes are demonstrated. PMID:21862862

  10. Layered MoS{sub 2} grown on c-sapphire by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Yen-Teng; Ma, Chun-Hao; Luong, Tien-Tung; Wei, Lin-Lung; Yen, Tzu-Chun; Chu, Yung-Ching; Tu, Yung-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu (China); Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu (China); Pande, Krishna Prasad [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu (China); Chang, Edward Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu (China); Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu (China)

    2015-03-01

    Layered growth of molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) was successfully achieved by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on c -plane sapphire substrate. Growth of monolayer to a few monolayer MoS{sub 2}, dependent on the pulsed number of excimer laser in PLD is demonstrated, indicating the promising controllability of layer growth. Among the samples with various pulse number deposition, the frequency difference (A{sub 1g}-E{sup 1}{sub 2g}) in Raman analysis of the 70 pulse sample is estimated as 20.11 cm{sup -1}, suggesting a monolayer MoS{sub 2} was obtained. Two-dimensional (2D) layer growth of MoS{sub 2} is confirmed by the streaky reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns during growth and the cross-sectional view of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-plane relationship, (0006) sapphire//(0002)MoS{sub 2} and [2 anti 1 anti 10] sapphire//[0 anti 1 anti 10]MoS{sub 2} is determined. The results imply that PLD is suitable for layered MoS{sub 2} growth. Additionally, the oxide states of Mo 3d core level spectra of PLD grown MoS{sub 2}, analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), can be effectively reduced by adopting a post sulfurization process. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Defect formation and recrystallization in the silicon on sapphire films under Si{sup +} irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemukhin, A.A., E-mail: shemuhin@gmail.com [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nazarov, A.V.; Balakshin, Yu. V. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernysh, V.S. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) is one of the most promising silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technologies. SOS structures are widely used in microelectronics, but to meet modern requirements the silicon layer should be 100 nm thick or less. The problem is in amount of damage in the interface layer, which decreases the quality of the produced devices. In order to improve the crystalline structure quality SOS samples with 300 nm silicon layers were implanted with Si{sup +} ions with energies in the range from 180 up to 230 keV with fluences in the range from 10{sup 14} up to 5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} at 0 °C. The crystalline structure of the samples was studied with RBS and the interface layer was studied with SIMS after subsequent annealing. It has been found out that to obtain silicon films with high lattice quality it is necessary to damage the sapphire lattice near the silicon–sapphire interface. Complete destruction of the strongly defected area and subsequent recrystallization depends on the energy of implanted ions and the substrate temperature. No significant mixing in the interface layer was observed with the SIMS.

  12. Graphene films grown on sapphire substrates via solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jun; Kang Chao-Yang; Li Li-Min; Liu Zhong-Liang; Yan Wen-Sheng; Wei Shi-Qiang; Xu Peng-Shou

    2012-01-01

    A method for growing graphene on a sapphire substrate by depositing an SiC buffer layer and then annealing at high temperature in solid source molecular beam epitaxy(SSMBE)equipment was presented.The structural and electronic properties of the samples were characterized by reflection high energy diffraction(RHEED),X-ray diffractionφ scans,Raman spectroscopy,and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure(NEXAFS)spectroscopy.The results of the RHEED and φ scan,as well as the Raman spectra,showed that an epitaxial hexagonal α-SiC layer was grown on the sapphire substrate.The results of the Raman and NEXAFS spectra revealed that the graphene films with the AB Bernal stacking structure were formed on the sapphire substrate after annealing.The layer number of the graphene was between four and five,and the thickness of the unreacted SiC layer was about 1-1.5 mm.

  13. The Nicest way to migrate your Windows computer ( The Windows 2000 Migration Task Force)

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    With Windows 2000, CERN users will discover a more stable and reliable working environment and will have access to all the latest applications. The Windows 2000 Migration Task Force - a representative from each division.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermal break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENG. Mohammad Buhemdi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Examine a thermal analysis .Numerous analogies exist between thermal and structuralanalysis for PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermalbreak ,Finite Element Analysis, commonly called FEA, is a method of numerical analysis. FEA isused for solving problems in many engineering disciplines such as machine design,acoustics, electromagnetism, soil mechanics, fluid dynamics, and many others. Inmathematical terms, FEA is a numerical technique used for solving field problemsdescribed by a set of partial differential equations. In mechanical engineering, FEA iswidely used for solving structural, vibration, and thermal problems. However, FEA is notthe only available tool of numerical analysis. Other numerical methods include the FiniteDifference Method, the Boundary Element Method, and the Finite Volumes Method tomention just a few. However, due to its versatility and numerical efficiency, FEA has cometo dominate the engineering analysis software market, while other methods have beenrelegated to niche applications. When implemented into modern commercial software,both FEA theory and numerical problem formulation become completely transparent tousers.

  15. Pericardial Window Formation Complicated by Intrapericardial Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Docekal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In rare circumstances, a diaphragmatic defect may allow for herniation of intra-abdominal contents into the pericardial space. These occurrences are exceedingly rare and may be due to trauma or congenital defects of the septum transversum or as the result of surgical procedures. We describe a 73-year-old female who presented with cardiac and abdominal symptoms one month after undergoing a subxiphoid pericardioperitoneal window for treatment and evaluation of a symptomatic pericardial effusion.

  16. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  17. Fe-N{sub x}/C assisted chemical–mechanical polishing for improving the removal rate of sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li, E-mail: xl0522@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zou, Chunli; Shi, Xiaolei [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Pan, Guoshun, E-mail: pangs@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Luo, Guihai; Zhou, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel non-noble metal catalyst (Fe-N{sub x}/C) was prepared. • Fe-N{sub x}/C shows remarkable catalytic activity for improving the removal rate of sapphire in alkaline solution. • The optimum CMP removal by Fe-N{sub x}/C yielded a superior surface finish of 0.078 nm the average roughness. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, pyridinic N as well as pyrrolic N group possibly serving as the catalytic sites. • A soft hydration layer (boehmite, AlO(OH)) was generated on the surface of sapphire during CMP process. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel non-noble metal catalyst (Fe-N{sub x}/C) is used to improve the removal mass of sapphire as well as obtain atomically smooth sapphire wafer surfaces. The results indicate that Fe-N{sub x}/C shows good catalytic activity towards sapphire removal rate. And the material removal rates (MRRs) are found to vary with the catalyst content in the polishing fluid. Especially that when the polishing slurry mixes with 16 ppm Fe-N{sub x}/C shows the maximum MRR and its removal mass of sapphire is 38.43 nm/min, more than 15.44% larger than traditional CMP using the colloidal silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) without Fe-N{sub x}/C. Catalyst-assisted chemical–mechanical polishing of sapphire is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the formation of a soft hydration layer (boehmite, γ-AlOOH or γ-AlO(OH)) on sapphire surface facilitates the material removal and achieving fine surface finish on basal plane. Abrasives (colloid silica together with magnetite, ingredient of Fe-N{sub x}/C) with a hardness between boehmite and sapphire polish the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, pyridinic N as well as pyrrolic N group would be the catalytical active sites and accelerate this process. Surface quality is characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optimum CMP removal by Fe-N{sub x}/C also yields a superior

