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Sample records for saponin subfraction enhanced

  1. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, D.; Urán, P.; Arnous, A.; Koppe, W.

    2007-01-01

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical

  2. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, D.; Uran, P.; Arnous, Anis

    2007-01-01

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical...... composition of soybean molasses and the obtained subfractions were analyzed in detail: Protein, fat, and ash were quantified according to standard methods. Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose were quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Soyasaponins were quantified using reverse...... intestinal morphology. The causative components for soybean-induced enteritis withstand butanol treatment and prolonged heating at 70 degrees C. Sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, nor soybean proteins larger than 10 kDa induce enteritis alone. Soyasaponins, or components that follow the same solubility pattern...

  3. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and structure elucidation of a highly haemolytic saponin from the Merck saponin extract using high-field gradient-enhanced NMR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, C; Gavin, J A; Aumelas, A; Bonnet, P A; Roumestand, C

    1997-07-11

    Saponins SAPO50 and SAPO30, of which SAPO50 is highly haemolytic, have been isolated from the commercial Merck Saponin. Their structures have been determined exclusively by high-field gradient-enhanced NMR methods. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of these saponins in pyridine-deuterium oxide have been assigned by homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation experiments. Anomeric configurations were obtained by combined use of 1JCH, 3JH-1.H-2, and 1D-NOESY data. Sugar residues were identified by use of 3JHH values obtained from their subspectra recorded using an optimized 1D-zeta-TOCSY sequence. Linkage assignments were made using the ge-HMBC and 1D-NOESY spectra. This study shows that SAPO50 represents a hitherto undescribed saponin with the following structure: 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin 28-O-(6-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1--> 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D- fucopyranoside. SAPO30, however, corresponds to a saponin previously described [D. Frechet, B. Christ, B. Monegier du Sorbier, H. Fischer, and M. Vuilhorgne, Phytochemistry, 30 (1991) 927-931].

  5. Mycoremediation of manganese and phenanthrene by Pleurotus eryngii mycelium enhanced by Tween 80 and saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Xu, Yongan; Ding, Wenbo; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Heng

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation of areas co-contaminated with metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by mushrooms has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this study, Pleurotus eryngii was introduced for the removal of Mn and phenanthrene (Phe) from potato liquid medium (PDL) simultaneously. Effects of Tween 80 and saponin on P. eryngii growth together with Mn uptake as well as Phe removal were investigated. Although pollutants had a negative effect on mycelial morphology and growth, P. eryngii could still tolerate and remove Mn and Phe. Tween 80 increased removal of Mn and Phe through increase of P. eryngii growth, Phe solubility, pollutants bioavailability, and specific surface area of mycelium pellets, moreover, the activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase, which played an important role on PAHs biodegradation. The maximal removal of Mn and Phe was achieved (92.17 and 93.85 % after 15 days incubation, respectively) with 0.6 g L(-1) Tween 80. Treatments with saponin markedly inhibited P. eryngii growth (50.17-66.32 % lower relative to control) due to its fungistatic activity. Nevertheless, saponin could slightly enhance Phe removal through increasing solubility of Phe, and Phe removal rate varied from 80.53 to 87.06 % in saponin treatments. Joint stress of Mn and Phe induced a strong antioxidative response, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in surfactants-treated mycelium compared with control. Generally, Tween 80 was more suitable for strengthening mycoremediation by P. eryngii than saponin, and could be a promising alternative for the remediation of heavy metals and PAHs co-contaminated sites by mushrooms.

  6. Enhanced removal of lead from contaminated soil by polyol-based deep eutectic solvents and saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hayyan, Adeeb; Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2016-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.

  7. Separation and characterization of asphaltenic subfractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honse, Siller O.; Ferreira, Silas R.; Mansur, Claudia R. E.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Gonzalez, Gaspar, E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br [Centro de Pesquisas da PETROBRAS (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The structure of the various asphaltenic subfractions found in crude oil was evaluated. For this purpose, C5 asphaltenes were extracted from an asphaltic residue using n-pentane as the flocculant solvent. The different subfractions were isolated from the C5 asphaltenes by the difference in solubility in different solvents. These were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray fluorescence, elementary analysis and mass spectrometry. The results confirmed that the subfractions extracted with higher alkanes had greater aromaticity and molar mass. However, small solubility variations between the subfractions were attributed mainly to the variation in the concentrations of cyclical hydrocarbon compounds and metals (author)

  8. Enhanced immune response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renjun; Ma, Yanfen; Zhai, Lijuan; Lu, Yisong; Chi, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jiusheng; Hu, Songhua

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination is an important approach to the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This study evaluated the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the immune response to FMD vaccine and the gut mucosal immunity in mice. In experiment 1, mice were orally administered GSLS or not treated as a control. The animals were then immunized twice with FMD vaccine. Blood was sampled weekly within five weeks after the boost immunization for measurement of serum IgG and the isotypes. In experiment 2, mice were orally administrated GSLS or not treated as a control. After that, splenocytes were prepared from sacrificed mice for lymphocyte proliferation assay and intestinal tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and histological examination. The results showed that oral administration of GSLS significantly enhanced serum IgG and the isotype responses to FMD vaccine as well as the number of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and immunoglobulin A (IgA)+ cells. Therefore, GSLS may be a potent oral adjuvant and deserve further study to improve vaccination in susceptible animals.

  9. Combinations of alkaloids affecting different molecular targets with the saponin digitonin can synergistically enhance trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstin, Sonja; Peixoto, Herbenya Silva; Wink, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The flagellate Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Only a few drugs are registered to treat trypanosomiasis, but those drugs show severe side effects. Also, because some pathogen strains have become resistant, new strategies are urgently needed to combat this parasitic disease. An underexplored possibility is the application of combinations of several trypanocidal agents, which may potentiate their trypanocidal activity in a synergistic fashion. In this study, the potential synergism of mutual combinations of bioactive alkaloids and alkaloids with a membrane-active steroidal saponin, digitonin, was explored with regard to their effect on T. b. brucei. Alkaloids were selected that affect different molecular targets: berberine and chelerythrine (intercalation of DNA), piperine (induction of apoptosis), vinblastine (inhibition of microtubule assembly), emetine (intercalation of DNA, inhibition of protein biosynthesis), homoharringtonine (inhibition of protein biosynthesis), and digitonin (membrane permeabilization and uptake facilitation of polar compounds). Most combinations resulted in an enhanced trypanocidal effect. The addition of digitonin significantly stimulated the activity of almost all alkaloids against trypanosomes. The strongest effect was measured in a combination of digitonin with vinblastine. The highest dose reduction indexes (DRI) were measured in the two-drug combination of digitonin or piperine with vinblastine, where the dose of vinblastine could be reduced 9.07-fold or 7.05-fold, respectively. The synergistic effects of mutual combinations of alkaloids and of alkaloids with digitonin present a new avenue to treat trypanosomiasis but one which needs to be corroborated in future animal experiments.

  10. Enhanced solubilization of pyrene by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant%皂角苷对芘的增溶作用及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟娟; 楼林洁; 周文军

    2011-01-01

    Biosurfactants have great advantages in the remediation of organic contaminated soils because of their environmentally friendly nature. The solubilization of pyrene by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, was studied and the results indicated that saponin can greatly enhance the solubilization of pyrene in solution and the weight solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin to pyrene was greater than those of some representative nonionic surfactants.The enhanced solubilization of pyrene by saponin showed strong dependence on the solution pH and ionic strength. It decreased as the solution pH increased from 4.0 to 8. 0, but increased as the NaCl concentration increased from 0. 01 mol· L- 1 to 1.0 mol · L - 1, which can be attributed to the increased or decreased critical micelle concentration (CMC) of saponin solution with the changing pH or ionic strength, respectively. Saponin was more effective in enhancing pyrene solubilization at low pH and high ionic strength. In addition, heavy metal ions ( Zn2 + and Cd2 + ) can also enhance the solubilization of pyrene by saponin.%研究了一种从植物中提取的生物表面活性剂--皂角苷(saponin)对芘的增溶作用,以及pH、离子强度、重金属离子等对增溶作用的影响.结果表明,皂角苷对芘有明显的增溶作用,其质量溶解率(WSR)约为0.0467,大于常用的Triton X、Brij、Tween等类型的非离子表面活性剂,说明皂角苷能更有效地增强芘的溶解.皂角苷分子中存在可电离的酸性基团,溶液的pH、离子强度等对皂角苷的临界胶束浓度(CMC)及其增溶作用有明显的影响.随着溶液pH值的增大(4.0~8.0),芘在皂角苷溶液中的表观溶解度及WSR值逐渐降低,说明高pH减弱了皂角苷对芘的增溶作用;但随溶液离子强度的增大(NaCl浓度0.01~1.00 mol·L-1),芘在皂角苷溶液中的表观溶解度及WSR值逐渐增大,说明高离子强度增强了皂角苷对芘的增溶作用.因此,在低pH和高离子强度

  11. REMARKS ON SUB-FRACTIONAL BESSEL PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Guangjun; Chen Chao; Yan Litan

    2011-01-01

    Let S={(S1t,… Sdt)}t≥o denote a d-dimensional sub-fractional Brownian motion with index H ≥ 1/2.In this paper we study some properties of the process X of the form Xt:=d-Σi=(j)toSis/RsdSiSs,d≥ 1,where Rt =(/)(St/1)2 +..+ (Std)2 is the sub-fractional Bessel process.

  12. Brush border membrane vesicle and Caco-2 cell line: Two experimental models for evaluation of absorption enhancing effects of saponins, bile salts, and some synthetic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of absorption enhancers in the uptake of hydrophilic compounds. The permeation of the two hydrophilic drug models gentamicin and 5 (6-carboxyfluorescein (CF across the brush border membrane vesicles and Caco-2 cell lines were evaluated using total saponins of Acanthophyllum squarrosum, Quillaja saponaria, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium glycocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate , and Tween 20 as absorption enhancers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER measurement was utilized to assess the paracellular permeability of cell lines. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was performed to obtain images of the distribution of CF in Caco-2 cells. These compounds were able to loosen tight junctions, thus increasing paracellular permeability. CLSM confirmed the effect of these absorption enhancers on CF transport across Caco-2 lines and increased the Caco-2 permeability via transcellular route. It was also confirmed that the decrease in TEER was transient and reversible after removal of permeation enhancers.

  13. Radical Scavenging and Reducing Power of Salvia mirzayanii Subfractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the ethyl acetate fraction and subfractions of Salvia mirzayanii (SM have been investigated. The plant material was initially extracted with ethanol. The fractionation was carried out using liquid-liquid extraction, then the ethyl acetate fraction, which showed the greatest antioxidant activity, was selected. This fraction was submitted to column chromatography on a Sephadex LH 20 column eluted with pure MeOH to obtain subfractions A-G. No significant differences exist between the IC50 of Salvia mirzayanii ethyl acetate subfraction C (IC50 = 37.9 ± 0.85, F (IC50 = 40.05 ± 1.4 and quercetin (38.84 ± 0.86, (P > 0.05, indicating that the radical scavenging capacity of these two subfractions and quercetin (antioxidant standard were similar. The reducing power of the ethyl acetate fraction was less than that of all subfractions, except for subfraction A. The greatest amount of phenolic compounds was found in subfraction E (55.23 ± 4.2 and the lowest in subfraction F (5.23 ± 0.18. The greatest total flavonoid content was established in subfraction D (1.84 ± 0.01 and the lowest was in subfraction A (0.108 ± 0.007.

  14. Effects of absorption enhancers on small intestinal absorption of panax notoginseng saponins%吸收促进剂对三七总皂苷小肠吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖玲; 刘华钢; 秦艳娥; 陆仕华; 文丽; 陈明; 刘冠萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the absorption kinetics of panax notoginseng saponins in rat small intestines and the effects of absorption enhancers on the absorptive kinetics and appearance permeability. Methods:UV and HPLC were used to determine the concentrations of phenol red and panax notoginseng saponins, respectively. An in situ intestinal absorptive model was employed to investigate the absorption of panax notoginseng saponins in rat small intestines. Results: Panax notoginseng saponin at concentrations from 40. 084 to 400. 840 μg· mL-1 had no significant effect on the absorptive kinetics and appearance permeability of small intestine (P > 0.05).Some absorption enhancers promoted the absorption of panax notoginseng saponins in small intestine. The order of promotion degree was borneol > carbomer > polysorbate 80. Ox-gall had no significant effects on the absorptive kinetics of small intestine and chitosan could delay it to some extent. Conclusion: Panax notoginseng saponins has a bad absorption in small intestine. Some absorption enhancers can improve the absorptive kinetics of panax notoginseng saponins in small intestine.%目的:研究三七总皂苷(panax notoginseng saponins,PNS)的小肠吸收动力学及吸收促进剂对PNS在小肠吸收速率和表观渗透系数的影响.方法:以紫外分光光度法、高效液相色谱法分别测定酚红和PNS的质量浓度,采用大鼠在体肠灌注实验考察吸收过程.结果:当药物质量浓度为40.084~400.840μg·mL时,大鼠小肠吸收速率常数和表观渗透系数无显著性差异(P>0.05);部分吸收促进剂能提高PNS在小肠的吸收水平,促吸收强弱顺序为:冰片>卡波姆>聚山梨酯-80,牛胆盐促吸收效果不明显,壳聚糖在一定程度上会延缓PNS的吸收.结论:PNS在大鼠小肠吸收较差,部分吸收促进剂对其吸收有一定的促进作用.

  15. Hypoglycemic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins by enhancing the Nrf2 signaling pathway in STZ-inducing diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Zhao, Min; Qi, Ximing; Liu, Yanping; Li, Nan; Liu, Zhiwei; Bian, Yanhong

    2016-02-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is a natural plant resources for diabetes therapy, however, there is little research on the mechanisms of GP. The present study was undertaken to characterize if G. pentaphyllum saponins (GPs) is the principal active compound of GP responsible for anti-diabetes, and to examine the relativity between blood glucose modulate and antioxidation. The GPs-treated streptozotocin diabetic rats had a more effective hypoglycemic status than those of diabetic control rats, which also ameliorate dyslipidemia. GPs has increased SOD and GSH-px activities, and the spleen and thymus indexes in diabetic rats. The insulin levels in the GPs-treated groups were significantly higher than diabetic control group. Our finding provides a new insight into the application of GPs for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Wieruszeski, J M; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Leroy, Y; Charrouf, M; Fournet, B

    1992-06-01

    Five new oleanane saponins named arganine A, B, D, E and F and two known saponins: arganine C and mi-saponin A were isolated from the kernel of Argania spinosa. The structures of these saponins were elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, 13C NMR, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence.

  17. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  18. Influence of tea saponin on enhancing accessibility of pyrene and cadmium phytoremediated with Lolium multiflorum in co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Hou, Yunyun; Hu, Xiaoxin; Liang, Xia; Chen, Xueping

    2016-03-01

    Tea saponin (TS), a kind of biodegradable surfactant, was chosen to improve the accessible solubilization of pyrene and cadmium (Cd) in co-contaminated soils cultivated Lolium multiflorum. TS obviously improved the accessibility of pyrene and Cd for L. multiflorum to accelerate the process of accumulation and elimination of the pollutants. The chemical forms of Cd was transformed from Fe-Mn oxides and associated to carbonates fractions into exchangeable fractions by adding TS in single Cd and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. Moreover, the chemical forms of pyrene were transformed from associated fraction into bioaccessible fraction by adding TS in pyrene and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. In pyrene-Cd contaminated soil, the exchangeable fraction of Cd was hindered in the existence of pyrene, and bioaccessible fraction of pyrene was promoted by the cadmium. Besides, in the process of the pyrene degradation and Cd accumulation, the effect could be improved by the elongation of roots with adding TS, and the microorganism activity was stimulated by TS to accelerate the removal of pollutions. Therefore, Planting L. multiflorum combined with adding TS would be an effective method on the phytoremediation of organics and heavy metals co-contaminated soils.

  19. A systematic approach for the chromatographic fractionation and purification of major steroid saponins in commercial extracts of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, F; Ferreira, F; Pedreschi, F

    2017-03-01

    Yucca schidigera Roezl. (yucca) is one of the major industrial sources of steroid saponins used as animal and human food additives. This work describes a new, systematic and reproducible three-step method by medium and high-pressure liquid chromatography (under RP, NP and RP conditions), for the isolation and purification of three groups of saponins, which were further purified in six sub-fractions, and finally into twelve individual steroid saponins previously reported in Y. schidigera. In accordance to the increasing applications of yucca extracts, further analytical, biological and physicochemical studies are still required. The presented method is applicable to the preparation of steroids saponins previously reported in commercial extracts of Y. schidigera, both as highly purified mixtures of defined composition, including twelve pure components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  1. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  2. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  3. Identification of environmentally stable QTLs controlling Saponin content in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Masayoshi; Tojo, Yuka; Yamada, Naohiro; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured the saponin content in soybean by removing the sugar chain from the saponin using acidic hydrolysis and detected novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for saponin content. Major QTLs in the hypocotyl were identified on chromosome 5 near the SSR marker, Satt 384, while those in the cotyledon were on chromosome 6 near Sat_312, which is linked to the T and E1 loci. Our results suggest that saponin contents in the hypocotyl and cotyledon are controlled by different genes and that it is difficult to increase the beneficial group B saponin and to decrease the undesirable group A saponin at the same time.

  4. Effects of Saponins against Clinical E. coli Strains and Eukaryotic Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Arabski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are detergent-like substances showing antibacterial as well as anticancer potential. In this study, the effects of saponins from Quillaja saponaria were analyzed against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Multidrug-resistant clinical E. coli strains were isolated from human urine. As eukaryotic cells, the CHO-K1 cell lines were applied. Antibacterial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin in the presence of saponins was measured by cultivation methods. Properties of saponins against CHO-K1 cells were measured by the MTT test, hemolysis assay and flow cytometry. Saponin from Quillaja saponaria has a cytotoxic effect at concentrations higher than 25 μg/mL and in the range of 12–50 μg/mL significantly increases the level of early apoptotic cells. Saponin at dose of 12 μg/mL enhances the six E. coli strains growth. We postulate that saponins increase the influx of nutrients from the medium into E. coli cells. Saponins do not have synergetic effects on antibacterial action of tested antibiotics. In contrary, in the presence of saponins and antibiotics, more CFU/mL E. coli cells were observed. This effect was similar to saponins action alone towards E. coli cells. In conclusion, saponins was cytotoxic against CHO-K1 cells, whereas against E. coli cells this effect was not observed.

  5. LDL and HDL subfractions, dysfunctional HDL: treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Nikolic, Dragana; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Rizzo, Manfredi; Hoogeveen, Ron C

    2014-01-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are considered as important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), while highdensity lipoproteins (HDL) are well recognized for their putative role in reverse cholesterol transport and other atheroprotective functions. Both LDL and HDL are heterogeneous in nature, including various subfractions depending on the method of isolation (≥ 7 LDL and 10 HDL subspecies, respectively). While it is established that small, dense LDL (sdLDL) have atherogenic potential, the role of different HDL subfractions is still largely unclear. The majority of clinical studies suggest an atheroprotective role of larger HDL particles, although recent work has highlighted the role of dysfunctional HDL within different subfractions. Several therapeutic approaches are able to primarily target cholesterol concentration in LDL or HDL. Certain drugs, such as niacin, statins and fibrates target multiple lipid traits (i.e. pleiotropic drug effects), while cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are able to increase plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Statins represent the most used lipid-lowering drugs, but there is a continued interest in the development of novel therapeutic approaches, including those that might affect dysfunctional HDL. Targeting distinct LDL and HDL subfractions may potentially reduce the residual risk seen in clinical endpoint trials.

  6. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  7. Turmeric enhancing anti-tumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins by influencing their metabolic profiling in tumors of H22 hepatocarcinoma mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Chai, Hongyan; Qiu, Peiyu; Liu, Zhen; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jiaming; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-12-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponins combined with turmeric (RT) showed well anti-hepatocarcinoma activities in our previous research. The aim of this study was to investigate the progression of the biochemical response to RT and capture metabolic variations during intragastric administration of their compatibility. In the experiment, histopathological examination and (1)H NMR method were developed and validated for the metabolic profiling of RT intervention in H22 tumor growth. Data were analyzed with principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). As a result, Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) or RT induced inflammatory cell infiltration in tumors. RT also mediated the tumor microenvironment to promote anti-tumor immunity of mice. RT significantly inhibited tumor growth rate through suppressing levels of amino acids containing alanine, asparagine, glutamine, putrescine, and sarcosine, lipid compounds, and carbohydrates like myo-inositol and arabinose in the tumor tissues. In conclusion, these results uncovered unexpectedly poor nutritional conditions in the RT-treated tumor tissues whose effect was stronger than RPS's. Therefore, RT could be a novel anticancer agent that targets on cancer metabolism through starving tumors reducing viability of cancer cells.

  8. Dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongmei; Ip, Fanny C F; Fu, Guangmiao; Pang, Haihong; Ye, Wencai; Ip, Nancy Y

    2010-07-01

    Dammarane-type saponins (1-7), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Compounds 1-4, 6 and 7 induced the phosphorylation of ERK protein in primary rat cortical neurons, which indicates their potential neuroactivity. On the other hand, no induction of ERK phosphorylation was observed for HEK293 cells following treatment with saponins 1, 3, 4 and 7. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Saponins derived from medicinal plants have raised considerable interest for their preventive roles in various diseases. Here, we investigated the impacts of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GpS) on gut microbiome, mucosal environment, and the preventive effect on tumor growth. Six-week old ApcMin/+ mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either with vehicle or GpS daily for the duration of 8 weeks. The fecal microbiome was analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Study showed that GpS treatment significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps in a preventive mode. More importantly, GpS feeding strikingly reduced the sulfate-reducing bacteria lineage, which are known to produce hydrogen sulfide and contribute to damage the intestinal epithelium or even promote cancer progression. Meanwhile, GpS also boosted the beneficial microbes. In the gut barrier of the ApcMin/+ mice, GpS treatment increased Paneth and goblet cells, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated N-cadherin. In addition, GpS decreased the pro-oncogenic β-catenin, p-Src and the p-STAT3. Furthermore, GpS might also improve the inflamed gut epithelium of the ApcMin/+ mice by upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-β, IL-1β and IL-18. Intriguingly, GpS markedly stimulated M2 and suppressed M1 macrophage markers, indicating that GpS altered mucosal cytokine profile in favor of the M1 to M2 macrophages switching, facilitating intestinal tissue repair. In conclusion, GpS might reverse the host's inflammatory phenotype by increasing beneficial bacteria, decreasing sulfate-reducing bacteria, and alleviating intestinal inflammatory gut environment, which might contribute to its cancer preventive effects. PMID:27121311

  10. Saponins from Chinese Medicines as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Huang Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are glycosides with triterpenoid or spirostane aglycones that demonstrate various pharmacological effects against mammalian diseases. To promote the research and development of anticancer agents from saponins, this review focuses on the anticancer properties of several typical naturally derived triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides and saikosaponins and steroid saponins (dioscin, polyphyllin, and timosaponin isolated from Chinese medicines. These saponins exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects, such as anti-proliferation, anti-metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-multidrug resistance, and autophagy regulation actions. In addition, related signaling pathways and target proteins involved in the anticancer effects of saponins are also summarized in this work.

  11. Detergent-resistant membrane subfractions containing proteins of plasma membrane, mitochondrial, and internal membrane origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Ronald L

    2008-04-24

    HEK293 cell detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) isolated by the standard homogenization protocol employing a Teflon pestle homogenizer yielded a prominent opaque band at approximately 16% sucrose upon density gradient ultracentrifugation. In contrast, cell disruption using a ground glass tissue homogenizer generated three distinct DRM populations migrating at approximately 10%, 14%, and 20% sucrose, named DRM subfractions A, B, and C, respectively. Separation of the DRM subfractions by mechanical disruption suggested that they are physically associated within the cellular environment, but can be dissociated by shear forces generated during vigorous homogenization. All three DRM subfractions possessed cholesterol and ganglioside GM1, but differed in protein composition. Subfraction A was enriched in flotillin-1 and contained little caveolin-1. In contrast, subfractions B and C were enriched in caveolin-1. Subfraction C contained several mitochondrial membrane proteins, including mitofilin and porins. Only subfraction B appeared to contain significant amounts of plasma membrane-associated proteins, as revealed by cell surface labeling studies. A similar distribution of DRM subfractions, as assessed by separation of flotillin-1 and caveolin-1 immunoreactivities, was observed in CHO cells, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and in HEK293 cells lysed in detergent-free carbonate. Teflon pestle homogenization of HEK293 cells in the presence of the actin-disrupting agent latrunculin B generated DRM subfractions A-C. The microtubule-disrupting agent vinblastine did not facilitate DRM subfraction separation, and DRMs prepared from fibroblasts of vimentin-null mice were present as a single major band on sucrose gradients, unless pre-treated with latrunculin B. These results suggest that the DRM subfractions are interconnected by the actin cytoskeleton, and not by microtubes or vimentin intermediate filaments. The subfractions described may prove useful in studying discrete protein

  12. Review: Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Zahid Iqbal; HU Song-hua; XIAO Chen-wen; ARIJO Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines,ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund's complete adjuvant, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc.,are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed.

  13. Efficient improvement of surface activity of tea saponin through Gemini-like modification by straightforward esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin; Chen, Ying; Liu, Xin; Liu, Songbai

    2015-03-15

    Novel strategy of Gemini-like modification has been applied in development of new nonionic surfactants, tea saponin esters, with enhanced surface activity by simple esterification. Tea saponin was treated with acyl chlorides of different chain length and different ratio of tea saponin and acyl chloride under alkaline condition. The structures of tea saponin esters were analysed and confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and ESI-MS. Surface activity investigation revealed that esterification with the chain length of C12 and C14 and the ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 produced superior surface activity compared with tea saponin. The exceptional surface activity of the new surfactants suggested their great potential application in food industry as green surfactants due to their environmental benign nature as well as simple and inexpensive preparation. The strategy of Gemini-like modification will facilitate development of green surfactants based on natural resources.

  14. Saponin profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-11-20

    The main goal of this study was to determine the saponin profiles of different "triguero" asparagus genotypes and to compare them to green asparagus commercial hybrids. The samples consisted of 31 commercial hybrids and 58 genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar (HT) population variety ("triguero"). The saponin analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed for the determination of 12 saponins derived from a furostan-type steroidal genin, 4 of which had never been described in the edible part of asparagus. The saponin profile of "triguero" asparagus was a combination of these new saponins and protodioscin. Although protodioscin was the major saponin found in commercial hybrids, some of these 12 saponins were detected as major components in some of the commercial hybrids. The total contents of saponins described in some of these HT genotypes reach values as high as 10-100 times higher than those found in commercial hybrids.

  15. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Cao, Jia-Qing; Shi, Sheng-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, 1-4, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. Compounds 1-4 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines HL-60, Colon205, and Du145 in vitro.

  17. Diastereoisomeric saponins from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kun; Tong, Wen-yong; Liang, Hong; Cui, Jing-rong; Tu, Guang-zhong; Zhao, Yu-ying; Zhang, Ru-yi

    2005-05-23

    The structures of four new diastereoisomeric triterpenoidal saponins Julibroside J5, J8, J12 and J13 (1-4) isolated from Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Leguminosae) have been determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. Julibroside, J8 and J13 showed marked cytotoxic activities against Bel-7402 cancer cell line at 100 microg/mL.

  18. Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Garza-González, Jesús N.; Hernandez-Luna, Carlos E.; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Castro-Garza, Jorge Enrique; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE), P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97. PMID:24024206

  19. Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE, P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.

  20. Sphingomyelinase activity of Trichomonas vaginalis extract and subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Garza-González, Jesús N; Hernandez-Luna, Carlos E; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Castro-Garza, Jorge Enrique; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE), P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.

  1. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  2. Effect of saponins on n-hexane removal in biotrickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yanhong; Yang, Chunping; Cheng, Yan; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Saponins was applied to enhance the removal of n-hexane in a biotrickling filter (BTF) in this study. Comparison experiments were carried out to examine the effect of saponins on n-hexane removal in two BTFs at various saponins concentrations, n-hexane loading rates (LRs) and gas empty bed contact times (EBCTs). Results show that the optimum concentration of saponins in nutrient feed was 50.0mgL(-1). When organic LR of n-hexane increased from 47.8 to 120.0gm(-3)h(-1), the removal efficiency (RE) for BTF1 (with saponins) and BTF2 (without saponins) decreased from 91.3% to 83.3% and from 62.8% to 56.8%, respectively. As gas EBCT decreased from 30.0 to 7.5s, the RE declined from 88.4% to 64.5% for BTF1 and from 61.4% to 38.3% for BTF2. Saponins could also decrease the biomass accumulation rate within the medium bed. These results could be referred in the design and operation of BTFs for hydrophobic VOC removal.

  3. Influence of saponins on the biodegradation of halogenated phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorek, Ewa; Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Sawczuk, Agata; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Biotransformation of aromatic compounds is a challenge due to their low aqueous solubility and sorptive losses. The main obstacle in this process is binding of organic pollutants to the microbial cell surface. To overcome these, we applied saponins from plant extract to the microbial culture, to increase pollutants solubility and enhance diffusive massive transfer. This study investigated the efficiency of Quillaja saponaria and Sapindus mukorossi saponins-rich extracts on biodegradation of halogenated phenols by Raoultella planticola WS2 and Pseudomonas sp. OS2, as an effect of cell surface modification of tested strains. Both strains display changes in inner membrane permeability and cell surface hydrophobicity in the presence of saponins during the process of halogenated phenols biotransformation. This allows them to more efficient pollutants removal from the environment. However, only in case of the Pseudomonas sp. OS2 the addition of surfactants to the culture improved effectiveness of bromo-, chloro- and fluorophenols biodegradation. Also introduction of surfactant allowed higher biodegradability of halogenated phenols and can shorten the process. Therefore this suggests that usage of plant saponins can indicate more successful halogenated phenols biodegradation for selected strains.

  4. Antisweet saponins from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W; Liu, X; Zhang, Q; Che, C T; Zhao, S

    2001-02-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides (1-3), along with the sodium salt of alternoside II (4), were isolated from an ethanol extract of the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. The structures of these new saponins were identified as 21 beta-O-benzoylsitakisogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), the potassium salt of longispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and the potassium salt of 29-hydroxylongispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (3). The aglycon of 3, gymnemagenol (3a), was characterized as 3 beta,16 beta,28, 29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene. Structure elucidation was accomplished by interpretation of NMR (DQF-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) results, FABMS, and hydrolysis. Saponin 1 and the sodium salt of alternoside II (4) exhibited antisweet activity.

  5. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation.

  6. Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachie; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Ito, Satoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Triterpene saponins, pachanosides C1, E1, F1 and G1 (1-4), and bridgesides A1, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1 and E2 (5-11) were isolated from Echinopsis macrogona. Compounds 1-4 were saponins with pachanane type triterpene saponins, while the others (5-11) were oleanane type triterpene saponins. While the aglycones of 2-4 and 8-11 were hitherto unknown, the structure of pachanol C was revised in this paper. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  7. Protective effect of saponins from Argania spinosa against free radical-induced oxidative haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzal, H; Alaoui, K; Tok, S; Errachidi, A; Charof, R; Cherrah, Y; Benjouad, A

    2008-07-01

    Saponins from Argania spinosa at a non-haemolytic concentration diminish by 53.2% erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals. 2 mM aspirin and acetaminophen diminish by 75% and 68% , respectively, erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals, while 0.3 microM vitamin E shows no significant antioxidant activity. Interestingly, a combination of 1 mg/l of A. spinosa saponins and vitamin E at 0.3 microM resulted in a 68% level of protection against free radical-induced erythrocyte haemolysis, which may suggest that A. spinosa saponins enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. In contrast, no synergic effect was observed for acetaminophen (2 mM) when in combination with vitamin E (0.3 microM). These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of saponins from A. spinosa and their ability to potentate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E.

  8. Methylation at CPT1A locus is associated with lipoprotein subfraction profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoprotein subfractions help discriminate cardiometabolic disease risk. Genetic loci validated as associating with lipoprotein measures do not account for a large proportion of the individual variation in lipoprotein measures. We hypothesized that DNA methylation levels across the genome contribute...

  9. Intercorrelations of lipoprotein subfractions and their covariation with lifestyle factors in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, J.; Winkler, K.;

    2014-01-01

    So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration...... with physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and dietary intake of MUFA, which might be exploited in future interventions for prevention of age- and BMI-associated atherogenic shifts of lipoprotein subfractions....

  10. Triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Jun-Song; Huang, Xue-Feng; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Seven new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named dianversicosides A-G (1-7), together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The absolute configuration of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) group in 1-4 was ascertained by chemical analysis combined with a chiral HPLC method. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against a small panel of cancer and other cell lines.

  11. Phyto-saponins as a natural adjuvant for delivery of agromaterials through plant cuticle membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Wiesman, Zeev

    2006-08-23

    With growing use of synthetic adjuvants in modern agriculture, their impacts on the environment are being questioned. In a search for an environmentally safe phyto-adjuvant, we have investigated natural glycosidic saponin for delivery of agromaterials through plant cuticle membranes. Four saponin preparations from Quillaja saponaria bark (QE), obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, and Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp (ME), kernel (KE), and root (RE), isolated and characterized in our laboratory, were used for testing the delivery of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) across isolated intact astomatous adaxial Citrus grandis leaf cuticle membranes (CMs). The results showed that both Q. saponaria and B. aegyptiaca saponin preparations enhanced delivery of 2,4-D through CMs. Among the saponin preparations, ME exhibited a significantly higher level of delivery of 2,4-D with a concentration effect (2% being the highest). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) characterization of these saponin preparations in aqueous solution clearly demonstrated the formation of nanoscale vesicles. Various possibilities for a natural amphiphatic phyto-saponin as a delivery adjuvant through CMs are discussed.

  12. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  13. Systematic review: association of low-density lipoprotein subfractions with cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Stanley; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Chung, Mei; Lau, Joseph; Balk, Ethan M

    2009-04-07

    Measures of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions have been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To review published studies that reported relationships between LDL subfractions and cardiovascular outcomes. MEDLINE (1950 to 5 January 2009), CAB Abstracts (1973 to 30 June 2008), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2nd quarter of 2008), limited to English-language studies. 3 reviewers selected longitudinal studies with 10 or more participants that reported an association between LDL subfractions and incidence or severity of cardiovascular disease and in which plasma samples were collected before outcome determination. Data were extracted from 24 studies. The 10 studies that used analytical methods available for clinical use (all of which used nuclear magnetic resonance) had full data extraction, including quality assessment (good, fair, or poor). All studies were extracted by 1 researcher and verified by another. All 24 studies, and the subset of 10 nuclear magnetic resonance studies, were heterogeneous in terms of the specific tests analyzed, analytical methods used, participants investigated, and outcomes measured. Higher LDL particle number was consistently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, independent of other lipid measurements. Other LDL subfractions were generally not associated with cardiovascular disease after adjustment for cholesterol concentrations. No study evaluated the incremental value of LDL subfractions beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors or their test performance. Publication bias was a possibility. Higher LDL particle number has been associated with cardiovascular disease incidence, but studies have not determined whether any measures of LDL subfractions add incremental benefit to traditional risk factor assessment. Routine use of clinically available LDL subfraction tests to estimate cardiovascular disease risk is premature.

  14. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Yang, Juanjuan; Lou, Linjie; Zhu, Lizhong

    2011-05-01

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd2+ or Zn2+. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils.

  15. Effect of moxonidine on lipid subfractions in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, P J; McMahon, Z; Chik, G; Wierzbicki, A S

    2004-05-01

    Moxonidine is centrally acting imidazoline type-1 receptor agonist that significantly lowers blood pressure and has some insulin-sensitising actions. Its effects on plasma lipid profiles are uncertain. This study examined the effects of moxonidine on detailed lipid and lipoprotein profiles in 12 patients with hypertension and type 2b Fredricksen hyperlipidaemia. Treatment with moxonidine in six patients who completed the study resulted in a 10/5 mmHg reduction in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (p = 0.01). A significant reduction in total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 10% (p = 0.04) and 18% (p = 0.03), respectively, was seen. Triglycerides were reduced non-significantly by 23%, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by 16%. There were no significant changes in apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 and B concentrations. No significant shifts were seen in HDL-C, LDL-C, very-low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) or apolipoprotein peak positions with therapy. Analysis of area under curve for each subfraction showed that moxonidine therapy resulted in a redistribution within the apoB profile. A slight non-significant reduction in VLDL apoB was seen. There was a reduction in the dense LDL apoB peak (p = 0.02) but less in the buoyant LDL apoB peak (p = 0.17) with a countervailing increase in LDL-C in the buoyant fraction (p = 0.01). The HDL-C and apoA-1 profile showed a shift from dense HDL apoA-1 (p = 0.01) to a buoyant HDL apoA-1sub-species (p = 0.01). These changes are consistent with a tendency for moxonidine to improve atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein profiles by actions on insulin-sensitisation and possibly through a direct cholesterol-reducing effect as seen with other imidazoles.

  16. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 4. Variation in the saponin content of M. lupulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin content in the tops of black medic trefoil cv. Renata as well as in some botanical and breeding lines of M. lupulina was analysed. It was found that the concentration of biologically active (hemolytically active saponins in the tops of M. lupulina cv. Renata was 2.5% of dry matter. Total saponin content was 3.5% of dry matter. Among 500 individually analysed plants of the Renata variety, the saponin contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.5% in the leaf sap. No saponin-free plant was found. The saponin content was additionally analysed in 300 breeding and 11 botanical lines of M. lupulina. Great differences in that material were found but no saponin-free line was present. The saponin content in the particular plant parts as well as in the whole tops of M. lupulina throughout the vegetation season was also measured. The possibility and necessity of the selection for a low saponin population of M. lupulina is discussed.

  17. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia davurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Kui TIAN; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Guang Hong TU; Hong Wu ZHANG; Shi Lin YANG; Dong Ge AN

    2005-01-01

    Two new saponins named davuricoside I (1) and davuricoside E (2) were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia davurica. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR,FAB-MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  18. Saponins from Tribulus terrestris L. protect human keratinocytes from UVB-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Margherita; Lisi, Sabrina; D'Amore, Massimo; De Lucro, Raffaella; Carati, Davide; Castellana, Donatello; La Pesa, Velia; Zuccarello, Vincenzo; Lofrumento, Dario D

    2012-12-05

    Chronic exposure to solar UVB radiation damages skin, increasing the risk to develop cancer. Hence the identification of compounds with a photoprotective efficacy is essential. This study examined the role of saponins derived from Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on the modulation of apoptosis in normal human keratinocytes (NHEK) exposed to physiological doses of UVB and to evaluate their antitumoral properties. In NHEK, TT saponins attenuate UVB-induced programmed cell death through inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) TT saponins do not make the malignant keratinocytes more resistant to UVB and determine an enhanced apoptotic response. The photoprotective effect of TT saponins is tightly correlated to the enhancement of NER genes expression and the block of UVB-mediated NF-κB activation. Collectively, our study shows experimental evidence that TT has a preventive efficacy against UVB-induced carcinogenesis and the molecular knowledge on the mechanisms through which TT saponins regulate cell death suggests great potential for TT to be developed into a new medicine for cancer patients.

  19. Intercorrelations of lipoprotein subfractions and their covariation with lifestyle factors in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, Joachim; Winkler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration of triglyceri......So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration...... of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small, dense atherogenic LDL particles (sdLDL) correlated negatively (p

  20. HISTOCHEMICAL AND ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HEPATIC MACROPHAGE SUBFRACTIONS ISOLATED FROM NORMAL AND LIPOSOMAL MURAMYL DIPEPTIDE TREATED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEDEMAKERS, RMJ; ATMOSOERODJOBRIGGS, JE; MORSELT, HWM; DAEMEN, T; SCHERPHOF, GL; HARDONK, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Subfractions of the hepatic macrophage population, differing in cell size, were isolated from normal rats and rats treated with liposomal muramyl dipeptide (lipMDP) and analyzed histochemically and by ultrastructural peroxidase cytochemistry. The majority of cells in all subfractions of control rats

  1. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  2. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing.

  3. Macromolecular interactions of triterpenoids and targeted toxins: role of saponins charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Weng, Alexander; Pieper, Alexandra; Mergel, Katharina; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Görick, Cornelia; Wiesner, Burkhard; Eichhorst, Jenny; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

    2013-10-01

    Macromolecular interaction of protein toxins with certain plant triterpenoids holds potential for application in tumor therapy. The ability of only certain saponins to enhance the endosomal escape of toxins specifically in tumor cells was evaluated and set into correlation with the electrophoretic mobility. Saponins from Saponaria officinalis Linn, were selected as a lead to understand this evolutionarily conserved principle in detail. Agarose gel electrophoresis was utilized to procure pure saponin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility, which were tested for their ability to enhance the toxicity by live cell monitoring. Five fractions (SOG1-SOG5) were isolated with a relative electrophoretic mobility of (-0.05, 0.41, 0.59, 0.75 and 1.00) and evaluated using thin layer chromatography, HPLC, and mass spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity experiments revealed highest effectiveness with SOG3. Live cell imaging experiments with SOG3 revealed that this saponin with a specific REM of 0.59 could assist in the lyso/endosomal release of the toxic payload without affecting the integrity of plasma membrane and could lead to the induction of apoptosis. This charge dependent enhancement was also found to be highly specific to type I ribosome inactivating proteins compared to bacterial toxins. Charge interaction of plant toxins and saponins with tumor cells, plays a major role in toxin specific modulation of response. The finding opens up newer ways of finding protein saponin interaction conserved evolutionarily and to test their role in endosomal escape of therapeutic molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulating effect of ginseng saponins on heterologously expressed HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk-seong KIM; Sook-jin SON; Hyo-shin KIM; Yong-duk KIM; Kyu-seung LEE; Byeong-hwa JEON; Kwang-jin KIM; Jin-kyu PARK; Jin-bong PARK

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of ginseng saponins on the heterologously expressed human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) that encodes the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ channel. Methods: A two-electrode voltage clamp tech nique was used. HERG currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes injected with HERG cRNA. Results: Crude saponins of Korean red ginseng (GS) induced a minimal increase of the maximal HERG conductance without changes in the voltage-dependent HERG current activation and inactivation curves. GS, however,decelerated HERG current deactivation in a concentration-dependent manner,which was more noticeable with panaxitriol (PT) than panaxidiol (PD). Consistently,ginseng saponins increased the HERG deactivation time constants with the order of potency of Rg1 (a major component of PT)>Rf 1>Rb1 (a major component of PD).Re had little effect on HERG deactivation. During a cardiac action Potential, GS increased the outward HERG current. Conclusion: Ginseng saponins enhance HERG currents, which could be in part a possible mechanism of the shortening cardiac action potential of ginseng saponins.

  5. Antioxidative effect of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Chen, Y; Zhai, L; Zhang, L; Xu, Y; Wang, S; Hu, S

    2015-05-01

    Previous investigation demonstrated that oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins in chickens could enhance the immune response. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens. One hundred and twenty chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 to 4 received intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide to induce oxidative stress while group 5 was injected with saline solution and served as control. Following administration of cyclophosphamide, groups 1 to 3 were orally administered ginseng stem-leaf saponins at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg BW in drinking water for 7 d, respectively. After that, the spleen, thymus, bursa, and serum were collected to measure the indices of the organs and oxidative parameters. The results showed that ginseng stem-leaf saponins significantly inhibited cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress by increasing the organ indices, total antioxidant capacity, and the levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, while elevating the activity of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as decreasing the protein carbonyl content and malondialdehyde. Therefore, ginseng stem-leaf saponins could be a promising agent against oxidative stress in the poultry industry.

  6. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  7. Antifungal and molluscicidal saponins from Serjania salzmanniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekabo, O A; Farnsworth, N R; Henderson, T O; Mao, G; Mukherjee, R

    1996-04-01

    An investigation of Serjania salzmanniana for biologically active substances has led to the isolation of two novel saponins, salzmannianoside A (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] gypsogenin) [3] and salzmannianoside B (3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)] -alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (4). Two known saponins, pulsatilla saponin D (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (1) and 3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-a lpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] oleanolic acid (2) were also isolated from this plant. The structures of 3 and 4 were elucidated by FABMS and 2D NMR techniques. All these four saponins were mollusicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a vector of Schistosoma mansoni in the Nile Valley. The saponins also showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans at minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8 and 16 micrograms/mL, respectively.

  8. A new steroidal saponin from the leaves of Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    2000-05-01

    A new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin, along with three known saponins, were isolated from Agave americana (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as (25R)-3 beta,6 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-spirostan-12-one 3,6-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Among the isolated saponins, hecogenin tetraglycoside showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells with an IC50 value of 4.3 micrograms/mL.

  9. Sorption mechanisms of sulfamethazine to soil humin and its subfractions after sequential treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Shen, X.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, H.; Chen, W.; Wang, H.; Koelmans, A.A.; Cornelissen, G.; Tao, S.; Wang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Sorption mechanisms of an antibiotic sulfamethazine (SMT) to humin (HM) isolated from a peat soil and its subfractions after sequential treatments were examined. The treatments of HM included removal of ash, O-alkyl carbon, lipid, and lignin components. The HF/HCl de-ashing treatment removed a large

  10. HDL subfractions and very early CAD: novel findings from untreated patients in a Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Xu, Rui-Xia; Li, Sha; Li, Xiao-Lin; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Gao, Ying; Qing, Ping; Cui, Chuan-Jue; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-08-04

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young individuals is a rare disease associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of specific lipoprotein subfractions in very young CAD patients (≤45 years) is not established yet. A total of 734 consecutive CAD subjects were enrolled and were classified as very early (n = 81, ≤45), early (n = 304, male: 45-55; female: 45-65), and late (n = 349, male: >55; female: >65) groups. Meanwhile, a group of non-CAD subjects were also enrolled as controls (n = 56, ≤45). The lipoprotein separation was performed using Lipoprint System. As a result, the very early CAD patients have lower large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction and higher small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction (p CAD. In the logistic regression analysis, large HDL was inversely [OR 95% CI: 0.872 (0.825-0.922)] while small LDL was positively [1.038 (1.008-1.069)] related to very early CAD. However, after adjusting potential confounders, the association was only significant for large HDL [0.899 (0.848-0.954)]. This study firstly demonstrated that large HDL subfraction was negatively related to very early CAD suggestive of its important role in very early CAD incidence.

  11. Screening for triterpenoid saponins in plants using hyphenated analytical platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Tseng, Li Hong; Godejohann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using...

  12. Saponins of Agave: Chemistry and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Jasmeen; Singh, Bikram; Sharma, Om P

    2016-10-01

    The genus Agave comprises more than 400 species with geographical presence in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These plants have a rich history of folkloric use and are known for a wide spectrum of applications. Secondary metabolites of diverse chemical classes have been reported from Agave species. Owing to their pharmacological significance, the steroidal saponins of Agave have caught the attention of phytochemists, biologists and drug discovery scientists. The present review describes 141 steroidal saponins and sapogenins and covers the literature published from 1970 to 2015. It is a comprehensive and coherent presentation of the structures, methods of chemical profiling, structure elucidation and biological activities of the saponins and sapogenins reported from Agave. The article provides a perspective of the research on steroidal compounds of Agave.

  13. Lipoprotein subfractions by nuclear magnetic resonance are associated with tumor characteristics in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flote, Vidar G; Vettukattil, Riyas; Bathen, Tone F; Egeland, Thore; McTiernan, Anne; Frydenberg, Hanne; Husøy, Anders; Finstad, Sissi E; Lømo, Jon; Garred, Øystein; Schlichting, Ellen; Wist, Erik A; Thune, Inger

    2016-03-12

    High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, has been associated with breast cancer development, but the association is under debate, and whether lipoprotein subfractions is associated with breast tumor characteristics remains unclear. Among 56 women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer stage I/II, aged 35-75 years, pre-surgery overnight fasting serum concentrations of lipids were assessed, and body mass index (BMI) was measured. All breast tumors were immunohistochemically examined in the surgical specimen. Serum metabolomics of lipoprotein subfractions and their contents of cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipids, apolipoprotein-A1 and apolipoprotein-A2, were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance. Principal component analysis, partial least square analysis, and uni- and multivariable linear regression models were used to study whether lipoprotein subfractions were associated with breast cancer tumor characteristics. The breast cancer patients had following means: age at diagnosis: 55.1 years; BMI: 25.1 kg/m(2); total-Cholesterol: 5.74 mmol/L; HDL-Cholesterol: 1.78 mmol/L; Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-Cholesterol: 3.45 mmol/L; triglycerides: 1.18 mmol/L. The mean tumor size was 16.4 mm, and the mean Ki67 hotspot index was 26.5%. Most (93%) of the patients had estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors (≥ 1% ER+), and 82% had progesterone receptor (PgR) positive tumors (≥ 10% PgR+). Several HDL subfraction contents were strongly associated with PgR expression: Apolipoprotein-A1 (β 0.46, CI 0.22-0.69, p lipoproteins and ER expression. Our findings hypothesize associations between different lipoprotein subfractions, and PgR expression, and Ki 67 % in breast tumors. These findings may have clinical implications, but require confirmation in larger studies.

  14. Inherited susceptibility determines the distribution of dense low-density lipoprotein subfraction profiles in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H. [Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a heritable lipid disorder, in which dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction profiles due to a predominance of small dense LDL particles are frequently observed. These small dense LDL particles are associated with cardiovascular disease. Using segregation analysis, we investigated to what extent these LDL subfraction profiles are genetically determined; also, the mode of inheritance was studied. Individual LDL subfraction profiles were determined by density gradient ultracentrifugation in 623 individuals of 40 well-defined Dutch FCH families. The individual LDL subfraction profile was defined as a quantitative trait by the continuous variable K, a reliable estimate of the relative contribution of each LDL subfraction to the overall profile. Variation in parameter K due to age, sex, and hormonal status was taken into account by introducing liability classes. Segregation analysis was performed by fitting a series of class D regressive models were compared using log-likelihoot ratio tests. Our data show that 60% of the variability of parameter K could be explained by lipid and lipoprotein levels and that a major autosomal locus, recessively inherited, with a population frequency of .42 {+-} .07, and an additional polygenic component of .25 best explained the clustering of atherogenic dense LDL subfraction profiles in these FCH families. Therefore, dense LDL subfraction profiles, associated with elevated lipid levels, appear to have a genetic basis in FCH.

  15. Triterpene saponins from Silphium radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Lalita M; Piacente, Sonia; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F; Segarra, Frances M; Pessiki, Peter J; Mabry, Tom J

    2008-02-01

    Nine triterpene saponins (1-9) were isolated from leaves and stems of Silphium radula Nutt. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D ((13)C, (1)H, DEPT, TOCSY) and 2D NMR (NOESY, HSQC, HMBC) and ESI-MS studies. The compounds were identified as 3beta,6beta,16beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-23-al-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), urs-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta-triol-3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (2), 3beta,6beta,16beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), urs-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta,23-pentaol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta-triol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (7), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,23-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-23-al-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9). The presence of a 6beta-hydroxyl function was not common in the oleanene or ursene class and the aglycones of these compounds were not found previously in the literature. Moreover, the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Results showed that compound 2 decreased cell proliferation in a statistically significant manner at 25 microg/ml.

  16. Triterpene saponins from Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljanabhagavad, Tiwatt; Thongphasuk, Piyanut; Chamulitrat, Walee; Wink, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Twenty triterpene saponins (1-20) have been isolated from different parts of Chenopodium quinoa (flowers, fruits, seed coats, and seeds) and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Four compounds (1-4) were identified: 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-27-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 3-O-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4). The following known compounds have not previously been reported as saponin constituents from the flowers and the fruits of this plant: two bidesmosides of serjanic acid (5,6), four bidesmosides of oleanolic acid (7-10), five bidesmosides of phytolaccagenic acid (11-15), four bidesmosides of hederagenin (16-19), and one bidesmoside of 3beta,23,30-trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid (20). The cytotoxicity of these saponins and their aglycones was tested in HeLa cells. Induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by bidesmosidic saponins 1-4 and their aglycones I-III was determined by flow cytometric DNA analysis. The saponins with an aldehyde group were most active. The relationships between structure and cytotoxic activity of saponins and their aglycones are discussed.

  17. Do HDL and LDL subfractions play a role in atherosclerosis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluba-Brzózka, Anna; Franczyk, Beata; Banach, Maciej; Rysz-Górzyńska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Significantly increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney (CKD) disease cannot be explained by traditional risk factors. Recent studies revealed that the quality of HDL and LDL cholesterol may be more important than their serum levels. The aim of this study was to assess which LDL and HDL subfractions were more abundant in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and to analyse whether subfraction distribution could be associated with accelerated atherosclerotic processes. This study included 50 ESRD patients undergoing dialysis and 20 healthy volunteers. LDL and HDL subfractions were analysed in serum with the use of Lipoprint system. All patients had intima-media thickness (IMT) measured. Statistically significant differences in subfractions between control and study group were observed in case of: HDL1 (p HDL2 (p = 0.009), HDL3 (p HDL4 (p = 0.003), HDL5 (p = 0.01), HDL7 (p HDL8 (p HDL9 (p HDL10 (p HDL (p HDL Small (p HDL and LDL subfraction distribution between haemodialysis patients with normal and increased IMT: HDL6 (p = 0.020), HDL Large (HDL1-3) (p = 0.017), HDL Intermediate (HDL4-7) (p = 0.017). This study revealed that ESRD influenced HDL subfractions. In HD patients, large HDL subfractions are more abundant while small HDL fraction is more frequent in healthy persons. It failed to show the influence of end-stage disease on LDL subfraction levels. Shift in HDL subfractions might be responsible for the increased risk of atherosclerosis in CKD patients.

  18. A Multivariate Genome-Wide Association Analysis of 10 LDL Subfractions, and Their Response to Statin Treatment, in 1868 Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Heejung; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Joshua D.; Mora, Samia; Ridker, Paul M.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Stephens, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 7 subfractions of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and 3 subfractions of intermediate density lipoproteins (IDLs) measured by gradient gel electrophoresis, and their response to statin treatment, in 1868 individuals of European ancestry from the Pharmacogenomics and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease study. Our analyses identified four previously-implicated loci (SORT1, APOE, LPA, and CETP) as containing variants that are very strongly associated with lipoprotein subfractions (log10Bayes Factor > 15). Subsequent conditional analyses suggest that three of these (APOE, LPA and CETP) likely harbor multiple independently associated SNPs. Further, while different variants typically showed different characteristic patterns of association with combinations of subfractions, the two SNPs in CETP show strikingly similar patterns - both in our original data and in a replication cohort - consistent with a common underlying molecular mechanism. Notably, the CETP variants are very strongly associated with LDL subfractions, despite showing no association with total LDLs in our study, illustrating the potential value of the more detailed phenotypic measurements. In contrast with these strong subfraction associations, genetic association analysis of subfraction response to statins showed much weaker signals (none exceeding log10Bayes Factor of 6). However, two SNPs (in APOE and LPA) previously-reported to be associated with LDL statin response do show some modest evidence for association in our data, and the subfraction response proles at the LPA SNP are consistent with the LPA association, with response likely being due primarily to resistance of Lp(a) particles to statin therapy. An additional important feature of our analysis is that, unlike most previous analyses of multiple related phenotypes, we analyzed the subfractions jointly, rather than one at a time. Comparisons of our multivariate analyses with standard univariate analyses

  19. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man-Qi; Liu, Yue; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Xu, Tun-Hai; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Besides four known compounds, a new triterpenoid saponin was isolated from the stems of Gymnema sylvestre. The structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was established as 3β,16β,22α-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, HMQC, and NOESY correlations. Four known compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  20. Three new steroidal saponins from Helleborus thibetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Su, Yan-Fang; Yang, Feng-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Three new steroidal saponins including two spirostanol glycosides (1-2) and one furostanol glycoside 1-sulphate (3) were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Helleborus thibetanus. Structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of extensive use of 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments, together with HR-ESI-MS and IR measurements, as well as the results of acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1-2 represented steroidal saponins with an unusual substitution pattern, which possessed a double bond at C-25 and were glycosylated at 1-OH.

  1. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria.

  2. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  3. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin-phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, for 30 days. Results: Our data showed that saponin–phospholipid complex had stronger anticancer effect compared to saponin extract. The IC50 values of saponin–phospholipid complex and saponin extract for NCI-H460 cell lines were 28.47μg/mL and 47.97μg/mL, respectively and these values for BT474 cells were 53.18μg/mL and 86.24μg/mL, respectively. In vivo experiments, administration of saponin, saponin–phospholipid complex and paclitaxel (positive control) effectively suppressed 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced breast cancer evidenced by a decrease in tumor volume, the reduction of lipid peroxidation level and increase in the body weight, and elevated the enzymatic antioxidant activities of su-peroxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase in rat breast tissue. Conclusions: Our study suggests that saponin extract from Panax notoginseng and saponin–phospholipid complex have potential to prevent cancer, especially breast cancer.

  4. Two Novel Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Kui TIAN; Chen XIE; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2005-01-01

    Two new saponins named capilliposide C1 and capilliposide D 2 were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes, their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, ESIMS techniques, and chemical methods. Capilliposide C showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  5. Semi-synthesis of Several Stigmasterol Saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Chun-Xia; GUO, Tian-Tian; WANG, Peng; GUAN, Hua-Shi; LI, Ying-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Several stigamasterol saponins were concisely synthesized. Namely, four monosaccharide (glucopyranose, galactopyranose, xylopyranose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-a-D-glucopyranose), lactopyranose and chacotriose were coupled with 3-OH of stigmasterol. All the compounds were identified by NMR, IR and high resolusion MS.

  6. A new triterpenoid saponin from Clematis ganpiniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Qing He; Pei Gen Xiao; Yi Yu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, named clematiganoside A (1), was isolated from the whole plant of Clematis ganpiniana. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, TOF-MS and ESI-MS techniques, and physicochemical properties.

  7. Surface Shear Rheology of Saponin Adsorption Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial

  8. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Meng, Xian-Jun; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS and NMR. Its cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using MTT assay.

  9. A cytotoxic saponin from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kun; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Ru-Yi

    2006-08-01

    A new triterpenoidal saponin (1: Julibroside J(21)) with a xylopyranosyl moiety located at its C-21 side chain was isolated from Albizia julibrissin DURAZZ. (Leguminosae), and its structure was determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 showed marked inhibitory action against Bel-7402 cancer cell line at 10 microg/ml.

  10. New oleanene triterpenoid saponins from Madhuca longifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Arihara, S; Pal, B C; Roy, S K; Matsumura, E; Katayama, S

    2000-12-01

    Four new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, madlongisides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR experiments and chemical methods. Also obtained in this investigation were the known compounds mimusopside A, Mi-saponins A, B, and C, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl protobassic acid.

  11. A new triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhou; De Yun Kong; Ling Peng; Wei Dong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin,bacopaside Ⅸ,was isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst.and its structure was elucidated as 3-0-{β-d-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)[α-1-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-d-glucop-yranosyl}-20-O-α-1-axabinopyranosyljujubogenin by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations.

  12. Alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein subfraction in serum of a patient with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peynet, J.; Legrand, A.; Messing, B.; Thuillier, F.; Rousselet, F.

    1989-04-01

    An alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction was seen in a patient presenting with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis, who was given long-term cyclic parenteral nutrition. This subfraction, observed in addition to normal HDL, was precipitated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium chloride. The patient's serum lipoproteins were analyzed after fractionation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The alpha slow-moving HDL floated in the ultracentrifugation subfractions with densities ranging from 1.028 to 1.084 kg/L, and their main apolipoproteins included apolipoprotein E in addition to apolipoprotein A-I. These HDL were larger than HDL2. The pathogenesis of this unusual HDL subfraction is hypothesized.

  13. Atherogenic subfractions of lipoproteins in the treatment of metabolic syndrome by physical activity and diet - the RESOLVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Walther, Guillaume; Chapier, Robert; Mnatzaganian, George; Lesourd, Bruno; Naughton, Geraldine; Verney, Julien; Fogli, Anne; Sapin, Vincent; Duclos, Martine; Vinet, Agnès; Obert, Philippe; Courteix, Daniel; Lac, Gérard

    2014-07-11

    We aimed to comprehensively evaluate lipoprotein profile including lipid particle size following a lifestyle intervention in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers and to assess the associations between lipoprotein subfractions and carotid-intima-media-thickness (CIMT) - a surrogate indicator of atherogenesis. 100 participants (50-70 years) from the RESOLVE trial, underwent a one-year follow-up beginning with a three-week residential program combining high exercise volume (15-20 h/week), restrictive diet (-500 kcal/day), and education. For baseline references, 40 aged-matched healthy controls were recruited. Independent associations between subfractions of lipoproteins and CIMT were evaluated using a generalized estimating equations model accounting for variation in correlations between repeated measures. The lipoprotein subfractions profile was assessed using Lipoprint® electrophoresis allowing to separate: the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction, then the intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) C, B and A, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with subfractions 1 and 2 as large LDL and subfractions 3 to 7 as small dense LDL (sdLDL), and the high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions categorized into large, intermediate, and small HDL. Apolipoproteins A1 and B were also measured. 78 participants completed the program. At baseline, apolipoproteins B/A1, VLDL, sdLDL and small HDL were higher in MetS than in healthy controls; IDL, LDL size, large and intermediate HDL were lower. Despite time-related regains during the follow-up, lipoprotein subfractions traditionally involved in cardiovascular risk, such as sdLDL, improved immediately after the residential program with values closest to those of healthy controls. CIMT improved throughout the lifestyle intervention. Using a generalized estimating equations model, none of the subfractions of lipoproteins nor apolipoproteins were linked to CIMT. Lipoprotein subfractions traditionally involved in CVR, decreased after

  14. Characterization and functional properties of sub-fractions of soluble soybean polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Matsumoto, Shinya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Maeda, Hirokazu; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2009-12-01

    Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) was fractionated into two sub-fractions, a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF) and a low-molecular-weight fraction (LMF) by the ethanol-extraction method. Characterization of the sub-fractions, that is, analysis of chemical composition, gel filtration, and SDS-PAGE, revealed that the main component of HMF was a large polysaccharide molecule with covalently-attached peptides, possibly corresponding to the intact SSPS molecule. LMF consisted of free peptides and saccharides of small size, which might have occurred as by-products during the production process of SSPS. HMF exhibited high ability to emulsify oil droplets and stabilize alpha-casein dispersions in an acidic pH region, but this ability of LMF was inferior to HMF. On the other hand, LMF had higher activity to prevent the oxidation of emulsified lipids than HMF. These results suggest that HMF and LMF had different characteristics and functional properties, and that the combination of the two sub-fractions generates the multi-functions of commercial SSPS.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN ASPHALTENES (SUBFRACTIONS EXTRACTED FROM TWO DIFFERENT ASPHALTIC RESIDUES: CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PHASE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas R. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltenes are blamed for various problems in the petroleum industry, especially formation of solid deposits and stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Many studies have been conducted to characterize chemical structures of asphaltenes and assess their phase behavior in crude oil or in model-systems of asphaltenes extracted from oil or asphaltic residues from refineries. However, due to the diversity and complexity of these structures, there is still much to be investigated. In this study, asphaltene (subfractions were extracted from an asphaltic residue (AR02, characterized by NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence and MS-TOF, and compared to asphaltene subfractions obtained from another asphaltic residue (AR01 described in a previous article. The (subfractions obtained from the two residues were used to prepare model-systems containing 1 wt% of asphaltenes in toluene and their phase behavior was evaluated by measuring asphaltene precipitation onset using optical microscopy. The results obtained indicated minor differences between the asphaltene fractions obtained from the asphaltic residues of distinct origins, with respect to aromaticity, elemental composition (CHN, presence and content of heteroelements and average molar mass. Regarding stability, minor differences in molecule polarity appear to promote major differences in the phase behavior of each of the asphaltene fractions isolated.

  16. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  17. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Tej K

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of saponins by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is reported. The solvent system was n-butanol:water:acetic acid (84:14:7). Detection of saponins on the TLC plates after development and air-drying was done by immersion in a suspension of sheep erythrocytes, followed by washing off the excess blood on the plate surface. Saponins appeared as white spots against a pink background. The protocol provided specific detection of saponins in the saponins enriched extracts from Aesculusindica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Silene inflata Sm., Sapindusmukorossi Gaertn., Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes, Asparagusadscendens Roxb., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Agave americana L., Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze. The protocol is convenient, inexpensive, does not require any corrosive chemicals and provides specific detection of saponins.

  18. New Cytotoxic Saponins from Lysimachia davurica Ledeb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia davurica Ledeb., two new saponins named davuricoside I (compound 1) and E (compound 2) were isolated. Their chemical structures were elucidated as 3β,16α, 28, 29-tetrihydroxy-olean-12-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 1)and 3β,16α, 29-trihydroxy-13, 28-epoxy-oleanane-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 2) on the basis of their one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data, and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  19. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Kui TIAN; Zhong-Mei ZOU; Li-Zhen XU; Shi-Lin YANG

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl., two new saponins, named capilliposide E (1) and capilliposide F (2), were isolated. The structures of the new sa ponins were elucidated as 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13 -lactone-oleanane-3 -O- [β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinpyranoyl]-22-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13-1actone-oleanane-3-O- { [β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-arabinpyranoyl }-22-O-βD-glucopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  20. Haemolytic micromethod for rapid estimation of toxic alfalfa saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jurzysta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On a plate covered with a thin layer of blood suspension with gelatine 10 microliters of alfalfa juice or alfalfa meal extract is spotted. As a result of saponin diffusion and their reaction with blood a haemolytic ring appears, the diameter of which is proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. Selected by this method low-saponin individual alfalfa plants proved non toxic for fishes and did not inhibit the growth of Trichoderma viride.

  1. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Byong-kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins re...

  2. ECLALBATIN, A TRITERPENE SAPONIN FROM ECLIPTA ALBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. K. UPADHYAY; M. B. PANDEY; R. N. JHA; V. B. PANDEY

    2001-01-01

    From the whole plant of Eclipta alba, a new triterpene saponin, named eclalbatin, together with α-amyrin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated. The structure of eclalbatin has been established as 3-0-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-β-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 28-0-β-D-arabino-pyranoside (1) on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

  3. Two new triterpene saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Lu, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, gypenbiosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.

  4. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong-Kyu Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins related to P. ginseng; >80 of them are isolated from raw or processed ginseng, and the others are acid/base hydrolysates, semisynthetic saponins, or metabolites.

  5. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their subfractions to the sludge aggregation in membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Haoyu; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and their subfractions to sludge aggregation in combined MBR system. It was observed that aggregation abilities of sludge samples were decreased by worm predation. Furthermore, worm predation enhanced the energy barriers and weakened the secondary energy minimum in the interaction energy profiles of slime, loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). Further investigations demonstrated that the content decrease and structural change of different EPS fractions induced by worm predation may be the reason for the decreased aggregation of sludge. Concomitantly, the adsorption tests and atomic force microscopy observation confirmed that the worm predation decreased the adsorption of slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS on membrane. This would indicate the worm predation could keep an optimum EPS level for which floc structure was maintained and the fouling propensity of mixed liquid was reduced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 6. Some chemical characteristics and biological activity of root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin fraction of black medic trefoil (Medicago lupulina roots was isolated and purified. Its hydrolysis afforded several aglycones that have been identified by spectral and chemical properties as medicagenic acid, hederagenine and soyasapogenols: B, C, D, E and F. They made up, respectively. 46.9 and 45% of total sapogenins isolated. Two-dimensional TLC of M. lupulina root saponins revealed fourteen compounds, two of which were medicagenic acid glycosides. The haemolytic, antifungal and allelopathic activities of M. lupulina and M. media roots are compared and discussed.

  7. The structural elucidation of two new artificial steroidal saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Zhi Yu Liu; Ming Song Fan; Zhao Lin Sun; Wei Xin Jiang; Cheng Gang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Two novel steroidal saponins (timosaponin BⅢ-a,timosaponin BⅢ-b) together with a known steroidal saponin (timosaponin BⅡ-b) were prepared by the dilute acid hydrolysis of timosaponin BⅢ Their structures were elucidated by means of 1D,2D NMR and TOF-MS spectral analysis.

  8. Ruminal metabolism in sheep of saponins from Yucca schidigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flåøyen, A; Wilkins, A L; Sandvik, M

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-five mg per kg live weight of crystallized Yucca schidigera saponins, corresponding to 26 mg/kg live weight of sapogenins, was given daily intraruminally to two lambs for 11 consecutive days. Neither of the lambs showed any sign of toxicity throughout the experimental period. One lamb was killed 5 h after the last dose and GC-MS analysis of the free and conjugated sapogenin content samples of liver, and of the contents of the rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and rectum, of faecal samples collected before dosing started, and of parts of the administered Yucca saponin were performed. The Yucca material contained mainly sarsasapogenin and smilagenin saponins. Ingested saponins were quickly hydrolysed in the rumen to free sapogenins and, in part, epimerized at C-3 to afford episapogenins. The absorption of free sapogenins appeared to occur in the jejunum. The metabolism of Yucca saponins was identical to that of Narthecium ossifragum saponins, and it is suggested that Yucca saponins could replace N. ossifragum saponins for toxicity studies on the latter plant.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of the n-BuOH subfraction of mushroom Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Seon; Kim, Seung-Kook; Kim, Byung-Chul; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2004-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and related activities of mushroom Phellinus linteus. The results show that the EtOH extract of Phellinus linteus (PLE) dose-dependently inhibited the mouse ear edema induced by croton oil. Among PLE subfractions, the n-BuOH subfraction showed highest anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema test. The n-BuOH subfraction also showed highest inhibitory activity on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. PLE could significantly reduce the number of writhing induced by acetic acid in mice, indicating that PLE possesses potent antinociceptive effect mediated by its anti-inflammatory activity. Mycelial extract of six different Phellinus strains were found to contain anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. These results suggest that Phellinus linteus has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, in addition to its anti-angiogenic activity.

  10. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  11. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence.

  12. Two New Triterpenoid Saponins from Gymnema sylvestre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Min Zhu; Ping Xie; Ying-Tong Di; Shu-Lin Peng; Li-Sheng Ding; Ming-Kui Wang

    2008-01-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 β-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6)-β.D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 β,21 β,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOHIH2O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.

  13. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xu-Min; Xie, Ping; Di, Ying-Tong; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2008-05-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 beta-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 beta,21 beta,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOH/H(2)O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.

  14. Two new saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Peng; Yu Jing Zhang; Zhi Qiang Ma; Wei San Pan; Yu Qing Sun; Shao Jiang Song

    2007-01-01

    Two new saponins 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-mannopyranosyl sarsasapogenin, named timosaponin A Ⅳ(1) and(5β, 25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-furost-20(22)-en-3,26-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→ 4) glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-galacopyranoside, named timosaponin B Ⅳ(2), were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. Their structures were elucidated by chemical characters and spectroscopic analysis.

  15. A triterpenoid saponin from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K; Zhao, Y Y; Tu, G Z; Guo, D A; Zhang, R Y; Zheng, J H

    1999-01-01

    A triterpenoid saponin (1) was obtained from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Its structure was elucidated as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl-2, 7-octadienoyl]-16-deoxy-acacic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), named as Julibroside J26, based on the chemical and spectral methods.

  16. Effect of Metformin Treatment on Lipoprotein Subfractions in Non-Diabetic Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction : A Glycometabolic Intervention as Adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, Ruben N.; Hartman, Minke H. T.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Lexis, Chris P. H.; Connelly, Margery A.; Lipsic, Erik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van der Harst, Pim; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Metformin affects low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density (HDL) subfractions in the context of impaired glucose tolerance, but its effects in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. We determined whether metformin administration affects lipoprotein subfractions

  17. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Rizzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.

  18. Lipoprotein subfractions in metabolic syndrome and obesity: clinical significance and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Dragana; Katsiki, Niki; Montalto, Giuseppe; Isenovic, Esma R; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Rizzo, Manfredi

    2013-03-18

    Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.

  19. Systemic Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Methods. We studied 520 eligible subjects who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. The inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and D-dimer were measured. A multimarker inflammatory index was developed. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL separation processes were performed using Lipoprint System. Results. In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, several inflammatory markers (WBC count, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR were positively related to circulating non-HDL cholesterol and remnant cholesterol (p<0.05, all. Among lipoprotein subfractions, we observed a positive association of inflammatory markers with very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small LDL cholesterol, and LDL score (p<0.05, all. Meanwhile, a negative association was detected between inflammatory markers and mean LDL particle size (p<0.05 or large HDL cholesterol (p<0.05. Moreover, we found that the relationships between multimarker index quartiles and small LDL cholesterol, LDL score, and mean LDL particle size were slightly stronger in patients with CAD. Conclusions. Systemic inflammatory markers are positively correlated with small LDL cholesterol and LDL score while being negatively linked with mean LDL particle size and large HDL cholesterol, highlighting the potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk.

  20. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  1. Saponins from Cephalaria aristata C. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Gülcemal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One new oleanane-type saponin, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1 was isolated from the MeOH extract of whole plant parts of Cephalaria aristata C. Koch along with three known oleanane-type saponins (2-4, 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-( β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6- β -D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4- β -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin and 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin respectively, (5-7, oleanolic acid (5, β -amyrin (6 and 20 β -hydroxyursolic acid (7 and one sterol glucoside (8, 29-hydroxystigmast-5-en-3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyde. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments along with ESIMS and HRMS analysis.

  2. Steroidal saponins of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, W; Sitek, M; Stochmal, A; Piacente, S; Pizza, C; Cheeke, P

    2001-09-01

    Eight steroidal saponins have been isolated from Yucca schidigera Roezl. trunk, and their structures were established by spectral (MS and NMR) techniques. These included three novel furostanol glycosides including 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furost-20(22)-en-3 beta,26-diol-12-one 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and five known spirostanol glycosides. On the basis of the extraction efficiency, furostanol glycosides made up only 6.8% of total saponins isolated.

  3. Genetic associations with lipoprotein subfraction measures differ by ethnicity in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent genome-wide association study associated 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 43 genomic loci, with fasting lipoprotein subfractions in European–Americans (EAs) at genome-wide levels of significance across three independent samples. Whether these associations are consistent across...

  4. New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kazutaka; Baba, Masaki; Ito, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-07-15

    The research in our laboratory focuses on the isolation of saponins from cactus. In this study, we report five new triterpenoid saponins, dumortierinoside A methyl ester (1), pachanoside I1 (2), pachanoside D1 (3), gummososide A (4), and gummososide A methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-3 isolated from Isolatocereus dumortieri Backbg., and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from Stenocereus alamosensis A. C. Gibson & K. E. Horak. Compound 2 possessed a new pachanane-type triterpene skeleton, pachanol I, in its aglycon. The aglycon of 3 was pachanol D, while those of 4 and 5 were both gummosogenin, which we have previously reported, but this is the first report of pachanol D and gummosogenin in their aglycon forms. Additionally, we evaluated the anti-type I allergy activity of the saponins with RBL-2H3 (Rat basophilic leukemia) cells by measuring the β-hexosaminidase release inhibitory activity. As a result of these studies, gummososide A methyl ester (5) was found to show activity (IC(50)=99.5 μM) and thurberoside A exhibited mild activity (IC(50)=166.9 μM).

  5. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Qiao, Li; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Yang, Rui-Ping; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2009-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins and two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and chemical reaction as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 alpha-furostan-12-one-3beta,22 alpha,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5 alpha-furostan-22-methoxy-2 alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-gentiobioside (3), and isorhamnetin-3-gentiobioside (4).

  6. Saponins and flavonoids of Allium triquetrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2003-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the flowers and bulbs of Allium triquetrum has been undertaken, leading to the isolation of five new furostanol saponins, triquetrosides A1/A2 (1a/1b), B (3), and C1/C2 (4a/4b), from the flowers, along with ascalonisides A1/A2 (6a/6b). The 22-O-methyl derivatives of triquetrosides A1/A2 (2a and 2b) and C1/C2 (5a and 5b) were also isolated, but they are considered extraction artifacts. Large amounts of seven kaempferol glycosides, of which one (7) has a new structure, were also isolated from both flowers and bulbs. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods.

  7. Synthesis of Two Natural Oleanolic Acid Saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Chun-Xia; ZANG, Jing; WANG, Peng; ZHANG, Xiu-Li; GUAN, Hua-Shi; LI, Ying-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China3-O-[β-D-Glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl] ester 1 was synthesized concisely by a convergent strategy. Using stepwise fashion for the synthesis of saponin 2,3-O-{ [β-D-glucopyranosyl-( 1→ 2 ) ]-[ α-L-arabinopyranosyl-( 1→ 3 ) ]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl }-oleanolic acid-28-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester, an abnormal phenomenon, that the terminal arabinosyl residue took the 1C4 conformation instead of typical 4C1 form, was observed. Deprotection or heating could not resume the normal conformation,which resulted in the product of 2' not 2.

  8. Three new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Chen, Xia; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were established as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-6-O-((3S)-3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)][β-D-6-O-((3S)-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β,16α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), on the basis of various spectroscopic analyses and chemical degradations.

  9. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  10. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols and polyphenol-rich fractions of plants have been reported to have protective effects against lipid peroxidation, most probably by serving as scavengers of free radicals and/or by chelating metal ions. In the present study, the effect of different extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis) on peroxyl radical mediated damage to the polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated. Liver homogenate was used as experimental material. The production of malondialdehyde served as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. It was observed that polyphenol-rich fractions, particularly the ethyl acetate fractions of bark and leaves, showed the highest protective activity of 83.02% and 88.62% inhibition, respectively. This study will help in knowing the scientific validation of this plant, for its use in ayurvedic formulations.

  11. Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dysfunctional HDL in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysz-Górzyńska, Magdalena; Banach, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic kidney disease is characterized by significant disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, including differences in quantitative and qualitative content of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Recent studies have revealed that serum HDL cholesterol levels do not predict CVD in CKD patients; thus CKD-induced modifications in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may be responsible for the increase in CV risk in CKD patients. Various methods are available to separate several subclasses of HDL and confirm their atheroprotective properties. However, under pathological conditions associated with inflammation and oxidation, HDL can progressively lose normal biological activities and be converted into dysfunctional HDL. In this review, we highlight the current state of knowledge on subfractions of HDL and HDL dysfunction in CKD.

  12. The association of circulating microRNA-30c with atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jarlath; Caslake, Muriel J; Sodi, Ravinder

    2016-11-01

    Circulating miR-30c has been linked to various aspects of cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the association of circulating miR-30c with the atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Samples from subjects who were given placebo (n=22) in a randomised, double-blind crossover study were used. Subjects were divided into non-atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (Non-ALP; n=12; triglycerides lipoprotein phenotype (ALP; n=10; triglycerides ≥2.0mmol/L) groups. All lipid and lipoprotein measurements, RNA extraction and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were undertaken using standard procedures. Subjects with ALP weighed significantly more than their non-ALP counterparts (p=0.023). In the non-ALP group there was significant correlation between miR-30c and components within VLDL1, namely triglyceride which showed a negative association (p=0.035) whereas phospholipids and cholesterol-ester were both positively correlated (p=0.025 and 0.014, respectively). In contrast, in the ALP group there was a significant correlation between the expression of miR-30c and components within VLDL2, namely triglyceride, which was positively associated (p=0.013). This study reveals specificity with regards to the effect of miR-30c on VLDL subfractions based on the individual's lipoprotein phenotype and implicates roles for microsomal-triglyceride transfer-protein and cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein in LDL and VLDL metabolism, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reference ranges of cholesterol sub-fractions in random healthy adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice T C R Kiba Koumaré

    Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers' insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa. Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p <0.05. These reference ranges were similar to those derived from other African countries but lower than those recorded in France and in USA. This underscores the need for such comprehensible establishment of reference values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3 reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso.

  14. Characterization of n-Hexane sub-fraction of Bridelia micrantha (Berth and its antimycobacterium activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samie Amidou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, is the most notified disease in the world. Development of resistance to first line drugs by MTB is a public health concern. As a result, there is the search for new and novel sources of antimycobacterial drugs for example from medicinal plants. In this study we determined the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of n-Hexane sub-fraction from Bridelia micrantha (Berth against MTB H37Ra and a clinical isolate resistant to all five first-line antituberculosis drugs. Methods The antimycobacterial activity of the n-Hexane sub-fraction of ethyl acetate fractions from acetone extracts of B. micrantha barks was evaluated using the resazurin microplate assay against two MTB isolates. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction was performed using 100% n-Hexane and Chloroform/Methanol (99:1 as solvents in order of increasing polarity by column chromatography and Resazurin microtiter plate assay for susceptibility tests. Results The n-Hexane fraction showed 20% inhibition of MTB H37Ra and almost 35% inhibition of an MTB isolate resistant to all first-line drugs at 10 μg/mL. GC/MS analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of twenty-four constituents representing 60.5% of the fraction. Some of the 24 compounds detected included Benzene, 1.3-bis (3-phenoxyphenoxy (13.51%, 2-pinen-4-one (10.03%, N(b-benzyl-14-(carboxymethyl (6.35% and the least detected compound was linalool (0.2%. Conclusions The results show that the n-Hexane fraction of B. micrantha has antimycobacterial activity.

  15. Lipoprotein subfraction cholesterol distribution is more atherogenic in insulin resistant adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree-Green, Melanie; Maahs, David M; Ferland, Annie; Hokanson, John E; Wang, Hong; Pyle, Laura; Kinney, Gregory L; King, Martina; Eckel, Robert H; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) often have a less atherogenic-appearing fasting lipid profile than controls, despite increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as adults. We previously reported an atherogenic lipoprotein subfraction cholesterol distribution associated with insulin resistance (IR) in T1D adults. We sought to determine if T1D youth have more atherogenic profile than controls via a cross-sectional study. Following 3 days of controlled diet and restricted exercise, fasting plasma samples were drawn from 28 T1D youth [50% female, age 15.3 ± 2 yr, body mass index (BMI) 48%ile; diabetes duration 73 ± 52 months, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.3 ± 1.4%] and 17 non-diabetic controls (47% female, age: 15.0 ± 2 yr, BMI 49%ile) prior to a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Lipoproteins were fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and lipoprotein cholesterol distribution determined. Outcome measures were IR assessed by glucose infusion rate (GIR) and FPLC lipoprotein subfraction cholesterol distribution. T1D youth were more IR (GIR 9.1 ± 3.6 vs. 14.7 ± 3.9 mg/kg/min, p lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and less as large buoyant high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than controls (p lipoprotein profile. Normal weight T1D youth, especially females, had more atherogenic LDL-C and HDL-C distributions which correlated with lower insulin sensitivity. IR may contribute to the increased CVD burden in T1D. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A new triterpenoid saponin from Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tun-Hai; Li, Hai-Tao; Xu, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Hong-Feng; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Han, Dong; Si, Yun-Shan; Li, Yu; Niu, Jian-Zhao; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A new triterpenoid, saponin hehuanoside A, was isolated together with the known triterpenoid saponins 2, 3, and 4 from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin. With the help of chemical and spectral analyzes (IR, MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR), the structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was elucidated as 21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-d-quinovopyranosyl-2,7-octadienoyl]-3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-fucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-d-2-deoxy-2-acetamidoglucopyrasyl acacic acid 28-O-alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1). Three known triterpenoid saponins 2-4 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  17. Bacoside A3--a triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S; Pal, R; KulshreshthaDK

    1994-05-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, bacoside A3, a constituent of bacosides the saponin mixture of Bacopa monniera, was isolated and characterized. Its structure was established as 3-beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-O- [alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->2) ]O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]jujubogenin by chemical and spectral analyses. The cis-isomer of ebelin lactone was also obtained as one of the artefacts of the aglycone and its structure revised.