  18. TiAl Ohmic contact on GaN, in situ high or low doped or Si implanted, epitaxially grown on sapphire or silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayrel, F.; Menard, O.; Alquier, D. [Laboratoire de Microelectronique de Puissance, Universite de Tours (France); Yvon, A.; Collard, E. [STMicroelectronics, Tours (France); Thierry-Jebali, N.; Brylinsky, C. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, the Ti/Al Ohmic contact quality on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) films has been studied as a function of different process parameters such as surface cleaning procedure, etching, thickness of the deposited layers or annealing conditions. GaN epilayers, with uniform doping concentration from 1 x 10{sup 16} to 5.8 x 10{sup 18} at./cm{sup 3} were grown on sapphire or silicon substrates using AlN and/or AlGaN buffer layers. Electrical characterizations were made using circular transfer length method (cTLM) patterns with a four-probe equipment. Specific contact resistance (SCR) was then extracted from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, for all the process conditions. Contact structures depending on experiment parameters were studied by means of (scanning) transmission electronic microscopy (STEM-TEM). Our results reveal that process parameters such as surface treatment have a lower impact than annealing temperature or metal thickness and annealing duration. Finally, SCR values of 1 x 10{sup -6} {omega} cm{sup 2} can be reproducibly achieved. Moreover, good Ohmic contacts have been obtained on etched surfaces or on low-doped layers implanted with Si. This low value demonstrates a good Ohmic contact and this large parameter process window is of high interest for future device fabrication based on GaN (planar or mesa structures). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  20. Windows Azure Blob Storage来存储Windows Phone App数据%To Store Windows Phone App Data using Windows Azure Blob Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing and storage is replacing the traditional web site hosting, while mobile phone application is getting used by more people. There are several different cloud computing solutions and different mobile phone operating system. Microsoft’s cloud platform is Windows Azure, while its mobile phone operating system is Windows Phone. How to store Windows Phone App data in Windows Azure Blob Storage is discussed in this paper.%云计算和云存储正在替代以前的网站和应用空间,而手机APP正比桌面软件占用人们更多的访问数据和信息的时间,现在有不同的云服务和手机应用平台。微软公司的云服务平台为Windows Azure,其手机操作系统为Windows Phone,探讨了如何用Windows Azure Blob Storage来存储Windows Phone App的数据。

  1. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  2. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  3. Tactical/Combat Engines Cetane Window Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    custom diesel fuels typically used in Homogeneous Charge Coupled Ignition ( HCCI ) research engines . These fuels are characterized by a very heavy...UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 436 by Gregory A. Hansen, Douglas Yost...report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW

  4. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  5. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  6. Location of an acoustic window in dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y

    1990-01-15

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to sound clicks from sources in different positions were recorded in dolphins Inia geoffrensis. The position of the acoustic window was determined by measurement of acoustic delays. The acoustic window was found to lie close to the auditory meatus and the bulla rather than on the lower jaw.

  7. What are windows on language evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, Rudolf

    This chapter offers an elucidation of the idea that certain phenomena provide windows on language evolution. Non-metaphorically, such windows are shown to be conceptual constructs used for making inferences about aspects of language evolution from data or assumptions about properties of

  8. Characteristics of Air Flow through Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Dam, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars C.

    This paper describes the first results of a series of laboratory investigations that is performed to characterise three different window types. The results show the air flow conditions for different ventilation strategies and temperature differences. For one of the windows values of the discharge...

  9. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  10. European energy labelling scheme for windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belling Skou, Mette (VELUX A/S (Denmark)); Kragh, Jesper (DTU Byg, Denmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    In their proposals for revision of the energy labelling directive the European Commission has suggested to include windows. The paper introduces a proposal for an European energy labelling scheme of windows for replacement of windows in the existing building stock taking into consideration the energy performance of windows in both the heating and cooling seasons. The labelling scheme evaluates a methodology where the energy performance in the heating period is established with focus on heat loss and utilization of passive solar energy, whereas the energy performance in the summer (cooling) season will focus on reduction of solar radiation into the building. The methodology is developed with focus on CEN and ISO standardization. With inspiration from the American Energy Star programme for windows, Europe is divided into climate zones where the methodology for each zone is developed on basis of a reference building and climate data. A proposal for labelling will be presented for both heating and cooling seasons in order to enable the user to choose the right product for a specific performance. Based on data from the building stock in the individual climate zones, an energy saving potential for replacement of old windows with new low energy windows will be presented. The possibility for using energy labelling of windows as reference and requirement in the building legislation as an alternative to U-values, will be presented with among others examples from legislation in UK and Denmark.

  11. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  12. Optogenetic activation of neocortical neurons in vivo with a sapphire-based micro-scale LED probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall eMcAlinden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetics has proven to be a revolutionary technology in neuroscience and has advanced continuously over the past decade. However, optical stimulation technologies for in vivo need to be developed to match the advances in genetics and biochemistry that have driven this field. In particular, conventional approaches for in vivo optical illumination have a limitation on the achievable spatio-temporal resolution. Here we utilize a sapphire-based microscale gallium nitride light-emitting diode (µLED probe to activate neocortical neurons in vivo. The probes were designed to contain independently controllable multiple µLEDs, emitting at 450 nm wavelength with an irradiance of up to 2 W/mm2. Monte-Carlo stimulations predicted that optical stimulation using a µLED can modulate neural activity within a localized region. To validate this prediction, we tested this probe in the mouse neocortex that expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 and compared the results with optical stimulation through a fiber at the cortical surface. We confirmed that both approaches reliably induced action potentials in cortical neurons and that the µLED probe evoked strong responses in deep neurons. Due to the possibility to integrate many optical stimulation sites onto a single shank, the µLED probe is thus a promising approach to control neurons locally in vivo.