  18. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Parsons, Peter G; Chap, Sonet

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical characterization of a commercial herb sample supplied as Smilax ornata Lem. (sarsaparilla) led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins, including two new furostanol saponins sarsaparilloside B (1) and sarsaparilloside C (2), whose structures were elucidated via a combination...... in six human cell lines derived from different tumor types and one of the structures (2) was particularly active against the HT29 colon tumor cell line....

  19. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  20. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  1. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  2. Chemical studies of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA). III. on the nature of the antigenic determinant(s) of TPA subfraction B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, B; Lüning, B; Björklund, B

    1981-01-01

    Tissue Polypeptide Antigen (TPA)*** which is a protein isolated from e.g. human carcinoma cells, has previously been separated into subfractions and studied with biochemical methods. Gel diffusion studies show that the antigenic determinants are retained through the isolation and purification procedures. Specific modifications of the amino acid residues lysine, tyrosine, trytophan and arginine in subfraction B1 have been related to the change in the capacity of the antigen to bind to horse anti-HeLa serum. Complete although reversible loss of binding capacity resulted from blocking of arginine and a minor loss was noted upon modification of tyrosine. No measurable influence was noted upon modification of lysine or tryptophan. No cysteine has been detected in subfraction B1. Circular dichroism measurements show that TPA subfraction B1 is largely alpha-helical in solution, and that no correlation could be detected between antigenic activity and conformation.

  3. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu He; Feng-jun Deng; Jin-wen Ge; Xiao-xin Yan; Ai-hua Pan; Zhi-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood lfow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ischemia and reperfusion. This study established a rat model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion using four-vessel occlusion. Rats were administered total sa-ponins of Panax notoginseng at 75 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes after ischemia then once a day, for either 7 or 14 days. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng enhanced the number of dou-blecortin (DCX)+ neural progenitor cells and increased co-localization of DCX with neuronal nuclei and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding/DCX+ neural progenitor cells in the olfactory bulb at 7 and 14 days post ischemia. These ifndings indicate that following global brain ischemia/reperfusion, total saponins of Panax notoginseng promote differentiation of DCX+ cells expressing immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb and the underlying mechanism is related to the activation of the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.

  4. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood flow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ischemia and reperfusion. This study established a rat model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion using four-vessel occlusion. Rats were administered total saponins of Panax notoginseng at 75 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes after ischemia then once a day, for either 7 or 14 days. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng enhanced the number of doublecortin (DCX + neural progenitor cells and increased co-localization of DCX with neuronal nuclei and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding/DCX + neural progenitor cells in the olfactory bulb at 7 and 14 days post ischemia. These findings indicate that following global brain ischemia/reperfusion, total saponins of Panax notoginseng promote differentiation of DCX + cells expressing immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb and the underlying mechanism is related to the activation of the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.

  5. [Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Cncentration and Presence of Subfractions of Small Dense Low Density Lipoproteins as Independent Factors of Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, O I; Utkina, E A; Artemieva, N V; Ezhov, M V; Adamova, I Yu; Pokrovsky, S N

    2016-06-01

    To study relation of lipoproteina - Lp(a) and subfractional composition of apoB containing lipoproteins to the presence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Manerial and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum, Lp(a), and subfractions of apoB containing lipoproteins were determined in blood serum of 187 patients with known data of instrumental examination. Lp(a) concentration was not linked to any of risk factors, levels total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein CH, and subfractions of lipoproteins. In total group triglyceride (TGG) level correlated with content of small dense LDL (sdLDL) (r=0.445, 2 mg/dl in blood plasma (atherogenic profile B), as well as lowering of concentration of large LDL subfractions significantly increased probability of IHD presence in patients with elevated Lp(a) concentration Lp(a) concentration. Lp(a) is an independent factor of risk of coronary atherosclerosis more significant than shifts in subfractional composition of apoB containing lipoproteins. In patients with Lp(a) concentration less or equal 30 mg/dl subfractions of sdLDL were directly related to TG. Level of sdLDL and large lipoproteins of intermediate density are directly related to the presence of IHD. Large LDL correlates with concentration of HDL DL C and probably is cardioprotective. sdLDL content>2 mg/l or hypertriglyceridemia (TG>1.7 mmol/l) significantly increase chances of detection of confirmed IHD in patients with elevated Lp(a).

  6. Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycaemic Action of Different Fractions and Sub-fractions from Aqueous Extract of Aloe vera Linn. Leaf on Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Maithani; Versha Parcha; Geeta Pant; Deepak Kumar; Ishan Dhulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fasting serum glucose (FSG) lowering potential of different fractions (C & D) and subfraction (D1 & D2) from aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf on normal and alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Two fractions (C & D) obtained by common chemical treatment of the aqueous extract of Aleo vera leaf and subfraction (D1 & D2) from fraction D were administered to the alloxan induced (150mg/kg i.p.) diabetic rats. The FSG lowering capacity, of different fractions and subfractions, was then evaluated in terms of percentage reduction in blood glucose level. Results: Oral administration of fractions C & D and subfraction D1 & D2 for 15 days led significant (P<0.05) reduction to the elevated FSG level of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Percentage reduction in blood glucose level and comparison with standard drug glibenclamide suggest the superiority of fraction D and subfraction D1 in hypoglycaemic potential. Conclusions:The results suggest that fraction D and subfraction D1 from aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf possesses the maximum FSG lowering capacity and further investigation is required for determination of anti-diabetic principal(s) and exact mechanism of their hypoglycaemic action.

  7. A novel stem cell source for vasculogenesis in ischemia: subfraction of side population cells from dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iohara, Koichiro; Zheng, Li; Wake, Hiroaki; Ito, Masataka; Nabekura, Junichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Into, Takeshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2008-09-01

    Cell therapy with stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to stimulate vasculogenesis as a potential treatment for ischemic disease is an exciting area of research in regenerative medicine. EPCs are present in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and adipose tissue. Autologous EPCs, however, are obtained by invasive biopsy, a potentially painful procedure. An alternative approach is proposed in this investigation. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. We isolated a highly vasculogenic subfraction of side population (SP) cells based on CD31 and CD146, from dental pulp. The CD31(-);CD146(-) SP cells, demonstrating CD34+ and vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR2)/Flk1+, were similar to EPCs. These cells were distinct from the hematopoietic lineage as CD11b, CD14, and CD45 mRNA were not expressed. They showed high proliferation and migration activities and multilineage differentiation potential including vasculogenic potential. In models of mouse hind limb ischemia, local transplantation of this subfraction of SP cells resulted in successful engraftment and an increase in the blood flow including high density of capillary formation. The transplanted cells were in proximity of the newly formed vasculature and expressed several proangiogenic factors, such as VEGF-A, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and MMP3. Conditioned medium from this subfraction showed the mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, subfraction of SP cells from dental pulp is a new stem cell source for cell-based therapy to stimulate angiogenesis/vasculogenesis during tissue regeneration.

  8. Use of the cryptogein gene to stimulate the accumulation of Bacopa saponins in transgenic Bacopa monnieri plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2012-10-01

    Genetic transformation of the Indian medicinal plant, Bacopa monnieri, using a gene encoding cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor, via Ri and Ti plasmids, were established and induced bioproduction of bacopa saponins in crypt-transgenic plants were obtained. Transformed roots obtained with A. rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 crypt on selection medium containing kanamycin (100 mg l(-1)) dedifferentiated forming callus and redifferentiated to roots which, spontaneously showed shoot bud induction. Ri crypt-transformed plants thus obtained showed integration and expression of rol genes as well as crypt gene. Ti crypt-transformed B. monnieri plants were established following transformation with disarmed A. tumefaciens strain harboring crypt. Transgenic plants showed significant enhancement in growth and bacopa saponin content. Bacopasaponin D (1.4-1.69 %) was maximally enhanced in transgenic plants containing crypt. In comparison to Ri-transformed plants, Ri crypt-transformed plants showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced accumulation of bacoside A(3), bacopasaponin D, bacopaside II, bacopaside III and bacopaside V. Produced transgenic lines can be used for further research on elicitation in crypt-transgenic plants as well as for large scale production of saponins. Key message The cryptogein gene, which encodes a proteinaceous elicitor is associated with increase in secondary metabolite accumulation-either alone or in addition to the increases associated with transformation by A. rhizogenes.

  9. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  10. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  11. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Zygophyllum coccineum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-22

    of the publishers only Planta Medica Journal of Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research www.thieme.de/fz/plantamedica l www.thieme-connect.com...insecticidal activity of compounds 1, 3, 5, 6, and 9. Amin E et al. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive… Planta Med Letters Th is is a co py of th e...Amin E et al. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive… Planta Med Letters Th is is a co py of th e au th or ʼs pe rs on al re pr in t Th is is a co py of th

  12. Steroidal saponins from the leaves of Cestrum sendtenerianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Mimaki, Y; Motidome, M; Morita, H; Takeya, K; Itokawa, H; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    2000-12-01

    Five steroidal saponins were isolated from the EtOH extract of Cestrium sendtenerianum (Solanaceae), as confirmed by detailed analysis of their 1H, 13C, and two-dimensional NMR spectral data, and by the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The saponins were revealed to contain three hydroxyl groups at the C-1beta, C-2alpha, and C-3beta positions in the spirostanol skeleton, and to bear a di- or triglycoside at C-3 as the common structural features. One of the compounds, a spirostanol triglycoside, showed weak cytotoxic activity on HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells, with an IC50 value of 7.7 microg/ml.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Chinese standard fulvic acid sub-fractions separated from forest soil by stepwise elution with pyrophosphate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingchen; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan; Meng, Wei; Shi, Guolan; Ma, Yan; Giesy, John P

    2015-03-04

    XAD-8 adsorption technique coupled with stepwise elution using pyrophosphate buffers with initial pH values of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 13 was developed to isolate Chinese standard fulvic acid (FA) and then separated the FA into five sub-fractions: FApH3, FApH5, FApH7, FApH9 and FApH13, respectively. Mass percentages of FApH3-FApH13 decreased from 42% to 2.5%, and the recovery ratios ranged from 99.0% to 99.5%. Earlier eluting sub-fractions contained greater proportions of carboxylic groups with greater polarity and molecular mass, and later eluting sub-fractions had greater phenolic and aliphatic content. Protein-like components, as well as amorphous and crystalline poly(methylene)-containing components were enriched using neutral and basic buffers. Three main mechanisms likely affect stepwise elution of humic components from XAD-8 resin with pyrophosphate buffers including: 1) the carboxylic-rich sub-fractions are deprotonated at lower pH values and eluted earlier, while phenolic-rich sub-fractions are deprotonated at greater pH values and eluted later. 2) protein or protein-like components can be desorbed and eluted by use of stepwise elution as progressively greater pH values exceed their isoelectric points. 3) size exclusion affects elution of FA sub-fractions. Successful isolation of FA sub-fractions will benefit exploration of the origin, structure, evolution and the investigation of interactions with environmental contaminants.

  14. Antiyeast steroidal saponins from Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca), a new anti-food-deteriorating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, M; Tamura, Y; Masuda, H; Mizutani, K; Tanaka, O; Ikeda, T; Ohtani, K; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2000-03-01

    A saponin fraction from the stems of Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca) exhibited potent growth-inhibitory activities against certain food-deteriorating yeasts, film-forming yeasts, and dermatophytic yeasts and fungi. From this fraction, a number of new anti-yeast monodesmosidic spirostanol saponins, named schidigera-saponins A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), B1 (4), C1 (5),C2 (6); 25(R and S) schidigera-saponins D1 (7), D2 (8), E1 (12), F1 (13); and 25(S) schidigera-saponins D3 (9), D4 (10), D5 (11), and F2 (14) were isolated, together with several related known saponins, and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (see Chart 1). The relationship between the antiyeast activities and the structures of these saponins is described.

  15. Lipidomic and proteomic characterization of platelet extracellular vesicle subfractions from senescent platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienimaeki-Roemer, Annika; Kuhlmann, Katja; Böttcher, Alfred; Konovalova, Tatiana; Black, Anne; Orsó, Evelyn; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ahrens, Maike; Eisenacher, Martin; Meyer, Helmut E; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Platelets (PLTs) in stored PLT concentrates (PLCs) release PLT extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs) induced by senescence and activation, resembling the PLT storage lesion. No comprehensive classification or molecular characterization of senescence-induced PL-EVs exists to understand PL-EV heterogeneity. PL-EVs from 5-day-stored PLCs from healthy individuals were isolated and subfractionated by differential centrifugation, filtration, and density gradient ultracentrifugation into five PLT microvesicle (PL-MV) subfractions (Fraction [F]1-F5) and PLT exosomes (PL-EXs). PL-EV size, concentration, and composition were analyzed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, flow cytometry, and lipid and protein mass spectrometry. Protein data were verified by Western blot. PL-EVs showed overlapping mean particle sizes of 180 to 260 nm, but differed significantly in composition. Less dense, intermediate, and dense PL-MVs enriched specific lipidomic and proteomic markers related to the plasma membrane, intracellular membranes, PLT granules, mitochondria, and PLT activation. α-Synuclein (81% of total) accumulated in F1 and F2, amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein in F3 and F4 (84%), and apolipoprotein (Apo)E (88%) and ApoJ (92%) in F3 to F5. PL-EXs enriched lipid species and proteins, with high abundance of lipid raft, PLT adhesion, and immune response-related markers. Differential lipid and protein compositions of PL-EVs suggest their unique cellular origins and functions, partly overlapping with PLT granule secretion. Dense PL-MVs might represent autophagic vesicles released during PLT activation and apoptosis and PL-EXs resemble lipid rafts, with a potential role in PLT aggregation and immunity. Segregation of α-synuclein and Aβ precursor protein, ApoE, and ApoJ into less dense and dense PL-MVs, respectively, show their differential carrier role of neurologic disease-related cargo. © 2014 AABB.

  16. A New Saponin Transformed from Ginsenoside Rhl by Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong LI; Yue Mao SHEN; Ke Qin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A novel saponin was isolated from the transformed products of ginsenoside Rh1 by Bacillus subtilis. It's structure was determined to be 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-protopanaxatriol on the basis of the spectral data.

  17. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. Cesdiurins I-III, steroidal saponins from Cestrum diurnum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mostafa A; Mohamed, Khaled M; Kamel, Mohamed S; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of leaves of Cestrum diurnum L (Solanaceae) resulted in isolation of several furostanol steroidal saponins, named cesdiurins I-III (1-3). Their structures of the isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques as well as by mass spectral analyses.

  19. Steroidal saponins from the fruits of Cestrum ruizteranianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarraga, Elier; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Amaro-Luis, Juan Manuel; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Pouységu, Laurent; Quideau, Stéphane; Rojas, Luis B; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2011-12-01

    Seven spirostane and furostane-type glycosides were isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of the fruits of Cestrum ruizteranianum and characterized mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These known saponins belong to the delta5-spirostene and delta5-furostene series and are reported in this species for the first time.

  20. Triterpenes acids and saponins isolated from Licania arianeae Prance (Chrysobalanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Cândido, Lucilene Faustina de Oliveira; da Costa, Patrícia Miranda; do Nascimento, Ildomar Alves; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2008-07-01

    From the leaves and wood of Licania arianeae, ten known compounds were isolated and identified. They belong to pharmacological active triterpenes acids, including three oleanoic acids, five ursane acids, and two triterpenes saponin acids. Their structures were established by analysis of infrared, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data of natural triterpenes and of methyl acetyl derivatives.

  1. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Heng, L.; Groot, de Æ.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into

  2. New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 黄晓君; 王磊; 王艳梅; 王英; 叶文才

    2012-01-01

    Five new oleanane-type saponins (1-5), together with three known ones (6-8), were isolated from the rhi- zomes of Anemone amurensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Compounds 2-4 are three novel sulfated oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides.

  3. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, HETCO...

  4. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Heng, L.; Groot, de Æ.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into

  5. Determination of steroidal saponins in different organs of yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2008-06-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are perennial trailing rhizome plants. Steroidal saponins, furostanol and spirostanol glycosides are the marked functional compounds in yams. In this investigation, a C18 solid phase extraction method was developed for yam saponins purification. The contents of saponins in various organs of yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto) were also determined. Results showed that the recoveries of yam saponins extracted by the developed method were about 99.48-100.08% when the saponins (each saponin weighed 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00mg) passing through the C18 cartridge. The extractive method could efficiently reduce the interferences from impurities in yam saponin extracts prior to HPLC analysis. The recoveries of added saponins in different yam organs were 98.34-99.92% for tuber flesh, 95.98-98.89% for tuber cortex, 97.89-99.44% for rhizophor, 93.82-98.01% for leaf and 93.87-97.65% for vine, respectively. The yam tuber cortex had the highest amount of saponins (582.53μg/gdw), which was higher than that existed in the tuber flesh (227.86μg/gdw) about 2.55 times. The contents of saponins in the rhizophor, leaf and vine of yam were 29.39, 24.41 and 23.96μg/gdw, respectively. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxicity of subfractions and compounds from Polymnia sonchifolia Citotoxicidade de subfrações e lactonas de Polymnia sonchifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Judite B. Fernandes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous works showed that extracts and fractions from Polymnia sonchifolia had presented an inhibitory activity on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in non-cytotoxic concentrations. In this work, report results on the in vitro cytotoxicity of subfractions and of a mixture of sesquiterpenes lactones from Polymnia sonchifolia on Vero cells. The cytotoxicity was assayed through crystal violet staining (CVS method and the 50% inhibitory concentration for cell growth (IC50 was calculated. Both subfractions and the mixture of sesquiterpenes lactones did not show in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero cells on active biologically concentrations against production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus flavus.Extratos e frações de Polymnia sonchifolia apresentaram em estudos preliminares uma atividade inibidora na produção de aflatoxinas e no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a citotoxicidade das subfrações e de uma mistura de lactonas sesquiterpênicas de Polymnia sonchifolia pelo método de coloração pelo violeta cristal (CVS em células Vero. A concentração que inibe o crescimento celular em 50% (IC50 foi determinada. Não foi observada nenhuma citotoxicidade para as células Vero nas concentrações biologicamente ativas contra a produção de aflatoxina pelo Aspergillus flavus.

  7. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Saisai; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhou, Wenjun

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils.

  8. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  9. Effect of Quillaja saponaria saponins and Yucca schidigera plant extract on growth of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Makkar, H P; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    1998-07-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 was exposed to Quillaja saponaria saponins from various commercial firms (Sigma, Roth and Nor-feed) and to an extract of Yucca schidigera plant powder (DK Sarsaponin 30) at different concentrations (0.05-1.0% w/v). A concentration-dependent response was observed. Quillaja saponaria saponins from Sigma increased growth up to 0.1% (w/v) level, whereas Nor-feed and Roth saponins produced maximum growth at a much higher level (0.5 and 0.75%, w/v, respectively). These results suggest that quillaja saponins from various sources differ in their biological activity, although all three saponins had the same content of vanillin-sulphuric acid reactive moieties. The lyophilized water extract from the DK Sarsaponin powder showed maximum growth at 0.1% (w/v) level. The levels at which maximum growth was observed did not change on subjecting the quillaja or yucca saponins to heat treatment in an autoclave (121 degrees C for 30 min). All the saponins and the plant extract increased growth of Escherichia coli up to a certain concentration and thereafter decreased growth. In spite of the decreased growth at higher levels of saponins, it was higher compared to the control (without saponin) up to levels of 1% (w/v) for all saponins except Quillaja saponins from Sigma, for which the growth was lower at levels of 0.25% (w/v) and higher. Saponins have the potential to modulate microbial growth in natural and artificial fermenters.

  10. Icogenin, a new cytotoxic steroidal saponin isolated from Dracaena draco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan C; León, Francisco; Quintana, José; Estévez, Francisco; Bermejo, Jaime

    2004-08-15

    This paper reports on the cytotoxic effect induced by a new natural steroidal saponin, icogenin, on the myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Icogenin was found to be a cytotoxic compound IC(50) 2.6+/-0.9microM at 72h, with growth inhibition caused by the induction of apoptosis, as determined by microscopy of nuclear changes and the fragmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

  11. Two Anti-inflammatory Steroidal Saponins from Dracaena angustifolia Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new steroidal saponins, named drangustosides A–B (1–2, together with eight known compounds 3–10 were isolated and characterized from the MeOH extract of Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. The structures of compounds were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Compounds 1 and 2 showed anti-inflammatory activity by superoxide generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB.

  12. Steroidal saponins from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Ying; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2014-04-01

    Six new steroidal saponins, cambodianosides A-F (1-6), together with seven known ones, were isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities.

  13. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  14. A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin

    2010-01-01

    One new dammarane-type triterpene saponin, named (20S)-3β,20,21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene 3-O[α-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(l→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, NMR.

  15. Three anti-tumor saponins from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Zheng, Jian; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin; Wu, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2006-05-15

    Three new triterpenoid saponins, julibroside J(29) (1), julibroside J(30) (2), and julibroside J(31) (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Leguminosae) by using chromatographic method. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 displayed significant anti-tumor activities in vitro against PC-3M-1E8, HeLa, and MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines at 10microM assayed by SRB and MTT methods.

  16. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Two new triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data to be 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-9(11),12-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2).

  17. Atomic Model and Micelle Dynamics of QS-21 Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Pedebos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available QS-21 is a saponin extracted from Quillaja saponaria, widely investigated as a vaccine immunoadjuvant. However, QS-21 use is mainly limited by its chemical instability, significant variety in molecular composition and low tolerance dose in mammals. Also, this compound tends to form micelles in a concentration-dependent manner. Here, we aimed to characterize its conformation and the process of micelle formation, both experimentally and computationally. Therefore, molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed in systems containing different numbers of QS-21 molecules in aqueous solution, in order to evaluate the spontaneous micelle formation. The applied methodology allowed the generation of micelles whose sizes were shown to be in high agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. Furthermore, the ester linkage between fucose and acyl chain was less solvated in the micellar form, suggesting a reduction in hydrolysis. This is the first atomistic interpretation of previous experimental data, the first micellar characterization of saponin micelles by SAXS and first tridimensional model of a micelle constituted of saponins, contributing to the understanding of the molecular basis of these compounds.

  18. Development of a minimal saponin vaccine adjuvant based on QS-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Chea, Eric K.; George, Constantine; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Gardner, Jeffrey R.; Livingston, Philip O.; Ragupathi, Govind; Lewis, Jason S.; Tan, Derek S.; Gin, David Y.

    2014-07-01

    Adjuvants are materials added to vaccines to enhance the immunological response to an antigen. QS-21 is a natural product adjuvant under investigation in numerous vaccine clinical trials, but its use is constrained by scarcity, toxicity, instability and an enigmatic molecular mechanism of action. Herein we describe the development of a minimal QS-21 analogue that decouples adjuvant activity from toxicity and provides a powerful platform for mechanistic investigations. We found that the entire branched trisaccharide domain of QS-21 is dispensable for adjuvant activity and that the C4-aldehyde substituent, previously proposed to bind covalently to an unknown cellular target, is also not required. Biodistribution studies revealed that active adjuvants were retained preferentially at the injection site and the nearest draining lymph nodes compared with the attenuated variants. Overall, these studies have yielded critical insights into saponin structure-function relationships, provided practical synthetic access to non-toxic adjuvants, and established a platform for detailed mechanistic studies.

  19. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  20. Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik dan Degradabilitas Serat pada Pakan yang Disuplementasi Tanin dan Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Muthiah Dwi Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT. The study was conducted to assess the effect of the addition of tannins, saponin and their combinations on the feed, as defaunation agent in the dry matter and organic matter digestibility and ADF, NDF degradability. The study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 : feed without supplementation; T1: feed supplementation with 1,2% saponin; T2 : feed with supplemetation combined of 0,5% tannin and 0,9% saponin; T3 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,0% tannin and 0,6% saponin; T4 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin and T5 : feed with supplementation with 2% tannins. The result showed that DMD and OMD increased with treatment added combination  of tannin and saponin.  The best result for DMD and OMD in combination of  1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin.  Degradability of ADF and NDF was decreased on the supplemented feed.  The addition of a combination of tannins and saponins in the feed at dose of 1% tannin and 0.6% saponin showed the best result that increased of DMD and OMD and give good value on NDF and ADF degradability.

  1. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w. The foaming power of the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1% of 0.5% SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  2. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fen Chen; Ming-Shiang Chang; Yong-Ping Ciou; Yu-Chun Huang; Chao-Hsun Yang

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5% c...

  3. Foam properties and detergent abilities of the saponins from Camellia oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-11-04

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  4. Pharmacokinetic studies of active triterpenoid saponins and the total secondary saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Lei, Tianli; Lv, Chongning; Zhao, Huimin; Xu, Haiyan; Lu, Jincai

    2017-02-15

    The rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which has a robust history treating rheumatism and neuralgia. The total secondary saponin (TSS) from it has demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, a rapid and validated LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the active compounds (Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K). Analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column with acetonitrile-water (5mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. This assay showed acceptable linearity (r>0.99) over the concentration range 5-1000 nmol/L for two analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.06% and accuracy was ranged from -3.16% to 3.34% for two analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 76.0%. Under the developed analytical conditions, the obtained values of main pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC0-t) indicated that the pure compounds were more efficient than the TSS extract in Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K absorption. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies of two individual compounds demonstrated their poor oral absorption in rat ((a)F%, 0.019-1.521). In the study of absorption and transportation of Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the uptake permeability was in 10(-6)cm/sec range suggesting poor absorption, which confirmed the previous pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. Interestingly, the uptake ratio of them declined significantly when treated with phloridzin (SGLT1 inhibitor). It indicated that the absorption of Hederacolchiside A1 in intestine was mainly through positive transport and SGLT1 might participate in its active absorption.

  5. Insulinotropic effect of Chikusetsu saponin IVa in diabetic rats and pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Xi, Miao-Miao; Li, Yu-Wen; Duan, Jia-Lin; Wang, Lei; Weng, Yan; Jia, Na; Cao, Shan-Shan; Li, Rui-Li; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Chao; Wu, Yin; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-04-22

    As a well-known traditional Chinese medicine the root bark of Aralia taibaiensis has traditionally been used as the medicine considered alleviating several disorders including diabetes mellitus (DM). Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CHS) has been defined as a major active ingredient of triterpenoid saponins extracted from Aralia taibaiensis. The scientific evidence of anti-diabetic effect for CHS remains unknown and the purpose of our study was to study its hypoglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities. In vivo studies were performed on type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rats given CHS for 28 days to test the antihyperglycemic activity. The in vitro effects and possible mechanisms of CHS on the insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cell line βTC3 were determined. Oral administration of CHS dose-dependently increased the level of serum insulin and decreased the rise in blood glucose level in an in vivo treatment. In vitro, CHS potently stimulated the release of insulin from βTC3 cells at both basal and stimulatory glucose concentrations, the effect which was changed by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Two methods showed that CHS enhanced the intracellular calcium levels in βTC3 cells. CHS was capable of enhancing the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases C (PKC), which could be reversed by a PKC inhibitor (RO320432), and the insulin secretion induced by CHS was also inhibited by RO320432. Further study also showed that the insulinotropic effect, intracellular calcium levels and the phosphorylation of PKC were reduced by inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) by a GPR40 inhibitor (DC126026). These observations suggest that the signaling of CHS-induced insulin secretion from βTC3 cells via GPR40 mediated calcium and PKC pathways and thus CHS might be developed into a new potential for therapeutic agent used in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains.

  7. Estrogen-like effect of a Cimicifuga racemosa extract sub-fraction as assessed by in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, P; Mastrangelo, S; Perrone, F; Evandri, M G

    2007-01-01

    Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) is used in the treatment of painful menstruation and menopausal symptoms. Data about the nature of the active compounds and mechanism(s) of action are still controversial, chiefly with respect to its estrogenic activity. This work aimed to assess the possible estrogenic activity of a commercial dry hydro-alcoholic extract of C. racemosa and its hydrophilic and lipophilic sub-fractions on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. In a yeast estrogen screen, only the lipophilic sub-fraction was able to activate the human estrogen receptor alpha, with a lower potency but comparable efficacy to that of 17 beta-estradiol. Neither the total extract nor the lipophilic sub-fraction showed an in vivo uterotrophic effect in 21-day-old rats. Uterine tissues obtained ex vivo from C. racemosa treated animals were generally much less sensitive to oxytocin, prostaglandin F(2alpha,) and bradykinin than tissues obtained from estradiol valerate treated rats. The lipophilic sub-fraction, instead, induced a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the in vitro response to oxytocin, prostaglandin F(2alpha,) and bradykinin of uterine horns from naïve 28-day-old rats, with a potency rate close to 1:30 of that of 17 beta-estradiol. Reported results confirm the effectiveness of C. racemosa in menstrual distress and further emphasize the possibility that lipophilic constituents bind to an as yet not identified estrogen receptor, likely inversely involved in inflammation.

  8. Association of protein structure, protein and carbohydrate subfractions with bioenergy profiles and biodegradation functions in modeled forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of forage protein inherent structure, biological compounds, protein and carbohydrate subfractions, bioenergy profiles, and biodegradation features. In this study, common available alfalfa hay from two different sourced-origins (FSO vs. CSO) was used as a modeled forage for inherent structure profile, bioenergy, biodegradation and their association between their structure and bio-functions. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included: protein structure amide I group, amide II group and their ratios; protein subfractions (PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2, PC); carbohydrate fractions (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, CB1, CB2, CC); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of protein (RDPA2, RDPB1, RDPB2, RDP; RUPA2 RUPB1, RUPB2, RUPC, RUP); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of carbohydrate (RDCA4, RDCB1, RDCB2, RDCB3, RDCHO; RUCA4, RUCB1; RUCB2; RUCB3 RUCC, RUCHO) and bioenergy profiles (tdNDF, tdFA, tdCP, tdNFC, TDN1 ×, DE3 ×, ME3 ×, NEL3 ×; NEm, NEg). The results show differences in protein and carbohydrate (CHO) subfractions in the moderately degradable true protein fraction (PB1: 502 vs. 420 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), slowly degraded true protein fraction (PB2: 45 vs. 96 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), moderately degradable CHO fraction (CB2: 283 vs. 223 g/kg CHO, P = 0.06) and slowly degraded CHO fraction (CB3: 369 vs. 408 g/kg CHO) between the two sourced origins. As to biodegradable (RD) fractions of protein and CHO in rumen, there were differences in RD of PB1 (417 vs. 349 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), RD of PB2 (29 vs. 62 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), RD of CB2 (251 vs. 198 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), RD of CB3 (236 vs. 261 g/kg CHO, P = 0.08). As to bioenergy profile, there were differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN: 551 vs. 537 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), and metabolic bioenergy (P = 0.095). As to protein molecular structure, there were differences in protein structure 1st

  9. Association of protein structure, protein and carbohydrate subfractions with bioenergy profiles and biodegradation functions in modeled forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of forage protein inherent structure, biological compounds, protein and carbohydrate subfractions, bioenergy profiles, and biodegradation features. In this study, common available alfalfa hay from two different sourced-origins (FSO vs. CSO) was used as a modeled forage for inherent structure profile, bioenergy, biodegradation and their association between their structure and bio-functions. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included: protein structure amide I group, amide II group and their ratios; protein subfractions (PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2, PC); carbohydrate fractions (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, CB1, CB2, CC); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of protein (RDPA2, RDPB1, RDPB2, RDP; RUPA2 RUPB1, RUPB2, RUPC, RUP); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of carbohydrate (RDCA4, RDCB1, RDCB2, RDCB3, RDCHO; RUCA4, RUCB1; RUCB2; RUCB3 RUCC, RUCHO) and bioenergy profiles (tdNDF, tdFA, tdCP, tdNFC, TDN1×, DE3×, ME3×, NEL3×; NEm, NEg). The results show differences in protein and carbohydrate (CHO) subfractions in the moderately degradable true protein fraction (PB1: 502 vs. 420 g/kg CP, P=0.09), slowly degraded true protein fraction (PB2: 45 vs. 96 g/kg CP, P=0.02), moderately degradable CHO fraction (CB2: 283 vs. 223 g/kg CHO, P=0.06) and slowly degraded CHO fraction (CB3: 369 vs. 408 g/kg CHO) between the two sourced origins. As to biodegradable (RD) fractions of protein and CHO in rumen, there were differences in RD of PB1 (417 vs. 349 g/kg CP, P=0.09), RD of PB2 (29 vs. 62 g/kg CP, P=0.02), RD of CB2 (251 vs. 198 g/kg DM, P=0.06), RD of CB3 (236 vs. 261 g/kg CHO, P=0.08). As to bioenergy profile, there were differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN: 551 vs. 537 g/kg DM, P=0.06), and metabolic bioenergy (P=0.095). As to protein molecular structure, there were differences in protein structure 1st and 2nd amide groups (P0

  10. Heat-induced protein structure and subfractions in relation to protein degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, K; Yu, P; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio; 2) protein subfractions profiles; 3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; 4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120 degrees C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120 degrees C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value

  11. Heat-induced Protein Structure and Subfractions in Relation to Protein Degradation Kinetics and Intestinal Availability in Dairy Cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, K.; Yu, P; McKinnon, J; Christensen, D

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included (1) protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio; (2) protein subfractions profiles; (3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; (4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value), but there were no differences

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Saponins from Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ming; ZHAO Xue-liang; LI Hong-mei; LIU Zhi-qiang; XING Jun-peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Ginseng( Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is one of the most valuable Chinese crude drugs and has been used widely for over 2000 years. Studies have demonstrated that ginseng can act on the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the endocrine system; it can enhance immune function and metabolism; it possesses a biomodulation action, anticancer effect, anti-stress and anti-ageing activities, and so on[1-8].

  13. A modified spectrophotometric assay to estimate deglycosylation of steroidal saponin to sapogenin by mixed ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-08-30

    The lack of a method for measuring deglycosylation of saponins in ruminal fluid has limited the ability to investigate the impact of these compounds on rumen microorganisms. A simple spectrophotometric assay was adapted and a protocol developed to enable measurement of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. The procedure was used for in vitro determination of deglycosylation activity of rumen bacteria obtained from cattle fed or not fed Yucca schidigera saponin, and to determine the relative deglycosylase activities of extracellular and cell-associated enzymes from ruminal content. Modifications to the spectrophotometric assay (i.e. heating time shortened to 10 min and 0.5 mL dH(2)O added to the reaction mixture) improved the stability of the optical density (425 nm) of the chromophore for up to 24 h post-reaction. Centrifugation (12 000 x g, 20 min) enabled differential estimations of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. Steroidal saponin added to defaunated ruminal fluid (dRF) or clarified ruminal fluid (cRF) was recovered completely from the mixture as saponin + sapogenin (99.1% and 100.6%, respectively), whereas saponin recovery from the supernatant of dRF was greatly reduced (P Yucca schidigera saponin (59.2 vs. 57.3% and 98.4 vs. 99.3%, respectively). The majority (89-90%) of saponin added to a ruminal extracellular enzyme preparation was recoverable in supernatant after 24 h, compared with only 26-32% remaining in supernatant from incubation with a cell-associated enzymes fraction. Mixed rumen bacteria deglycosylate steroidal saponin to sapogenin, at activity levels unaffected by prior exposure to saponin, but they were unable to degrade the sapogenin core structure. Deglycosylation activity occurred primarily in the cell-associated enzyme fraction of ruminal content. Copyright (c) 2008 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Anticancer activity of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of nepeta deflersiana on human breast and lung cancer cells: an in vitro cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai M Al-Oqail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. The plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. Nepeta deflersiana (ND is used in the folk medicine as antiseptic, carminative, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and for treating rheumatic disorders. However, the anticancer activity of ND chloroform extract has not been explored so far. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of chloroform Nepeta deflersiana extract and various sub-fractions (ND-1-ND-15 of ND against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human lung cancer cells (A-549. Materials and Methods: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays, and cellular morphological alterations using phase contrast light microscope were studied. Cells were exposed with 10-1000 mg/ml of sub-fractions of ND for 24 h. Results: Results showed that selected sub-fractions of the chloroform extract significantly reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and A-549 cells, and altered the cellular morphology in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the sub-fractions, ND-10 fraction showed relatively higher cytotoxicity compared to other fractions whereas, ND-1 did not cause any cytotoxicity even at higher concentrations. The A-549 cells were found to be more sensitive to growth inhibition by all the extracts as compared to the MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary screening of anticancer activities of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of ND, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

  15. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize emulsio

  16. Multidirectional effects of triterpene saponins on cancer cells - mini-review of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Czyż, Jarosław; Podolak, Irma; Wójcik, Katarzyna; Galanty, Agnieszka; Janeczko, Zbigniew; Michalik, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene saponins (saponosides) are found in a variety of higher plants and display a wide range of pharmacological activities, including expectorant, anti-inflamatory, vasoprotective, gastroprotective and antimicrobial properties. Recently, a potential anticancer activity of saponins has been suggested by their cytotoxic, cytostatic, pro-apoptotic and anti-invasive effects. At high concentrations (more than 100 µM) saponins exert cytotoxic and haemolytic effects via permeabilization of the cell membranes. Noteworthy, the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, the induction of apoptosis and attenuation of cell invasiveness is observed in the presence of low saponin concentrations. Saponins might affect the expression of genes associated with malignancy. These alterations are directly related to the invasive phenotype of cancer cells and depend on "cellular context". It illustrates the relationships between the action of saponins, and the momentary genomic/proteomic status of cancer cells. Here, we discuss the hallmarks of anti-cancer activity of saponins with the particular emphasis on anti-invasive effect of diverse groups of saponins that have been investigated in relation to tumor therapy.

  17. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications.

  18. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  19. Surface properties of adsorption layers formed from triterpenoid and steroid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagureva, N.; Tcholakova, S.; Golemanov, K.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants with non-trivial surface and aggregation properties which find numerous important applications in several areas (food, pharma, cosmetic and others). In the current paper we study the surface properties of ten saponin extracts, having different molecular structure

  20. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize

  1. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  2. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  3. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  4. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  5. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  6. Optimization of a method for the profiling and quantification of saponins in different green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this study was the optimization of a HPLC-MS method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagus saponins. The method includes extraction with aqueous ethanol, cleanup by solid phase extraction, separation by reverse phase chromatography, electrospray ionization, and detection in a single quadrupole mass analyzer. The method was used for the comparison of selected genotypes of Huétor-Tájar asparagus landrace and selected varieties of commercial diploid hybrids of green asparagus. The results showed that while protodioscin was almost the only saponin detected in the commercial hybrids, eight different saponins were detected in the Huétor-Tájar asparagus genotypes. The mass spectra indicated that HT saponins are derived from a furostan type steroidal genin having a single bond between carbons 5 and 6 of the B ring. The total concentration of saponins was found to be higher in triguero asparagus than in commercial hybrids.

  7. Structural analysis of complex saponins of Balanites aegyptiaca by 800 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerk, Dan; Chapagain, Bishnu P; Lindin, Therese; Wiesman, Zeev; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-10-01

    The main saponin (1) present in the mesocarp of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit is a mixture of 22R and 22S epimers of 26-(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-beta-[4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-22,26-dihydroxyfurost-5-ene. This structure differs from a previously reported saponin isolated from this source by the site of attachment of the rhamnosyl residue, and presumably represents a structural revision of the latter. The main saponin (2) present in the kernel is a xylopyranosyl derivative of 1. The use of high-field NMR enabled the practically complete assignment of 1H and 13C chemical shifts of these complex saponins, existing as a mixture of C-22 epimers. Moreover, the work represents a new approach to structural elucidation of saponins: direct preparative-scale HPLC-RID of crude extracts followed by high-field NMR investigations supported by ESI-MSn.

  8. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins from Calendula stellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehbili, Meryem; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Kabouche, Ahmed; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Abedini, Amin; Morjani, Hamid; Sarazin, Thomas; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-09-04

    Five previously undescribed bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named calendustellatosides A-E, along with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol whole plant extract of Calendula stellata Cav. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, morolic acid or mesembryanthemoidigenic acid as the aglycones and saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28. Like most Calendula saponins, the sugar moiety linked at C-3 was either β-d-glucose or β-d-glucuronic acid which could be substituted at C-3 by a β-d-galactose and/or C-2 by a supplementary β-d-galactose or a β-d-glucose. The sugar moiety linked to C-28 was determined as β-d-glucose. The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 1-20 by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus followed by the determination of MIC values of active compounds by serial dilution technique against 5 bacteria revealed that; calendustellatoside D was the most active against Enterococcus faecalis with an antibacterial effect comparable to antibiotics. The cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated against fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) and human lung cancer cell line (A549). Calendustellatosides B and D exhibited a low cytotoxic activity against HT1080 cell line with IC50 values of 47 ± 0.6 and 39 ± 0.5 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two diastereomeric saponins with cytotoxic activity from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K; Zhao, Y; Tu, G; Cui, J; Jia, Z; Zhang, R

    2000-02-25

    Two diastereomeric saponins, julibrosides J1 (1) and J9 (2), both of which show cytotoxic activity, were obtained from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence [L.B. Ma et al., Carbohydr. Res., 281 (1996) 35-46], the structure of 1 was revised as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6R)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(beta-D-quinovopyranosyl)-2,7- octadienoyl)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl] acacic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->4 )]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. The diastereoisomer 2 of 1 was identified as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(beta-D-quinovopyranosyl)-2,7- octadienoyl)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl] acacic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->4 )]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Saponin 2 is a new saponin named julibroside J9. Both julibrosides J1 and J9 show good inhibitory action against the KB cancer cell line in vitro.

  10. Haemolytic activities of plant saponins and adjuvants. Effect of Periandra mediterranea saponin on the humoral response to the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W R; Bernardo, R R; Peçanha, L M; Palatnik, M; Parente, J P; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    1997-06-01

    An 87.7% (P saponin combined to the fucose-mannose ligand of Leishmania donovani (FML). However, an undesirable haemolytic effect was described for several saponins. Aiming to improve the formulation with FML/saponin, we comparatively analysed the haemolytic potential of recently characterized plant saponins and currently used adjuvants. The haemolytic activity of steroidic saponins from Agave sisalana; Smilax officinalis as well as commercial saponin (Riedel De Haën's), was higher than that of triterpenoid ones (Bredemeyera floribunda; Periandra mediterranea) and the Freund's complete adjuvant. The concentration resulting in 50% haemolysis was 500 micrograms ml-1 for aluminum hydroxide. The low haemolytic effect of P. mediterranea saponin was abolished by removal of its glycidic moiety and its sapogenin fraction as well as the Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant were non-haemolytic within this range. Furthermore, the adjuvant effect of three doses of P. mediterranea saponin injected with the FML antigen of L. donovani, was assayed in mice, either by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) or the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. The anti-FML IgG antibody levels increased and detectable levels were observed up to 3 months in the s.c. group. The response was expanded in both groups after an injection with a fourth vaccine dose. The IgG response showed increased levels of IgG2a only in the i.p. group, while IgG2b and IgG1 but not IgG3 antibodies were higher than controls in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recently described triterpenoid fractions of P. mediterranea can be safely used as adjuvant with low or non-haemolytic effect.

  11. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wu, Biao; Chen, Gang; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,24R,25R)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (1) and (23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (2).

  12. Furostanol saponins from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and colour reaction as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostane-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1); 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-25(R)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  13. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  14. Triterpenoid saponins from the shells of Argania spinosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Asma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Soufiaoui, Mohamed; Carbone, Virginia; Malorni, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2002-07-31

    Two new oleanene saponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the shell of Argania spinosa. They possess protobassic acid and 16alpha-protobassic acid as aglycons. The disaccharide moiety linked to C-3 of the aglycon is made up of two glucose units; the pentasaccharide moiety linked to C-28 is made up of arabinose, xylose, and three rhamnose units. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H (DQF-COSY, 1D TOCSY, and 2D HOHAHA) and (1)H-(13)C (HSQC and HMBC) spectroscopy along with mass spectrometry.

  15. Cytotoxic triterpenes from the acid hydrolyzate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Tan, De-Hong; Yan, Ting-Cai; Jiang, Dong-Hua; Hou, Ming-Xiao

    2017-05-02

    One new dammarane-type triterpene, gypsapogenin A (1), was isolated from the acid hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, together with two known compounds, (20S,24S)-3β,20,21β,23β,25-pentahydroxy-21,24-cyclodammarane (2) and (23S)-3β-hydroxydammar-20,24-dien-21-oic acid 21,23-lactone (3). Its structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against HepG2 and A549 human cancer cell lines.

  16. An isoflavan and saponins from Astragalus depressus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamria Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nine known secondary metabolites were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Astragalus depressus L. (Fabaceae family, including one isoflavan, namely pendulone (1 and eight saponins, namely cyclogaleginoside A (2, astrasieversianin II (3, astrasieversianin IV (4, astrasieversianin VII (5, astrasieversianin VI (6, astrasieversianin XIV (7, dehydrosoyasaponin I (8 and soyasaponin I (9. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data.

  17. Saponin inventory from Argania spinosa kernel cakes by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Max; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa kernel cakes, obtained from argan oil extraction process, are known to contain large amounts of saponins. Only a few have been characterised previously, due to the use of pure ethanol as extracting solvent. The use of aqueous 50% ethanol improved the extraction of more polar saponins. Identification of polar saponins in kernel cakes of Argania spinosa by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques. Defatted kernel cakes were first extracted with ethanol and then twice with 50% aqueous ethanol. Individual crude extracts were analysed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer in negative mode electrospray MS and MS/MS modes. NMR experiments were run under standard conditions at 300 K on a Bruker DRX-600 spectrometer. The LC-MS base peak chromatogram of saponins from pure ethanol extract was dominated by 11 large and several small peaks but the UV chromatogram showed only two peaks, corresponding to the main neutral saponins found previously in Argania: arganine A and B. In 50% aqueous ethanol extracts, numerous other saponins were detected. Many of them were glucuronide oleanane-type triterpene carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCAB saponins). The assignments of (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectra of the four most abundant GOTCAB saponins confirmed the MS results. Four GOTCAB saponins were structurally identified by NMR analysis in the 50% aqueous ethanol extract. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses showed the presence of at least 19 additional polar saponins in these kernel cakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  19. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, H D; Sarveiya, V P; Pal, S C; Kasture, V S; Kasture, S B

    2001-01-01

    The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) on the transfer latency, whereas anxiolytic activity was assessed by studying its effect on the duration of occupancy in the closed arm. Results showed significant improvement in the retention ability of the normal and amnesic mice as compared to their respective controls. Animals treated with BF (25 mg/kg) spent more time in the open arm in a dose-dependent manner. The BF was without any significant effect on motor coordination. However, it significantly inhibited passivity and hypothermia induced by baclofen (10 mg/kg), a GABA(B) agonist. The data emanated in the present study suggests involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins obtained from A. lebbeck.

  1. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet.

  2. Localization and Dynamic Change of Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Polygala tenuifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Teng; Min-Feng Fang; Xia Cai; Zheng-Hai Hu

    2009-01-01

    Anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical methods were used to investigate the structure, localization and dynamic changes of total saponin and senegenin of vegetative organs in Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Histochemical localization results showed that saponin accumulated mainly in parenchyma cells of vegetative organs. The phytochemical results also showed that the saponin accumulated in the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia, with higher content in roots and lower content in the aerial parts that included stems and leaves. The saponin content and dry weight of the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia had dynamic variance at the developmental stages and all reached the highest level in the post-fruit period. Hence, the roots and aerial parts should be gathered in August to make full use of the plant. As the root is the main medicinal organ of P. tenuifolia, the content of total saponin and senegenin of different aged and different parts of the root were determined. The content of total saponin and senegenin exhibited a sustained decreasing trend with increasing root age; therefore, theannual roots had high quality. The content of total saponin and senegenin in different parts of the root showed obvious variation. The content in the "skin areas" was much higher than that of xylem. The results offer a theoretical basis for determining the appropriate harvesting stage and a reasonable harvest of P. tenuifolia.

  3. Miscibility of Quillaja Saponins with other Co-surfactants under Different pH Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Corina L; Salminen, Hanna; Leuenberger, Bruno H; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The miscibility behavior of mixed surfactant systems and the influence of extrinsic parameters are crucial for their application as emulsifiers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the miscibility behavior of mixed systems composed of commercial Quillaja saponin and a co-surfactant, namely sodium caseinate, pea protein, rapeseed lecithin, or egg lecithin. These mixtures were evaluated macro- and microscopically at different concentration ratios (maximum concentration 5% w/v) at pH 3, 5, and 7 at 25 °C. The individual ingredients were also assessed for their charge properties and surface hydrophobicity. The results showed that Quillaja saponin-caseinate mixtures were miscible only at pH 7, and showed aggregation and precipitation at lower pH due to increasing electrostatic attraction forces. Rheological measurements showed that Quillaja saponin-pea protein mixtures formed gelled structures at all tested pH values mainly via association of hydrophobic patches. Quillaja saponins mixed with rapeseed lecithin were miscible at all tested pH values due to electrostatic repulsion. Quillaja saponin-egg lecithin mixtures aggregated independent of pH and concentration ratio. The microscopic analysis revealed that the lower the pH and the higher the Quillaja saponin ratio, the denser were the formed Quillaja saponin-egg lecithin aggregates. The results are summarized in ternary phase diagrams that provide a useful tool in selecting a surfactant system for food applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Saisai [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhou Wenjun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils. - Saponin has great potential for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and phenanthrene from the combined contaminated soils.

  5. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins.

  6. Src/Syk-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Triterpenoidal Saponins from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Sik; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Seulah; Jung, Kiwon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-01-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (family Cucurbitaceae), also known as gac, or red melon, is an edible Southeast Asian fruit valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Specifically, Momordicae Semen, the seeds of the gac fruit, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat boils, rheumatic pain, muscle spasm, hemorrhoids, and hemangiomas. In this study, a chemical investigation into a gac seed ethanol (EtOH) extract resulted in the identification of three triterpenoidal saponins (1-3), which were investigated for their anti-inflammatory effects. Among the saponins, momordica saponin I (compound 3) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells without inducing cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were decreased by momordica saponin I. Additionally, the translocation of p65 and p50 (subunits of the transcription factor NF-[Formula: see text]B) into the nucleus was remarkably inhibited. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of inflammatory signaling proteins (I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text], Src, and Syk) known to be upstream regulatory molecules of p65 were decreased under momordica saponin I-treated conditions. The molecular targets of momordica saponin I were confirmed in overexpression experiments and through immunoblot analyses with Src and Syk. This study provides evidence that momordica saponin I could be beneficial in treating inflammatory diseases, and should be considered a bioactive immunomodulatory agent with anti-inflammatory properties.

  7. Inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetic patients: effect of glycemic control and impact of LDL subfraction phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Irene; Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan; Santos, David; Ordoñez-Llanos, Jordi; De Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-02-04

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with higher cardiovascular risk partly related to an increase in inflammatory parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the association of inflammatory biomarkers with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype and glycemic control in subjects with T2D and poor glycemic control. A cross-sectional study was performed comparing 122 subjects with T2D (59 ± 11 years old, body mass index 30.2 ± 5.6 kg/m2) with 54 control subjects. Patients with T2D were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Transforming growth factor β1, Monocyte chemotactic protein 1, Leptin, Adiponectin) were evaluated according to the degree of glycemic control, LDL phenotype and other clinical characteristics. Forty-two subjects with T2D were studied before and after 3 months of improving glycemic control by different strategies. Patients with T2D had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) levels and lower adiponectin concentration, compared to controls. T2D subjects with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher CRP levels (5.2 ± 4.8 mg/l vs 3.7 ± 4.3 mg/l; p < 0.05). The presence of LDL phenotype B was related to higher levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (53.92 ± 52.82 ng/l vs 31.35 ± 33.74 ng/l; p < 0.05) and lower levels of adiponectin (3663 ± 3044 ng/l vs 2723 ± 1776 ng/l; p < 0.05). The reduction of HbA1c from 9.5 ± 1.8% at baseline to 7.4 ± 0.8% was associated with a significant reduction of TGF-β1 (41.86 ± 32.84 ng/l vs 26.64 ± 26.91 ng/l; p = 0.02). Subjects with T2D, especially those with LDL phenotype B and obesity, have higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Improvement of glycemic control reduces TGF-β1 levels, which may contribute partly to its renoprotective role.

  8. Impact of menopause and diabetes on atherogenic lipid profile: is it worth to analyse lipoprotein subfractions to assess cardiovascular risk in women?

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Marília I H; da Silva, Isis T.; Ferreira,Sandra R.G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women at advanced age, who are affected a decade later compared to men. Cardiovascular risk factors in women are not properly investigated nor treated and events are frequently lethal. Both menopause and type 2 diabetes substantially increase cardiovascular risk in the female sex, promoting modifications on lipid metabolism and circulating lipoproteins. Lipoprotein subfractions suffer a shift after menopause tow...

  9. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax sp.: structure and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Parsons, Peter G; Chap, Sonet; White, Eve F; Blanchfield, Joanne T; Lehmann, Reginald P; De Voss, James J

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemical characterization of a commercial herb sample supplied as Smilax ornata Lem. (sarsaparilla) led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins, including two new furostanol saponins sarsaparilloside B (1) and sarsaparilloside C (2), whose structures were elucidated via a combination of multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)), 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The previously unreported spectroscopic characterization of sarsaparilloside (3), Δ(20(22))-sarsaparilloside (4), and parillin (5) is also provided. The antiproliferative activity of the isolated saponins was compared in six human cell lines derived from different tumor types and one of the structures (2) was particularly active against the HT29 colon tumor cell line.

  10. Effect of soy saponin on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Yu; Tsai; Yue-Hwa; Chen; Yi-Wen; Chien; Wen-Hsuan; Huang; Shyh-Hsiang; Lin

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of extracted soybean saponins on the growth of human colon cancer cells.METHODS:WiDr human colon cancer cells were treated with 150,300,600 or 1200 ppm of soy saponin to determine the effect on cell growth,cell morphology,alkaline phosphatase(AP) and protein kinase C(PKC) activities,and P53 protein,c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression.RESULTS:Soy saponin decreased the number of viable cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed 12-Otetradecanol-phorbol-13-acetate-stimulated PKC ...

  11. Neuroprotective Properties of Panax notoginseng Saponins via Preventing Oxidative Stress Injury in SAMP8 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin; Tian, Xin; Qin, Mei-Chun; Xu, Zhe-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Inhibiting oxidative damage in early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered as a strategy for AD treatment. Our previous study has shown that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have an antiaging action by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the serum of aged rats. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PNS on antioxidant enzymes and uncoupling proteins (UCPs) involved in oxidative stress in AD mice. The results showed that PNS prevented neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 region and alleviated pathomorphological change of neurons in CA1 region. Moreover, PNS inhibited the production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), enhanced the expressions and activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, and improved the mRNA and protein levels of UCP4 and UCP5 in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Together, our study shows that PNS has the ability to protect neurons in AD brain from oxidative stress damage through attenuating the production of 8-OHdG, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expressions levels of UCP4 and UCP5. Accordingly, PNS may be a promising agent for AD treatment. PMID:28250796

  12. Neuroprotective Properties of Panax notoginseng Saponins via Preventing Oxidative Stress Injury in SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibiting oxidative damage in early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is considered as a strategy for AD treatment. Our previous study has shown that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS have an antiaging action by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX in the serum of aged rats. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PNS on antioxidant enzymes and uncoupling proteins (UCPs involved in oxidative stress in AD mice. The results showed that PNS prevented neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 region and alleviated pathomorphological change of neurons in CA1 region. Moreover, PNS inhibited the production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, enhanced the expressions and activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, and improved the mRNA and protein levels of UCP4 and UCP5 in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Together, our study shows that PNS has the ability to protect neurons in AD brain from oxidative stress damage through attenuating the production of 8-OHdG, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expressions levels of UCP4 and UCP5. Accordingly, PNS may be a promising agent for AD treatment.

  13. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD, 100 mg (2x CD, 250 mg (5x CD and 500 mg (10x CD/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Results: Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2x CD, 5x CD and 10x CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. Conclusion: The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

  14. Novel double-congenic strain reveals effects of spontaneously hypertensive rat chromosome 2 on specific lipoprotein subfractions and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ondrej; Sedová, Lucie; Liska, Frantisek; Krenová, Drahomíra; Prejzek, Vratislav; Kazdová, Ludmila; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimír

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a new, double-congenic rat strain BN-Lx.SHR2, which carries two distinct segments of chromosome 2 introgressed from the spontaneously hypertensive rat strain (SHR) into the genetic background of congenic strain BN-Lx, which was previously shown to express variety of metabolic syndrome features. In 16-wk-old male rats of BN-Lx and BN-Lx.SHR2 strains, we compared their glucose tolerance and triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in 20 lipoprotein subfractions and the lipoprotein particle sizes under conditions of feeding standard and high-sucrose diets. Introgression of two distinct SHR-derived chromosome 2 segments resulted in decreased adiposity together with aggravation of glucose intolerance in the double-congenic strain. The BN-Lx.SHR2 rats were more sensitive to sucrose-induced rise in triacylglycerolemia. Although the total cholesterol concentrations of the two strains were comparable after the standard diet and even lower in BN-Lx.SHR2 after sucrose feeding, detailed analysis revealed that under both dietary conditions, the double-congenic strain had significantly higher cholesterol concentrations in low-density lipoprotein fractions and lower high-density lipoprotein fractions. We established a new inbred model showing dyslipidemia and mild glucose intolerance without obesity, attributable to specific genomic regions. For the first time, the chromosome 2 segments of SHR origin are shown to influence other than blood pressure-related features of metabolic syndrome or to be involved in relevant nutrigenomic interactions.

  15. Salvia officinalis L.: composition and antioxidant-related activities of a crude extract and selected sub-fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koşar, Müberra; Dorman, H J Damien; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2010-09-01

    The composition and antioxidant properties of a methanol: acetic acid (99:1, v/v) soluble crude extract isolated from S. officinalis L. leaves through maceration and selected fractions isolated thereof are presented in this study. The total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents, whilst qualitative-quantitative phenolic content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Antioxidant evaluation consisted of ferric reductive capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging determinations. The crude extract contained hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and diterpenoids, whilst caffeic acid, carnosic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and rosmarinic acid were identified from their chromatographic and spectral characteristics and quantified from their respective calibration curves. The crude extract and sub-fractions demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in the antioxidant-related assays used, except the n-hexane fraction, which was unable to reduce iron(III) at reasonable concentrations. Although the positive controls, ascorbic acid, BHA and BHT, were more potent than the S. officinalis samples, two fractions were significantly (p < 0.05) more potent iron(III) reducing agents than pycnogenol, a proanthocyanidin-rich commercial preparation.

  16. 超声波-表面活性剂协同萃取苦瓜皂苷%Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction of saponins from balsam pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 葛邦国; 宋烨; 李丹丹; 马晓燕; 吴茂玉

    2013-01-01

    Balsam pear (Momordica charantia L.), a climber belonging to family Cucurbitaceae, is commonly known as bitter gourd or bitter melon in English. It is cultivated throughout the world for use as vegetable as well as medicine. Balsam pear has been used traditionally as medicine in developing countries. Some of its common uses in most countries are for diabetes, a carminative and in treatment of colics. Topically it is used for treatment of wounds, internally as well as externally for management of worms and parasites. It is also used as emmenagogue, antiviral for measles and hepatitis. Balsam pear contains biologically active chemicals that include glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixedoils, triterpenes. Saponins from all parts of the plant (fruit pulp, seed, leaves and whole plant) are most widely studied with regard to its antidiabetic effect. Ultrasound and surfactants have been individually shown to enhance saponins extraction. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ultrasound and surfactants on saponins extraction. In order to explore effective extracting method of saponins from balsam pear, response surface was used to study the effect of ultrasonic power (133-167 W/g), ethanol volume fraction (60%-80%) and mass concentrations of SDS (15-25 mg/mL) on extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear. Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction was compared with ethanol and ultrasound, respectively. The structures of the prepared saponins from balsam pear were identified. Results showed that the established model of extraction could well predict extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear under different conditions. Extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by ultrasonic power, ethanol volume fraction and mass concentrations of SDS, and there was synergistic effect between ultrasonic power and the mass concentration of SDS. Various factors affecting extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear in a

  17. Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Tian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts obtained from Platycodon grandiflorum roots led to isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, characterized as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23,24-pentahydroxyoleanane-28(13-lactone (1 and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23α-tetrahydroxyoleanane-28(13- lactone (2 by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS techniques, as well as chemical means. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against human ECA-109 cells.

  18. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration.

  19. Are saponins and sapogenins precursors of prednisolone? Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of cortisol into prednisolone in cattle faeces was demonstrated and provided by literature, given the structural similarity of prednisolone with cortisol. In this study, we evaluated a possible neo-formation of prednisolone, as results of a faecal or environmental contamination. A saponine, α-solanine, and a sapogenin, diosgenin, were selected as possible precursors. A simple method without extraction was applied. The analyses were performed by HPLC–MSn to evaluate the possible transformations. The results showed that prednisolone was detected in the faecal suspension spiked with diosgenin at t= 8h, while cortisol was also detected at t = 24h in the sample of faeces spiked with α-solanine. In the feed and in the control samples, no transformations were observed.

  20. A Cytotoxic Saponin with Two Monoterpenoids from Albizia julibrissin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new cytotoxic saponin(1), Julibrosides J27, was isolated from the stem barks of Alibizia.julibrissin by chromatography, and the structure was elucidated as 3-O-b -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-b -D- fucopyranosyl - (1→ 6) -b - D-glucopyranosyl - 21-O-[(6S)-2 -trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxylmethy 6- methyl - 6- hydroxy)-2,7-octadienoyl-b -D-quinovopy--ranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl}- acacic acid- 28 -O-b -D-glucopranosyl-(1→ 3)-[(a -L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→ 4)]-a -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-b -D-glucopyrnosyl ester based on spectral and chemical evidences.

  1. Triterpenoid saponins from Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Mareni R.; Pertile, Roberto; Correa, Melissa M.; Schenkel, Eloir P., E-mail: marenif@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Farmacia; Almeida, Maria Tereza R. de; Palermo, Jorge A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2010-07-01

    Two saponins were isolated from the leaves of Lippia alba. Their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl -(1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-16alpha, 23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named as Lippiasaponin I (2) and as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-alpha-Larabinopyranosyl)-16alpha,23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named Lippiasaponin II (3). (author)

  2. LC-MS(n) characterization of steroidal saponins in Helleborus niger L. roots and their conversion products during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckstein, Sarina M; Stintzing, Florian C

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal saponins comprise a substantial part of the secondary metabolite spectrum in the medicinal plant Helleborus niger L. (black hellebore). The saponin fraction from the roots was investigated by LC-MS(n) resulting in 38 saponins and β-ecdysone. Nine diosgenyl-type glycosides, mainly furostanols consisting of the aglycones diosgenin, macranthogenin, sceptrumgenin, and sarsasapogenin were accompanied by 5 diosgenyl-type saponins exhibiting an aglycone with an additional OH group. However, the most relevant compounds were 24 acetylated polyhydroxy saponins including hellebosaponins A and D. The enzymes glucuronidase, β-glucosidase, and pectinase were used to obtain an idea on potential fermentative transformation reactions by incubation of the isolated model saponins macranthosid I and hellebosaponin A. In a second step, aqueous H. niger extracts containing a much greater range of saponins were monitored during fermentation and 12months of storage. The metabolites were examined and assigned by LC-MS(n) and targeted extracted ion current (EIC) scan analyses. Good agreement was found among the results from the model compounds and the whole aqueous fermented extracts. The native diosgenyl-type furostanol saponins were converted to spirostanols under scission of hexoses. Alteration of the acetylated polyhydroxy saponins, exclusively spirostanols, took place following cleavage of acetyl groups and terminal deoxyhexoses. Most interestingly, the pentoses of the sugar chain at C(1) were not affected. Conversion of acetylated polyhydroxy saponins resulted in a final structure type which was stable and detectable, even after 12months of fermentation and storage.

  3. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace, E-mail: grace.gosmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FF/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique [UMR-CNRS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. des Glucides; Schenkel, Eloir P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2010-07-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and {alpha}-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  4. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  5. Structure of a new saponin: chrysantellin A from Chrysanthellum procumbens Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchi, M; Bruneteau, M; Trouilloud, M; Combier, H; Sartre, J; Michel, G

    1979-12-01

    A new saponin has been isolated from a tropical plant Chrysantellum procumbens Rich. which is thought to be useful in the therapy of digestive troubles. The structure of this saponin was determined by chemical methods, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The aglycone moiety is a triterpene, echinocystic acid; D-glucose, D-xylose and L-rhamnose are carbohydrate components. The structure of saponin was established as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl [L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 3)-D-xylopyranosyl-)beta 1 leads to 4)-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 2)-D-xylopyranosyl]-(alpha 1 leads to 28)-echinocystyl. The name, chrysantellin A, is proposed for this new saponin.

  6. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  7. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-05

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations.

  8. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar; M. S. Maier; A. M. Seldes

    2000-01-01

    Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  9. Hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary: a novel conditioning agent for hair care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Dae, K; Chang-Kew, K; Chung-Nam, L; Byung-Jo, H

    1989-10-01

    Synopsis A new quaternary ammonium compound, hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary (HGSQ), from Korean ginseng saponin and 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, has been developed as a conditioning agent for hair care products. This structure has a hydrophobic group from the aglycone of ginseng saponin which is biologically active and considered as the most important component of Korean ginseng. Its properties of surface tension, conductivity, critical micelle concentration (CMC), eye irritation, sorption onto hair, tensile strength for 20% extension and moisture retention effect were studied. Its cationic character allows the molecule to be more substantive than ginseng saponin. HGSQ had good physical properties and was safe enough as a cosmetic raw material. Also half-head tests of HGSQ-containing shampoo were carried out to evaluate the conditioning effects in shampoos. HGSQ showed good conditioning properties in a shampoo.

  10. MS/MS similarity networking accelerated target profiling of triterpene saponins in Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2017-07-15

    The targeted mass information of compounds accelerated their discovery in a large volume of untargeted MS data. An MS/MS similarity networking is advanced in clustering the structural analogues, which benefits the collection of mass information of similar compounds. The triterpene saponins extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), a kind of functional tea, have shown promise in the relief of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a target-precursor list (TPL) generated using MS/MS similarity networking was employed to rapidly trace 106 triterpene saponins from the aqueous extracts of ESL, of which 49 were tentatively identified as potentially new triterpene saponins. Moreover, a compound database of triterpene saponins was established and successfully applied to uncover their distribution features in ESL samples collected from different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antidiabetic activity of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Raju Balwanth; Samaddar, Suman; Ramaiah, Channakeshava Thimmasandra

    2014-01-01

    Glucose uptake by isolated diaphragms of both diabetic, following streptozotocin administration, and non-diabetic animals increased in presence of an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of M. cymbalaria. Insulin release was augmented by the presence of the saponin of M. cymbalaria (1 mg/mL) in rat insulinoma cell line (RIN-5F) preexposed to adrenaline (5 microM) and nifedipine (50 microM). Pancreatic histology also indicated considerable quantitative increase in beta-cells (75%) when treated with the saponin. The results suggest that the saponin of M. cymbalaria possesses potential antidiabetic activity with respect to insulin secretion, which may be attributed to modulation of calcium channel, and beta-cell rejuvenation.

  12. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach.

  13. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-10-01

    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  14. Furostanol saponins and ecdysones with cytotoxic activity from Helleborus bocconei ssp. intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Formisano, Carmen; Irace, Carlo; Maffettone, Carmen; Mascolo, Nicola

    2009-09-01

    Two furostanol saponins helleboroside A (1) and helleboroside B (2) were isolated from the methanol extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. intermedius (Guss.) Greuter and Burdet, along with the furospirostanol saponin 4 and two ecdysones: ecdysterone (5) and polypodyne B (6). Compound 2 was enzymatically hydrolysed to give product 3. The biological activity of all compounds was tested against rat C6 glioma cells showing a significant cytotoxicity for compounds 3, 4 and 6.

  15. Anti-platelet aggregation triterpene saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2007-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi has resulted in the isolation of two new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapinmusaponins Q (1) and R (2), along with three known oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (3-5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis. Biological evaluation showed that both sapinmusaponins Q and R demonstrated more potent anti-platelet aggregation activity than aspirin.

  16. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  17. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  18. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T H; Huang, S C; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2008-09-26

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antitumor and antioxidant activities, has been shown to contain several functional components like saponins and flavonoids. However, their identities remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an appropriate extraction, purification and HPLC-MS method to determine saponins and flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum. Both flavonoids and saponins were extracted with methanol, followed by purification with a C18 cartridge to elute the former with 50% methanol and the latter with 100% methanol. A total of 34 saponins were separated within 40 min by a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water, in which 18 saponins were identified by LC-MS with ESI mode and Q-TOF (LC/MS/MS). Similarly, a total of eight flavonoids were separated within 45 min by the same column and a gradient solvent system of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water, with identification being carried out by a post-column derivatization method and LC-MS with ESI mode. The amounts of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum ranged from 170.7 to 2416.5 mug g(-1), whereas saponins were from 491.0 to 89,888.9 mug g(-1).

  19. Insect growth regulator activity of Cestrum parqui saponins: an interaction with cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, C; Ben, Halima-Kamel M; Ben, Hamouda M H

    2006-01-01

    Cestrum parqui is an ornamental shrub known for its insecticidal activity against some insect pests; this activity comes from the crude saponic extract of the leaves of this plant, the saponins cause insect growth regulator symptoms (development and moulting perturbation). In this work we try to demonstrate the hypothesis that saponins interact with ecdysone (moulting hormone) synthesis mechanisms by reducing diet cholesterol absorption (cholesterol forms the skeleton of ecdysone and of other ecdysteroids). To show the cholesterol/saponin interaction we used a stored product pest insect (Tribolium confuisurn), the larva of this insect are affected by saponins added in their diet, but the addition of cholesterol permits to reduce significatively this insecticidal propriety. Using Spodoptera littoralis larva model the tentative to detect a cholesterol rate reduction on the level of hemolymph is also unsuccessful. All these experiments shows that this type of reaction can't occur in the diet or in the digestive system but probably in insect cells. It is clear that Cestrurn parqui saponins affect the cholesterol metabolism but the exactly mechanism is still unknown. More investigations are necessary to develop this hypothesis and to envisage the use of Cestrum saponins as insect growth regulator bioinsecticide.

  20. Determination of saponins in the kernel cake of Balanites aegyptiaca by HPLC-ESI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Wiesman, Zeev

    2007-01-01

    The kernel cake produced from Balanites aegyptiaca fruit of Israeli origin was analysed for its saponin constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The HPLC was equipped with a reversed-phase C18 column and a refractive index detector (RID), and elution was isocratic with methanol and water (70:30). The MS system was equipped with electrospray ionisation (ESI). Nine compounds were chromatographically separated, their masses were determined in the negative ion mode and subsequent fragmentation of each component was carried out. From the nine components, six saponins with molecular masses of 1196, 1064, 1210, 1224, 1078 and 1046 Da were identified, with the compound of mass 1210 Da being the main saponin (ca. 36%). Saponins with masses of 1224 and 1046 Da have not been previously reported in B. aegyptiaca. In all saponins, diosgenin was found to be the sole aglycone. This study shows that HPLC-ESI/MS is a quick and reliable technique for characterizing the saponins from kernel cake of B. aegyptiaca.

  1. Cytotoxicity of the compounds isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis saponins and apoptosis induced by 23-hydroxybetulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Xingzeng; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Ge; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Xiangyun; Feng, Xu; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    The rizoma of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Total saponins from P. chinensis can induce the apoptosis of solid cancer cells; however, their activity on chronic myeloid leukemia and the mechanisms remains unknown. To study the activity of total saponins and the main active fractions from P. chinensis saponins on chronic myeloid leukemia, and to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the anticancer activities. The cytotoxic activity were assayed by MTT; cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were tested by flow cytometry system; changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using JC-1; and the apoptosis signaling pathway was determined by western blotting. We demonstrated that total P. chinensis saponin displayed cytotoxic activity against K562 cell line. In addition, we identified 23-hydroxybetulinic acid (HBA), pulchinenoside A (PA), and anemoside B4 (AB4) from the total saponins, with the most cytotoxic compound HBA. Glycosylation at C3 and C28 of HBA significantly reduces its cytotoxicity. HBA could promote cell cycle arrest at S phase and induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway. HBA disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential significantly (p < 0.01) and selectively downregulates the levels of Bcl-2, survivin and upregulates Bax, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-9 and -3. Total saponins from P. chinensis may be effective natural products against human chronic myelogenous leukemia; HBA is one of the bioactive components responsible for its anticancer activity, and could be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic drug for leukemia.

  2. A Natural Triterpenoid Saponin as Multifunctional Stabilizer for Drug Nanosuspension Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingchong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Junnan; Xie, Yuanbiao; Zheng, Qin; Yue, Pengfei; Yang, Ming

    2017-03-24

    The objective of this study is to prepare a novel drug nanosuspension modified by a natural triterpenoid saponin (glycyrrhizin (GZ)) and evaluate its stability and redispersibility. A poorly soluble drug (andrographolide (AGE)) was used as a model drug. AGE nanosuspensions (AGE-NS) using GZ as natural stabilizer with mean particle size of 487 nm were firstly prepared by homogenization and converted into dried AGE nanosuspension powder (AGE-NP) by freeze-drying. It was found that GZ was able to prevent the aggregation of AGE nanocrystals and the freeze-dried AGE-NP could easily redisperse back to AGE-NS. It was related with special properties of GZ that possessed the interfacial property (37.02 ± 0.29 N/m) and electrostatic effect (-43.6 ± 0.9 mV) and could entrap AGE nanocrystals into its network structure. The freeze-dried AGE-NP/GZ exhibited excellent performance, compared with those combined with trehalose as matrix formers. The powder X-ray diffraction result demonstrated that GZ did not alter the AGE crystal state. The dissolution of AGE-NP/GZ (99.87%) was significantly enhanced, compared with the coarse AGE (42.35%). This study demonstrated that GZ could be used as a novel multifunctional stabilizer for production of drug nanosuspensions and provided a promising basis for further formulation development of poorly soluble drug.

  3. Chikusetsu saponin IVa regulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation: implications in antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jia; Jia, Na; Wu, Yin; Xi, Miaomiao; Wen, Aidong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate antidiabetic effects and molecular mechanisms of the chemical Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CHS) that isolated from root bark of Aralia taibaiensis, which has multiple pharmacological activity, such as relieving rheumatism, promoting blood circulation to arrest pain and antidiabetic action. Rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin-resistant myocytes were used. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were quantified by immunoblotting. Assays of glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) activity were performed. Chronic oral administration of CHS effectively decreases blood glucose, triglyceride, free fatty acid (FFA) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in T2DM rats. In both normal and insulin-resistant C2C12 myocytes, CHS activates AMPK, and increases glucose uptake or fatty acid oxidation through enhancing membrane translocation of GLUT4 or CPT-1 activity respectively. Knockdown of AMPK significantly diminishes the effects of CHS on glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. CHS is a novel AMPK activator that is capable of bypassing defective insulin signalling and could be useful for the treatment of T2DM or other metabolic disorders. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  5. Impact of the LDL subfraction phenotype on Lp-PLA2 distribution, LDL modification and HDL composition in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Jose Luis; Vinagre, Irene; De Juan-Franco, Elena; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan; Bonet-Marques, Rosa; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-08-05

    Qualitative alterations of lipoproteins underlie the high incidence of atherosclerosis in diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype on the qualitative characteristics of LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in patients with type 2 diabetes. One hundred twenty two patients with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control and 54 healthy subjects were included in the study. Patients were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype. Seventy-seven patients presented phenotype A whereas 45 had phenotype B. All control subjects showed phenotype A. Several forms of modified LDL, HDL composition and the activity and distribution of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) were analyzed. Oxidized LDL, glycated LDL and electronegative LDL were increased in both groups of patients compared with the control group. Patients with phenotype B had increased oxidized LDL and glycated LDL concentration than patients with phenotype A. HDL composition was abnormal in patients with diabetes, being these abnormalities more marked in patients with phenotype B. Total Lp-PLA2 activity was higher in phenotype B than in phenotype A or in control subjects. The distribution of Lp-PLA2 between HDL and apoB-containing lipoproteins differed in patients with phenotype A and phenotype B, with higher activity associated to apoB-containing lipoproteins in the latter. The presence of LDL subfraction phenotype B is associated with increased oxidized LDL, glycated LDL and Lp-PLA2 activity associated to apoB-containing lipoproteins, as well as with abnormal HDL composition.

  6. Hemolytic and cytotoxic effects of saponin like compounds isolated from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaheh Amini; Mohammad Nabiuni; Javad Baharara; Kazem Parivar; Javad Asili

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize the saponin from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocomaerinaceus Methods: In an attempt to prepare saponin from brittle star, collected samples were minced and extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane, n-buthanol. Then, concentrated n-butanol extract were loaded on HP-20 resin and washed with dionized water, 80% ethanol and 100%ethanol respectively. Subsequently, detection of saponin was performed by foaming property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic analysis on thin layer chromatography. The cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells was evaluated through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and under invert microscopy.Results:) and to evaluate its hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. method. The presence of C-H bond, C-O-C and OH in fourier transform infrared spectrum of fraction 80% ethanol is characteristic feature in the many of saponin compounds. Hemolytic assay revealed HD50 value was 500 µg/mL. MTT assay exhibited that saponin extracted in IC50 value of 25 µg/mL inducsd potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells in 24 h and 12.5 µg/mL in 48 h, meanwhile in lower concentration did not have considerable effect against HeLa cells.Conclusions:The existence of saponin in Ophiocoma erinaceus were approved by phytochemical These findings showed that only 80% ethanol fraction Persian Gulf brittle star contained saponin like compounds with hemolytic activity which can be detected simply by phytochemical that can be appreciable for future anticancer research.

  7. [Leaching Remediation of Copper and Lead Contaminated Lou Soil by Saponin Under Different Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-xia; Yang, Ya-li; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Li, Rong-hua; Meng, Zhao-fu; Yang, Ya-ti

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the leaching remediation effect of the eco-friendly biosurfactant saponin for Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil, batch tests method was used to study the leaching effect of saponin solution on single Cu, Pb contaminated Lou soil and mixed Cu and Pb contaminated Lou soil under different conditions such as reaction time, mass concentration of saponin, pH, concentration of background electrolyte and leaching times. The results showed that the maximum leaching removal effect of Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil was achieved by complexation of the heavy metals with saponin micelle, when the mass concentration of saponin solution was 50 g x L(-1), pH was 5.0, the reaction time was 240 min, and there was no background electrolyte. In single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, the leaching percentages of Cu were 29.02% and 25.09% after a single leaching with 50 g x L(-1) saponin under optimal condition, while the single leaching percentages of Pb were 31.56% and 28.03%, respectively. The result indicated the removal efficiency of Pb was more significant than that of Cu. After 4 times of leaching, the cumulative leaching percentages of Cu reached 58.92% and 53.11%, while the cumulative leaching percentages of Pb reached 77.69% and 65.32% for single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, respectively. The fractionation results of heavy metals in soil before and after a single leaching showed that the contents of adsorbed and exchangeable Cu and Pb increased in the contaminated soil, while the carbonate-bound, organic bound and sulfide residual Cu and Pb in the contaminated Lou soil could be effectively removed by saponin.

  8. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nneoma E. Akaniro-Ejim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775 and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm, P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm, E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm, and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm. However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold.

  9. Effect of insulin analog initiation therapy on LDL/HDL subfraction profile and HDL associated enzymes in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ibrahim; Kucuksayan, Ertan; Aslan, Mutay

    2013-04-24

    Insulin treatment can lead to good glycemic control and result in improvement of lipid parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of insulin analog initiation therapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/ high-density lipoprotein (HDL) sub-fractions and HDL associated enzymes in type 2 diabetic patients during early phase. Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels above 10% despite ongoing combination therapy with sulphonylurea and metformin were selected. Former treatment regimen was continued for the first day followed by substitution of sulphonylurea therapy with different insulin analogs (0.4 U/kg/day) plus metformin. Glycemic profiles were determined over 72 hours by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and blood samples were obtained from all patients at 24 and 72 hours. Plasma levels of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-I) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Measurement of CETP and LCAT activity was performed via fluorometric analysis. Paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme activity was assessed from the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of phenyl acetate to phenol formation. LDL and HDL subfraction analysis was done by continuous disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mean blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels were significantly decreased while HDL-C levels were significantly increased after insulin treatment. Although LDL-C levels were not significantly different before and after insulin initiation therapy a significant increase in LDL-1 subgroup and a significant reduction in atherogenic LDL-3 and LDL-4 subgroups were observed. Insulin analog initiation therapy caused a significant increase in HDL-large, HDL- intermediate and a significant reduction in HDL-small subfractions

  10. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  11. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive.

  12. New 30-Noroleanane Triterpenoid Saponins from Holboellia coriacea Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new 30-noroleanane triterpenoid saponins, akebonoic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1, akebonoic acid 28-O-(6′′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (Holboelliside A, 2 and 3β,20α,24-trihydroxy-29-norolean-12-en-28-oic acid 3-O-(6′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (Holboelliside B, 3 were isolated from the stems of Holboellia coriacea Diels, together with five known compounds, eupteleasaponin VIII (4, 3α-akebonoic acid (5, quinatic acid (6, 3β-hydroxy-30-norhederagenin (7 and quinatoside A (8. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against three human tumors HepG2, HCT116 and SGC-7901 cell lines in vitro.

  13. Antioxidative effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ningna; Tang, Yang; Keep, Richard F; Ma, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Jianming

    2014-09-15

    Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in cell death associated with neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. Antioxidant compounds that improve endogenous antioxidant defenses have been proposed for neural protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of total saponin in leaves of Panax notoginseng (LPNS) on oxidative stress and cell death in brain cells in vitro. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay indicated that LPNS (5 μg/ml) reduced H2O2-induced cell death in primary rat cortical astrocytes (23±8% reduction in LDH release vs. control). Similar protection was found in oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation induced SH-SY5Y (a human neuroblastoma cell line) cell damage (78±7% reduction vs. control). The protective effects of LPNS in astrocytes were associated with attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. These effects involved activation of Nrf2 (nuclear translocation) and upregulation of downstream antioxidant systems including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1). These results demonstrate for the first time that LPNS has antioxidative effects which may be neuroprotective in neurological disorders.