  13. Vapor phase epitaxy of CdTe on sapphire substrates in dependence on the vapor-flow orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Vlasov, V. P.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    The growth of cadmium telluride films on a structured (0001) sapphire surface oriented at an angle of 44° to the vapor-flow direction and normal to the steps formed along the 11overline 2 0 direction is studied. It is found that this geometry of the vapor source and a substrate (heated to a temperature of 300°C) provides the growth of single-crystal CdTe films if a step height on the substrate surface is more than 1 nm. The results are explained by the occurrence of a longitudinal component of the diffusion flux of CdTe molecules and atoms toward the steps from the inner side and their high density at the step edge from the outer side due to the presence of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, which ensures the efficient supply of material and minimum supersaturation necessary for the nucleation at the step edge and growth of oriented CdTe islands. The cadmium telluride films that are grown have the ( {110} )[ {1overline 1 0} ]CdTe| {( {0001} )} .[ {11overline 2 0} ]A{l_2}{O_3} orientation and a composition similar to stoichiometric CdTe.

  14. Android is the new Windows

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you recall the early virus attacks in the early 2000s? “Blaster”, “I love you” and “Slammer” were attacking the pretty much unprotected Microsoft Windows operating system.   While Microsoft has been hit hard in the past, they have tried to improve and are now on a par with other software vendors. Today, they can even be happy that Android is taking over the baton - at least on mobile platforms. According to the Sophos 2013 Security Threat Report “Android [is] today’s the biggest target” and Android devices in Australia and the U.S. experienced even more malware attacks, whether successful or unsuccessful, than PCs during the past three months. The Kaspersky security company recently added that 99% of all mobile threats target Android. Lucky you if you use an iPhone, or a good old Nokia with no Internet connectivity at all. But why is that? It is partly down to the same fac...

  15. AGB variables in Baade's windows

    CERN Document Server

    Schultheis, M

    2001-01-01

    In this work, a sample of luminous M-type giants in the Baade's Windows towards the inner Galactic Bulge is investigated in the near-infrared. The ISOGAL survey at 7 and 15 micron has given information concerning the mass-loss rates of these stars and their variability characteristics have been extracted from the MACHO database. Most are known to be semi-regular variables (SRVs). Here we discuss how their IJHK-region colours depend on period and the presence or absence of mass-loss, using results mainly taken from the DENIS and 2MASS surveys. In order to compare their colours with solar neighbourhood stars, photometric colours on the DENIS, 2MASS and ESO photometric systems have been synthesized for objects in the spectrophotometric atlas of Lancon and Wood (2000). In addition, they have been used to predict the differences in colour indicies when stars with strong molecular bands are observed using different photometric systems. The SRVs are found to inhabit the upper end of the J-K, K colour-magnitude diagr...

  16. How to Green Windows Update?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifedine Kadry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important challenges facing the earth in the future are energy, water, environment and food security, Green IT contributes in significant role in finding solutions because it consume energy more efficient and reduce pollution in water, air and soil in addition to improving economy because Green IT is manage energy sources by reducing energy consumption with good performance. Most of energy consumed around the world depends on non-renewable energy and part of this energy consumed to update technologies In this paper ,we will study one of the most important tools in Microsoft, which is used in order to help users to get updates of Microsoft's products, which is called windows server update services (WSUS, which is helping to reduce energy consumption, we will study this tool and then try to make it more green by reducing the send / receive between Microsoft Update (MU and WSUS, which will reduce energy consumption, and we will propose algorithm and compared the energy consumption in the current design with energy consumption in the proposed design. This design will open the way for future work in order to make sending updates in MU less energy consumption by apply conditional sending and that will help to improve the performance of MU added to improve the network performance with more efficient consumption of energy.

  17. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-01-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  18. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. (Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States)); Yu, P.C. (PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  19. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  20. Window company standardizes low-E glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trombly, J.

    Anderson Corporation announced in late 1989 that it would be standardizing low-emissivity (low-E) glass in all of its products, except the gliding windows and the basement/storm windows, starting in 1990. In addition, all its High-Performance glass ordered this year will automatically feature the argon gas filling between panes. (Filling the space between two glass panes with argon rather than air reduces the heat conduction of the window.) Low-E windows are glazed with a coating that bonds a microscopic, transparent, metallic substance to the inside surface of the double-pane windows, cutting down on the emission of long-wave infrared light, thereby reducing heat loss.

  1. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  2. Mastering Windows Server 2012 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Booth, Christian; Butler, Robert; McCabe, John; Panek, Robert; Rice, Michael; Roth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Check out the new Hyper-V, find new and easier ways to remotely connect back into the office, or learn all about Storage Spaces-these are just a few of the features in Windows Server 2012 R2 that are explained in this updated edition from Windows authority Mark Minasi and a team of Windows Server experts led by Kevin Greene. This book gets you up to speed on all of the new features and functions of Windows Server, and includes real-world scenarios to put them in perspective. If you're a system administrator upgrading to, migrating to, or managing Windows Server 2012 R2, find what you need to

  3. Structural design study of a proton beam window for a 1-MW spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Terada, Atsuhiko; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Ishikura, Syuichi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    A 1-MW spallation neutron source aiming at materials and life science researches will be constructed under the JAERI-KEK High-intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A proton beam passes through a proton beam window, and be injected into a target of the neutron source. The proton beam window functions as a boundary wall between a high vacuum area in the proton beam line and a helium atmosphere at about atmospheric pressure in a helium vessel which contains the target and moderators. The proton beam window is cooled by light water because high heat-density is generated in the window material by interactions with the proton beam. Then, uniformity of the water flow is requested at the window to suppress a hot-spot that causes excessive thermal stress and cooling water boiling. Also, the window has to be strong enough in its structure for inner stress due to water pressure and thermal stress due to heat generation. In this report, we propose two types of proton beam windows; one flat-type that is easy to manufacture, and the other, curved-type that has high stress resistivity. As a part of design study for the windows, evaluation of strength of structure and thermal hydraulic analysis were conducted. As a result, it was found that sufficient heat removal was assured with uniform water flow at the window, and stress caused by internal water pressure and thermal stress could be maintained below allowable stress values. Accordingly, it was confirmed that the proton beam window designs were feasible. (author)

  4. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  5. Multisensory Illusions and the Temporal Binding Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Stevenson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of our sensory systems to merge sensory information from distinct modalities is remarkable. One stimulus characteristic utilized in this operation is temporal coincidence. Auditory and visual information are integrated within a narrow range of temporal offsets, known as the temporal binding window (TBW, which varies between individuals, stimulus type, and task. In this series of experiments, we assessed the relationship within individuals between the width of their TBW and their ability to integrate audiovisual information. The TBW was measured through a perceived subjective simultaneity task. In conjunction with this, we measured each individual's ability to integrate auditory and visual information with two multisensory illusions, the McGurk effect and Flashbeep illusion. The results from these studies demonstrate that the TBW is highly correlated with the individual's ability to integrate. These relationships were seen in only the right TBW, in which visual presentations preceded auditory presentations, a finding that is ecologically logical. However, differences were seen between the two illusory conditions, where the McGurk effect was stronger in individuals with narrow TBWs, again, an ecologically logical finding. The opposite relationship was seen with flashbeep illusion, possibly due to inherent asynchronies in the illusion.