  14. New cycloartane saponin and monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M.; Backheet, Enaam Y.; Bayoumi, Soad A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    A new cycloartane-type saponin with unusual hydroxylation at C-17 and a unique side chain, 9 (R), 19, 22 (S), 24 (R) bicyclolanost-3β, 12α, 16β, 17α tetrol-25-one 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and two new monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids, 10-methoxy pumiloside (2) and the previously chemically synthesized, 10-methoxy strictosidine (3) along with other five known compounds, 7α-morroniside (4), 7-epi-loganin (5), (7β)-7-O-methylmorroniside (6), 5(S)-5-carboxystrictisidine (7) and apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside (8) were isolated from the aerial parts of Mussaenda luteola (Rubiaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolates was accomplished by extensive (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopic data analysis and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 4–8 were reported for the first time from the genus Mussaenda. Interestingly, this is the first report for the occurrence of the monoterpenoid glucoindole-type alkaloids in the genus which might be useful for the chemotaxonomic evaluation of the genus Mussaenda. All isolates were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activities. Compound 7 showed good antitrypanosomal activity with IC50 and IC90 values of 13.7 and 16.6 µM compared to IC50 and IC90 values of 13.06 and 28.99 µM for the positive control DFMO, difluoromethylornithine. PMID:26969788

  15. Screening for feeding deterrent and insect growth regulatory activity of triterpenic saponins from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kumar, Jitendra; Dhingra, Swaran; Parmar, Balraj S

    2010-01-13

    Antifeeding and insect growth regulatory effects of saponins and its hydrolyzed products from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi on the insect pest Spodoptera litura (F.) were investigated in the laboratory. D. butyracea saponins as well as their hydrolyzed prosapogenins were found to be better biologically active in controlling pests. A concentration of 1200 and 3400 mg L(-1) alkaline and acid hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifeeding and toxic effects to third instar larvae when compared to the emulsified water as control. The n-BuOH extract after prep-HPLC separation provided two saponins from the D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyarnosyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-glc-xyl]-ara (MI-I) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-xyl-ara]-apiose (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from the S. mukorossi saponin mixture was 3-O-[beta-D-xyl(OAc).beta-D-arabinopyranosyl.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O-[beta-D-glc.beta-D-glc.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Five days after saponin treatment on larvae, the growth index (GI50) was reduced from 0.92% to 1520 ppm in alkaline hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins. Upon hydrolysis, growth regulatory activity was improved in S. mukorossi saponin, whereas very little difference was found in antifeedant activity. Hydrophile-lipophile balance is important for the proper functioning of saponin/prosapogenin/sapogenin, which could be achieved by manipulating the sugar molecule in the triterpenic skeleton.

  16. Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation, Ciliate Protozoal Populations, and Milk Production from Dairy Cows Fed Cinnamaldehyde, Quebracho Condensed Tannin, or Yucca schidigera Saponin Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T. A; Chouinard, P. Y

    2008-01-01

    ...% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production...

  17. Accumulation and Dynamic Trends of Triterpenoid Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Achyranthus bidentata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting Li; Zhenghai Hu

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between structural features of various vegetative organs and triterpenoid saponin accumulation in Achyranthus bidentata Blume was investigated using anatomy, histochemistry and phytochemistry. The results showed that the primary and secondary structures of roots, and the structures of stems and leaves of A. bidentata, were similar to those of ordinary dicotyledonous plants. The enlargement of its roots, however, was primarily associated with growth and differentiation of tertiary structures. There were collateral medullary vascular bundles in addition to the normal vascular bundles in the stem. The tertiary structure was not only main parts in the roots of A. bidentata, but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponin in its growth and development. The stem may be the essential transport organ of triterpenoid saponin, while palisade parenchyma may be the primary synthesis location. In November, the total quantity of triterpenoid saponin and overall biomass in the roots reach a maximum level. This was the best time, therefore, to harvest the roots and corresponded to the traditional harvest period. Despite the withered appearance of leaves, stems also contained substantial amounts of triterpenoid saponin, and it was recommended that the stems of A. bidentata should be used.

  18. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  19. The Sg-1 glycosyltransferase locus regulates structural diversity of triterpenoid saponins of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-05-01

    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1(a) allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1(b) encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1(a) and Gly-138 in Sg-1(b) proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-1(0) is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products.

  20. [Ultrasound assisted the enzymolysis of ginsenosides to prepare pare ginseng saponin Compound K].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Cui, Li; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2014-08-01

    To prepare ginseng saponin Compound K with ultrasound-assisted total zymolytic ginseng saponins. The conversion rate was taken as the index to detect the pre-treatment factors such as ultrasonic power and ultrasonic time, as well as the impact of enzymatic factors, such as pH value, temperature, concentration of substrate, dosage of enzyme and reaction time, on the conversion rate. The response surface method was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The enzymolytic products were identified with MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The results showed that the optimum conditions of the ultrasound-assisted enzymolysis were 250 W for ultrasonic power, 15 min for ultrasonic time, 5.5 for enzymolytic pH, 50 degrees C for enzymolytic temperature, 36 h for enzymolytic time, 4:5 for enzymolytic dosage: substrate and 1.0 g x L(-1) for concentration of substrate. The relative molecular mass of reaction products was 622.4. Therefore, the nuclear magnetic map verified that the reaction product was rare ginseng saponin Compound K. Under the above conditions, based on the total zymolytic ginseng saponins, the conversion rate of rare ginseng saponin Compound K was 6.91% in proportion to the total of ginsenosides. The process features gentle reaction conditions, high conversion rate and simple and reliable process, which is suitable for industrial production.

  1. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of a complex triterpene saponin mixture of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Sterk, Heinz; Mittelbach, Martin; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2006-06-01

    A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach was applied to a complex crude triterpene saponin extract of Chenopodium quinoa seed coats. In ESI-MS/MS spectra of triterpene saponins, characteristic fragmentation reactions are observed and allow the determination of aglycones, saccharide sequences, compositions, and branching. Fragmentation of aglycones provided further structural information. The chemical complexity of the mixture was resolved by a complete profiling. Eighty-seven triterpene saponins comprising 19 reported and 68 novel components were identified and studied by MS. In addition to four reported, five novel triterpene aglycones were detected and characterized according to their fragmentation reactions in ESI-MS/MS and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). As a novelty fragmentation pathways were proposed and analyzed based upon quantum chemical calculations using a hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional method. Accuracy of the assignment procedure was proven by isolation and structure determination of a novel compound. As the relative distribution and composition of saponins varies between different cultivars and soils, the presented strategy allows a rapid and complete analysis of Chenopodium quinoa saponin distribution and composition, and is particularly suitable for quality control and screening of extracts designated for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial applications.

  2. Fractionation, structural studies, and immunological characterization of the semi-synthetic Quillaja saponins derivative GPI-0100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J; Reynolds, Robert C; Pathak, Ashish K; Finley-Woodman, Kyra; May, Richard D

    2003-09-08

    Unfractionated GPI-0100 (UFGPI-0100) containing semi-synthetic derivatives of deacylated Quillaja saponins (DS saponins) modified at the glucuronic acid residue was resolved by reverse phase low-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) into two fractions, RP18-1 and RP18-2, with different compositions and adjuvanticity. The fraction RP18-1 contained DS saponin adducts of N-dicyclohexylurea, and stimulated Th2 immunity with production of IgG1, while the RP18-2 fraction contained the dodecylamide derivatives of DS saponins and stimulated Th1 immunity with production of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and CTL. The strong immune stimulatory properties of RP18-2, relative to RP18-1, and the formation of RP18-1/RP18-2 mixed micelles may account for the effective stimulation of Th1 immunity by UFGPI-0100. UFGPI-0100 was free of acylated quillaja saponin components, including the more stable QS-7.

  3. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  4. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  5. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use.

  6. Distribution of electrophoretically separated serum high density lipoprotein subfraction levels among healthy students and its alteration in patients with liver diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda,Satoru

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to evaluate high density lipoprotein (HDL subfraction levels in liver diseases, HDL was separated by a precipitation method with dextran sulfate-Mg2+ from sera of 289 healthy adults and 50 patients with liver diseases. The HDL was subdivided into HDL2e and HDL3e by Utermann's polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with lauric acid. Ultracentrifugally separated HDL2 and HDL3 roughly corresponded to HDL2e and HDL3e, respectively. Male and female groups had different distributions of HDL2e/HDL3e ratios. Among healthy males, 121 cases had ratios less than 1.0 (mean +/- SD = 0.72 +/- 0.39, n = 150, while among healthy females, the ratios were generally larger than those of males and varied widely from 0.2 to 6.6 (mean +/- SD = 1.77 +/- 1.05, n = 139. Low levels of HDL-cholesterol were found in patients with liver diseases, except those with mild alcoholic liver injury and intrahepatic cholestasis. Apparent decreases in HDL3e, but not in HDL2e, were found in all cases with liver diseases investigated, even in those who did not show decreases in the total HDL level, when male and female patients were analyzed separately. The analysis of HDL subfractions by the present method is simple and useful for the study on altered lipid metabolism in liver diseases.

  7. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) saponins induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are naturally occurring metabolites present in Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and other plant sources which have been associated with several health benefits. Mate saponins were extracted with methanol from dry leaves, partially purified and quantified. UV-HPLC analysis showed that the m...

  8. Quantitative determination of the saponin content and GC-MS study of the medicinal plant Cassytha filiformis (linn.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa; Adeola Opeyemi Ologan; FranklinAkinfemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phytochemicals, total saponin content and types of saponin present in leaf extracts of Cassytha filiformis. Methods: The leaves were extracted with n-hexane and methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated. The total saponin content of the butanol fraction was determined by colorimetry via a UV spectrophotometer and ginsenoside was used as the standard. Measurements were carried out at 550 nm. The butanol fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Results: All screened phytochemicals were absent in the n-hexane extract while saponins, steroids, tannins and glycosides were present in the methanol extract. Flavonoids and alkaloids were absent. The total saponin content of the methanol extract is 73.47 μg ginsenoside Rb1 equivalent/g extract. The chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis gave eicosanoic acid, methyl ester as the most abundant compound and the steroidal saponin, cholestan-7-one and cyclic 1,2-ethanedienyl acetal as the most abundant saponin in the butanol fraction. Conclusions: The leaves of Cassytha filiformis are rich in steroidal saponins.

  9. Influence of ginsenoside Rg1, a panaxatriol saponin from Panax notoginseng, on renal fibrosis in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-sheng XIE; Man YANG; Heng-cuang LIU; Chuan ZUO; Zi LI; Yao DENG; Jun-ming FAN

    2008-01-01

    Total saponins ofPanax notoginseng (PNS) have been shown to ameliorate renal interstitial fibrosis. Ginsenoside Rg1, a panaxatriol saponin, is one of the major active molecules from PNS. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on renal fibrosis in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:sham-operation (n=15), UUO (n=15) and UUO with ginsenoside Rg1 treatment (n=15, 50 mg per kg body weight, intraperito-neally (i.p.) injected). The rats were sacrificed on Days 7 and 14 after the surgery. Histological examination demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 significantly inhibited interstitial fibrosis including tubular injury as well as collagen deposition, a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin are two markers of tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transition (TEMT). Interestingly, ginsenoside Rg1 notably decreased a-SMA expression and simultaneously enhanced E-eadherin expression. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of transforming growth factor-131 (TGF-β1), a key mediator to regulate TEMT, in the obstructed kidney increased dra-matically, but was found to decrease significantly after administration of ginsenoside Rg1. Further study showed that ginsenoside Rg1 considerably decreased the levels of both active TGF-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2). Moreover, ginsenoside Rg1 substantially suppressed the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a cytokine which can promote the transcription of TGF-β1 mRNA and the activation of latent TGF-β1. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits renal interstitial fibrosis in rats with UUO. The mechanism might be partly related to the blocking of TEMT via suppressing the expression of TSP-1.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  11. Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Agnieszka; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2012-12-19

    Triterpene saponins in the roots of Beta vulgaris cultivars Red Sphere, Rocket, and Wodan were profiled and quantitated using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Results obtained indicated that the roots of all three cultivars contained 11 saponins consisting of oleanolic acid or hederagenin aglycone and varying numbers of sugars, with the dominant triglycoside derivative of oleanolic acid. The relative proportions of derivatives of these two aglycones were similar in the three subspecies: cv. Red Sphere contained 99.1 and 0.9%; cv. Rocket, 98.2 and 1.8%; and Wodan 98.8 and 1.2% of oleanolic acid and hederagenin glycosides, respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence, structure, and content of triterpenoid saponins in red beet.

  12. Dammarane triterpene saponin from Bacopa monniera as the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R; Gopalakrishnan, C; Bhutani, K K

    2001-11-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae), exhibited an inhibitory effect on superoxide released from polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The major saponin bacoside A(3) was found to be responsible for this effect in the herb. This compound showed 85, 91.66, 91.66, and 83 % inhibitions of NBT reduction at the concentrations of 200, 100, 50, and 25 microg/ml, respectively, with an IC(50) value of 10.22 microg/ml. These inhibitory effects were compared with those of the standard positive controls, quercetin and ascorbic acid with IC(50) of 111 and 14.16 microg/ml, respectively. Another major saponin bacopasaponin C was found to be much less potent as compared to bacoside A(3) whereas the remaining two mixtures of saponins were found to be inactive.

  13. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  14. Effects on chicks of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel saponin given by different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, H B; Mohammed, O S; Abu al Futuh, I M; Adam, S E

    1992-06-01

    The effect of oral or parenteral administration of crude saponin extract from Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernal on Hisex-type chicks was studied. Seven-d-old chicks were given 5 mg Balanites crude saponin/kg/d im, 25 mg/kg/d ip or 250 mg/kg/day po for 3 w. When compared to controls, the body weights of dosed chicks were depressed and serum LDH and GOT activities and uric acid concentrations were significantly elevated. There were no consistent differences in serum GGT, CPK, total cholesterol and total protein between control and dosed birds. The main lesions were fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation and necrosis of hepatocytes, lymphocytic nodules, epithelial cell degeneration of the renal tubules, catarrhal enteritis and varying degrees of hemorrhage in the thigh and breast muscles. Myositis or peritonitis were observed in chicks given Balanites crude saponins im or ip, respectively.

  15. EFEK SENYAWA SAPONIN PADA SAPINDUS RARAK DENGAN PAKAN BERBASIS JERAMI PADI DALAM MITIGASI GAS METANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Krisnawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study saponin in Sapindus rarak were added to the diet of rice straw ammoniation (20 & 40%, related to the effect in reducing methane emissions of ruminants and pattern of rumen fermentation were tested by in vitro. Completly randomized block design with four treatments and four replications was used. Variables measured were gas production total, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA total, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. The results showed that the addition saponins in S. rarak as a source of rice straw ammoniation significant effect (P<0.05 of the total gas production, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. S. rarak use as a source of saponins with a dose of 20% on rice straw ammoniation was able to reduce methane gas production drop in gas production total, concentration of N-ammonia, and protozoa population.

  16. The plant hopper Issus coleoptratus can detoxify phloem sap saponins including the degradation of the terpene core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Himmelsbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issus coleoptratus is a small plant hopper which mainly feeds on the phloem sap from ivy. Although all parts of ivy are poisonous as the plant contains saponins, especially hederasaponins, I. coleoptratus can cope with the poison. In contrast to other animals like the stick insect Carausius morosus which accumulates saponins in its body, I. coleoptratus can degrade and disintegrate not only the saponins but even the genines, i.e. the triterpene core of the substances. This is perhaps made possible by a specialised midgut and/or the salivary glands. When the glands and the gut are dissected and added to saponins in solution, the saponins, including the genines, are degraded ex vivo.

  17. The plant hopper Issus coleoptratus can detoxify phloem sap saponins including the degradation of the terpene core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Weth, Agnes; Böhme, Christine; Schwarz, Martin; Bräunig, Peter; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-02-10

    Issus coleoptratus is a small plant hopper which mainly feeds on the phloem sap from ivy. Although all parts of ivy are poisonous as the plant contains saponins, especially hederasaponins, I. coleoptratus can cope with the poison. In contrast to other animals like the stick insect Carausius morosus which accumulates saponins in its body, I. coleoptratus can degrade and disintegrate not only the saponins but even the genines, i.e. the triterpene core of the substances. This is perhaps made possible by a specialised midgut and/or the salivary glands. When the glands and the gut are dissected and added to saponins in solution, the saponins, including the genines, are degraded ex vivo.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in crude extract and bark powder of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2011-08-10

    Steroidal saponins in commercial stem syrup and in extract of a bark of Yucca schidigera were identified with high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry and quantitated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Fragmentation patterns of yucca saponins were generated using collision-induced dissociation and compared with fragmentation of authentic standards as well as with published spectrometric information. In addition to detection of twelve saponins known to occur in Y. schidigera, collected fragmentation data led to tentative identifications of seven new saponins. A quantitation method for all 19 detected compounds was developed and validated. Samples derived from the syrup and the bark of yucca were quantitatively measured and compared. Obtained results indicate that yucca bark accumulates polar, bidesmosidic saponins, while in the stem steroidal glycosides with middle- and short-length saccharide chains are predominant. The newly developed method provides an opportunity to evaluate the composition of yucca products available on the market.

  19. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhen; Li, Shiyou

    2007-08-01

    Continued chemical investigation on the fruits of North American Aesculus pavia L. resulted in the isolation and identification of 13 polyhydroxyoleanene pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named aesculiosides IIe-IIk (1-7), and IIIa-IIIf (8-13), together with 18 known compounds: aesculiosides Ia-Ie (14-18), IIa-IId (19-22), IVa-IVc (23-25), 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,15 alpha,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,28-hexahydroxyolean-12-ene (26), 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,24 beta,28-hexahydroxyolean-12-ene (27), 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,28-pentahydroxyolean-12-ene (28), R(1)-barrigenol (29), scopolin (30), and 5-methoxyscopolin (31). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 14-22 and 26-28 were tested in vitro for their activity against 59 cell lines from nine different human cancers including leukemia, non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate, and breast. It was found that compounds with two-acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 had cytotoxic activity for all cell lines tested with GI(50) 0.175-8.71 microM, while compounds without acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 had weak or no cytotoxic activity. These results suggest that the acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 are essential for their activity.

  20. Stability studies of saponins in Bacopa monnieri dried ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Wittaya-areekul, Sakchai; Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Putalun, Waraporn; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2008-11-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is currently used as a drug and food supplement for memory improvement. However, studies on the physical and chemical stability of the extract components, especially on the lead compound important for pre-formulation, have not yet been reported. In this study, the stabilities of the crude extract and the diluted crude extract were investigated at various temperatures using saponin glycosides, bacopaside I and bacoside A3 as markers for quantitative analysis. The stability testing of bacopaside I and bacoside A3 standard solution was performed at various temperatures and pH values. The quantity of both compounds under all conditions was analyzed using HPLC techniques. The moisture adsorption of the crude extract was determined at 5, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C at 75 % relative humidity using gravimetric methods. The results revealed that the crude extract quickly adsorbed moisture up to 54 % w/w at both 40 and 80 degrees C, while it only slowly adsorbed moisture at 5 degrees C. The amounts of intact bacopaside I and bacoside A3 in the crude extract decreased drastically at 80 degrees C, slowly at 40 and 60 degrees C, and remained unchanged at 5 degrees C during the period of investigation. Moreover, the amount of both compounds in the standard solution dropped sharply at a pH of 1.2 but slowly at pH 6.8 and 9.0, respectively. The pre-formulation data could be further used for improvement of the final product quality.

  1. Antifungal activity of saponins originated from Medicago hybrida against some ornamental plant pathogens

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    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of total saponins originated from roots of Medicago hybrida (Pourret Trautv. were evaluated in vitro against six pathogenic fungi and eight individual major saponin glycosides were tested against one of the most susceptible fungi. The total saponins showed fungitoxic effect at all investigated concentrations (0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% but their potency was different for individual fungi. The highest saponin concentration (0.1% was the most effective and the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. callistephi, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi was 84.4%, 69.9%, 68.6%, 57.2%, 55.0%, respectively. While Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., a pathogen of Muscari armeniacum, was inhibited by 9.5% only. Eight major saponin glycosides isolated from the total saponins of M. hybrida roots were tested against the mycelium growth of Botrytis tulipae. The mycelium growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited by hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2-α-L-galactopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed low fungitoxic activity. Medicagenic acid 3-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl- 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-[α-L- hamnopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]- 28-O-α-D-glucopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D- lucopyranoside did not limit or only slightly inhibited growth of the tested pathogen. While 2β, 3β-dihydroxyolean-12 ene-23-al-28-oic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside slightly stimulated mycelium growth of B. tulipae.

  2. Mechanistic study of the anticancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in R6 fibroblast cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoZ; HsaiW

    2002-01-01

    The anticancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Gp)saponins was tested.The results indicated that the Gp saponins inhibited ras-induced foci in dosage and time-dependent manners.To facilitate the investigation of the mode of inhibition of Gp in living cells,a green fluorescent protein-ras fusion construct was generated and used to substitute ras in the study.Cells acquired GFP-ras gene grew into green fluorescent foci with striking transforming morphology in the absence of Gp,whereas the GFP-ras transfected cell,in most of cases,remained as single green fluorescent cell with Gp saponins present in the medium.Gp saponins exhibited non-cytotoxic effect on either normal or the transformed R6 cells.However.Gp saponins posted a strong inhibition against the growth of the rastransformed cells that were co-cultivated with normal R6 cells.The level of Raf-1 protein was sharply down-regulated after Gp treatment.Gp treatment can also induce instability of Raf-1,instead of transcriptional inactivation of the protein expression.A cDNA microarray analysis displayed four genes,i.e.β2-microglobulin,GST7-7,gelatinase A and cathepsin L were up-regulated,while three genes:Erk-1,γIGFBP-6,and 14-3-3 zeta were down-regulated upon treatment with Gp saponins.The results were verified by Northern blot analysis.The finding that an anti-cancer effect of a non-toxic drug may be mediated through the surrounding normal cells is conceptually novel and should have a broad implication in the future development of drugs or dietary supplements with cancer prevention function.

  3. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  4. A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin from the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, R N

    2001-01-01

    A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin m.f. C42H68O13, m.p. 315 degrees-317 degrees C was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina. Its structure was characterized as 3-beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->4)O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]16-alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en(13)-28-oic acid by several spectral and chemical analysis. This new triterpenoid saponin showed antimicrobial activity against various plants pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  5. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  6. Steroidal Saponins from the Mesocarp of the Fruits of Raphia farinifera (Arecaceae) and their Cytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapondjou, Léon A; Siems, Kristina J; Böttger, Stefan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-11-01

    Eight steroidal saponins (1-8), including one previously unreported derivative (1), have been isolated from the mesocarp of Raphia farinifera fruits by combined column chromatography and RP-HPLC methods. They were characterized by spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR experiments) and spectrometric (ESIMS) methods, as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported compounds in the literature. All the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against urinary bladder carcinoma cells (ECV-304). Our results revealed that, for a high cytotoxicity, a sugar chain of at least three sugar moieties attached to C-3 of the steroidal saponin is necessary.

  7. Compositional changes in trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones related to soybean processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R L; Wolf, W J

    1995-03-01

    Soybeans are high in protein but also contain a number of minor constituents traditionally considered to be antinutritional factors. These include trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones. These compounds are now thought to have beneficial biological effects in the diet, such as lowering blood cholesterol or preventing cancer. Soybean processing changes the content of these minor constituents in various ways. This review discusses the changes in content of trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones as soybeans are processed into the conventional protein ingredients, flours, concentrates and isolates, as well as some of the traditional Oriental soybean foods.

  8. Two new biologically active triterpenoidal saponins acylated with salicylic acid from Albizia adianthifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Mohamed; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Laurens, Véronique; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Two new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, adianthifoliosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a 95% ethanolic extract of roots of Albizia adianthifolia. Their structures were elucidated mainly by using a combination of 600 MHz 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by FABMS and HRESIMS. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized as glycosides of acacic acid acylated by an o-hydroxybenzoyl unit. The crude saponin mixture (CSM), compounds 1 and 2...

  9. A new triterpenoid saponin and an oligosaccharide isolated from the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; Yang, De-Po; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Xue, Xue; Zhu, Long-Ping; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin (1) and a new oligosaccharide (2), together with three known saponins (3-5), have been isolated from n-BuOH extract of the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structures were elucidated using detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra along with their mass spectrometric data and the results of acid hydrolysis. Of the isolated compounds 1 and 3-5 displayed cytotoxic effects against human cancer cell lines in A-549 (lung carcinoma), MDA-231 (breast carcinoma) and PC-3 (prostatic carcinoma).

  10. The structures of four triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of Trifolium incarnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jurzysta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel bisdesmosidic saponin, 3-0-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 - 2-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1-2-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-22-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2-β-D-glucopyranosyl] ole­an-l2-ene-24-ol has been isolated from the seed of the clover, Trifolium incarnatum. The structure of this and of three other structurally related saponins, 3-0-(β-D-glucuronopyra-nosylolean-l2-ene-22, 24-diol, soyasaponin I and soyasaponin III have been assigned on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

  11. Effect of saponin treatment on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat, cane toad and crustacean (yabby) skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    1997-10-15

    1. Mechanically skinned fibres from skeletal muscles of the rat, toad and yabby were used to investigate the effect of saponin treatment on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading properties. The SR was loaded submaximally under control conditions before and after treatment with saponin and SR Ca2+ was released with caffeine. 2. Treatment with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin greatly reduced the SR Ca2+ loading ability of skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat with a rate constant of 0.24 min-1. Saponin concentrations up to 150 micrograms ml-1 and increased exposure time up to 30 min did not further reduce the SR Ca2+ loading ability of the SR, which indicates that the inhibitory action of 10-150 micrograms ml-1 saponin is not dose dependent. The effect of saponin was also not dependent on the state of polarization of the transverse-tubular system. 3. Treatment with saponin at concentrations up to 100 micrograms ml-1 for 30 min did not affect the Ca2+ loading ability of SR in skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch portion of the toad iliofibularis muscle but SR Ca2+ loading ability decreased markedly with a time constant of 0.22 min-1 in the presence of 150 micrograms ml-1 saponin. 4. The saponin dependent increase in permeability could be reversed in both rat and toad fibres by short treatment with 6 microM Ruthenium Red, a potent SR Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting that saponin does affect the SR Ca2+ channel properties in mammalian and anuran skeletal muscle. 5. Treatment of skinned fibres of long sarcomere length (> 6 microns) from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean) with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin for 30 min abolished the ability of the SR to load Ca2+, indicating that saponin affects differently the SR from skeletal muscles of mammals, anurans and crustaceans. 6. It is concluded that at relatively low concentrations, saponin causes inhibition of the skeletal SR Ca2+ loading ability in a species

  12. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.W.H. Kappelle; G.M. Dallinga-Thie; R.P.F. Dullaart

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  13. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  14. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  15. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  16. Development of an analytical method for yam saponins using HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection at different column temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Hee; Yoo, Chang-Seon; Choi, Hwa-Young; Lee, Soo-Eon; Park, Yong-Duk

    2013-02-01

    Yam saponins (dioscin, gracillin, protodioscin, and protogracillin) were analyzed with three different C18 columns at incremental column temperatures from 15 to 45°C to investigate the effect of temperature on the retention and resolution of yam saponins. At low temperature, yam saponins showed decreased retention times and improved resolutions in the C18 columns. In the Kinetex C18 column at 15°C, the four saponins achieved baseline separation (Rs > 1.5) within 30 min. Pulsed amperometric detection was used to identify saponins with high sensitivity. The limits of detection and quantification of saponins were 0.11-0.31 and 0.33-0.95 ng, respectively. The correlation coefficients ranged 0.9986-1.0000. Intra- and inter-day precisions were yam foods were determined without sample purification or concentration. Among the ten commercial yam foods investigated, only three showed significant saponin contents. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Rapid, cost-effective and accurate quantification of Yucca schidigera Roezl. steroidal saponins using HPLC-ELSD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenon, Mathieu; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Birtić, Simona

    2017-04-15

    Yucca GRAS-labelled saponins have been and are increasingly used in food/feed, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. Existing techniques presently used for Yucca steroidal saponin quantification remain either inaccurate and misleading or accurate but time consuming and cost prohibitive. The method reported here addresses all of the above challenges. HPLC/ELSD technique is an accurate and reliable method that yields results of appropriate repeatability and reproducibility. This method does not over- or under-estimate levels of steroidal saponins. HPLC/ELSD method does not require each and every pure standard of saponins, to quantify the group of steroidal saponins. The method is a time- and cost-effective technique that is suitable for routine industrial analyses. HPLC/ELSD methods yield a saponin fingerprints specific to the plant species. As the method is capable of distinguishing saponin profiles from taxonomically distant species, it can unravel plant adulteration issues. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. EXTRACTION OF TANNINS AND SAPONINS FROM PLANT SOURCES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON In vitro METHANOGENESIS AND RUMEN FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yuliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to extract tannins from Swietenia mahagony and saponins from Sapindusrarak by using different solvents, and to test their extracts on in vitro rumen fermentation andmethanogenesis. Solvents used for extraction were water, methanol, acetone and their combinations.Tannin and saponin extracts were added into each incubation bottle containing Brachiaria humidicolagrass and Indigofera sp. legume (1:1 w/w according to the following treatments (in four replicates: R1:control substrate, R2: R1 + 0.5 mg/ml tannin extract, R3: R1 + 1 mg/mL tannin extract, R4: R1 + 0.5mg/mL saponin extract, R5: R1 + 1 mg/mL saponin extract, R6: R1 + 0.5 mg/mL tannin extract + 0.5mg/mL saponin extract, and R7: R1 + 1 mg/mL tannin extract + 1 mg/mL saponin extract. Resultsrevealed that 75% water + 25% methanol was the best solvent to extract tannins from S. mahagonywhereas 100% methanol was the best to extract saponins from S. rarak. The highest gas production andthe lowest methane emission were obtained in R7. It can be concluded that combination of tannin andsaponin extracts were potential in mitigating ruminal methane emissions.

  19. Chemical fingerprinting and phylogenetic mapping of saponin congeners from three tropical holothurian sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cruz, Lourdes J; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette

    2013-01-01

    Holothurians are sedentary marine organisms known to produce saponins (triterpene glycosides), secondary metabolites exhibiting a wide range of biological activities. In this paper, we investigated the saponin contents of semi-purified and membranolytic HPLC fractionated extracts from the body wall of three species of Holothuriidae as an attempt to examine its chemical diversity in relation to phylogenetic data. MALDI-FTICR MS and nano-HPLC-chip Q-TOF MS were used for mass profiling and isomer separation, respectively giving a unique chemical saponin fingerprint. Moreover, the methods used yield the highest number of congeners. However, saponin concentration, bioactivity and chemical diversity had no apparent relationship. MS fingerprint showed the presence of holothurinosides, which was observed for the first time in other Holothuria genera besides the basally positioned Holothuria forskali. This congener is proposed to be a primitive character that could be used for taxonomic purposes. The phylogenetic mapping also showed that the glycone part of the compound evolved from non-sulfated hexaosides to sulfated tetraosides, which have higher membranolytic activity and hydrophilicity, the two factors affecting the total ecological activity (i.e. chemical defense) of these compounds. This might be an adaptation to increase the fitness of the organism.

  20. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  1. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis in the non-model Crucifer Plant Barbares Vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye

    are identified and found to be responsible for resistance towards flea beetles (Phyllotreta nemorum) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella). Genes involved in the biosynthesis of these saponins were recently identified, however the complete biosynthetic pathway is not known to date. These findings set...

  2. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  3. Development of NIR calibrations for isoflavone and saponin concentrations in soybeans: data collection and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones and saponins are the major unique phytochemical constituents of soybean seeds. They are essential in preserving the health of germinating seeds, and have been implicated in biochemical roles in both human and animal nutritional health. The accumulation of these compounds in developing se...

  4. Two new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yuan; Teng Fei Ji; Ai Guo Wang; Jian Bo Yang; Ya Lun Su

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the n-BuOH extract from the seeds of Allium cepa L.led to isolation of four furostanol saponins,two of which were new compounds,named ceparoside A (1a) and ceparoside B (2a).The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated through a combination of NMR,MS spectral data and chemical analysis.

  5. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  6. Structure and absolute configuration of helosides A and B, new saponins from Chamaelirium luteum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of Chamaelirium luteum roots led to the isolation of two new steroidal saponins, helosides A and B, that contain a previously unreported aglycone, helogenin. Their structures and absolute configuration were elucidated through MS-MS, NMR, chemical degradation, and X-ray crystallography....

  7. Hypocholesterolemic effect of karaya saponin in Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2011-12-01

    The effect of karaya saponin supplementation on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in egg yolk were investigated in Japanese quails. A total of 80 Japanese quails aged 5 weeks were equally divided into four groups of 20. Four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg feed) of karaya saponin were included in the basal diet and experiment was lasted for 6 weeks. The cholesterol fractions in the egg yolk and serum were measured by enzymatic assay, and the fatty acid composition in egg yolk was determined by gas chromatography. The results revealed that the supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin significantly reduced (p diet. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in egg yolk was increased (p diet than the control diet. The ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acids in egg yolk was improved (p diet. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin may be a feasible means of producing quail eggs with lower cholesterol and higher PUFA content for health conscious consumers.

  8. Three new oleanane triterpenoid saponins acetylated with monoterpenoid acid from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Qingying; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Yuying; Wu, Lijun

    2010-10-01

    Three new minor oleanane triterpenoid saponins acetylated with monoterpenoid acid, julibroside J(32), julibroside J(35) and julibroside J(36), along with one new natural product, prosapogenin 9, were isolated from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the chemical and spectroscopic evidences.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  10. Isolation and characterization of saponin-producing fungal endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yang, Hongyan; You, Xiangling; Li, Yuhua

    2012-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres), and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL). According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  11. Neuroprotective effect of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Raju B; Samaddar, Suman; Simi, S M; Rao, Srinivas T

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective potential of a saponin isolated from the roots of Momordica cymbalaria against peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A steroidal saponin (SMC) was isolated from M. cymbalaria Fenzl and purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Diabetes was induced in male Wister rats by injecting streptozotocin 45 mg/kg. Diabetic rats were divided into six groups for neuroprotective effect--three each for preventive and curative groups. Neuropathic analgesia was assessed by tail-flick and hot-plate methods. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and sciatic nerves were isolated, and histopathological analysis was performed. Antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) of the saponin was also carried out on the isolated DRG neurons and sciatic nerves to assess total oxidative stress. In both preventive and curative protocols, rats administered with SMC showed significant decrease in tail immersion latency time and increase in pain sensitivity when compared to diabetic control group. There was improvement in the myelination and degenerative changes of the nerve fiber in both the groups, and an obvious delay in the progression of neuropathy was evident. SMC treatment showed significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation in the nerves. The steroidal saponin of M. cymbalaria (SMC) possesses potential neuroprotective effect in diabetic peripheral neuropathy with respect to neuropathic analgesia, improvement in neuronal degenerative changes, and significant antioxidant activity.

  12. Separation, Purification, and Cell Proliferative Effect of Saponin and Polysaccharides from Root Tuber of Kosteletzkya virginica%海滨锦葵块根皂苷及多糖的分离、纯化及对细胞增殖活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思宇; 袁亚光; 钦佩; 张鹤云; 张太平

    2013-01-01

    本文报道了海滨锦葵块根中皂苷及多糖的分离、纯化方法,以及皂苷的体外抑制肿瘤细胞增殖活性、多糖的免疫活性的检测.采用超声波法对块根中的皂苷和多糖进行粗提;通过大孔树脂柱层析法对得到的皂苷粗提取物进行纯化;皂苷经酸解得到皂苷元部分;采用DEAE-纤维素柱层析对粗多糖溶液进行提纯.利用MTT比色法测定皂苷对肿瘤细胞HepS增殖的影响以及多糖对胸腺淋巴细胞、脾淋巴细胞增殖的影响.结果表明,海滨锦葵块根皂苷提取率为0.089%,粗多糖提取率为5.10%;海滨锦葵块根皂苷及皂苷元有抑制HepS增殖的作用,皂苷元效果更好;海滨锦葵块根多糖能显著促进淋巴细胞体外增殖,增强体液免疫力.%This paper reported the extraction,separation and purification of saponin and polysaccharides from root tuber of Kosteletzkya virginica. Also, the antiproliferative effect of saponin and the immune-modulating action of polysaccharides were tested. We used ultrasound to extract crude saponin and polysaccharides, and then we use macroporous resin to purify saponin. Saponin was broke down to get the genipin by sulfuric acid. Polysaccharides were purified by column chro-matography on DEAE-cellulose. The effects of saponin on the proliferation of mouse hepatoma cell ( HepS) and effects of polysaccharides on the proliferation of thymus lymphocyte and spleen lymphocyte were detected by MTT colorimetric assay. The results showed that,the saponin extraction rate was 0.089% and the polysaccharides extraction rate was 5. 10%. Saponin and genipin can inhibit the proliferation of HepS significantly, however genipin got better effect. Polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of thymus lymphocyte and spleen lymphocyte, which shows good immune-enhancing action.

  13. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  14. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  15. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P sunflower oil (ANOVA, P sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  16. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Cycle by an Ethyl Acetate Subfraction Separated from Polygonum cuspidatum Root and Its Major Component, Emodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Yiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV lytic cycle. The cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The expression of EBV lytic proteins was analyzed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess the EBV DNA replication and the transcription of lytic genes, including BRLF1 and BZLF1. Results showed that the F3 and its major component emodin inhibit the transcription of EBV immediate early genes, the expression of EBV lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D and reduces EBV DNA replication, showing that F3 and emodin are potentially useful as an anti-EBV drug.

  17. [Determination by high performance chromatography, steroid saponins in a biologically active food supplements containing the extract of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, O I; Perederiaev, O I; Ramenskaia, G V

    2011-01-01

    Steroidal saponins are bioactive substances of Tribulus terrestris and can be used to assess the quality of raw materials and processed products from them. For this purpose has been developed the method of qualitative and quantitative determination of steroidal saponins by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and mass-selective detection and optimal conditions of sample preparation (70% methanol extraction with sonication and heating); also has been studied steroidal saponins composition of Tribulus terrestris (protodioscin, tribulosaponin B, metilprotodiostsin, terrestrozin H, prototribestin, gracillin and others were found).

  18. Determination by UPLC-MS of four dammarane-type saponins from heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Jang, Moonhee; Piao, Xiang-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum and its main dammaran-type saponins, gypenoside L, gypenoside LI, damulin B, and damulin A, possess non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cell inhibitory activity. We established in this study a method by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of the saponins and also investigated their content change in heat-processed G. pentaphyllum. The main saponins increased with increasing heating temperature and time. Further investigation showed that they were produced from gypenoside XLVI and gypenoside LVI by undergoing hydrolysis during the heat treatment.

  19. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  20. Is fucose the answer to the immunomodulatory paradox of Quillaja saponins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J

    2015-12-01

    Quillaja saponins, e.g. QS-21, are immunomodulating aldehyde-carrying triterpene glycosides, which depending on the acylation state of their single fucosyl residue (Fucp) induce either Th1/Th2 or Th2 immunity. Indeed, their changes in immunomodulation or adjuvanticity from Th1/Th2 to sole Th2 immunity, correlate with the presence of acylated and de-acylated Fucp residues, respectively. Thus, it is possible to infer that the single Fucp residue is responsible for the Th2 immunity biasing induced by de-acylated Q. saponins (QT-0101). That removal of the fucosylated oligosaccharide from de-acylated Q. saponins results once more in the induction of Th1/Th2 immunity supports the Fucp role in polarizing the response toward Th2 immunity. From structural and functional analogies with the helminths' fucosylated glycans, it is possible to infer that these saponins' Fucp must bind to the lectin DC-SIGN on dendritic cells (DC). This binding to DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin that shows significant pliability in its binding interactions, must result in polarization toward Th2 while inhibiting Th1 immunity. Apparently, acylation of the Fucp by large fatty acids sterically hinders this sugar from binding to DC-SIGN, preventing a biasing to Th2 immunity. Evidently, de-acylation of Q. saponins may negatively affect vaccines requiring Th1 immunity for immune protection, particularly those against pathogens that use DC-SIGN to infect DCs and modulate Th2 immunity. However, it could be valuable in vaccines that require a sole Th2 immunity, like those against proteinopathies, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. Hence, it would valuable to elucidate the possible interactions between DC-SIGN and the QT-0101 immunomodulator.