  6. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner Wed 6/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL ...

  7. High-efficiency nanostructured window GaAs solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Kang, Yangsen; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Cui, Yi; Harris, James S

    2013-10-09

    Nanostructures have been widely used in solar cells due to their extraordinary optical properties. In most nanostructured cells, high short circuit current has been obtained due to enhanced light absorption. However, most of them suffer from lowered open circuit voltage and fill factor. One of the main challenges is formation of good junction and electrical contact. In particular, nanostructures in GaAs only have shown unsatisfactory performances (below 5% in energy conversion efficiency) which cannot match their ideal material properties and the record photovoltaic performances in industry. Here we demonstrate a completely new design for nanostructured solar cells that combines nanostructured window layer, metal mesa bar contact with small area, high quality planar junction. In this way, we not only keep the advanced optical properties of nanostructures such as broadband and wide angle antireflection, but also minimize its negative impact on electrical properties. High light absorption, efficient carrier collection, leakage elimination, and good lateral conductance can be simultaneously obtained. A nanostructured window cell using GaAs junction and AlGaAs nanocone window demonstrates 17% energy conversion efficiency and 0.982 V high open circuit voltage.

  8. Microsoft Windows Server 2012 administration instant reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers for common Windows Server questions Serving as a perfect companion to all Windows Server books, this reference provides you with quick and easily searchable solutions to day-to-day challenges of Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. Using helpful design features such as thumb tabs, tables of contents, and special heading treatments, this resource boasts a smooth and seamless approach to finding information. Plus, quick-reference tables and lists provide additional on-the-spot answers. Covers such key topics as server roles and functionality, u

  9. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  10. Probabilistic fault localization with sliding windows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng; LIAO JianXin; LI TongHong; ZHU XiaoMin

    2012-01-01

    Fault localization is a central element in network fault management.This paper takes a weighted bipartite graph as a fault propagation model and presents a heuristic fault localization algorithm based on the idea of incremental coverage,which is resilient to inaccurate fault propagation model and the noisy environment.Furthermore,a sliding window mechanism is proposed to tackle the inaccuracy of this algorithm in the presence of improper time windows.As shown in the simulation study,our scheme achieves higher detection rate and lower false positive rate in the noisy environment as well as in the presence of inaccurate windows,than current fault localization algorithms.

  11. Windows PowerShell Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2006-01-01

    For years, support for scripting and command-line administration on the Windows platform has paled in comparison to the support offered by the Unix platform. Unix administrators enjoyed the immense power and productivity of their command shells, while Windows administrators watched in envy. Windows PowerShell, Microsoft's next-generation command shell and scripting language, changes this landscape completely. This Short Cut contains the essential reference material to help you get your work done-including the scripting language syntax, a regular-expression reference, useful .NET classes, an

  12. Windows 8 & Office 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Two complete e-books covering Windows and Office for one low price! This unique value-priced e-book set brings together two bestselling For Dummies books in a single e-book file. Including a comprehensive table of contents and the full text of each book, complete with cover, this e-book set gives you in-depth information on the leading PC productivity tools: Windows 8 and Office 2010. Best of all, you'll pay less than the cost of each book purchased separately. You'll get the complete text of: Windows 8 For Dummies, which covers The core component

  13. Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Claxton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAn African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? I...

  14. Windows Server 2012 ja Active Directory

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutustua Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston sisältämiin palveluihin sekä perehtyä tarkemmin Active Directoryn peruskäyttöön. Tavoitteena oli antaa lukijalle ymmärrys Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston tarjoamista käyttömahdollisuuksista ja Active Directoryn käytöstä. Opinnäytetyön tietoperusta koostui virtuaaliympäristön käytöstä ja erilaisista Windows Server 2012–ohjelman palveluista. Tietoperusta kattoi esimerkiksi seuraavat käsitteet: Virtuaalisointi, Emulointi, Ohj...

  15. Conceptual design of proton beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ishikura, Syuichi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    In a MW-scale neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator, a proton beam window is installed as the boundary between a high vacuum region of the proton beam transport line and a helium environment around the target assembly working as a neutron source. The window is cooled by water so as to remove high volumetric heat generated by the proton beam. A concept of the flat-type proton beam window consisting of two plates of 3 mm thick was proposed, which was found to be feasible under the proton beam power of 5 MW through thermal-hydraulic and structural strength analyses. (authors)

  16. CSS for Windows 8 app development

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    CSS for Windows 8 App Development is your learning guide for CSS - the language of great Windows 8-style apps. Learn the built-in styles that make the built-in controls shine, how to define them, and how to use CSS to give your custom app assets that beautiful Modern UI style. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is the clear standard for styling web applications, and with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript now powering apps on Windows 8, it's the clear standard there as well. CSS is a powerful styling and layout language that greatly simplifies the selection of page elements and their visual display, layout,

  17. Sapphire: a better material for atomization and in situ collection of silver volatile species for atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, Stanislav, E-mail: stanomusil@biomed.cas.cz; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří

    2015-06-01

    Sapphire is presented as a high temperature and corrosion resistant material of an optical tube of an atomizer for volatile species of Ag generated by the reaction with NaBH{sub 4}. The modular atomizer design was employed which allowed to carry out the measurements in two modes: (i) on-line atomization and (ii) in situ collection (directly in the optical tube) by means of excess of O{sub 2} over H{sub 2} in the carrier gas during the trapping step and vice versa in the volatilization step. In comparison with quartz atomizers, the sapphire tube atomizer provides a significantly increased atomizer lifetime as well as substantially improved repeatability of the Ag in situ collection signals shapes. In situ collection of Ag in the sapphire tube atomizer was highly efficient (> 90%). Limit of detection in the on-line atomization mode and in situ collection mode, respectively, was 1.2 ng ml{sup −1} and 0.15 ng ml{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Sapphire was tested as a new material of an atomizer tube for Ag volatile species. • Two measurement modes were investigated: on-line atomization and in situ collection. • In situ collection of Ag was highly efficient (> 90%) with LOD of 0.15 ng ml{sup −1}. • No devitrification of the sapphire tube observed in the course of several months.

  18. Origin of sapphires from a lamprophyre dike at Yogo Gulch, Montana, USA: Clues from their melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palke, Aaron C.; Renfro, Nathan D.; Berg, Richard B.