  1. Evaluation of efficacy of saponin and freund's incomplete adjuvanted paratuberculosis vaccine in murine model

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    Jubeda Begum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy between saponin adjuvanted paratuberculosis killed vaccine and Freund's incomplete (FIC adjuvanted paratuberculosis vaccine in mice model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 11 months using 80 Swiss albino mice by dividing into four groups (Group I-mice vaccinated with killed Mycobacterium avium subspp. paratuberculosis (MAP adjuvanted with saponin, Group II- for FIC, Group III- Saponin control and Gr IV- FIC control. Faecal shedding, changes in body weight, presence of local reactions and clinical symptoms, were evaluated. Serological assays for humoral and cell mediated immune response were determined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and nitric oxide test (NO respectively. A total of 76 serum samples, 52 faecal samples and 20 tissue samples were collected at different intervals during the study period. ZN staining; AGID test and nitric oxide test were employed for analysis of samples. Results: A total of 38 samples (37 faecal and 1 tissue sample and 18 serum samples were recorded as positive by ZN staining and AGID test respectively from all four groups of mice. Significant decrease in faecal shedding of organisms was observed in Group I mice vaccinated with saponin adjuvanted vaccine in comparison to Group II. Gain in body weight of Group I mice was recorded as higher than Group II. NO test revealed increase in the concentration of NO level in both vaccinated group but more significant in Group I. Conclusion: The tests results obtained revealed that killed MAP vaccine adjuvanted with saponin have higher protective efficacy in terms of reduced faecal shedding, gain in body weight, less side effects, absence of attributable specific symptoms of Johne's disease, etc. in comparison to killed MAP vaccine adjuvanted with FIC. The present study also reveals that AGID and NO estimation tests are specific tests which can be employed for diagnosis and comparison of efficacy of paratuberculosis

  2. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  3. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

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    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  4. Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes.

  5. Studies on cocktails of 31-kDa, 36-kDa and 51-kDa antigens of Leishmania donovani along with saponin against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, H; Thakur, A; Kaur, S

    2015-04-01

    A substantial number of antigens of Leishmania donovani have been described in the past. However, identifying candidate antigens is not enough. Appropriate antigen delivery to induce the right type of immune response against leishmaniasis (i.e. induction of a strong antigen-specific Th1 type of immune response) is another crucial component of an effective vaccine. Therefore, 'cocktail' vaccines are proposed based on the assumption that such cocktails will show enhanced efficacy. Studies have been carried out on LD31 and LD51 polypeptides from L. donovani promastigotes, which have proven to be potential vaccine candidates. This study was designed to check the protective efficacy of various cocktails of low molecular weight antigens alone and along with saponin as adjuvant. Mice were sacrificed on different post-challenge days for evaluation of parasite load and other immunological parameters. Protective efficacy of different vaccine formulations was revealed by significant decline in parasite burden and increased DTH Delayed Type Hypersenstivity responses. The antibody response was of IgG type with elevated IgG2a and decreased production of IgG1, whereas cytokine levels pointed towards the generation of protective Th1 type of immune response. Among all vaccine formulations, cocktail of 31+51+saponin was found to be highly immunogenic and imparted maximum protection.

  6. ENZYME HYDROLYSIS OF SOYBEAN SAPONIN SUGAR-MOIETY%酶法水解大豆苷中的含糖部分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 徐龙权; 翟滨; 苏志国; 金凤燮

    2001-01-01

    @@ Saponin is the general name of low polymerized glycosides and in which the steroid or terpenoid is aglycone.The soybean saponin is composed of the triterpenoid aglycones (sapogenols)and sugar-moiety.Soybean saponin was divided into group A,group B,group E and group DDMP by the aglycones[1-3].It has been shown that soybean saponin has a lot of physiological activities and pharmacological action.For example,it can be used to resist cancer,adjust immunity,prevent and treat heart blood vessel disease.In addition, soybean saponin has been extensively used in cosmetics.However,the soybean saponin has dry mouth feel(DMF)which decreases the quality of soybean food products.Many facts have verified that sugar-moiety is very important to the biological activity of saponin[4].For example,in ginseng saponin of binary alcohol,the saponins which contain five sugar-moieties such as Ra1,Ra2,Ra3,have low activity,however,saponins containing one sugar-moiety like Rh2 have very strong activity of resisting cancer.When the sugar-moiety of soybean saponin was removed out,some special activities like resisting oxidation and resisting thrombus emerged and the DMF would decrease.But,reports concerning the sugar-moiety hydrolysis of soybean saponin by enzyme have not been found.In the paper,the enzyme hydrolysis of soybean saponin sugar-moiety and the strains producing hydrolytic enzyme of saponin were studied.

  7. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stephane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (Pstevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (Pstevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal

  8. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  9. Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

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    Yadollah Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core, and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins.

  10. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  11. Chemical investigation of saponins from twelve annual Medicago species and their bioassay with the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tava, Aldo; Pecetti, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    The saponin and sapogenin composition of the aerial growth of 12 annual Medicago species sampled at full senescence were investigated. Saponins were extracted from the plant material and obtained in a highly pure grade by reverse-phase chromatography, with a yield ranging from 0.38 +/- 0.04% to 1.35 +/- 0.08% dry matter, depending on the species. Sapogenins were then obtained after acid hydrolysis of saponins, and evaluated by GC/FID and GC/MS methods. Different compositions of the aglycone moieties were observed in the 12 Medicago species. Medicagenic acid was the dominant aglycone in M. x blancheana, M. doliata, M. littoralis, M. rotata, M. rugosa, M. scutellata, M. tornata and M. truncatula, bayogenin and hederagenin in M. arabica and M. rigidula, echinocystic acid in M. polymorpha, and soyasapogenol B in M. aculeata. The purified saponin mixtures, characterized by different chemical compositions, were then used in a toxicity test using the brine shrimp Artemia salina. The most active compounds were the saponins from M. arabica and M. rigidula with LD50 values of 10.1 and 4.6 microg/mL, respectively. A structure-activity relationship for the tested saponin mixtures was observed.

  12. Panax notoginseng saponins mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inhibit marrow adiposity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing-Zheng; Wang, Yi; Meng, Yan; Li, Guan-Wu; Chang, Shi-Xin; Nian, Hua; Liang, Yong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Previous data have suggested that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) can prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by dual action: stimulation of new bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. Marrow adipogenesis has been identified as a negative indicator of skeletal strength and integrity. This study assessed the effects of early PNS supplementation on bone microarchitecture preservation and marrow fat content in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups for 12 weeks of treatment: (1) sham operation (SHAM) + vehicle; (2) ovariectomy (OVX) + vehicle; (3) OVX + 17β-estradiol (25 μg/kg); (4) OVX + PNS (300 mg/kg/d, PO). Marrow fat content of the femur was determined, using fat/water magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks after operation. At the end of the experiment, bone turnover, trabecular microarchitecture, and marrow adipocytes were assessed by serum biomarkers, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histopathology, respectively. The effects of PNS on adipocytic differentiation were reflected by expression levels of the adipogenic genes PPARγ2 and C/EBPα, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Ovariectomized rats experienced remarkable increases in marrow fat content across time points, which were accompanied by elevated rate of bone turnover, global volumetric bone density, and trabecular microarchitecture deterioration. These OVX-induced pathological changes are reversible in that most of them could be mostly corrected upon 17β-estradiol treatment. PNS treatment significantly reduced marrow adipogenesis (adipocyte density, -27.2%; size, -22.7%; adipocyte volume-to-tissue volume ratio, -53.3%; all P bone mass loss and microarchitecture deterioration. Moreover, PNS enhanced osteoblast activity but suppressed osteoclast turnover, as evidenced by decreased levels of serum C-terminal telopeptides of type

  13. Intake of total saponins and polysaccharides from Polygonatum kingianum affects the gut microbiota in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongli; Lu, Jianmei; Wang, Yanfang; Gu, Wen; Yang, Xingxin; Yu, Jie

    2017-03-15

    The gut microbiota has been reported to play a critical role in metabolic diseases, including in diabetes. Polygonatum kingianum has been used in the treatment of diabetes and related diseases in China for centuries. Total saponins (TSPK) and total polysaccharides (PSPK) were reported to be major types of active constituents of P. kingianum. This research aims at investigation of their therapeutical mechanisms on diabetes based on the regulation of gut microbiota. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats were induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin-injection from male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The blood biochemical indicators were measured. Intestinal microbial diversities and the overall structural changes in gut microbiota and the contents of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were discussed. T2D rats were treated with TSPK (0.025 and 0.1g/kg) and PSPK (0.1g/kg) for 56 days. Major biochemical indexes, such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were measured. Intestinal microbial diversities and the overall structural changes in gut microbiota were discussed based on the sequencing results on V4 region of 16S rDNA. Moreover, the contents of the SCFAs in faeces, which were fermentation products produced from gut microbiota were determined by gas chromatography (GC). Oral administration of TSPK and PSPK prevented the increase of FBG. TSPK (0.025g/kg) enhancing the content of FINS at the end of research. Furthermore, TSPK and PSPK improved the intestinal microecology by decreasing the abundances of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and increasing that of Firmicutes. However, TSPK.L, PSPK and TSPK.H displayed discrepant regulation roles on Firmicutes. TSPK.L and PSPK significantly increased the abundance of Ruminococcaceae family and Ruminococcus genus in Firmicutes phylum, however, TSPK.H increased the abundances of Veillonellaceae family and Anaerovibrio genus. 57 Key variables, altered after treated by TSPK and PSPK

  14. Isolation and evaluation of cytogenetic effect of Brahmi saponins on cultured human lymphocytes exposed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachaveedu, Mangathayaru; Papacchan, Sunu; Sanyal, Sudip; Koshy, Teena; Telapolu, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Major saponins of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera, Fam: Scrophulariaceae) - bacosides A and B - were isolated from the total methanol extract and characterised based on melting point, TLC, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. They were evaluated for their in vitro cytogenetic effects on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. The frequency of chromatid type aberrations and reciprocal interchanges between sister chromatids in the treated cells was scored in comparison to the untreated control. At 30 μg/mL dose, bacoside A showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of both CA and SCE and bacoside B showed an increase only in SCE. Our report of the genotoxicity of the saponins is significant in view of the reports of anticancer activity of Brahmi extracts.

  15. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

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    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Keanekarragamann Beberapa Varietas Sansevieria trifasciata berdasarkan Karakter Anatomi, Isozim, dan Kandungan Saponin

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    WHIKA FEBRI DEWATISARI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Sansevieria is an ornamental plant which has variation on leaves color and shape. The aim of this research was to investigate anatomical structure (leaves, stem and root of five cultivars of Sansevieria trifasciata namely Green tiger, Hahnii medio picta, Green arrow, Golden hahni, and Hahnii cream, as well as isozymic banding pattern and saponin constituent. The results indicated that those five cultivars have genetic variation. Hahnii medio picta has unique morphological shape than the others, while Green arrow has different stalk cells than the others. The dendogram resulting from peroxidase data, S. trifasciata was clustered in two groups where Hahnii medio picta has its own group. The esterase data is also showing two groups, where Golden Hahnii has its own group. The saponin constituent was found in the all five cultivars, which Golden Hahnii had the highest content, i.e. 1.77783 mg/g and 1.5810 mg/gag respectively for leaves and roots.

  17. Isolation, characterization, and quantification of steroidal saponins in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Mitchell, Robert B; Wang, Zhirui; Heiss, Christian; Gardner, Dale R; Azadi, Parastoo

    2009-03-25

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified for development into an efficient and environmentally friendly biomass energy crop. A recent 5 year study demonstrated that switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540% more energy than what is needed to grow, harvest, and process it into cellulosic ethanol. If switchgrass is grown on a scale useful for a bioenergy source, some of the material could be used by livestock as hay or pasture. Switchgrass has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs (Ovis aries) and horses (Equus caballus). In this study, a simple extraction and rapid reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantifying the major saponins in switchgrass samples. Differences in the relative concentrations of different saponins were observed between switchgrass cultivars and plant parts.

  18. A PAIR OF 24-HYDROPEROXYL EPIMERIC DAMMARANE SAPONINS FROM FLOWER-BUDS OF PANAX GINSENG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG QIU; ZHONG-ZE MA; SUI-XU XU; XIN-SHENG YAO; CHUN-TAO CHE; YING-JIE CHEN

    2001-01-01

    Further investigation on the saponins of the flower-buds of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of a pair of new 24-epimers of dammarane type saponins named ginsenoside I and II. The structures of the epimers were characterized on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence as 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-S-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S)-trihydroxy-24ξ-hydroperoxydam-mar-25-ene, except for their C-24 configurations. Ginsenoside Ⅰ is a new triterpene glycoside,and ginsenoside Ⅱ is a known compound first isolated from a natural plant.

  19. Panax Notoginseng Saponins Ameliorates Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis by Activating the Cystathionine-γ-Lyase/Hydrogen Sulfide Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lulu; Zhang, Yuanhai; Lu, Jiacheng; Geng, Zhimin; Jia, Lianhong; Rong, Xing; Wang, Zhenquan; Zhao, Qifeng; Wu, Rongzhou; Chu, Maoping; Zhang, Chunxiang

    2015-12-01

    This study is to determine the therapeutic effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) on coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis, and whether cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pathway is involved. Mouse model of myocarditis was induced by CVB3 infection, and the mice were subjected to vehicle (saline) or drug treatments (sodium bisulfide (NaHS), propargylglycine (PAG), or PNSs). The results showed that there were inflammatory cell infiltrations, interstitial edemas, and elevated inflammatory cytokines, in CVB3-induced myocarditis. PAG administration increased, whereas NaHS treatment decreased the severity of the myocarditis. PNS treatment dramatically alleviated these myocardial injuries and decreased the viral messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by the enhanced expression of CSE/H2S pathway. Moreover, the therapeutic effects of PNSs on myocarditis were stronger than those of NaHS. Finally, the effect of PNSs on CSE/H2S pathway and cardiac cell protection were verified in cultured cardiac cells. PNSs may be a promising medication for viral myocarditis therapy.

  20. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber ameliorate obesity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqian; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming

    2012-10-01

    Much attention has been focused on food components that may be beneficial in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) on high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver in mice. C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet, containing 0.03% SSC, or 0.1% SSC for 8 weeks. Both doses of SSC exhibited a weight-loss effect and significantly decreased adipose tissue weight, in both visceral and subcutaneous depots. Furthermore, 0.1% SSC treatment dramatically decreased the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol accumulation. Mice administrated with 0.1% SSC had significantly decreased serum glucose and insulin levels, lower homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index, and area under the blood glucose curve, suggesting that insulin sensitivity is enhanced by dietary SSC. Dietary SSC also prevented adipokine imbalance, by increasing adiponectin production and decreasing tumor necrosis factor alpha level caused by high-fat diet. Overall, these data demonstrate that SSC could improve certain metabolic parameters associated with obesity.

  1. Sapindus saponins' impact on hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria strains after short- and long-term contact with pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Łuczak, Marta; Krawczyk, Piotr; Jesionowski, Teofil; Kaczorek, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of high toxicity petroleum contaminants to the natural environment causes damage to ecosystems and the aesthetics of the surroundings. Therefore it is critical to enhance microbial community performance to manage the degradation process. This paper analyses the effect of natural surfactants from the tree Sapindus mukorossi on biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Analysis of cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential confirmed effective modifications of the cell surface parameters essential for the bioavailability of contaminants to microorganisms. Interestingly, favorable differences were observed only for microorganisms from non-contaminated soil. There was also recorded an increase in diesel oil biodegradation to 41% for Sphingomonas sp. and 56% for Pseudomonas alcaligenes on addition of 100mgL(-1) of Sapindus saponins. The addition of natural surfactants has no significant impact on bacterial strains isolated from long-term contaminated soil. This research demonstrates that the addition of Sapindus extract could be a useful tool to improve the effectiveness of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants by environmental strains in recently contaminated.

  2. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  3. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  4. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  5. Flavonol glycosides and steroidal saponins from the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Watanabe, K; Ando, Y; Sakuma, C; Sashida, Y; Furuya, S; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides (1, 2) and seven steroidal saponins (3-9), including four new ones (4, 6, 7, and 9). The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against human oral squamous cell carcinoma-(HSC-2) cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts are reported.

  6. Synthesis and crystal structures of C24-epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang Rong; Yang, Jing Jing; Liu, Juan; Hou, Gui Ge; Meng, Qing Guo

    2016-06-01

    Ocotillol-type saponins have a wide spectrum of biological activities. Previous studies indicated that the configuration at the C24 position may be responsible for their stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. Natural ocotillol-type saponins share a 20(S)-form but it has been found that the 20(R)-stereoisomers have different pharmacological effects. The semisynthesis of 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins has not been reported and it is therefore worthwhile clarifying their crystal structures. Two C24 epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins, namely (20R,24S)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol, C30H52O4, (III), and (20R,24R)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol monohydrate, C30H52O4·H2O, (IV), were synthesized, and their structures were elucidated by spectral studies and finally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The (Me)C-O-C-C(OH) torsion angle of (III) is 146.41 (14)°, whereas the corresponding torsion angle of (IV) is -146.4 (7)°, indicating a different conformation at the C24 position. The crystal stacking in (III) generates an R4(4)(8) motif, through which the molecules are linked into a one-dimensional double chain. The chains are linked via nonclassical C-H...O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network, and further stacked into a three-dimensional structure. In contrast to (III), epimer (IV) crystallizes as a hydrate, in which the water molecules act as hydrogen-bond donors linking one-dimensional chains into a two-dimensional network through intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains extend helically along the crystallographic a axis and generate a C4(4)(8) motif.

  7. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Sharma; Satish Chandra Sati; Om Prakash Sati; Maneesha Dobhal Sati; Sudhir Kumar Kothiyal; Deepak Kumar Semwal; Anil Mehta

    2013-01-01

    A new acetylated triterpenoid saponin elucidated as hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (2→1)-[3-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylester has been isolated from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structure of the compound was determined by means of chemical and spectral analysis including advanced 2D NMR studies. The ethanolic extract from pericarps of the plant showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against various test organisms by Agar well diffusion m...

  8. A new friedelane triterpenoid and saponin with moderate antimicrobial activity from the stems of Drypetes laciniata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone Veronique Fannang; Victor Kuete; Celine Mbazoa Djama; Marlise Diane J. Dongfack; Jean Duplex Wansi; Francois Tillequin; Elisabeth Seguin; Elizabeth Chosson; Jean Wandji

    2011-01-01

    A new friedelane-type triterpene named 3β-hydroxyfriedelane-7,12,22-trione, as well as nine known compounds were isolated from the whole stems of Drypetes laciniata Hutch. (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The new triterpene derivative and a known saponin were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities and they appeared to be moderate active.

  9. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y C; Lin, C L; Chen, B H

    2010-12-15

    A preparative column chromatographic method was developed to isolate flavonoids and saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a Chinese Medicinal herb, and evaluate their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell Hep3B, with the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3) being used for comparison. Initially the powdered G. pentaphyllum was extracted with ethanol, followed by eluting flavonoids and saponins with ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) and 100% ethanol, respectively, in an open-column containing 5 g of Cosmosil 75C(18)-OPN, and then subjected to HPLC-MS analysis. The flavonoid fraction was mainly composed of quercetin- and kaempferol-glycosides, while in saponin fraction, both ginsenoside Rb(3) and ginsenoside Rd dominated. Both fractions were more effective against Hep3B cells than the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3), with the cell cycle being arrested at G0/G1 phase for all the treatments. Additionally, the inhibition effect followed a dose-dependent increase for all the sample treatments. The result of this study may be used as a basis for possible phytopreparations in the future with G. pentaphyllum as raw material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation, chemical characterization and biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins from alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. roots were isolated and their acid hydrolysis revealed several aglycones that were obtained in crystalline form and characterized. Medicagenic acid, hederagenin and soyasapogenols A. B, C. D, E and F were found. Crude saponins were separated into cholesterol-precipitable and nonprecipitable fractions. The precipitable fraction consisted of medicagenic acid glycosides: glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose were found as their sugar chain components. The nonprecipitable fraction was a mixture of hederagenine and soyasapogenol glycosides, and glucose arthinose. xylose. galactose and glucuronic acid were found in the sugar component,. 7 he medicagenic acid glycosides made up 6% of root dry matter and showed high biological activity. They cuased red blood cells lysis (haemolytic index 3000, completely inhibited Trichoderma viride growth at the concentration of 2.5 Mg. 100 cm-3 of growth medium and retarded wheat seedling growth at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. The cholesterol-nonprecipitable fraction caused no blood cell lysis and fungus growth inhibition, although it did inhibit seedling growth, but to a much lesser extent than medicagenic acrd glycosides. The detrimental effect of alfalfa root saponins on winter wheat crop after alfalfa is discussed.

  13. Simplification of a haemolytic micromethod for toxic saponin quantification in alfalfa

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    Piotr M. Górski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simplification of a haemolytic micromethod is presented. In the orginal method, alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. leaf sap is spotted on the plate covered with a blood-gelatine suspension. In the presented method, the mashed alfalfa pulp is used instead of sap. Due to saponin diffusion and the reaction with erythrocytes, a haemolytic ring appears, which has a width proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. It is shown that the width of haemolytic ring does not depend on the sample weight ranging from 20 to 100 mg. This allows for the omission of laborious sap pressing and sample quantification. Individual alfalfa plants with different saponin contents were tested using leaf sap and leaf pulp for analyses. Good agreement was found with sap and leaf pulp methods. The correlation obtained by both methods was high, r = 0.87. The modified method requires only a small amount of plant material and makes the analyses of large numbers of individual plants per day possible. The method is especially recommended for breeding purposes.

  14. Smashing Tissue Extraction and HPLC Determination of Active Saponins from Different Parts of Panax notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Sheng-ming; LIU Yan-ze; TAI Wen; CHEN Chang-qing; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology used for extracting active saponins from the roots,fibrous roots,basal part of stems,root verrucae,fruits,flowers,stems,and leaves of Panax notoginseng based on the contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 as evaluation indexes.Methods Different parts of P.notoginseng were extracted by smashing tissue extraction(STE),ultrasound extraction,and reflux extraction.The contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 in 24 kinds of extracts were determined by HPLC-UV.Hypersil C18 column(200 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm)and acetonitrile-warter(20:80 for 30 min→45:55 for 18 min→70:30 for 2 min→80:20 for 10 min→100:0)were used;UV detector was set at 203 nm;The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min.Results STE was the most efficient technology with the highest yield of active saponins among the three tested extraction technologies.Conclusion STE is a fast,effective,and economical method to extract the active saponins from different parts of P.notoginseng.It could significantly shorten the extraction time and simplify the determination of the pre-processing work on identifying P.notoginseng.Such quick and effective extraction provides a powerful tool for analyzing P.notoginseng in the future.

  15. Effect of steroidal saponin from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Yanke, L J; Cheeke, P R

    2000-05-01

    The effects of steroidal saponins (SAP) isolated from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal bacteria and fungi were investigated in pure culture studies. Prevotella bryantii, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Selenomonas ruminantium and Streptococcus bovis were cultured through ten 24-h transfers in ruminal fluid medium containing 0 or 25 microg SAP ml-1 (measured as smilagenin equivalents). The four strains, each non-exposed or pre-exposed to SAP, were then inoculated into medium containing 0 or 250 microgram smilagenin equivalents ml-1 and 24-h growth curves were determined. The cellulolytic ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Rc. albus were cultured for 72 h on Whatman no. 1 filter paper in medium containing 0, 9, 90 or 180 microgram SAP ml-1 for the determination of filter paper digestion and endoglucanase activity. The ruminal bacteria differed in their responses to SAP. Steroidal saponins in the medium reduced the growth of Strep. bovis (P 0.05) between pre-exposed and non-exposed cultures and the concentrations of total SAP and soluble (deglycosylated) SAP in the liquid fraction were unchanged (P > 0.05) over time. Steroidal saponins inhibited the digestion of filter paper by all three cellulolytic bacteria, but F. succinogenes was less (P schidigera inhibit cellulolytic ruminal bacteria and fungi, but their effects on amylolytic bacteria are species dependent and similar to the effects of ionophores. As such, SAP may be useful in nutritional applications targeting starch-digesting ruminal micro-organisms.

  16. Isolation of Nematicidal Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana Root and Their Activities against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Soo Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24–31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC50 value of 92.8 μg/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC50 values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 μg/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies and its saponin and non-saponin fractions on rat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, C F; Killeen, G F; Connolly, C D; Power, R F

    2001-07-01

    Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies, family Lillaceae, was fractionated with butan-1-ol to yield a butanol extractable fraction (BE; saponin fraction) and a non-butanol fraction (NBE; non-saponin fraction). Four groups of eight male rats were allowed ad libitum access to diets supplemented with water (control) or 200 mg x kg(-1) total Y. schidigera (TOT) or 200 mg x kg(-1) of each of the fractions (NBE or BE). The effects of dietary supplementation with the fractions and their interactions in TOT were analyzed according to the factorial experimental design by two-way analysis of variance. All three supplementation groups displayed significantly reduced serum urea levels (P < 0.05). The TOT and NBE fractions were found to significantly increase serum insulin levels (P < 0.01) in the absence of any fluctuations in serum glucose levels. Urea cycle enzyme activities, namely, arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) and argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1), were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in vivo, although no effect was observed in vitro. Both fractions displayed effects, indicating that the active constituents are present in both fractions.

  18. Purification of saponins from leaves of Panax notoginseng using preparative two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiujie; Zhang, Xiuli; Feng, Jiatao; Guo, Zhimou; Xiao, Yuansheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-04-01

    Saponins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and have been shown to be active components of many medicinal herbs. In this study, a two-dimensional purification method based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was successfully applied to purify saponins from leaves of Panax notoginseng. Nine saponin reference standards were used to test the separation modes and columns. The standards could not be resolved using C18 columns owing to their limited polar selectivity. However, they were completely separated on a XAmide column in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode, including two pairs of standards that were coeluted on a C18 column. The elution order of the standards on the two columns was sufficiently different, with a correlation coefficient between retention times on the C18 and XAmide columns of 0.0126, indicating good column orthogonality. Therefore, the first-dimension preparation was performed on a C18 column, followed by a XAmide column that was used to separate the fractions in the second dimension. Fifty-four fractions were prepared in the first dimension, with 25 fractions rich in saponins. Eight saponins, including two pairs of isomeric saponins and one new saponin, were isolated and identified from three representative fractions. This procedure was shown to be an effective approach for the preparative isolation and purification of saponins from leaves of P. notoginseng. Moreover, this method could possibly be employed in the purification of low-content and novel active saponins from natural products.

  19. Effect of alirocumab on specific lipoprotein non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and subfractions as measured by the vertical auto profile method: analysis of 3 randomized trials versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Hamon, Sara C; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth S; Joshi, Parag H; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Banerjee, Poulabi; Hanotin, Corinne; Roth, Eli M; McKenney, James M

    2016-02-13

    The effect of alirocumab on potentially atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions was assessed in a post hoc analysis using the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. Patients from three Phase II studies with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 2.59 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) at baseline on stable statin therapy were randomised to receive subcutaneous alirocumab 50-150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 150-300 mg every 4 weeks (according to study) or placebo for 8-12 weeks. Samples from patients treated with alirocumab 150 mg Q2W (n = 74; dose common to all three trials) or placebo (n = 71) were analysed by VAP. Percent change in lipoprotein subfractions with alirocumab vs. placebo was analysed at Weeks 6, 8 or 12 using analysis of covariance. Alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and the cholesterol content of subfractions LDL1, LDL2 and LDL3+4. Significant reductions were also observed in triglycerides, apolipoproteins CII and CIII and the cholesterol content of very low-density, intermediate-density, and remnant lipoproteins. Alirocumab achieved reductions across a spectrum of atherogenic lipoproteins in patients receiving background statin therapy. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT01288443, NCT01288469, NCT01266876.

  20. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  1. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Asad, B Syed; Fazil, MA; Sudharshan, RD; Rasheed, SA; Pradeep, HA; Aboobacker, S; Thayyil, AH; Riyaz, AK; Mansoor, M; Aleem, MA; Zeeyauddin, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Anjum, A; Ibrahim, M

    2012-01-01

    Aim This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70%) by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days) attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) sleeping time in rats. Results Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl4. Conclusion The above findings lead to the conclusion that the saponin fraction of S. mukorossi has a protective capability both in vitro on primary hepatocyte cultures and in vivo in a rat model of CCl4-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest that the inclusion of this S. mukorossi fruit pericarp in the management of liver disorders is justified. PMID:22888266

  2. Triterpenoid Saponins from Cortex Albiziae%合欢皮中的三萜皂苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹坤; 赵玉英; 张如意

    2008-01-01

    Cortex Albiziae, the dried stem bark of a leguminous plant, Albizia julibrissin Durazz, was specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edit.) as a traditional Chinese medicine to be used to relieve melancholia and uneasiness of body and mind, to invigorate the circulation of blood and subside a swelling. In a course of our quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines, the n-BuOH soluble part of 95% EtOH extracts from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin was subjected to a series of solvent treatment and chromatographic separations, including Rp-HPLC methods, giving rise to 28 pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins. Based on chemical methods and spectroscopic evidences, the structures of saponins were identified, which included six pairs of diastereoisomers, five pairs of position isomers, and 26 of them were new compounds. All the saponins are trisdesmosidic saponins, which are composed of an acacic acid moiety, 7-9 monosaccharide moieties, 1-2 monoterpenic acid moieties, and exhibited their molecular ion peaks around m/z 2 000. Their carbon-13 signals and most of proton signals were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The proton and carbon signals of several known saponins were revised and reassigned. The spectroscopic properties related to these saponins were analyzed and summarized. The cytotoxic activity and other activities of these saponins and their analogues were discussed also.%合欢皮作为传统中药,为豆科植物合欢的干燥茎皮.在1995年版中国药典中记载合欢皮具有解郁安神、活血化瘀的作用.在我们对传统中药品质进行研究的过程中,通过对合欢皮95%乙醇提取物的正丁醇可溶部位进行一系列溶剂处理和层析分离,分离获得28个五环三萜皂苷.基于化学和波谱证据,我们鉴定了它们的结构,包括6对非对映异构体、5对位置异构体,其中26个皂苷为新化合物.所有分离皂苷均为三糖链皂苷,含有金合欢酸皂苷元,7~9个单糖和1~2

  3. Contribution of water-soluble and insoluble components and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the reactive oxygen species-generating potential of fine ambient aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Rico-Martinez, Roberto; Kotra, Neel; King, Laura; Liu, Jiumeng; Snell, Terry W; Weber, Rodney J

    2012-10-16

    Relative contributions of water- and methanol-soluble compounds and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating potential of ambient fine aerosols (D(p) Hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were then subsequently segregated via a C-18 solid phase extraction column. The DTT assay response was significantly higher for the methanol extract, and for both extracts a substantial fraction of PM oxidative potential was associated with the hydrophobic compounds as evident from a substantial attenuation in DTT response after passing PM extracts through the C-18 column (64% for water and 83% for methanol extract; both median values). The DTT activities of water and methanol extracts were correlated with the water-soluble (R = 0.86) and water-insoluble organic carbon (R = 0.94) contents of the PM, respectively. Brown carbon (BrC), which predominantly represents the hydrophobic organic fraction (referred to as humic-like substances, HULIS), was also correlated with DTT activity in both the water (R = 0.78) and methanol extracts (R = 0.83). Oxidative potential was not correlated with any metals measured in the extracts. These findings suggest that the hydrophobic components of both water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols substantially contribute to the oxidative properties of ambient PM. Further investigation of these hydrophobic organic compounds could help identify sources of a significant fraction of ambient aerosol toxicity.

  4. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  5. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  6. Feeding saponin-containing Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtshausen, L; Chaves, A V; Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Odongo, N E; Cheeke, P R; Benchaar, C

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in vitro to determine whether the addition of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera or Quillaja saponaria reduces methane production without impairing ruminal fermentation or fiber digestion. A slightly lower dose of saponin was then fed to lactating dairy cows to evaluate effects on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total-tract nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A 24-h batch culture in vitro incubation was conducted in a completely randomized design with a control (no additive, CON) and 3 doses of either saponin source [15, 30, and 45 g/kg of substrate dry matter (DM)] using buffered ruminal fluid from 3 dairy cows. The in vivo study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 groups of cows, 3 treatments, and three 28-d periods. Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in group 1 and 6 intact cows in group 2 (627 +/- 55 kg of body weight and 155 +/- 28 d in milk). The treatments were 1) early lactation total mixed ration, no additive (control; CON); 2) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Y. schidigera powder at 10 g/kg of DM (YS); and 3) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Q. saponaria powder at 10 g/kg of DM (QS). Methane production was measured in environmental chambers and with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique. In vitro, increasing levels of both saponin sources decreased methane concentration in the headspace and increased the proportion of propionate in the buffered rumen fluid. Concentration of ammonia-N, acetate proportion, and the acetate:propionate ratio in the buffered rumen fluid as well as 24-h digestible neutral detergent fiber were reduced compared with the CON treatment. Medium and high saponin levels decreased DM digestibility compared with the CON treatment. A lower feeding rate of both saponin sources (10 g/kg of DM) was used in vivo in an attempt to avoid potentially negative effects of higher saponin levels on feed digestibility. Feeding saponin did not affect milk

  7. Determination of antibacterial activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents in leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the antibacterial property and quantify the contents of the total phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the method described by Harborne in 1999. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used for assaying the antibacterial activity. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were employed for the estimation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Vanillin-acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture was employed in the determination of the total saponin content. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and steroids in the methanolic extract while alkaloids were absent. Only steroids were identified in then-hexane extract. The methanolic leaf extract was active againstPseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus aureus,Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris while then-hexane was inactive. The total phenolic content obtained was (47.75 ± 0.12) mg gallic acid equivalent/mg extract, the total flavonoid content was (121.50 ± 0.11) mg quercetin equivalent/mg extract, while the total saponin content was (63.42 ± 0.15) mg ginsenoside Rb 1 equivalent/mg extract. Conclusions:The leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus have high contents of saponins and flavonoids.

  8. Metabolite profiling of triterpene saponins in Medicago truncatula hairy roots by liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollier, Jacob; Morreel, Kris; Geelen, Danny; Goossens, Alain

    2011-06-24

    Triterpenes are one of the largest classes of plant natural products, with an enormous variety in structure and bioactivities. Here, triterpene saponins from hairy roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula were profiled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC ESI FT-ICR MS). Owing to the accuracy of the FT-ICR MS, reliable molecular formulas of the detected compounds could be predicted, which, together with the generated MS(n) spectra, allowed the tentative identification of 79 different saponins, of which 61 had not been detected previously in M. truncatula. Upon collision-induced dissociation of saponins that contain a uronic acid residue in the sugar chain, fragment ions resulting from cross-ring cleavages of the uronic acid residues were observed. The identified saponins are glycosides of 10 different sapogenins, of which three were not detected before in M. truncatula. Zanhic acid glycosides, which are prevalent in the aerial parts of M. truncatula, were absent in the hairy root extracts. This metabolite compendium will facilitate future functional genomic studies of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in M. truncatula.

  9. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  10. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs.

  11. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r(2) = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  12. The amphiphilic nature of saponins and their effects on artificial and biological membranes and potential consequences for red blood and cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Joseph H; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule

    2014-11-28

    Saponins, amphiphiles of natural origin with numerous biological activities, are widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Some saponins exhibit relatively selective cytotoxic effects on cancer cells but the tendency of saponins to induce hemolysis limits their anticancer potential. This review focused on the effects of saponin activity on membranes and consequent implications for red blood and cancer cells. This activity seems to be strongly related to the amphiphilic character of saponins that gives them the ability to self-aggregate and interact with membrane components such as cholesterol and phospholipids. Membrane interactions of saponins with artificial membrane models, red blood and cancer cells are reviewed with respect to their molecular structures. The review considered the mechanisms of these membrane interactions and their consequences including the modulation of membrane dynamics, interaction with membrane rafts, and membrane lysis. We summarized current knowledge concerning the mechanisms involved in the interactions of saponins with membrane lipids and examined the structure activity relationship of saponins regarding hemolysis and cancer cell death. A critical analysis of these findings speculates on their potential to further develop new anticancer compounds.

  13. Application of foam column as green technology for concentration of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana and Juá (Ziziphus joazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saponins, molecules classified as triterpenic or steroidal glycosides, are metabolites distributed in all the plant kingdom that can be used for the production of foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as in soil bioremediation. Saponins are normally extracted from natural resources with water, ethanol and/or methanol, and then concentrated by liquid-liquid partitioning with n-butanol. An alternative concentration method is with a foam column, by which the saponins can be concentrated via preferential adsorption at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the objective of this work was the use of a foam column for the concentration of saponins from juá and sisal, evaluating parameters such as: initial working volume in the column, saponin concentration in the extracts from juá and sisal, air flow rate, pH, Raschig rings loading and operation time. When a gradient air flow rate and 25 g of Raschig rings were used, 82.6% of the jua saponins loaded onto the system were recovered in a 3.46-fold concentrated solution after 9 h of operation. Regarding sisal saponins, a concentration factor of 1.98 was observed with 90.5% of saponin recovery during 4.5 h of operation.

  14. Protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid against murine fetal deformities caused by hyperthermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荷莲; 王博蔚; 赵丹; 韩丽英

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid on mouse embryos subjected to high heat.Methods Mice were used for the experiment.Results After exposure of pregnant mice to high heat, the rates of teratism, stillbirth, and fetal absorption were markedly lower in mice treated with ginseng saponin and folic acid following heat exposure than in untreated mice. There were no significant differences in these rates when comparing mice treated with vitamin B12 with the untreated mice.Conclusions Ginseng saponin and folic acid can lessen injuries to murine embryos caused by high heat, while vitamin B12 has little protective effect against high temperature except for promoting overall embryonic growth.

  15. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  16. An improved facile method for extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by focused microwave-assisted extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianlin; Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Xinjian; Lin, Junwei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    An improved fast method for extraction of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris based on the use of focus microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) is proposed. Under optimized conditions, four steroidal saponins were extracted from Tribulus terrestris and identified by GC-MS, which are Tigogenin (TG), Gitogenin (GG), Hecogenin (HG) and Neohecogenin (NG). One of the most important steroidal saponins, namely TG was quantified finally. The recovery of TG was in the range of 86.7-91.9% with RSDTribulus terrestris from different areas of occurrence. The difference in chromatographic characteristics of steroidal saponins was proved to be related to the different areas of occurrence. The results showed that FMAE-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-saving method for the extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris.

  17. Antiproliferative crude soy saponin extract modulates the expression of IkappaBalpha, protein kinase C, and cyclooxygenase-2 in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Yu, Rina; Kim, Jeong-Sang; Kim, Young-Kyoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2004-07-08

    Frequent consumption of soy and soy-based products is associated with reduced cancer incidence particularly for breast, colon, and prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the effect of crude soy saponin extract on PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-induced inflammatory responses. Human adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) were treated with various concentrations of saponin extract for 72 h. Cell growth was measured at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, and the PMA-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), protein kinase C (PKC), and IkappaBalpha were determined. The results indicate that crude saponin extract decreased cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Crude soy saponin extract suppressed the degradation of IkappaBalpha in PMA-stimulated cells, while COX-2 and PKC expressions were significantly down-regulated. These findings support the hypothesis that the soy saponins reduce the risk of colon tumorigenesis possibly by suppressing inflammatory responses.

  18. Preliminary Identification of Red Pigment and Positive Correlation between the Contents of Red Pigment and Total Saponins of Panax notoginseng Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changling ZHAO; Zhongjian CHEN; Wenlong CHEN; Weite ZHI; Fugang WEI; Degong SONG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to identify red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits and explore the correlation between pigment content and total saponins of the fruits. [Method] The red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits was preliminarily identi- fied with specific color reactions and UV-vis spectra, and the contents of the pigment and total saponins were determined via spectrophotometry. [Result] The red hues of the fruits were contributed by anthocyanins and/or the anthocyanidins. The contents of anthocyanins and total saponins of the fruits both decreased along with thinning of the red hues. The content difference of the anthocyanins in fruits with different red hues reached extremely significant level, but that of total saponins just reached significant level. [Conclusion] The red pigment of P. notoginseng fruits is anthocyanins which are of extremely significant positive correlation with total saponins in contents.

  19. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins...... increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels...... of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25 % lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25 % lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25 % defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content...

  20. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed.

  1. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  2. Saponinas antifúngicas de Swartzia langsdorffii Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

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    Sara Regina de Marqui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-b-D-(6'-methyl-glucopyranosyl-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  3. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

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    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  4. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  5. Antifungal activity of bioactive triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noor Afshan; Srivastava, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    A novel oleanen type triterpenoid glycoside has been isolated from butanolic seed extracts of Cassia angustifolia. Its structure was elucidated as 3-O-{beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl}-2, 16alpha-dihydroxy-4, 20-hydroxy methyl olean-12-ene-28-oic acid on the basis of spectral evidence (i.e. FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FAB-MS data). The isolated saponin was tested for its antifungal activity, where the maximum inhibition was found in Colletotrichium dematium.

  6. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

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    Amita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylated triterpenoid saponin elucidated as hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (2→1-[3-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylester has been isolated from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structure of the compound was determined by means of chemical and spectral analysis including advanced 2D NMR studies. The ethanolic extract from pericarps of the plant showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against various test organisms by Agar well diffusion method.