    2016-09-01

    Gem corundum (sapphire) has been mined from an ultramafic lamprophyre dike at Yogo Gulch in central Montana for over 100 years. The sapphires bear signs of corrosion showing that they were not in equilibrium with the lamprophyre that transported them; however, their genesis is poorly understood. We report here the observation of minute glassy melt inclusions in Yogo sapphires. These inclusions are Na- and Ca-rich, Fe-, Mg-, and K-poor silicate glasses with compositions unlike that of the host lamprophyre. Larger, recrystallized melt inclusions contain analcime and calcite drawing a striking resemblance to leucocratic ocelli in the lamprophyre. We suggest here that sapphires formed through partial melting of Al-rich rocks, likely as the lamprophyre pooled at the base of the continental crust. This idea is corroborated by MELTS calculations on a kyanite-eclogite protolith which was presumably derived from a troctolite precursor. These calculations suggest that corundum can form through peritectic melting of kyanite. Linking the melt inclusions petrologically to the lamprophyre represents a significant advancement in our understanding of sapphire genesis and sheds light on how mantle-derived magmas may interact with the continental crust on their ascent to the surface.

  19. Growth and characterization of VO{sub 2}/p-GaN/sapphire heterostructure with phase transition properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050. China (China); Wang, Minhuan; Miao, Lihua; Li, Xiaoxuan; Luo, Yingmin [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Dong [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China); Zhang, Yuzhi [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050. China (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • VO{sub 2} films were deposited on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by PLD. • A well-defined VO{sub 2}/p-GaN/sapphire interface was observed. • The valence state of V in VO{sub 2} films was confirmed by XPS analyses. • A distinct reversible SMT phase transition behavior was observed. - Abstract: High quality pure phase VO{sub 2} films were deposited on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). A well-defined interface with dense and uniform morphology was observed in the as-grown VO{sub 2}/p-GaN/sapphire heterostructure. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed the valence state of vanadium (V) in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}, no other valence state of V was detected. Meanwhile, a distinct reversible semiconductor-to-metal (SMT) phase transition with resistance change up to nearly three orders of magnitude was observed in the temperature dependent electrical resistance measurement, which was comparable to the high quality VO{sub 2} film grown directly on sapphire substrates. Our present findings will give a deeper insight into the physical mechanism behind the exotic characteristics of VO{sub 2}/p-GaN heterostructure, and further motivate research in novel devices with combined functional properties of both correlated oxide and wide bandgap nitride semiconductors.

  20. Dependence of adhesion strength between GaN LEDs and sapphire substrate on power density of UV laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junsu [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Young-Gwan [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hyun [Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaegu, E-mail: gugu99@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Fundamental relationship between laser irradiation and adhesion strength, between gallium-nitride light emitted diode and sapphire substrate, is proposed during selective laser lift-off. • Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate. • Ga precipitation caused by thermal decomposition and roughened interface caused by thermal damage lead to the considerable difference of adhesion strength at the interface. - Abstract: Selective laser lift-off (SLLO) is an innovative technology used to manufacture and repair micro-light-emitting diode (LED) displays. In SLLO, laser is irradiated to selectively separate micro-LED devices from a transparent sapphire substrate. The light source used is an ultraviolet (UV) laser with a wavelength of 266 nm, pulse duration of 20 ns, and repetition rate of 30 kHz. Controlled adhesion between a LED and the substrate is key for a SLLO process with high yield and reliability. This study examined the fundamental relationship between adhesion and laser irradiation. Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate: Ga precipitation caused by the thermal decomposition of GaN and roughened interface caused by thermal damage on the sapphire. The competition between these two mechanisms leads to a non-trivial SLLO condition that needs optimization. This study helps understand the SLLO process, and accelerate the development of a process for manufacturing micro-LED displays via SLLO for future applications.

  1. Investigation of a direction sensitive sapphire detector stack at the 5 GeV electron beam at DESY-II

    CERN Document Server

    Karacheban, O; Hempel, M; Henschel, H; Lange, W; Leonard, J L; Levy, I; Lohmann, W; Schuwalow, S

    2015-01-01

    Extremely radiation hard sensors are needed in particle physics experiments to instrument the region near the beam pipe. Examples are beam halo and beam loss monitoring systems at the Large Hadron Collider, FLASH or XFEL. Artificial diamond sensors are currently widely used as sensors in these systems. In this paper single crystal sapphire sensors are considered as a promising alternative. Industrially grown sapphire wafers are available in large sizes, are of low cost and, like diamond sensors, can be operated without cooling. Here we present results of an irradiation study done with sapphire sensors in a high intensity low energy electron beam. Then, a multichannel direction-sensitive sapphire detector stack is described. It comprises 8 sapphire plates of 1 cm^2 size and 525 micrometer thickness, metallized on both sides, and apposed to form a stack. Each second metal layer is supplied with a bias voltage, and the layers in between are connected to charge-sensitive preamplifiers. The performance of the dete...

  2. Effect of Ti:Sapphire-femtosecond laser on the surface roughness of ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Emire Aybuke; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-12-01

    Some of these adult patients have ceramic crowns, to which orthodontists have concerns about bonding brackets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond (fs) laser (Integra-C-3.5, Quantronix, NY) on the surface roughness of two ceramic surfaces (feldspathic and IPS Empress e-Max) and to compare results with those of two other lasers (Er:YAG and Nd:YAG) and conventional techniques, i.e., sandblasting (50 µm) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. Ceramic discs were fabricated (n = 150) and divided into two groups, each of which was then divided into five subgroups prepared with Ti:Sapphire fs, Nd:YAG, or Er:YAG lasers, sandblasting, or HF acid (n = 15). The surface roughness of the ceramic discs was evaluated using a profilometer (Mitotoyo Surf Test SJ 201 P/M; Mitutoyo Corp, Japan) before and after each surface treatment. Three traces were recorded for each specimen at three different locations in each direction, providing nine measurements per sample, which were then averaged to obtain the surface roughness value. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P laser was associated with the highest mean roughness value. AFM images of the ceramic surfaces treated confirmed that the fs-laser-treated surfaces had the highest degree of irregularity. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the Ti:Sapphire fs laser yielded the highest surface roughness and could be an alternative ceramic surface treatment to increase bond strength. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Pericardial Window in the Treatment of Pericardial Effusion: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old man had a history of subxiphoid pericardial window due to suspected tuberculous effusions. Seventeen years later, following chronic heart failure and implantation of a pacemaker, he again developed pericardial and pleural effusion, requiring repeated percutaneous pericardiocentesis, pleurocentesis and chest tube drainage. A 5×5-cm section of pericardium was successfully resected with video-assisted thoracic pericardial window. No recurrence of pericardial effusion has since been...

  4. Pulse formation and characteristics of the cw mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Wolfgang; Stamm, Uwe; Heumann, Ernst; Ledig, Mario; Guenzel, Uwe; Kvapil, Jiri; Koselja, Michael P.; Kubelka, Jiri

    1991-10-01

    We report on measurements of transient and steady-state pulse characteristics of an acousto- optically mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser. During the pulse evolution, oscillations in the pulse width and pulse energy are found. A steady state is reached after about 40 to 60 microsecond(s) . The steady-state pulse width is strongly influenced by the mode-locking loss as well as the intracavity bandwidth. Shortest pulses of typically 15 ps are obtained. The experiment is compared with results of a simple computer simulation.

  5. Long-term optical phase locking between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yohei; Yoshitomi, Dai; Kakehata, Masayuki; Takada, Hideyuki; Torizuka, Kenji

    2005-09-01

    Long-term optical phase-coherent two-color femtosecond pulses were generated by use of passively timing-synchronized Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers. The relative carrier-envelope phase relation was fixed by an active feedback loop. The accumulated phase noise from 10 mHz to 1 MHz of the locked beat note was 0.43 rad, showing tight phase locking. The optical frequency fluctuation between two femtosecond combs was submillihertz, with a 1 s averaged counter measurement over 3400 s, leading to a long-term femtosecond frequency-comb connection.

  6. A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Sharma; J Smedley; T Tsang; T Rao

    2010-11-01

    We developed a two-stage Ti:sapphire laser system to generate 16 mJ/80 fs laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. The key deriver for the present design is implementing a highly efficient symmetric confocal pre-amplifier and employing a simple, inexpensive synchronization scheme relying only on a commercial digital delay generator. We characterized the amplified pulses in spatial, spectral and temporal domains. The laser system was used to investigate various nonlinear optical processes, and to modify the optical properties of metal and semiconductor surfaces. We are currently building a third amplifier to boost the laser power to the multi-terawatt range.

  7. Grating-coupled silicon-on-sapphire integrated slot waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Subbaraman, Harish; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Xu, Xiaochuan; Hosseini, Amir; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Wray, Parker; Chen, Ray T

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate subwavelength bidirectional grating (SWG) coupled slot waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-sapphire for transverse electric polarized wave operation at 3.4 μm wavelength. Coupling efficiency of 29% for SWG coupler is experimentally achieved. Propagation loss of 11  dB/cm has been experimentally obtained for slot waveguides. Two-step taper mode converters with an insertion loss of 0.13 dB are used to gradually convert the strip waveguide mode into slot waveguide mode.

  8. Autonomous cryogenic sapphire oscillators employing low vibration pulse-tube cryocoolers at NMIJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takeshi; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Takamizawa, Akifumi; Hartnett, John G.

    2016-06-01

    Two liquid-helium-cooled cryogenic sapphire-resonator oscillators (CSOs), have been modified to operate using cryo-refrigerators and low-vibration cryostats. The Allan deviation of the first CSO was evaluated to be better than 2 x 10-15 for averaging times of 1 s to 30 000 s, which is better than that of the original liquid helium cooled CSO. The Allan deviation of the second CSO is better than 4 x 10-15 from 1 s to 6 000 s averaging time.

  9. Investigation of a GaN Nucleation Layer on a Patterned Sapphire Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Meng; ZENG Yi-Ping; WANG Jun-Xi; HU Qiang

    2011-01-01

    @@ A low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer is grown on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) using metal- organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).The surface morphology of the LT-GaN is investigated and the selective nucleation phenomenon in the growth process of the LT-GaN nucleation layer is discovered.Meanwhile, effects of thickness of the LT-GaN and the annealing process on the phenomenon are also discussed.A pattern model is also proposed to analyze the possible mechanisms in atomic scale.

  10. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and photonic crystal fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Ping; James G FUJIMOTO

    2008-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) with ultrahigh axial resolution was achieved by the super-contin- uum generated by coupling femtosecond pulses from a commercial Ti :sapphire laser into an air-silica microstructure fiber. The visible spectrum of the super-continuum from 450 to 700 nm centered at 540 nm can be generated. A free-space axial OCT resolution of 0.64 IJm was achieved. The sensitivity of OCT system was 108 dB with incident light power 3 mW at sample, only 7dB below the theoretical limit. Subcellular OCT imaging was also demonstrated, showing great potential for biomedical application.

  11. Analysis of tunable picosecond pulse generation from a distributed feedback Ti:sapphire laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhi; Yao Xiao-Ke

    2004-01-01

    A distributed feedback Ti:sapphire laser (DFTL) pumped by a 532nm Q-switched pulse is proposed for the generation of tunable picosecond pulses. With coupled rate equation model, the temporal characteristics of DFTL are obtained. The numerical solutions show that the DFTL pulse with a 50-ps pulse duration and as much as 3.SmJ pulse energy can be obtained under 40-m J, 5-ns pulse pumping. The dependence of output pulse width on the laser crystal's length, pumping pulse duration, and pumping rate is also discussed in detail.

  12. Containerless laser-induced flourescence study of vaporization and optical properties for sapphire and alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporation of aluminum oxide was studied from 1800 to 2327 K by laser-induced flourescence (LIF) detection of Al atom vapor over sapphire and alumina spheres that were levitated in an argon gas jet and heated with a continuous wave CO2 laser. Optical properties were determined from apparent specimen temperatures measured with an optical pyrometer and true temperatures deduced from the LIF intensity versus temperature measurements using the known temperature dependence of the Al atom vapor concentration in equilibrium with Al2O3. The effects of impurities and dissolved oxygen on the high-temperature optical properties of aluminum oxide were discussed.

  13. Flashlamp-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser with different rods grown by Czochralski and Verneuil methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquillon, J. P.; Said, J.

    1992-04-01

    The design and the development of a flashlamp-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser is described. Design criteria are discussed and performance improvements using different types of fluorescent UV converters or filters, such as organic dyes or doped glass are presented. We have tested different laser rods at various Ti-concentrations obtained by Verneuil or Czochralski growth techniques. The maximum laser output energy of 540 mJ with a differential efficiency up to 1% was achieved by using only a pyrex filter surrounding the laser rod.

  14. A higher-order-mode fiber delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kim Giessmann; Le, Tuan; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars Erik

    2010-01-01

    We report the first higher-order-mode fiber with anomalous dispersion at 800nm and demonstrate its potential in femtosecond pulse delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers. We obtain 125fs pulses after propagating a distance of 3.6 meters in solid-silica fiber. The pulses could be further...... compressed in a quartz rod to nearly chirp-free 110fs pulses. Femtosecond pulse delivery is achieved by launching the laser output directly into the delivery fiber without any pre-chirping of the input pulse. The demonstrated pulse delivery scheme suggests scaling to >20meters for pulse delivery in harsh...