  7. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

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    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (ptea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D–phospholipid complex

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    Shen J

    2016-09-01

    monooleate [type 40], Cremophor® EL (Polyoxyl 35 castor oil, and Transcutol HP (Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether were selected as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The optimal formulation was composed of Glyceryl monooleate (type 40, Polyoxyl 35 castor oil, Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and APC (1:4.5:4.5:1.74, w/w/w/w, which showed a particle size of 148.0±2.7 nm and a zeta potential of -13.7±0.92 mV after dilution with distilled water at a ratio of 1:100 (w/w and good colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that APC-SNEDDS exhibited a significantly greater Cmax1 (733.4±203.8 ng/mL than ASD (437.2±174.2 ng/mL, and a greater Cmax2 (985.8±366.6 ng/mL than ASD (180.5±75.1 ng/mL and APC (549.7±113.5 ng/mL. Compared with ASD, Tmax1 and Tmax2 were both remarkably shortened by APC-SNEDDS. The oral bioavailability in rats was enhanced significantly to 183.8% and 431.8% by APC and APC-SNEDDS, respectively.Conclusion: These results indicated that APC-SNEDDS was a promising drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of ASD. Keywords: Akebia saponin D, phospholipid complex, self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems, oral bioavailability

  9. [Studies on extraction process of the main saponin constituents from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Yang, Xin-ping; Liu, Xiao-fu; Jiang, Xiao-jun

    2009-09-01

    Using orthogonal experiment design, the total saponin constituents were obtained by refluxing extraction with alcohol and separated by macroporous adsorption resin and n-Butyl alcohol from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus. According to the purity analysis and the yield, the extraction process was optimized. The results showed that the main saponin constituents were gained with a yield of 1.32% by using macroporous adsorption resin but 1.05% by using n-Butyl alcohol. The former was more efficient than the latter on both yield and color. The optimal process with isolation by macroporous adsorption resin is cheap, simple and practical.

  10. Saponins do not affect the ecdysteroid receptor complex but cause membrane permeation in insect culture cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Ellen; Swevers, Luc; Soin, Thomas; Geelen, Danny; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This project studied the effects of four saponins with a triterpenoid (Quillajasaponaria saponin and aescin) or steroid structure (digitonin and diosgenin which is the deglycosylated form of dioscin) on insect cells, namely Schneider S2 cells of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera). A series of different experiments were performed to investigate potential mechanisms of action by saponins with regard to ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) responsiveness, cell viability, cell membrane permeation, and induction of apoptosis with DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 like activity. Major results were that (1) exposure of S2 cells containing an EcR-based reporter construct to a concentration series of each saponin scored no EcR activation, while (2) a loss of ecdysteroid signaling was observed with median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)'s) of 3-50 μM, and in parallel (3) a concentration-dependent change in loss of cell numbers in an cell viability assay with median effective concentrations (EC(50)'s) of 8-699 μM. In continuation, it was of interest that (4) a trypan blue assay with Q. saponaria saponin confirmed the cell membrane permeation effect leading to cell toxicity with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 44 μM, and interestingly this effect was very rapid. Another three interesting observations were that (5) exposure to 20E at 500 nM as used in the EcR-based report assay induced caspase-3 like activities which may help to explain the discrepancies between loss of EcR-responsiveness and cell viability, (6) low concentrations of saponins induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 like activities, confirming their potential to induce apoptosis, and (7) the saponin effects were counteracted with addition of cholesterol to the culture medium. In general the data obtained provide evidence that the anti-ecdysteroid action by saponins is not based on a true antagonistic interaction with EcR signaling, but can be explained by a cytotoxic action due to permeation of the

  11. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Srinivasa Rao M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available M Srinivasa Rao,1 B Syed Asad,1 MA Fazil,1 RD Sudharshan,1 SA Rasheed,1 HA Pradeep,1 S Aboobacker,2 AH Thayyil,1 AK Riyaz,1 M Mansoor,1 MA Aleem,1 K Zeeyauddin,3 M Lakshmi Narasu,4 A Anjum,1,5 M Ibrahim1,51Nizam Institute of Pharmacy, Andhra Pradesh; 2Department of Pharmacology, Jamiya Salafiya College of Pharmacy, Kerala; 3Department of Pharmacology, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Andhra Pradesh; 4Centre for Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Andhra Pradesh; 5Asian Institute of Advanced Scientific and Pharmaceutical Research, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAim: This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.Methods: Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70% by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal sleeping time in rats.Results: Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate

  12. Foam-forming properties of Ilex paraguariensis (mate saponin: foamability and foam lifetime analysis by Weibull equation

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    Janine Treter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural soaplike foam-forming compounds widely used in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. In this work foamability and foam lifetime of foams obtained from Ilex paraguariensis unripe fruits were analyzed. Polysorbate 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as reference surfactants. Aiming a better data understanding a linearized 4-parameters Weibull function was proposed. The mate hydroethanolic extract (ME and a mate saponin enriched fraction (MSF afforded foamability and foam lifetime comparable to the synthetic surfactants. The linearization of the Weibull equation allowed the statistical comparison of foam decay curves, improving former mathematical approaches.

  13. Intravenous and subcutaneous toxicity and absorption kinetics in mice and dogs of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Louis

    2013-04-22

    The intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and a single low-dose wash-out study at 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg SC and IV with follow-up until day 35 after treatment were performed in mice. Beagle dogs received three escalating doses of maesabalide-III and -IV at weekly intervals (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg IV and maesabalide-III was also dosed SC at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg). Endpoint measurements included clinical, hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Pathology and toxicokinetic studies were performed on the dogs. Whereas the neutrophils and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in the high-dose wash-out mouse study, these parameters did not change in the low-dose wash-out study. The dogs were far more susceptible than mice to liver toxicity (hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes) and developed a painful inflammatory reaction at the SC injection site. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a non dose-linear systemic availability with plasma concentrations above the antileishmanial IC₅₀ after only a single dose at 0.01 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg SC. Related to the long half-life (T(1/2) 71-91 h after SC dosing), repeated dosing at weekly intervals may result in drug accumulation and enhanced toxicity. It was decided not to pursue further drug development for PX-6518 because of the hepatotoxic risk.

  14. Mechanistic study of the anti-cancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, William Chi-Shing; Wong, Wing-Yan; Lee, Magnolia Muk-Lan; Chan, Brandon Dow; Lu, Cheng; Hsiao, Wen-Luan Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins (GpS) have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we used the Apc(Min) (/+) colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of GpS and we demonstrated that GpS treatment could significantly reduce the number and size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) (/+) mice. In order to identify the potential targets and mechanisms involved, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed and 40 differentially expressed proteins after GpS treatment were identified. Bioinformatics analyses suggested a majority of these proteins were involved in processes related to cellular redox homeostasis, and predicted Raf-1 as a potential target of GpS. The upregulation of two proteins known to be involved in redox homeostasis, peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx1) and peroxiredoxin-2 (Prdx2), and the downregulation of Raf-1 were validated using Western blot analysis. After further investigation of the associated signaling networks, we postulated that the anti-cancer effect of GpS was mediated through the upregulation of Prdx1 and Prdx2, suppression of Ras, RAF/MEK/ERK/STAT, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and modulation of JNK/p38 MAPK signaling. We also examined the potential combinatorial effect of GpS with the chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and found that GpS could enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-FU, further suppressing the number of polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice. Our findings highlight the potential of GpS as an anti-cancer agent, the potential mechanisms of its anti-cancer activities, and its effect as an adjuvant of 5-FU in the chemotherapy of CRC. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Immunization against leishmaniasis by PLGA nanospheres loaded with an experimental autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) and Quillaja saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaghodi, M; Eskandari, M; Kharazizadeh, M; Khamesipour, A; Jaafari, M R

    2010-12-01

    Immune responses against the Leishmania antigens are not sufficient to protect against a leishmania challenge. Therefore these antigens need to be potentiated by various adjuvants and delivery systems. In this study, Poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as immunoadjuvant have been used to enhance the immune response against autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared by a double-emulsion (W/O/W) technique. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis. Mean diameter for nanospheres loaded with ALM+QS was 294 ± 106 nm. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-weeks intervals using ALM plus QS loaded nanospheres [(ALM+QS)PLGA], ALM encapsulated with PLGA nanospheres [(ALM)PLGA], (ALM)PLGA + QS, ALM + QS, ALM alone or PBS. The intensity of infection induced by L. major challenge was assessed by measuring size of footpad swelling. The strongest protection, showed by significantly (P < 0.05) smaller footpad, were observed in mice immunized with (ALM)PLGA. The (ALM+QS)PLGA group showed the least protection and highest swelling, while the (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS and ALM showed an intermediate protection with no significant difference. The mice immunized with ALM and ALM+QS showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio (P < 0.01), followed by (ALM)PLGA+QS. The highest IFN-γ and lowest IL-4 production was seen in (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS groups. The highest parasite burden was observed in (ALM)PLGA+QS and (ALM+QS)PLGA groups. It is concluded that PLGA nanospheres as a vaccine delivery system could increase the protective immune responses, but QS adjuvant has a reverse effect on protective immune responses and the least protective responses were seen in the presence of this adjuvant.

  16. Intravenous and Subcutaneous Toxicity and Absorption Kinetics in Mice and Dogs of the Antileishmanial Triterpene Saponin PX-6518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Maes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous (IV and subcutaneous (SC toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and a single low-dose wash-out study at 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg SC and IV with follow-up until day 35 after treatment were performed in mice. Beagle dogs received three escalating doses of maesabalide-III and -IV at weekly intervals (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg IV and maesabalide-III was also dosed SC at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg. Endpoint measurements included clinical, hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Pathology and toxicokinetic studies were performed on the dogs. Whereas the neutrophils and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in the high-dose wash-out mouse study, these parameters did not change in the low-dose wash-out study. The dogs were far more susceptible than mice to liver toxicity (hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes and developed a painful inflammatory reaction at the SC injection site. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a non dose-linear systemic availability with plasma concentrations above the antileishmanial IC50 after only a single dose at 0.01 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg SC. Related to the long half-life (T1/2 71–91 h after SC dosing, repeated dosing at weekly intervals may result in drug accumulation and enhanced toxicity. It was decided not to pursue further drug development for PX-6518 because of the hepatotoxic risk.

  17. Digital gene-expression profiling analysis of the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens.

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    Lu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To prevent cardiovascular disease, people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE in yolk and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using digital gene-expression profiling analysis. Liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. RESULTS: The cholesterol content of the yolks of eggs from hens fed 120 mg/kg ASE declined considerably on day 60. Other groups (60, 240, 480 mg/kg ASE group also showed decreases, but they were not significant. Digital gene expression generated over nine million reads per sample, producing expression data for least 12,384 genes. Among these genes, 110 genes showed greater than normal expression in the liver and 107 genes showed greater than normal expression in the ovary. Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1 and apolipoprotein H (Apoh, which act in the synthesis of bile acid and cholesterol efflux, showed more expression in the livers of hens given dietary ASE supplementation. In the ovary, levels of very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr, apolipoprotein B (Apob, apovitellenin 1 (ApovldlII and vitellogenin (VtgI, VtgII and VtgIII in ovary decreased with dietary ASE supplementation. CONCLUSION: Transcriptome analysis revealed that the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE were partially mediated by enhancement of cholesterol efflux in the liver and this reduced of cholesterol deposition in the ovary.

  18. Poecillastrosides, Steroidal Saponins from the Mediterranean Deep-Sea Sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866

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    Kevin Calabro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first chemical investigation of the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866 led to the identification of seven new steroidal saponins named poecillastrosides A–G (1–7. All saponins feature an oxidized methyl at C-18 into a primary alcohol or a carboxylic acid. While poecillastrosides A–D (1–4 all contain an exo double bond at C-24 of the side-chain and two osidic residues connected at O-2′, poecillastrosides E–G (5–7 are characterized by a cyclopropane on the side-chain and a connection at O-3′ between both sugar units. The chemical structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis (High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR and the absolute configurations of the sugar residues were assigned after acidic hydrolysis and cysteine derivatization followed by LC-HRMS analyses. Poecillastrosides D and E, bearing a carboxylic acid at C-18, were shown to exhibit antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.

  19. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid.

  20. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively).

  1. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinchev, Dragomir; Janda, Bogdan; Evstatieva, Liuba; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Aslani, Mohammad R; Kostova, Ivanka

    2008-01-01

    The steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. The activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. Samples of T. terrestris collected in Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Georgia, Iran, Vietnam and India were analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS for the presence and the concentration of protodioscin (1), prototribestin (2), pseudoprotodioscin (3), dioscin (4), tribestin (5) and tribulosin (6). The flavonoid rutin (7) was also included in the comparison. The results revealed distinct differences in the content of these compounds depending on region of sample collection, plant part studied and stage of plant development. The samples from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia and Iran exhibited similar chemical profile and only some quantitative difference in the content of 1-7 with protodioscin (1) and prototribestin (2) as main components. The Vietnamese and Indian samples exhibit totally different chemical profile. They lack 2 and 5, while tribulosin (6) is present in high amounts. Compounds different from 1 to 7 are dominating in these 3 samples. The presented results suggested the existence of one chemotype common to the East South European and West Asian regions. Most probably, the Vietnamese and Indian samples belong to other chemotypes which are still to be studied and characterized. No clear correlation between the burrs morphology and the chemical composition of the samples has been found.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTION

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    Dr. Papiya Bigoniya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum L. (Liliacea is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 animal each as vehicle control (2 % tragacanth suspension, standard drug frusemide (20 mg/kg, p.o, and n-butanol extract (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o treated. Urine was collected in a graduated cylinder and its volume was measured for next 5 hr. Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations were measured. Phytochemical analysis of A. sativum n-butanol fraction showed presence of steroids, triterpenoidal saponins and carbohydrates. At 20 mg/kg dose onset of diuresis and total volume of urine formed was significantly (P<0.01-0.05 higher. Fifth hour urine volume at 20 mg/kg dose was 9.3 ml as compared to 5.5 ml of control. Extract at 20 mg/kg dose produced 24.57% increase in Na+ excretion against 132.65% increase by frusemide when compared to control signifying natriuretic and aquaretic response. The study confirmed the ethnopharmacological and Ayurvedic use of A. sativum as a diuretic agent.

  3. Leishmanicidal activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Eclipta prostrata and Gymnema sylvestre

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    Khanna Venkatesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of saponin, dasyscyphin C of Eclipta prostrata and sapogenin, gymnemagenol from Gymnema sylvestre leaves under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Dasyscyphin C/Gymnemagenol were dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS and diluted with liquid medium to obtain concentrations ranging from 1000 to 15 µg /ml. The leishmanicidal activity against leishmanial parasites, Leishmania major, Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica promastigotes was studied by the MTS assay. Result: The Dasyscyphin C isolated from E. prostrata showed good leishmanicidal activity at 1000µg/ml concentration, with the IC 50 value of 450µg/ml against L. major promastigote and the percentage of parasitic death was 73; whereas, gymnemagenol of G. sylvestre showed only 52% parasitic death at 1000 µg/ml concentration. The other Leishmania species, L. aethiopica and L. tropica promastigotes, were less sensitive to the saponins of E. prostrata and G. sylvestre. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the dasyscyphin C of E. prostrata has significant leishmanicidal activity against L. major promastigote.

  4. [Steroidal saponins from the plant Agave brittoniana with activity against the parasite Trichomona vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, José Orestes; Meneses, Alfredo; Simonet, Ana María; Macías, Francisco Antonio; Nogueiras, Clara; Gómez, Alicia; Escario, José A

    2008-12-01

    The genus Agave (Agavaceae), includes more than 300 species; around 16 of them show an homogeneous distribution throughout Cuba. Agave brittoniana (ssp. brachypus), is an endemic subspecies that grows in the central region of the country and its leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of parasitic diseases. The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the disease known as trichomoniasis, that infects the genital tract. To test in vitro the plant against Trichomona vaginalis, the dried and powdered leaves were extracted three times with ethanol-water (7:3) by maceration at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the extract was suspended in distilled water, defatted with n-hexane, and extracted with water-saturated n-butanol. After solvent removal, a portion of the n-butanol extract was hydrolyzed. After extraction with ethyl acetate the hydrolysis products were compared with authentic sapogenins samples using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Most of the sapogenins (yuccagenin and diosgenin) were isolated and their structures were confirmed. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The n-butanol extract was subjected to a separation process through column chromatography to obtain five fractions. After multiple separation processes by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the most active one produced one refined fraction that contained two saponins with the same aglycone (diosgenin) and one yuccagenin based saponin. Best results of the activity were obtained with the yuccagenin derived glycoside.

  5. Ultrasound-induced physiological effects and secondary metabolite (saponin) production in Panax ginseng cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Wu, J; Ho, K P; Qi, S

    2001-08-01

    This work was aimed at the effects of ultrasound (US) on the growth and secondary metabolite biosynthesis of cultured plant cells. Suspension cultures of Panax ginseng cells were exposed to US at power density below 82 mW/cm3 for short periods of time (1-4 min) in a US bath (38.5-kHz fixed frequency and 810 W maximum peak power). Under most exposure conditions, US stimulated the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the ginsenoside saponins of ginseng cells, increasing the total saponin content of the cell by up to 75%. The growth and viability of ginseng cells were usually depressed immediately after the exposure to US, but recovered gradually to levels similar to those of a normal culture in a few days, with virtually no net loss of biomass yield at the end of the culture period. At some lower US doses, sonicated cultures could even reach slightly higher biomass yields than that of normal cultures. The effects of US on cell growth and secondary metabolite yield showed a significant correlation with the total US energy emitted (i.e., the product of US power and exposure time). Mechanical stress and microstreaming induced by acoustic cavitation were considered as the most possible causes of the various physiological effects of US on ginseng cells. In particular, the stimulation of secondary metabolite production by US may be a result of US-induced plant cell defense response.

  6. Novel dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Xiang-Lan; Xing, Shao-Fang; Lou, Cai-Xia; Chen, Dao-Jin

    2014-10-15

    Two new dammarane saponins, 2α,3β,12β-trihydroxydammar-20(22),24-diene-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranoxyl(1→2)-β-D-6″-O-acetylglucopyranoside (1, namely damulin C) and 2α,3β,12β-trihydroxydammar-20(21),24-diene-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranoxyl(1→2)-β-D-6″-O-acetylglucopyranoside (2, namely damulin D), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, which had been heat processed by steaming at 125 °C. The NMR spectroscopic data of the novel saponins were completely assigned by using a combination of 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. Their cytotoxic activities of human liver adenocarcinoma HepG2 cells were evaluated in vitro. They showed cytotoxicities against HepG2 cell line with IC50 of 40±0.7 and 38±0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim; Abubakar Babando Aliyu; Kayode Meduteni; Isa Yunusa

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. Methods:A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. Results:The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. Conclusions:It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi.

  8. Phytochemistry,Pharmacology,Toxicology,and Structure-Cytotoxicity Relationship of Paridis Rhizome Saponin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN; Shu-li; WANG; Yan-li; LI; Yuan-yuan; GAO; Wen-yuan; HUANG; Xian-xiao; MA; Chao-yi

    2013-01-01

    The rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis and P. polyphylla var. chinensis are used as traditional herbal medicines in many parts of China. The Paridis Rhizome saponin (PRS),as the active ingredient,has played an important role in hemostasis,antibacterial action,and inflammation counteraction,bearing some analogy to Gongxuening and Yunnanbaiyao in efficacy. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that PRS possesses two main sapogenins: diosgenin and pennogenin,which could provide a lot of clinical treatment effects (anti-oxidation,anti-inflammation,anti-apoptosis,anti-metastasis,and immunostimulant,etc.). In the past,several main steroid saponins have been studied in a number of randomized controlled trials for their effects and mechanisms mainly on antitumor performance. The extensive results have demonstrated that PRS was an effective group of active components to antitumor clinical trials. In this article,we reviewed the reported phytochemical,pharmacological,and toxicological properties of PRS and compared the structure-cytotoxicity relationship of PRS in antitumor effects.

  9. Poecillastrosides, Steroidal Saponins from the Mediterranean Deep-Sea Sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, Kevin; Kalahroodi, Elaheh Lotfi; Rodrigues, Daniel; Díaz, Caridad; Cruz, Mercedes de la; Cautain, Bastien; Laville, Rémi; Reyes, Fernando; Pérez, Thierry; Soussi, Bassam; Thomas, Olivier P

    2017-06-26

    The first chemical investigation of the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866) led to the identification of seven new steroidal saponins named poecillastrosides A-G (1-7). All saponins feature an oxidized methyl at C-18 into a primary alcohol or a carboxylic acid. While poecillastrosides A-D (1-4) all contain an exo double bond at C-24 of the side-chain and two osidic residues connected at O-2', poecillastrosides E-G (5-7) are characterized by a cyclopropane on the side-chain and a connection at O-3' between both sugar units. The chemical structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis (High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1D and 2D NMR) and the absolute configurations of the sugar residues were assigned after acidic hydrolysis and cysteine derivatization followed by LC-HRMS analyses. Poecillastrosides D and E, bearing a carboxylic acid at C-18, were shown to exhibit antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.

  10. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Structure-Cytotoxicity Relationship of Paridis Rhizome Saponin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Shu-li; WANG Yan-li; LI Yuan-yuan; GAO Wen-yuan; HUANG Xian-xiao; MA Chao-yi

    2013-01-01

    The rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var.yunnanensis and P polyphylla var.chinensis are used as traditional herbal medicines in many parts of China.The Paridis Rhizome saponin (PRS),as the active ingredient,has played an important role in hemostasis,antibacterial action,and inflammation counteraction,bearing some analogy to Gongxuening and Yunnanbaiyao in efficacy.Modem pharmacological experiments have proved that PRS possesses two main sapogenins:diosgenin and pennogenin,which could provide a lot of clinical treatment effects (anti-oxidation,anti-inflammation,anti-apoptosis,anti-metastasis,and immunostimulant,etc.).In the past,several main steroid saponins have been studied in a number of randomized controlled trials for their effects and mechanisms mainly on antitumor performance.The extensive results have demonstrated that PRS was an effective group of active components to antitumor clinical trials.In this article,we reviewed the reported phytochemical,pharmacological,and toxicological properties of PRS and compared the structure-cytotoxicity relationship of PRS in antitumor effects.

  11. Two New Oleanane-type Triterpenoids from Methanolyzed Saponins of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xua, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from the methanolyzed total saponins of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng, together with 16 known compounds (3-18). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic, including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometric, methanolysis and LC-MS analysis. All the isolates were tested for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, PANC-1, A-549, and SW-480) and the glucose uptake activity. The known compound 6 exhibited toxic effects against HL-60 with an IC50 value of 18.1 μM, while 10 showed cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721 and A-549 cell lines, with IC50 values of 34.4 and 32.8 μM, respectively. In addition, the new compound 2 showed glucose uptake activity with a glucose consumption value of 0.29 μM at 10 μM concentration.

  12. Isolation, Identification and Cytotoxicity of a New Noroleanane-Type Triterpene Saponin from Salicornia bigelovii Torr.

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    Fuqin Guan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicornia bigelovii Torr. has been consumed not only as a popular kind of vegetable, but also as a medicinal plant to treat hypertension, cephalalgia, scurvy and cancer. The present study was designed to investigate its chemical components and cytotoxic activity. A new noroleanane-type triterpene saponin, bigelovii C (1, was separated and purified from Salicornia bigelovii Torr., along with four known triterpene saponins 2–5. The structure of bigelovii C was elucidated as 3-O-(6-O-butyl ester-β-D-glucuropyranosyl-23-aldehyde-30-norolean-12, 20 (29-dien-28-oic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, according to various spectroscopic analysis and chemical characteristics. Besides Compounds 3 and 5, bigelovii C had potent cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines, MCF7 (breast cancer, Lovo (colon cancer and LN229 (glioblastoma, especially MCF7. Bigelovii C inhibited the growth of MCF7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased upon bigelovii C treatment. Rh123 staining assay indicated that bigelovii C reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mechanism of cell death by bigelovii C may be attributed to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-7 and PARP. These results suggested that bigelovii C may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a potential chemopreventative agent for cancer.

  13. In vitro study of effectiveness of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit as methanogenesis inhibitor on ruminal digestion system

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    Amlius Thalib

    2004-10-01

    - did not influence the total VFA production, while lower VFA productions were found on lerak powder and Fe3+ treatments (P<0.05, and the reverse effect was shown by PULCFA (P<0.05. Acetate/propionate ratio was significantly changed by Aksapon SR and lerak powder treatments (i.e. 1.37 and 1.33 respectively, vs 2.20. In conclusion, Aksapon SR was the most effective methanogenesis inhibitor compared to the others used in this study, and saponin contained in Sapindus rarak fruit could also be used as propionate enhancer.

  14. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

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    Sadia Afrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  15. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

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    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  16. One compound of saponins from Disocorea zingiberensis protected against experimental acute pancreatitis by preventing mitochondria-mediated necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wen, Li; Shen, Yan; Shi, Na; Xing, Zhihua; Xia, Qing; Niu, Hai; Huang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful inflammatory disorder of the exocrine pancreas, ranking as the most common gastrointestinal reasons for hospitalization with no specific therapy currently. Diosgenyl saponins extracted from natural products and diosgenin or its derivatives have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. However, the therapeutic effects of diosgenyl saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright in AP have not yet been determined. Five compounds were extracted and screened for taurocholate-induced necrosis in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Particularly, 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β, 22α, 26-trihydroxy-25(R)-furosta-5-en-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (compound 1) exhibited the best protective effects with no toxicity observed. Next, we showed compound 1 concentration-dependently inhibited necrotic cell death pathway activation and 2.5 mM compound 1 also prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, adenosine triphosphate production, and reactive oxygen species generation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Finally, we showed compound 1 protected against three clinically representative murine models of AP and significantly improved pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury. These data provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that one compound of diosgenyl saponins can be potential treatment for AP. This study suggests natural saponins may serve as fruitful sources for exploring/identifying potential therapies for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27779235

  17. Antiproliferation effect and apoptosis mechanism of prostate cancer cell PC-3 by flavonoids and saponins prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tse-Chou; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Kuo, Hung-I; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2011-10-26

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the antiproliferation and apoptosis mechanism of saponin and flavonoid fractions from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Both flavonoid and saponin fractions were isolated by a column chromatographic method with Cosmosil 75C(18)-OPN as adsorbent and elution solvents of ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) for the former and 100% ethanol for the latter, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. On the basis of the MTT assay, the saponin and flavonoid fraction were comparably effective in inhibiting the growth of PC-3 cells, with the IC(50) being 39.3 and 33.3 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, both fractions induced an arrest of PC-3 cell cycle at both S and G2/M phases, with both early and late apoptotic cell populations showing a dose-dependent rise. The Western blot assay indicated that the incorporation of flavonoid or saponin fraction could modulate the expression of G2 and M checkpoint regulators, cyclins A and B, and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bax. The expression of the caspase-3 and its activated downstream substrate effectors, DFF45 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), was also increased and followed a dose-dependent manner. All of these findings suggest that the apoptosis of PC-3 cells may proceed through the intrinsic mitochondria pathway.

  18. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  20. A strategy for characterization of triterpene saponins in Caulophyllum robustum hairy roots by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Li, Guo-Yu; Liang, Jun; Ortori, Catharine A; Yang, Bing-You; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Barrett, David A

    2014-11-01

    Triterpene saponins are important bioactive constituents widely distributed in many plants. Saponins present in Caulophyllum (Berberidaceae) have not been fully characterized. In this study, we studied triterpene saponins from Caulophyllum robustum using liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-qTOF-MS). Rapid identification of Caulophyllum saponins was facilitated using low and high MS cone voltages to induce controlled fragmentation in positive mode. The full scan spectra at low cone voltage of 40V provided considerable structural information relating to aglycone skeletons, sugar types, and linked sequences for Caulophyllum saponins. Seven Caulophyllum aglycones were differentiated and identified by their diagnostic fragment ions combined with accurate mass measurements and characteristic fragmentation pathways. Peak intensity ratio of [aglycone+H-2H2O](+) to [aglycone+H-H2O](+) in full scan spectra acquired with low cone voltage is correlated with structural features of hederagenin and echinocystic acid and is useful for the discrimination of these positional isomers. However, at a high voltage of 200V, the saponin [M+H](+) ion and its fragmentation ions were not present; and the single saponin [M+Na](+) generated [Bα+Na](+) and [Y0α+Na](+) by in-source fragmentation, which provided structural information on the α- and β-sugar chains in the saponins. This approach enabled simultaneous acquisition of structural information on both aglycones and sugar chains from full scan spectra in one injection. Based on the developed strategy, 51 triterpene saponins of seven different classes were fully characterized or tentatively identified, of which 32 constituents were the first to be reported in genus Caulophyllum and 18 compounds were characterized as potentially new compounds.

  1. Low-density lipoprotein subfraction, carotid artery intima-media thickness, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor alpha are associated with newly diagnosed ischemic stroke

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    Medine Cumhur Cure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Small dense (sd low-density lipoprotein (LDL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha (a, and nitric oxide (NO have recently emerged as important stroke risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of increased levels of small LDL particle size, TNF-a and NO on the developed ischemic stroke and increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 women and 25 men (a total of 54 ischemic stroke patients and a similar age group of 50 controls (29 females and 21 males were included in the study. CIMT, C-reactive protein (CRP, TNF-a, NO, and lipid subfraction test of the two groups were measured. Results: The mean LDL particle size was smaller in patients with stroke than in the controls (26.8 ± 0.31 nm vs. 27.0 ± 0.31 nm, P = 0.003. sd-LDL, TNF-a, NO, CRP, right CIMT, and left CIMT were higher in patients with stroke than in the controls (respectively; 8.2 ± 7.8 mg/dL vs. 3.3 ± 3.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001;75.6 ± 25.0 pg/mL vs. 65.4 ± 9.1 pg/mL, P = 0.009;76.4 ± 53.3 mmol/L vs. 41.5 ± 27.0 mmol/L, P < 0.001;1.9 ± 2.6 mm vs. 0.4 ± 0.3 mm P < 0.001;0.97 ± 0.38 mm vs. 0.83 ± 0.15 mm, P = 0.007;1.04 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.87 ± 0.19 mm, P = 0.010. Conclusion: These results show that sd-LDL is independently associated with the incidence of stroke and may be a risk factor in the development of stroke. In addition, TNF-a, NO, right CIMT, and left CIMT may be a risk factor in the development of ischemic stroke.

  2. Tandem mass spectrometric characterization of acetylated polyhydroxy hellebosaponins, the principal steroid saponins in Helleborus niger L. roots(#).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckstein, Sarina M; Lorenz, Peter; Conrad, Jürgen; Stintzing, Florian C

    2014-08-30

    Isolation and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses revealed polyhydroxy steroid saponins to be characteristic constituents in Helleborus niger L. roots. A comprehensive study including various multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n) ) experiments provided first solid chromatographic and mass spectrometric information facilitating future analysis and structural assessment of polyhydroxy saponins by LC/MS(n) techniques without isolation and NMR analyses. The polyhydroxy saponins were analyzed by direct syringe injection or chromatographically separated on a capillary high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled to an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. MS(n) spectra were recorded on an ion trap mass spectrometer including up to four fragmentation stages (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Additionally, high-resolution mass spectra were recorded on an Orbitrap Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometer equipped with a nanospray-ESI interface. The polyhydroxy hellebosaponins A and D were discovered to be significant constituents from H. niger roots. Extensive study of their MS(n) data revealed that they readily fragmented in the positive ion mode providing diagnostic fragments for elucidation of the steroidal character and number of OH groups. The negative ion mode yielded valuable information on the [M-H](-) ion, number and location of acetyl groups and sugar units. Additionally, fragmentation pathways for positive and negative ion modes were proposed. These results not only extend the knowledge about H. niger saponins, but also provide a facilitated approach to the analysis of polyhydroxy saponins by LC/MS(n) without prior isolation and extensive NMR identification. Additionally, proposed fragmentation pathways for positive and negative ionization modes provide a solid complementary database for further, more detailed MS(n) studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D–phospholipid complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinyang; Bi, Jianping; Tian, Hongli; Jin, Ye; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhonglin; Kou, Junping; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background Akebia saponin D (ASD) exerts various pharmacological activities but with poor oral bioavailability. In this study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on the drug–phospholipid complex technique was developed to improve the oral absorption of ASD. Methods ASD–phospholipid complex (APC) was prepared using a solvent-evaporation method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology observation, and solubility test. Oil and cosurfactant were selected according to their ability to dissolve APC, while surfactant was chosen based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimized APC-SNEDDS formulation, which was characterized by droplet size determination, zeta potential determination, and morphology observation. Robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability of optimized formulation were also evaluated. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ASD, APC, and APC-SNEDDS were investigated in rats. Results The liposolubility significantly increased 11.4-fold after formation of APC, which was verified by the solubility test in n-octanol. Peceol (Glyceryl monooleate [type 40]), Cremophor® EL (Polyoxyl 35 castor oil), and Transcutol HP (Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) were selected as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The optimal formulation was composed of Glyceryl monooleate (type 40), Polyoxyl 35 castor oil, Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and APC (1:4.5:4.5:1.74, w/w/w/w), which showed a particle size of 148.0±2.7 nm and a zeta potential of −13.7±0.92 mV after dilution with distilled water at a ratio of 1:100 (w/w) and good colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that APC-SNEDDS exhibited a significantly greater Cmax1 (733.4±203.8 ng/mL) than ASD (437.2±174.2 ng/mL), and a greater Cmax2 (985.8±366.6 ng/mL) than ASD (180.5±75.1 ng/mL) and APC (549.7±113

  4. Revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated saponin from Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecio, Łukasz; Jędrejek, Dariusz; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna

    2012-11-01

    The revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated steroidal saponin isolated from grains of Avena sativa L. were elucidated. Their structures and complete NMR assignments are based on 1D and 2D NMR studies and identified as nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-6-O-sulfoglucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3).

  5. Quantitative determination of the major saponin mixture bacoside A in Bacopa monnieri by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, M; Sangli, G K; Arun, P C; Amit, A

    2005-01-01

    Bacoside A, the putative bioactive component of the Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri, was found to be a mixture of saponins with bacoside A3 (1), bacopaside II (2), jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (3) and bacopasaponin C (4) as major constituents. An HPLC method together with an optimised extraction procedure was developed for the estimation of 1-4 in B. monnieri to enable standardisation of the latter. Concentration ranges of the analytes in samples of B. monnieri collected from different regions of India were 0.14-0.85% (w/w) (1), 0.12-0.69% (2), 0.05-0.72% (3) and 0.05-0.44% (4). The importance of using bacoside A, with known concentrations of 1-4, as a reference standard for the routine analysis of B. monnieri is highlighted. Two common flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin, were present in all samples of B. monnieri.

  6. Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort.

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    Olesia Gumnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort. have been studied. Three gypsogenic acid glycosides including 3-O-glucopyranoside, 3,28-O-di-glucopyranoside and 3-O-glucopyranosy1,28-0-[glucopyranosyl(1→6glucopyranoside] have been identified by means of LSI mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR. Inhibitory activities of isolated compounds against growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride and the growth of the roots of Lepidium sativum and D. caryophyllus seedlings were measured. None of the isolated compounds showed pronounced activity in T. viride test. Seedling root growth was affected severely at the presence of gypsogenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside. Bidesmosidic form showed marginal stimulatory activity. The obtained data are discussed in relation to the activity of medicagenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside, the compound differing just with 2-OH substitution from gypsogenic acid glycosides.

  7. Constituents of catha edulis (alkaloids, triterpenoids and related substances and saponins)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizk, A.M.; Mobarak, Z. M.; El-Shihi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the alkaloids of khat samples from Egypt and Yemen revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. Cathine and the dimer of cathinone occured in both samples, while norephedine was detected only in Yemen samples. Investigation of certain other constituents viz. triterpenes, sterols, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and saponins resulted in the isolation and identification of several components أسفرت دراسة القلويدات فتي عينتين من القات المنزرع في مصر واليمن عن وجود ...

  8. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer in rats by Rhizoma paridis saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Xin; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-09-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponin (RPS) had been regarded as the main active components responsible for the anti-tumor effects of the herb Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. In the present research, we set up a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatoma to evaluate antitumor effect of RPS. After 20 weeks treatment, rats were sacrificed to perform histopathological examinations, liver function tests, oxidative stress assays and so forth. As a result, DEN-induced hepatoma formation. RPS alleviated levels of liver injury through inhibiting liver tissues of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, increasing superoxide dismutases (SOD) production, and up-regulating expression of GST-α/μ/π in DEN-induced rats. All in all, RPS would be a potent agent inhibiting chemically induced liver cancer in the prospective application.

  9. Novel dammarane-type triterpenes isolated from hydrolyzate of total Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Shu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Xu-de; Wu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2015-08-15

    In this study, five novel triterpenes were isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and identified as gypensapogenin H (1), gypensapogenin I (2), gypensapogenin L (3), gypensapogenin J (4) and gypensapogenin K (5), three of which (1-3) possess unprecedented ring A. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities in five cell lines and all the tested compounds showed significant anti-cancer activities against a series of human cancer cell lines, while having much weaker effect on the growth of normal cell. Among them, compound 1 showed strong inhibition toward MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (IC50 values 6.85 μM). Further mechanistic study demonstrated that compound 1 significantly induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis. Our results indicated that compound 1 may be a promising lead agent for further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Triterpenes possessing an unprecedented skeleton isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Chun-Fu; Xu, Xin-Yue; Liu, Zhen-Yang; Li, Xian; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-04-01

    Five novel triterpenes were isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and identified as gypensapogenin A (1), gypensapogenin B (2), gypensapogenin C (3), 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-gypensapogenin D (4) and gypensapogenin D (5), two of which (1 and 2) possess unprecedented ring A. The cyclization of the side chains-3 formed five-membered cyclic ketone rings similar to ring E in 1. The 21-oic acid-21, 23-lactone was present in the side chains of 4 and 5. We also proposed the possible formation mechanisms of compounds 1-3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for cytotoxic activities in three cell lines including A549, U87 and Hep3B and compound 3 showed significant activities toward A549 and U87 human cancer cells (with IC 50 values at 0.11 and 0.58 μm respectively). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Two novel anti-inflammatory 21-nordammarane saponins from tetraploid Jiaogulan ( Gynostemma pentaphyllum ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Shi, Haiming; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-12-26

    Two novel 20-oxo-21-nordammar-22, 24-diene saponins, 21-norgypenosides A (1) and B (2), were characterized from the aerial parts of tetraploid Jiaogulan ( Gynostemma pentaphyllum ), a popular tea ingredient. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were comprehensively elucidated by HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR data, chemical degradation, and through comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The two compounds suppressed the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNAs in the lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells at 10 and 100 μg/mL, suggesting their potential anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. Saponins with highly hydroxylated oleanane-type aglycones from Silphium asteriscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Milena; Calabria, Lalita; Gallotta, Dario; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Silphium asteriscus L., commonly known as starry rosinweed, is a plant found in prairies, glades, woodlands and savannas of the southeastern United States. The phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of S. asteriscus leaves led to the isolation of eighteen saponins with highly hydroxylated oleanane-type aglycones never reported before. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D-NMR (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY and ROESY) experiments as well as ESIMS analysis. The antiproliferative activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three cancer cell lines including Hela (human epitheloid cervix carcinoma), Jurkat cells (leukaemic T-cell line) and DLD-1 (colorectal adenocarcinoma). Compounds 1, 5 and 17 displayed weak activity with IC50 values ranging from 50 to 75 μM.

  13. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

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    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  14. Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the pharmacokinetics of aspirin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihao; Pang, Huanhuan; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Huichao; Guo, Shuang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is widely used to treat fever, pain, inflammation and cerebral infarction in clinic. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) is the extracts of Panax Notoginseng (PN)-a traditional Chinese medicine extensively used in cardiovascular diseases. Panax notoginseng saponins and ASA are both widely used to treat cerebral infarction in China. Good results in clinical practice have been achieved when the two drugs were taken together. To investigate the effect of PNS on ASA in vivo, the concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) in blood were measured after oral administration of ASA or ASA combined with PNS by UPLC-MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal Saikosaponin A standard. The separation of two components was achieved by using an ACQUITY UPLC (®)BEH C18 Column (1.7μm 2.1×100mm) by gradient elution using water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.2% formic acid) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by using non-compartmental analysis. The results suggested that drug-drug interaction in vivo existed between PNS and ASA. The concentration of the SA was increasing when the two drugs were administered together. The transport of ASA and SA in MDCK -MDR1 cell monolayer was used to verify this conclusion. The values of apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were significantly increased when the two drugs were used together. This result suggested PNS could increase the gastrointestinal tract absorption of ASA and SA. These findings provide more insight for wise use of two drugs to treat or prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic studies of total saponin, alkaloid and sterols contents of decoction of Joshanda: identification of components through thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The current study was aimed to assess antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of total saponin, alkaloid and sterol contents of Joshanda decoction followed by its constituent's analysis via thin layer chromatography (TLC). Saponins and alkaloids showed prominent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae whereas sterols only against S. aureus. Saponin and alkaloid contents of 97 and 108 µg/ml, respectively, showed prominent free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl, with mild cytotoxicity in brine shrimp cytotoxic test. Under ultraviolet light at 254 nm, TLC of total saponins showed eight different compounds, total sterols comprising three while total alkaloids two compounds of various polarities. It is concluded that the various contents of Joshanda decoction possess outstanding susceptibility against bacteria implicating primarily upper respiratory tract infections augmented by strong antioxidant activity. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers

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    Luo Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panax notoginseng (Burk F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the Araliacease family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in P. notoginseng. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for P. notoginseng root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS De Novo Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS, which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old P. notoginseng. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158 and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082 gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif. Conclusion This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for P. notoginseng root acquired by next

  17. Comparison of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the separation of spirostanol saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Yong-Wei; Sun, Qing-Long; Sun, Xin-Guang; Kang, Li-Ping; Yan, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2016-02-20

    Spirostanol saponins are important active components of some herb medicines, and their isolation and purification are crucial for the research and development of traditional Chinese medicines. We aimed to compare the separation of spirostanol saponins by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Four groups of spirostanol saponins were separated respectively by UHPSFC and UHPLC. After optimization, UHPSFC was performed with a HSS C18 SB column or a Diol column and with methanol as the co-solvent. A BEH C18 column and mobile phase containing water (with 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile were used in UHPLC. We found that UHPSFC could be performed automatically and quickly. It is effective in separating the spirostanol saponins which share the same aglycone and vary in sugar chains, and is very sensitive to the number and the position of hydroxyl groups in aglycones. However, the resolution of spirostanol saponins with different aglycones and the same sugar moiety by UHPSFC was not ideal and could be resolved by UHPLC instead. UHPLC is good at differentiating the variation in aglycones, and is influenced by double bonds in aglycones. Therefore, UHPLC and UHPSFC are complementary in separating spirostanol saponins. Considering the naturally produced spirostanol saponins in herb medicines are different both in aglycones and in sugar chains, a better separation can be achieved by combination of UHPLC and UHPSFC. UHPSFC is a powerful technique for improving the resolution when UHPLC cannot resolve a mixture of spirostanol saponins and vice versa.