  15. Measurement of Birefringence of Low-Loss, High-Reflectance Coating of M-Axis Sapphire

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The birefringence of a low-loss, high-reflectance coating applied to an 8-cm-diameter sapphire crystal grown in the m-axis direction has been mapped. By monitoring the transmission of a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity as a function of the polarization of the input light, we find an upper limit for the magnitude of the birefringence of 2.5 x 10^-4 rad and an upper limit in the variation in direction of the birefringence of 10 deg. These values are sufficiently small to allow consideration of m...

  16. Synchronization of an Ultrafast Ti:Sapphire Laser to the S-Band Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng-Guang; WANG Ming-Kai; SUN Da-Rui; DAI Jian-Ping; LI Yong-Gui

    2004-01-01

    @@ We have synchronized a 102-MHz ultrafast self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to a 2856-MHz rf source with the sample-locking technology. The relative root-mean-square time-jitter is 0.57ps and the maximum time jitter is 2.60ps. This is the first time that synchronization between the ultrafast laser pulse and the s-band microwave has been accomplished in China. Potential applications include synchronization of lasers and rf power sources in particle accelerator experiments and high-resolution pump-probe experiments.

  17. All solid-state, injection-seeded Ti: sapphire ring laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Yu; Weibiao Chen; Jun Zhou; Jinzi Bi; Junwen Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this letter, we present an all solid-state, injection-seeded Ti:sapphire laser. The laser is pumped by a laser diode pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser, and injection-seeded by an external cavity laser diode with the wavelength between 770 and 780 nm. The single longitude mode and the doubling efficiency of the laser are obtained after injection seeding. The experimental setup and relative results are reported.It is a good candidate laser source for mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system.

  18. Homogenous Crack-Free Large Size YBCO/YSZ/Sapphire Films for Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, B.; Azoulay, M.; Deutscher, G.

    2006-09-01

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films grown on Sapphire are highly suitable for applications. The production of large size (2-3″) homogeneous, thick (d ⩾ 600nm) films of high quality is of major importance. We report the growth of such films using a buffer layer of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2(YSZ). The films are highly homogeneous and show excellent mechanical properties. They exhibit no sign of cracking even after many thermal cycles. Their critical thickness exceeds 1000nm. However, because of the large lattice mismatch there is a decrease in the electric properties(increases Rs, decreases jc).

  19. Parametric sensitivity and temporal dynamics of sapphire crystal growth via the micro-pulling-down method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Gaurab; Yeckel, Andrew; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2012-11-01

    The micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) crystal growth of sapphire fibers, whose steady-state limits were the focus of our prior study [Samanta et al., Journal of Crystal Growth 335 (2011) 148-159], is further examined using a parametric sensitivity computation derived by linearizing the nonlinear model around a quasi-steady-state (QSS). In addition, transient analyses are performed to assess inherent stability and dynamic responses in this μ-PD system. Information from these two approaches enlarges our understanding of this particular process, and the approaches themselves are put forth as valuable complements to classical QSS analysis.

  20. Windows 10其他功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春海

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍Windows10的一些其他功能,这包括新添加的“3DBuilder”、WindowsHello登录界面、Windows To Go功能等。3DBuiIder功能在Windows10中,提供的“3DBuilder”功能,包括了3D模型库,内置了类似Word图案的基本3D图形,包括圆球、圆柱、圆锥、圆环、立方体、火车、飞机等图形(如图1)。

  1. A NOVEL METHOD ON DESIGNING BISPECTRAL WINDOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoWenbing; YaoTianren; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel method on designing bispectral windows is proposed in this letter.Com-pound functions based on a function with binary quadric form,starting from the symmetry characteristic of three-order moments are used as the 2-D window functions.Two approaches on how to find the expressions of the compound functions are discussed in detail.One is to approxi-mate the compound function after being Taylor expanded under the MinimumMean Square Error (MMSE)criteria.Another is to compound the hyperbolic secant function and the binary quadric function directly.According to theoretical analysis,the first type new windows have been proved as slightly better than the conventional ones,the second type new windows are much better than the conventional ones ,and the bispectral estimation mean square error approximates to 0.

  2. Temporal Analysis of Windows MRU Registry Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuandong; Gladyshev, Pavel; James, Joshua

    The Microsoft Windows registry is an important resource in digital forensic investigations. It contains information about operating system configuration, installed software and user activity. Several researchers have focused on the forensic analysis of the Windows registry, but a robust method for associating past events with registry data values extracted from Windows restore points is not yet available. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for analyzing the most recently used (MRU) keys found in consecutive snapshots of the Windows registry. The algorithm compares two snapshots of the same MRU key and identifies data values within the key that have been updated in the period between the two snapshots. User activities associated with the newly updated data values can be assumed to have occurred during the period between the two snapshots.

  3. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  4. Holographic window for solar power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-12-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  5. 桌面型Windows Server 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Windows Server2008是服务器系统,作为桌面使用没有winxp和win7等用起来得心应手,此文通过对该系统一些配置稍作修改,在不影响其服务器系统的性能情况下打造一款更得心应手的桌面型的windows Server 2008。

  6. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  7. Holographic window for solar power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  8. The discount window : time for reform?

    OpenAIRE

    Craig S. Hakkio; Gordon H. Sellon

    2000-01-01

    For many years, the Federal Reserve's discount window has played an important role in monetary policy. Discount window borrowing helps individual depository institutions manage their reserve accounts in the presence of unexpected deposit and payments flows. Improved reserve management, in turn, helps stabilize the overnight federal funds market by reducing the volatility of short-term interest rates. Moreover, announced changes in the Federal Reserve's discount rate have often signaled import...

  9. Growth of planar semipolar GaN via epitaxial lateral overgrowth on pre-patterned sapphire substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaiger, Stephan; Argut, Ilona; Wunderer, Thomas; Lipski, Frank; Roesch, Rudolf; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institute of Optoelectronics, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We report on the growth of planar semipolar GaN on pre-patterned sapphire substrates via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The sapphire templates were structured with grooves perpendicular to the c-direction of the crystal. Using appropriate growth parameters semipolar GaN can be grown from the c-plane like sidewall of the patterned sapphire, resulting in a flat and planar semipolar surface. Hence, this method allows the growth of semipolar GaN on large areas. Scanning electron, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy measurements show an atomically flat surface. Photoluminescence spectroscopy spectra show the high quality of the material since the spectra are dominated by the near band edge emission but still exhibit some defect related contributions. Furthermore high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements result in small full widths at half maximum of less than 400 arcsec for both, the symmetrical reflection and the asymmetrical (0002) reflection.

  10. Crystal front shape control by use of an additional heater in a Czochralski sapphire single crystal growth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Min-Jae; Han, Xue-Feng; Choi, Ho-Gil; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The quality of sapphire single crystals used as substrates for LED production is largely influenced by two defects: dislocation density and bubbles trapped in the crystal. In particular, the dislocation density has a higher value in sapphire grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method than by other methods. In the present study, we predict a decreased value for the convexity and thermal gradient at the crystal front (CF) through the use of an additional heater in an induction-heated CZ system. In addition, we develop a solute concentration model by which the location of bubble formation in CZ growth is calculated, and the results are compared with experimental results. We further calculate the location of bubble entrapment corresponding with the use of an additional heater. We find that sapphire crystal growth with an additional heater yields a decreased thermal gradient at the CF, together with decreased CF convexity, improved energy efficiency, and improvements in terms of bubble formation location.

  11. Multimode interference and a white light scanning Michelson interferometer with a 400-mm sapphire fiber sensing head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianchu; May, Russell G.; Wang, Anbo; Claus, Richard O.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we present the analysis of multimode (MM) interference induced by MM fiber interferometers and report the development of a white light scanning fiber Michelson interferometer with a sapphire fiber sensing head for the measurement of position-distance at high temperatures. The 'mode fading' effect in standard graded 50/125 micrometers fiber and independent 'inter-mode interference' in 100 micrometers step index profile fiber are discussed. By means of the 'mode selecting' technique, proposed and developed in this work, we demonstrated white light fringes with signal to noise ratios of more than 12 with a sensing head composed of a 400 mm long lead sapphire fiber and an uncoated sapphire target fiber.

  12. Antibody-forming cells and serum hemolysin responses of pastel and sapphire mink inoculated with Aleutian disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J

    1973-11-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV.

  13. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  14. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Information: http://winservices.web.cern.ch/winservices/Seminars/Tutorials/ Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner ...

  15. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Sample Preparation of Si(1-x)Gex in c-Plane Sapphire Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sang H.; Bae, Hyung-Bin; Lee, Tae Woo

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-invented X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, including the total defect density measurement method and the spatial wafer mapping method, have confirmed super hetero epitaxy growth for rhombohedral single crystalline silicon germanium (Si1-xGex) on a c-plane sapphire substrate. However, the XRD method cannot observe the surface morphology or roughness because of the method s limited resolution. Therefore the authors used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with samples prepared in two ways, the focused ion beam (FIB) method and the tripod method to study the structure between Si1-xGex and sapphire substrate and Si1?xGex itself. The sample preparation for TEM should be as fast as possible so that the sample should contain few or no artifacts induced by the preparation. The standard sample preparation method of mechanical polishing often requires a relatively long ion milling time (several hours), which increases the probability of inducing defects into the sample. The TEM sampling of the Si1-xGex on sapphire is also difficult because of the sapphire s high hardness and mechanical instability. The FIB method and the tripod method eliminate both problems when performing a cross-section TEM sampling of Si1-xGex on c-plane sapphire, which shows the surface morphology, the interface between film and substrate, and the crystal structure of the film. This paper explains the FIB sampling method and the tripod sampling method, and why sampling Si1-xGex, on a sapphire substrate with TEM, is necessary.

  16. 解析windows 2003 AD DS与windws 2008 windows 之区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.封装文件 windows server 2008操作系统中内置了sysprep,sysprep可以在c:\windows\system32\sysprep下找到。其中只有sysprep.exe这一个文件,而windows server 2003中的sysprep是由3个文件构成:sysprep.exesetupmgr.exe和setupcl.exe,可以在windows server安装光盘suppot目录下找到。

  17. Microsoft Windows 7 Administrator's Reference Upgrading, Deploying, Managing, and Securing Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Orchilles, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft Windows 7 Administrator's Reference gives you a complete overview of all the important day-to-day duties for which administrators are responsible. From a complete overview of upgrading and implementing to a detailed view of security in Windows 7, this book will keep you on track. Coverage includes: installing and deployment, managing the new Windows 7 environment, overview of the new desktop features, and technical help for troubleshooting and networking (to name a few). Written by current systems administrators with a deep experience in Windows, security, and networked and enterpri

  18. Designing for Windows 8 fundamentals of great design in Windows Store apps

    CERN Document Server

    Schooley, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Designing for Windows 8 is a fast-paced, 150-page primer on the key design concepts you need to create successful Windows 8 apps. This book will help you design a user interface that is both delightful and effective, feels 'right' to your users, and encapsulates a great Windows 8 experience. In this book, you will: Meet the building blocks of solid Windows 8 UI design in a well-designed sample app. Learn how to incorporate key design elements into your apps, such as the app bar, charms and subtle animations from the animation library. Find out how to deliver the core experience that your users

  19. A new family of windows--convolution windows and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jieqiu; LIANG; Changhong; CHEN; Yanpu

    2005-01-01

    A new family of windows is constructed by convolutions via a few rectangular windows with same time width and is thus referred to as convolution windows. The expressions of the second-order up to the eighth-order convolution windows in both the time and frequency domains are derived. Their applications in high accuracy harmonic analysis of periodic signals are investigated. Comparisons between the proposed windows and some known windows with the same width shows that, when the synchronous deviation of data sampling is slight, the proposed ones have the least effect of spectral leakage. Therefore, the new windows are well suited for high accuracy harmonic analysis and parameter estimation for periodic signals. The error analysis and computer simulations show that the estimation errors, corresponding to frequency,amplitude and phase of every harmonic component of a signal, are proportional to thepth power of the relative frequency deviation in case of the pth-order convolution window is applied to windowing signal of approximately p cycles. By introducing real time adjustment in sampling interval, the proposed algorithm can adaptively trace signal frequency and lead to less sampling synchronous deviation. The proposed approach has the advantages of easy implementation and high measure precision and can be used in harmonic analysis of quasi-periodic signals whose fundamental frequency drifts slowly with time.

  20. Generation of 7-fs laser pulse directly from a compact Ti:sapphire laser with chirped mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A compact femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser resonator consisting of three chirped mirrors and one output coupler was designed. By accurately balancing the intra- cavity dispersions between Ti:sapphire crystal, air and chirped mirrors, we directly generated the laser pulse shorter than 7 fs at the average power of 340 mW with 3.1 W pump. The repetition rate of the laser oscillator is 173 MHz at the centre wavelength of 791 nm, and the ultrabroaden spectrum covers from 600 nm to 1000 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the simplest laser resonator capable of generating sub-10 fs laser pulse.