  18. UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and qRT-PCR in enzyme gene screening with key role in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of Polygala tenuifolia.

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    Fusheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, named Radix Polygalae, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoid saponins are some of the most important components of Radix Polygalae extracts and are widely studied because of their valuable pharmacological properties. However, the relationship between gene expression and triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in P. tenuifolia is unclear.In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS-based metabolomic analysis was performed to identify and quantify the different chemical constituents of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. tenuifolia. A total of 22 marker compounds (VIP>1 were explored, and significant differences in all 7 triterpenoid saponins among the different tissues were found. We also observed an efficient reference gene GAPDH for different tissues in this plant and determined the expression level of some genes in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthetic pathway. Results showed that MVA pathway has more important functions in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of P. tenuifolia. The expression levels of squalene synthase (SQS, squalene monooxygenase (SQE, and beta-amyrin synthase (β-AS were highly correlated with the peak area intensity of triterpenoid saponins compared with data from UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomic analysis.This finding suggested that a combination of UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and gene expression analysis can effectively elucidate the mechanism of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and can provide useful information on gene discovery. These findings can serve as a reference for using the overexpression of genes encoding for SQS, SQE, and/or β-AS to increase the triterpenoid saponin production of P. tenuifolia.

  19. A New Furostanol Saponin from the Water-extract of Dioscorea nipponica Mak., the Raw Material of the Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Wei Ao Xin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Bin CUI; Chi XU; Qian Qun GU; Shi Dong CHU; Hai Hong JI; Gang JING

    2004-01-01

    26-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-furost-5(6),20(22)-dien-3β,26-diol 1, a new furostanol saponin, was isolated from the water-extract of Dioscorea nipponica Mak., the raw material of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Wei Ao Xin. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of its spectral data especially by NMR spectroscopy. The result provides the first example of naturally occurring furostanol saponins with a single saccharide chain at the C-26 position.

  20. SUPPLEMENTATION EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND SAPONIN EXTRACTS TO DIETS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE RATIO ON In vitro RUMEN FERMENTATION AND METHANOGENESIS

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    Y. Yogianto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of combining tannin and saponin extracts onruminal methane emission of diets with different proportion of forage to concentrate in the in vitrofermentation. The experiment was conducted in a factorial block design. The first factor was theproportion of forage:concentate in diets (70:30 and 30:70 and the second was addition of tannin andsaponin extracts (control, tannins, saponins, tannins + saponins in the dose of 2 mg/ml. Variablesobserved were gas production kinetics, methane production, dry matter digestibility (DMD, organicmatter digestibility (OMD and ammonia concentration. Results revealed that addition of tannins,saponins and their combination generally lowered total gas and methane production during 24 and 48 hof incubation period in both types of diets (P<0.05, but combination of tannins and saponins comparedwith their separated forms did not show any significant differences. The addition of tannins, saponinsand their combination reduced DMD, OMD and ammonia significantly (P<0.05. It can be concludedthat the addition of tannin, saponin and their combination at a dose of 2 mg/ml could reduce methaneemission but followed by a decline in the DMD, OMD and ammonia.

  1. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials.

  2. Panaxatriol Saponins Attenuated Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Injury in PC12 Cells via Activation of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panaxatriol saponins (PTS, the main components extracted from Panax notoginseng, have been shown to be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases in China. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a transcription factor regulating antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress, has received particular attention as a molecular target for pharmacological intervention of ischemic diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of PTS on the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and the potential role in its protective effect. We found that PTS induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression in PC12 cells via activating Nrf2 signaling pathway. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt kinase was involved in the upstream of this PTS activated pathway. Moreover, combination of the main components in PTS significantly enhanced the expression of Nrf2 mediated phase II enzymes. Importantly, the protective effect of PTS against oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep induced cell death was significantly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor and antioxidant response element (ARE decoy oligonucleotides, suggesting that both PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 signaling pathway are essential during this protective process. Taken together, our results suggest that PTS may activate endogenous cytoprotective mechanism against OGD-Rep induced oxidative injury via the activation of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  3. NOX2-Mediated TFEB Activation and Vacuolization Regulate Lysosome-Associated Cell Death Induced by Gypenoside L, a Saponin Isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Jiang, Yingchun; Liao, Chenghui; Hu, Xiaopeng; Li, Yan; Zeng, Yong; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Xuli; Wu, Haiqiang; Liu, Lizhong; Wang, Yifei; He, Zhendan

    2017-08-09

    Downregulation of apoptotic signal pathway and activation of protective autophagy mainly contribute to the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Therefore, exploring efficient chemotherapeutic agents or isolating novel natural products that can trigger nonapoptotic and nonautophagic cell death such as lysosome-associated death is emergently required. We have recently extracted a saponin, gypenoside L (Gyp-L), from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and showed that Gyp-L was able to induce nonapoptotic cell death of esophageal cancer cells associated with lysosome swelling. However, contributions of vacuolization and lysosome to cell death remain unclear. Herein, we reveal a critical role for NADPH oxidase NOX2-mediated vacuolization and transcription factor EB (TFEB) activation in lysosome-associated cell death. We found that Gyp-L initially induced the abnormal enlarged and alkalized vacuoles, which were derived from lipid rafts dependent endocytosis. Besides, NOX2 was activated to promote vacuolization and mTORC1-independent TFEB-mediated lysosome biogenesis. Finally, raising lysosome pH could enhance Gyp-L induced cell death. These findings suggest a protective role of NOX2-TFEB-mediated lysosome biogenesis in cancer drug resistance and the tight interaction between lipid rafts and vacuolization. In addition, Gyp-L can be utilized as an alternative option to overcome drug-resistance though inducing lysosome associated cell death.

  4. Intestinal interleukin-10 mobilization as a contributor to the anti-arthritis effect of orally administered madecassoside: a unique action mode of saponin compounds with poor bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wei, Zhifeng; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Leng, Dandan; Kong, Lingyi; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yufeng

    2015-03-01

    Madecassoside, a triterpenoid saponin present in Centella asiatica herbs with extremely low bioavailability, possesses excellent anti-rheumatoid arthritis property after oral administration. Such a disconnection between poor pharmacokinetic property and undoubted bioactivity also exists in many other herbal medicines. However, there is no reasonable explanation for this phenomenon to date. Here we showed that orally administered madecassoside displayed marked therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats, which was accompanied by a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and an upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In vitro assays demonstrated that neither madecassoside nor its main metabolite madecassic acid could directly interfere with the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and IL-10. Intraperitoneal injection of madecassoside or madecassic acid was absent of significant effects on CIA progression, which further excluded the possibility of systemic action and highlighted the indispensable role of intestinal tracts. Notably, madecassoside could dramatically enhance the secretion of IL-10 from the small intestine of CIA rats probably through increasing the number of Foxp3(+) T lymphocytes in the lamina propria. In conclusion, madecassoside displays anti-arthritis property not by absorption into blood or by its metabolite, but through an intestine-dependent manner. The action can be mediated by, at least partially, the mobilization of IL-10 that originates from small intestines.

  5. Metabolite profiling of Triterpene Saponins in medicago truncatula hairy roots by liquid chromatography fourier transform Ion Cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pollier, Jacob; Morreel, Kris; Geelen, Danny; Goossens, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Triterpenes are one of the largest classes of plant natural products, with an enormous variety in structure and bioactivities. Here, triterpene saponins from hairy roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula were profiled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC ESI FT-ICR MS). Owing to the accuracy of the FT-ICR MS, reliable molecular formulas of the detected compounds could be ...

  6. Quantification for Saponin from a Soapberry (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn) in Cleaning Products by a Chromatographic and two Colorimetric Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Shiau, Ing-Luen; Shih, Tzenge-Lien; Wang, Ya-Nang; Lan, Haw-Farn; Lin, Han Chien; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Ko, Chun-Han; Murase, Yasuhide

    2009-01-01

    The extract from the pericap of the Chinese Soapberry (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) is increasingly being added into a variety of cleaning products. To establish a standardized quantification method, the accuracy of the reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), vanillin.sulfuric acid and antimony pentachloride colorimetric assays were compared. The chemical structural features of saponin of S. mukorossi for the major peak in the HPLC chromatograms were identified by LC/MS/MS...

  7. Steroidal saponins from the aerial parts of Dracaena draco and their cytostatic activity on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Ide, A; Kameyama, A; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    1999-03-01

    Chemical examination of the aerial parts of Dracaena draco has led to the isolation of a total of nine steroidal saponins, including five new ones. The structures of the new saponins were determined by spectral data and a few chemical transformations to be (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L -arabinopyranosyl} 24-O-beta-D-fucopyranoside, (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta, 23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L -arabinopyranoside}, (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-(4-O- acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyransoide} , (23S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23-triol 1-O-{O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside} and (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23-triol 1-O-{O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L- arabinopyranoside}. The isolated saponins were evaluated for their cytostatic activity on leukemia HL-60 cells.

  8. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthetic Pathway Profiling and Candidate Gene Mining of the Ilex asprella Root Using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiasheng Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilex asprella, which contains abundant α-amyrin type triterpenoid saponins, is an anti-influenza herbal drug widely used in south China. In this work, we first analysed the transcriptome of the I. asprella root using RNA-Seq, which provided a dataset for functional gene mining. mRNA was isolated from the total RNA of the I. asprella root and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Then, the cDNA library was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, which generated 55,028,452 clean reads. De novo assembly of these reads generated 51,865 unigenes, in which 39,269 unigenes were annotated (75.71% yield. According to the structures of the triterpenoid saponins of I. asprella, a putative biosynthetic pathway downstream of 2,3-oxidosqualene was proposed and candidate unigenes in the transcriptome data that were potentially involved in the pathway were screened using homology-based BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Further amplification and functional analysis of these putative unigenes will provide insight into the biosynthesis of Ilex triterpenoid saponins.

  9. Protective effect of steroidal saponins from rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua MAN; Lu-ping QIN; Wan-sheng CHEN; Qiao-yan ZHANG; Han-chen ZHENG; Yin WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides (ATS) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and OVX groups. The OVX rats were treated with vehicle, nylestriol or steroidal saponins extract for 12 weeks. Serum calcium, phosphorus, estradiol (E2), osteocalcin concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were measured. Bone density was assayed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The undecalcified longitudinal proximal tibial metaphysical (PTM) sections were cut and stained for histomorphometric analysis of the bone. Results: In OVX rats, alkaline phosphatase activities in serum were markedly increased and concentrations of osteocalcin were decreased by ATS treatment, which had no influence on the body weight. Meanwhile, atrophy of the uterus and descent of bone mineral density (BMD) was suppressed by treatment with ATS. In addition, ATS completely corrected the decreased the concentration of calcium and E2 in serum observed in OVX rats. Histological results showed ATS prevented decreases in trabecular thickness and increases in trabecular separation of proximal tibia metaphysis (PTM) in OVX rats. However, it did not alter osteoclast number in OVX rats. Moreover, ATS (300 mg/kg) had a remarkable effect on promoting bone formation action in OVX rats. Nylestriol treatment decreased the bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate. Conclusion: An adequate supply of steroidal saponins of Anemarrhena asphodeloides prevented OVX-induced bone loss in rats through the promotion of bone formation but not the inhibition of bone resorption.

  10. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on β-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed.

  11. New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Beata; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Różalska, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants.

  12. Evaluation of foam properties of saponin from Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Scotti do Canto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural compounds able to form abundant foam, a desirable quality required in some chemical, foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical processes. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae known as mate, is a South American widely cultivated specie due to the preparation of a tea-like beverage from its leaves. Moreover, its green fruits are a rich source of non-toxic and very low haemolytic saponins. In this study, mate saponin fraction (MSF was evaluated as a foam former, focusing on its foamability, foam lifetime, and film drainage in the presence of different electrolytes (ionic strength I = 0.024 M. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and polysorbate 80 (Poly-80 were used as reference surfactants. The critical micelle concentration (CMC, the minimum attainable surface tension (γCMC, surface excess concentration (Γ and cross-section molecular surface (A values of MSF were comparable to those of Poly-80. The foamability of MSF and both reference surfactants was equivalent. The addition of MgCl2 resulted in a negative effect on MSF foamability. The salts NaCl, KBr, and KNO3 exhibited a negative influence on MSF foam lifetime. Similar behavior was observed for MSF film drainage (order of activity: Na2HPO4 > MgCl2 ≈ NaCl ≈ KNO3 > KBr, where a primary fast film drainage rate was followed by film thinning stabilization after around 5 min. The behavior described above seems to be uncorrelated to the solutions' zeta potential.As saponinas são compostos naturais capazes de formar espuma abundante, qualidade desejável exigida em alguns processos químicos, alimentícios, cosméticos e farmacêuticos. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae, mais conhecida como mate, é uma espécie largamente cultivada devido ao consumo do chimarrão. Além disso, seus frutos verdes representam uma fonte rica de saponinas pouco tóxicas e pouco hemolíticas. Nesse trabalho avaliou-se a fração de saponinas de mate (MSF como formadora de espuma, com

  13. [Effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Xu, Hui; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study is to observe the protection of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin (ADR) and approach its mechanism of action. Cardiocytes of neonate rat were cultivated for 72 hours and divided into normal control group, model (ADR 2 mg x L(-1)) group, and GSTT (100, 30, and 10 mg x L(-1)) groups. MTT colorimetric method was deployed to detect cardiocyte survival rate, activities of CK, LDH, AST, SOD, MDA and NO were detected, and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Effect of GSTT on caspase-3 was detected with Western blotting. Compared with control group, contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were increased, and activity of SOD was reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by ADR. Numbers of survival cells were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were decreased, and activity of SOD was increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). Apoptosis of cardiocytes and concentration of caspase-3 can be reduced by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). GSTT can protect cardiocytes impaired by ADR, which are possible involved with its effect of resisting oxygen free radical.

  14. Five furostanol saponins from fruits of Tribulus terrestris and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Zu, Xuyu; Jiang, Yuyang

    2009-01-01

    Two new furostanol saponins, terrestroside A, 3-O-{beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranosy}-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-5a-furost-20(22)-en-(25R)-3beta,26-diol (1) and terrestroside B, 3-O-{beta-D-xylopyran-osyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranosy}-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5a-furostan-12-one-(25R)-22-methoxy-3beta,26-diol (2), together with three known compounds, chloromaloside E (3), terrestrinin B (4) and terrestroneoside A (5) were isolated from the dry fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the compounds on tumour cells were evaluated, and compounds 1-5 showed potential anti-tumour activity.

  15. Panax notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Phenotype Switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Notch3 Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Shan, Dazhi; Li, Ying; Chen, Hui; Gao, Yonghong; Huang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) could maintain vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in stable phenotypes so as to keep blood vessel elasticity as well as prevent failing in endovascular treatment with stent. Downregulation of Notch3 expression in VSMCs could influence the phenotype of VSMCs under pathologic status. However, whether PNS is able to attenuate the Notch3 silencing induced phenotype switching of VSMCs remains poorly understood. Primary human VSMCs were transfected with a plasmid containing a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Notch3 and then exposed to different doses of PNS. The control groups included cells not receiving any treatment and cells transfected with a control siRNA. Phenotypic switching was evaluated by observing cell morphology with confocal microscopy, as well as examining α-SM-actin, SM22α, and OPN using Western blot. Downregulated Notch3 with a siRNA induced apparent phenotype switching, as reflected by morphologic changes, decreased expression of α-SM-actin and SM22α and increased expression of OPN. These changes were inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. The phenotype switching of VSMCs induced by Notch3 knockdown could be inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. Our study provided new evidence for searching effective drug for amending stability of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26539217

  16. Panax notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Phenotype Switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Notch3 Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS could maintain vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs in stable phenotypes so as to keep blood vessel elasticity as well as prevent failing in endovascular treatment with stent. Downregulation of Notch3 expression in VSMCs could influence the phenotype of VSMCs under pathologic status. However, whether PNS is able to attenuate the Notch3 silencing induced phenotype switching of VSMCs remains poorly understood. Primary human VSMCs were transfected with a plasmid containing a small interfering RNA (siRNA against Notch3 and then exposed to different doses of PNS. The control groups included cells not receiving any treatment and cells transfected with a control siRNA. Phenotypic switching was evaluated by observing cell morphology with confocal microscopy, as well as examining α-SM-actin, SM22α, and OPN using Western blot. Downregulated Notch3 with a siRNA induced apparent phenotype switching, as reflected by morphologic changes, decreased expression of α-SM-actin and SM22α and increased expression of OPN. These changes were inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. The phenotype switching of VSMCs induced by Notch3 knockdown could be inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. Our study provided new evidence for searching effective drug for amending stability of atherosclerotic disease.

  17. Astersedifolioside A-C, three new oleane-type saponins with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Iorizzi, Maria; Lanzotti, Virginia; Cammareri, Maria; Conicella, Clara; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio

    2004-09-15

    A phytochemical analysis of Aster sedifolius has led to the isolation of three novel triterpenoid saponins, based on an oleane-type skeleton and named astersedifolioside A (1), B (2) and C (3). On the basis of chemical, and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry data, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid 28-[O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside] (1), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid 28-[O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside] (2) and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid 28-[O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside] (3). The isolated compounds showed antiproliferative effect in KiMol, a transformed thyroid cell line.

  18. Tannic acid and saponin for removing arsenic from brownfield soils: Mobilization, distribution and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz

    2014-04-01

    Plant biosurfactants were used for the first time to remove As and co-existing metals from brownfield soils. Tannic acid (TA), a polyphenol, and saponin (SAP), a glycoside were tested. The soil washing experiments were performed in batch conditions at constant biosurfactant concentration (3%). Both biosurfactants differed in natural pH, surface tension, critical micelle concentration and content of functional groups. After a single washing, TA (pH 3.44) more efficiently mobilized As than SAP (pH 5.44). When both biosurfactants were used at the same pH (SAP adjusted to 3.44), arsenic mobilization was improved by triple washing. The process efficiency for TA and SAP was similar, and depending on the soil sample, ranged between 50%-64%. Arsenic mobilization by TA and SAP resulted mainly from decomposition of Fe arsenates, followed by Fe(3+) complexation with biosurfactants. Arsenic was efficiently released from reducible and partially from residual fractions. In all soils, As(V) was almost completely removed, whereas content of As(III) was decreased by 37%-73%. SAP and TA might be used potentially to remove As from contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Saponin Nanoparticle for Application in Plasmid DNA Delivery

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    Faruku Bande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonviral delivery system receives attention over the last decade. Chitosan (CS is a cationic polymer whereas saponin (SP is classified as glycoside. In this study, a spherically-shaped CS-SP nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. The ability of the nanoparticle to protect DNA from enzymatic degradation, its thermostability and cytotoxicity were evaluated. The particle size was found below 100 nm as determined by Zetasizer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and field scanning electron microscopy (FSEM results. The surface charge ranges from 43.7 mV to 38.5 mV before and after encapsulation with DNA plasmid, respectively. In terms of thermostability, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC revealed that CS-SP nanoparticle had a melting temperature of 110°C, with rapid decomposition occurring at 120°C. Encapsulation of DNA with the synthesized nanoparticle was evidenced by changes in the FTIR spectra including characteristic peaks at 3267.39 and 1635.58 cm−1, wavenumbers. Additional peak was also observed at 1169.7 cm−1 following encapsulation. Electrophoretic mobility showed that CS-SP nanoparticle protected plasmid DNA from enzymatic degradation, while cell viability assays confirmed that the synthesized nanoparticle exhibited low cytotoxicity at different concentrations in avian cells. Taken together these, CS-SP nanoparticle showed potentials for applications as a DNA delivery system.

  20. Global metabolic profiling for the study of Rhizoma Paridis saponins-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Qiu, Peiyu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Liming; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-01-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the plant Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Fr.) Hand.-Mazz. Despite its potentially clinical utility such as anticancer and anti-inflammation, it has slight side effects and toxicity as previous report. In this work, 90-day administration of RPS induced liver injury. (1) H-NMR- and GC/MS-based metabonomic analyses in conjunction with histopathological examinations, blood biochemistry and hepatic phase I and II enzymes assays were performed to evaluate the toxic mechanisms of RPS induced in rats. As a result, oral administration of RPS possessed certain liver toxicity in SD rats. (1) H-NMR and GC/MS data indicated that RPS inhibited the oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis, and TCA cycle pathway, and disturbed glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism. Low expression of TG, T-CHO, and LDL-C and high levels of ALT and AST indicated that chronic exposure to RPS caused hepatocyte damage, synthesis dysfunction, and transportation failure of lipoproteins. In addition, RPS downregulated the mRNA levels of CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and UGTs. In conclusion, we used metabonomics approach to study the toxicity of RPS for the first time. This research demonstrated that metabonomics method was a promising tool to study and diagnose TCM-induced toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 99-108, 2017.

  1. Periploca forrestii Saponin Ameliorates Murine CFA-Induced Arthritis by Suppressing Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingqin; Li, Minghui; He, Qiuhong; Yang, Xinping; Ruan, Fang; Sun, Guangchen

    2016-01-01

    Periploca forrestii Schltr. has been used as a Chinese folk medicine due to its versatile pharmacological effects such as promoting wounds and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the antiarthritic activity of Periploca forrestii saponin (PFS) and its active compound Periplocin has still not been demonstrated. Here, we evaluated the antiarthritic effects of PFS in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by intragastric administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activities of Periplocin were also examined in LPS-induced AIA splenocytes and synoviocytes. PFS significantly ameliorated joint swelling; inhibited bone erosion in joints; lowered levels of IL-6 and TGF-β1 in AIA rat splenocyte; and reduced joint protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3 and IKKα. Using LPS-induced AIA splenocytes, we demonstrate that Periplocin suppressed the key proinflammatory cytokines levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and IL-13 and IL-22 and transcription factor levels of T-bet, GATA3, and C-Jun genes. Periplocin also suppressed LPS-induced cytokine secretion from synoviocytes. Our study highlights the antiarthritic activity of PFS and its derived Periplocin and the underlying mechanisms. These results provide a strong rationale for further testing and validation of the use of Periploca forrestii Schltr. as an alternative modality for the treatment of RA.

  2. Furostanol saponins and quercetin glycosides from the leaves of Helleborus viridis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braca, Alessandra; Prieto, Josè Maria; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Tomè, Franca; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-11-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the polar extracts of the leaves of Helleborus viridis (Ranunculaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new furostanol saponins (25R)-26-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)oxy]-22alpha-methoxyfurost-5-en-3beta-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[6-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (25R)-26-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)oxy]-22alpha-methoxyfurost-5-en-3beta-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and three new quercetin glycosides, quercetin 3-O-(2-E-caffeoyl)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin 3-O-(2-E-caffeoyl)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (4), and quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data and mass spectrometry.

  3. Effects of Tribuli Saponins on Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats with Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan; YIN Hui-jun; SHI Da-zhuo; CHEN Ke-ji

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Tribuli saponins (TS) on left ventricularremodeling after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rats with hyperlipemia. Methods: A composite model of myocardial infarction and hyperlipemia was established and treated with TS to observe its effect on cardiac structure and function by echocardiography. Results: (1) Cardiac function: As compared with the model group, the fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) got increased, and the left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and systolic volume (LVESV) got lower in the groups treated with high dose TS and simvastatin ( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ), but difference between the two treated groups was insignificant. (2) Cardiac structure: As compared with the model group, the left ventricular dimension end diastole (LVDd) and systole (LVDs) in the groups treated with high dose TS and simvastatin got lower ( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). No treatment showed any effect on the thickness of ventricular wall. (3)Ventricular weight index: Both high dose TS and simvastatin could decrease the left ventricular weight index (LVWI) ( P<0.05). Conclusion: TS could attenuate the left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction to certain extent, and improve cardiac function in the early phase after AMI, thus playing an important role in controlling morbidity and mortality of cardiac events and long-term prognosis.

  4. Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on vascular endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    關超然; 關加荤

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibition of endothelium-dependent in vitro vascular relaxation induced by the total saponins (gensenosides) from Panax notoginseng ( PNS ) and the effect of PNS on the cytosolic Ca2 + concentration on cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.METHODS: The endothelial-dependent vascular relaxation was assessed using acetylcholine (ACh) or cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) induced relaxation in endothelium-intact rat aorta. Cytosolic Caa + level was assessed in real time using dynamic digital fluorescence ratio imaging.RESULTS: In addition to its direct relaxation of the smooth muscle cells at high concentrations, PNS, at 100 mg/L having little effect on smooth muscle, caused a marked inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation brought about by PNS. This inhibitory effect was due to its inhibition of elevation of cytosolic Ca2 + , which is required for the activation of NO generation and release from the vascular endothelial cells. Nifedipine has no effect on either the endothelium-dependent relaxation or the cytosolic Ca2 + level in the cultured endothelial cells.CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with the known action of PNS on receptor-operated Ca2 + channels and support our contention that PNS inhibits endotheliumdependent relaxation by preventing the increase of Ca2 + level in endothelial cells via the receptor-operated Ca2 + channels in the presence of ACh or the non-selective cation channels opened by CPA.

  5. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahi, Vida; Mirzaie-asl, Asghar; Piri, Khosro; Nazeri, Sonbol; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2014-07-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an important medicinal plant throughout the world. Glycyrrhizin is a triterpenoid that is among the most important secondary metabolites produced by liquorice. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the levels of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effect of drought stress on the expression of important genes involved in the glycyrrhizin biosynthetic pathway was examined. Drought stress at the seedling stage was applied to 8-day-old plants using polyethylene glycol. Subsequently, the samples were collected 0, 4, 8 or 24 h post-treatment. At the adult plant stage, 10-month-old plants were subjected to drought stress by discontinuing irrigation. Subsequently, samples were collected at 2, 16 and 28 days after drought imposition (S(2d), S(16d) and S(28d), respectively). We performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays to evaluate the gene expression levels of sequalene synthase (SQS), β-amyrin synthase (bAS), lupeol synthase (LUS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) during stress. Finally, the glycyrrhizin content of stolons was determined via HPLC. The results revealed that due to osmotic stress, the gene expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased, whereas those of CAS were relatively unchanged at the seedling stage. At the adult plant stage, the expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased under drought stress conditions, whereas the gene expression level of CAS remained relatively constant. The glycyrrhizin content in stolons was increased only under severe drought stress conditions (S(28d)). Our results indicate that application of controlled drought stress up-regulates the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and directly enhances the production of secondary metabolites, including glycyrrhizin, in liquorice plants.

  6. Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Fractionation of Concentrated Agave (Agave salmiana) Sap to Obtain Saponins with Apoptotic Effect on Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Fajardo-Ramírez, Oscar R; Romo-López, Irasema; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-03-01

    Separation of potentially bioactive components from foods and plant extracts is one of the main challenges for their study. Centrifugal partition chromatography has been a successful technique for the screening and identification of molecules with bioactive potential, such as steroidal saponins. Agave is a source of steroidal saponins with anticancer potential, though the activity of these compounds in concentrated agave sap has not been yet explored. In this study, fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) was used coupled with in vitro tests on HT-29 cells as a screening procedure to identify apoptotic saponins from an acetonic extract of concentrated agave sap. The three most bioactive fractions obtained by FCPC at partition coefficients between 0.23 and 0.4 contained steroidal saponins, predominantly magueyoside b. Flow cytometry analysis determined that the fraction rich in kammogenin and manogenin glycosides induced apoptosis, but when gentrogenin and hecogenin glycosides were also found in the fraction, a necrotic effect was observed. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that steroidal saponins in concentrated agave sap were potential inductors of apoptosis and that it was possible to separate them using fast centrifugal partition chromatography.

  7. Evaluation of remediation process with soapberry derived saponin for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Hai-Pu, Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyoti Prakash Maity; Yuh Ming Huang; Cheng-Wei Fan; Chien-Cheng Chen; Chun-Yi Li; Chun-Mei Hsu; Young-Fo Chang

    2013-01-01

    The use of a biodegradable natural plant-based surfactant extracted from soapberry is proposed for the remediation of Ni,Cr and Mn from industrial soil site in Hai-Pu,Taiwan.Batch experiments were performed under variation of fundamental factors (saponin concentration,pH,and incubation time) for metal remediation.Removal of Ni and Mn were increased with increasing saponin concentration (0.015-0.150 g/L),whereas the removal of Cr was increased upto 0.075 g/L saponin.The Ni,Cr and Mn were removed significantly (p < 0.05) at near to the neutral and slightly acidic (pH 5 to 8) conditions.Removal efficiency of Ni (99%) from the soil was found to be greater than that of Cr (73%) or Mn (25%) in the presence of saponin at a concentration of 0.150 g/L at pH 5.The removal percentage increased with incubation time where the removal of Ni was faster than that of Cr and Mn.The result indicates the feasibility of eco-friendly removal of heavy metal (Ni,Cr and Mn) from industrial soil by soil washing process in presence of plant derived saponin.

  8. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  9. Aguamiel concentrate from Agave salmiana and its extracted saponins attenuated obesity and hepatic steatosis and increased Akkermansia muciniphila in C57BL6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Noriega, Lilia G.; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Torres, Nimbe; Alemán-Escondrillas, Gabriela; López-Romero, Patricia; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A.; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Ordáz, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet. Additionally, mice fed the saponin extract exhibited a reduced HOMA index and hepatic lipid levels and increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Saponins increased white adipose tissue browning, AMPK phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial activity in skeletal muscle and energy expenditure in mice fed the HF diet. These metabolic changes were accompanied by an increase in the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut microbiota. Therefore, Agave salmiana saponins can be an alternative to attenuate the metabolic changes that accompany obesity. PMID:27678062

  10. 脾虚状态对高脂血症大鼠血清低密度脂蛋白亚类分布的影响%Effects of Spleen Deficiency on Serum LDL Subfractions Distribution of Hyperlipidemia Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美林; 贾连群; 陈阳; 杜莹; 任路

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the characteristics of LDL subfractions distribution of apleen deficiency combined hyperlipidemia rats serum,then to analysis the influences of spleen deficiency on serum LDL subfractions distribution of hypedipidemia rats at the level of subfractions.Method:The 30 SPF SD rats were randomized divided into blank control group,hyperlipemia group and spleen deficiency combined hypedipidemia group.Hypedipidemia group were fed with high fat diet,while spleen deficiency combined hyperlipidemia group using overstrain and improper diet with high fat diet to feed.The levels of serum lipid were tested by biochemical methods.Using phloroglucinol method to test D-xylose excretion rate.HE and oil red staining method was used to observe the liver injury.Using Lipoprint classification system to test lipoprotein LDL subclasses.Results:Compared with the blank group,the serum TC and LDL-C levels increased significantly while HDL-C,AMY,D-xylose excretion rate were significantly reduced,the liver cells see a lot of lipid deposited in the hypedipemia group and spleen deficiency combined hyperlipidemia group.Compared with the hypedipemia group,the serum TC and LDL-C levels increased significantly while HDL-C,AMY,D-xylose excretion rate were significantly reduced in the spleen deficiency combined hyperlipidemia group.The results of Lipoprint lipoprotein classification system showed that:Compared with the control group,the serum large particles LDL and the small dense LDL levels were significantly increased in the hyperlipemia group and spleen deficiency combined hypedipidemia group.Compared with the hyperlipemia group,the serum small dense LDL levels were significantly increased.Conclusion:The distribution of serum LDL subfractions distribution anomaly in the hypedipemia group and spleen deficiency combined hypedipidemia group rats,and the subfractions of the latter changed more.%目的:观察脾虚高脂血症大鼠血清LDL亚类分布的特征,分析脾虚状态

  11. Rapid profiling and identification of triterpenoid saponins in crude extracts from Albizia julibrissin Durazz. by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lifeng; Pan, Guixiang; Wang, Yuefei; Song, Xinbo; Gao, Xiumei; Ma, Baiping; Kang, Liping

    2011-07-15

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to separate and identify triterpenoid saponins in crude extract from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. The molecular weights were determined by comparing quasi-molecular ions [M+NH(4)](+) in positive mode and [M-H](-) and [M-2H](2-) ions in negative mode. The MS/MS spectra of the [M-H](-) ions for saponins provided a wealth of structural information related to aglycone skeletons, sugar types and linked sequence. On the basis of the fragmentation behavior of known saponins isolated before, saponins from this plant were identified, even though references were not available. As a result, a total of twenty-eight saponins in the crude extract were identified, which all had a common basic skeleton of the triterpene oleanolic acid and eight of them were new compounds.

  12. Effects of vanillin, quillaja saponin, and essential oils on in vitro fermentation and protein-degrading microorganisms of the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Yu, Zhongtang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vanillin on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation, and the responses of ruminal protein-degrading bacteria to vanillin (at concentrations of 0, 0.76 and 1.52 g/L), essential oils (clove oil, 1 g/L; origanum oil, 0.50 g/L, and peppermint oil, 1 g/L), and quillaja saponin (at concentration of 0 and 6 g/L) in vitro. Methane production, degradabilities of feed substrate, and ammonia concentration decreased linearly with increasing doses of vanillin. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids also decreased, whereas proportion of butyrate tended to increase linearly with increasing doses of vanillin. Protozoa population decreased, but abundances of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella bryantii, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola, Clostridium aminophilum, and Ruminobacter amylophilus increased with increasing doses of vanillin. Origanum and clove oils resulted in lower ammonia concentrations compared to control and peppermint oil. All the tested essential oils decreased abundances of protozoa, Selenomonas ruminantium, R. amylophilus, P. ruminicola and P. bryantii, with the largest decrease resulted from origanum oil followed by clove oil and peppermint oil. The abundances of Megasphaera elsdenii, C. aminophilum, and Clostridium sticklandii were deceased by origanum oil while that of B. fibrisolvens was lowered by both origanum and clove oils. Saponin decreased ammonia concentration and protozoal population, but increased the abundances of S. ruminantium, R. amylophilus, P. ruminicola, and P. bryantii, though the magnitude was small (less than one log unit). The results suggest that reduction of ammonia production by vanillin and saponin may not be caused by direct inhibition of major known proteolytic bacteria, and essential oils can have different inhibitory effects on different proteolytic bacteria, resulting in varying reduction in ammonia production.

  13. 中药皂苷的植物雌激素样作用%Phytoestrogen-like effects of herbal saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先祥; 吴杨峥; 孙爱静; 刁勇

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens (Pes) are defined as the plant compounds with structures or activities similarly to estrogen. Benefits of Pes to human health get universal attentions. Multifarious herbal components play the roles as phy-toestrogen. Saponins, important natural products, exhibit remarkable pharmacological effects including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, anti-osteoporosis, antivirus, cardiovascular protection, neuropro-tection, anti-aging and regulation of glucose andlipid metabolism. Saponins are clinically valuable for applications in hormone-related diseases like endometriosis, breast cancer, prostate cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is theoretically and practically significant to further elucidate phytoestrogen-like effects of saponins.%植物雌激素是指具有类似动物雌激素结构或活性的植物成分,其对健康的重要作用受到广泛关注,中药含有多种成分具有植物雌激素作用.皂苷是一类重要的天然产物,具有抗肿瘤、抗氧化、抗炎和免疫调节、抗骨质疏松、抗病毒、心血管保护、神经保护、延缓衰老、调节糖脂代谢等作用,临床上对于子宫内膜异位症、乳腺癌、前列腺癌、骨质疏松、心血管疾病等激素相关疾病具有重要应用价值,进一步阐发皂苷的植物雌激素样作用具有重要理论意义和实践价值.

  14. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  15. Evaluation of the spermicidal and contraceptive activity of Platycodin D, a Saponin from Platycodon grandiflorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extract of Platycodon grandiflorum has been reported to have effective spermicidal activity. This study was designed to evaluate the spermicidal and contraceptive activity, as well as the safety, of Platycodin D (PD, a major saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum. METHODS: Using the computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA test criteria, the sperm-immobilizing activity of PD was studied using highly motile human sperm. The sperm viability was assessed by fluorescent staining using SYBR-14 (living sperm and propidium iodide (dead sperm. The sperm membrane integrity was assessed by evaluating the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS and examinations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated in rats using post-intrauterine PD application. The comet assay was employed to determine whether PD caused DNA damage in the sperm. Vaginal biopsies were also performed to determine whether the PD gel induced vaginal inflammation. RESULTS: A dose-dependent effect of PD on the sperm motility and viability was observed. The maximum spermicidal effect was observed with a 0.25 mM concentration of PD. More than 70% of the PD-treated sperm lost their HOS responsiveness at a concentration of 0.20 mM PD, indicating that PD caused injury to the sperm plasma membrane. TEM and SEM revealed significant damage to both the head and tail membranes of the sperm. PD decreased the fertility to zero in rats, was non-DNA damaging and was not harmful to the vaginal tissue in the rats. CONCLUSION: PD has significant spermicidal activity that should be explored in further studies.

  16. Saponins (Ginsenosides) from the Leaves of Panax quinquefolius Ameliorated Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Yue; Hu, Jun-Nan; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Rui; He, Yu-Fang; Hou, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Qing; Yang, Ge; Li, Wei

    2017-05-10

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common inducements of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the world. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the liver protection activity of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and the involved mechanisms were demonstrated for the first time. Mice were pretreated with PQS (150 and 300 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 7 days before being treated with 250 mg/kg APAP. Severe liver injury was exerted at 24 h post-APAP, and hepatotoxicity was assessed. Our results showed that pretreatment with PQS significantly decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the APAP administration. Meanwhile, compared with that in the APAP group, PQS decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression and restored reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in livers of mice. PQS inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver tissues. Furthermore, Western blotting analysis revealed that PQS pretreatment inhibited the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways via increase of Bcl-2 and decrease of Bax and caspase-3 protein expression levels. Liver histopathological observation provided further evidence that PQS pretreatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and congestion. Biological indicators of nitrative stress such as 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) were inhibited after PQS pretreatment, compared to the APAP group. The present study clearly demonstrates that PQS exerts a protective effect against APAP-induced hepatic injury because of its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The findings from

  17. Tea saponins affect in vitro fermentation and methanogenesis in faunated and defaunated rumen fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei-lian; WU Yue-ming; LIU Jian-xin; GUO Yan-qiu; YE Jun-an

    2005-01-01

    The effect of tea saponins (TS) on rumen fermentation and methane emission was examined using an in vitro gas production technique named Reading Pressure Technique. Three levels of TS addition (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/ml) were evaluated in the faunated and defaunated rumen fluid. Compared to the control, TS addition decreased the 24 h gas production in the faunated rumen fluid, but had a minor effect on gas yield in the defaunated rumen fluid. The TS significantly reduced methane production in vitro. In the faunated rumen fluid, 0.2 or 0.4 mg/ml TS decreased the 24 h methane emission by 12.7% or 14.0%, respectively.Rumen fluid pH value was affected neither by TS addition nor by defaunation. The TS addition had only minor effects on volatile fatty acids, but the yield and pattern of volatile fatty acids were greatly affected by defaunation. While the molar proportion of acetate was not affected by defaunation, the propionate was significantly increased and the butyrate significantly decreased.Ammonia-N concentration and microbial protein yield were influenced by TS inclusion and defaunation. Inclusion of 0.4 mg/ml TS increased the microbial protein mass by 18.4% and 13.8% and decreased the ammonia-N concentration by 8.3% and 19.6% in the faunated and defaunated rumen fluid, respectively. Protozoa counts were significantly reduced by TS inclusion. The current study demonstrated the beneficial effect of TS on methane production and rumen fermentation, and indicated that this may be due to the effect of the associated depression on protozoa counts.

  18. Protection of Acanthopanax Senticosus Saponin on Free Radical Injury Induced Aging of Nerve Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永进; 顾永健; 顾小苏

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Acanthopanax senticosus saponin (ASS) on free radical injury induced neuron aging. Methods: On day 7 of fetal mice, cortical neuron primary passage cultures were divided into the normal control group, model group and ASS groups. The model group using free radical (FeSO4 plus H2O2) injury mode prepared in vivo cultured ICR mice cortical neuron aging model; ASS groups: 24 hrs before and after treated with H2O2 and FeSO4, different concentration of ASS was added, according to biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) etc. and histomorphologic change to observe the protection of ASS on aging neurons. Results: The LDH, SOD, MDA of the model group were compared with the normal group, P<0.01; ASS groups added 1.25 mg/100 ml, 2.5 mg/100 ml, 5 mg/100 ml concentration of ASS, their LDH, SOD, MDA compared with the model group P<0.05-0.01, the difference was significant. In medicated groups the SOD activity of oxidization injured nerve cells obviously elevated, LDH activity and MDA content apparently lowered. Microscope and scanning electron microscopic observation showed that supplemented with ASS to protect the nerve cell injury abated, part of the cellular structure tended to normalize. Conclusion: ASS could act against free radical toxic effect, increase the anti-oxidase activity, strengthen the protection of neuron cells. It is assumed that the effect against nerve cell aging was possibly through scavenging oxygen free radical, strengthening the stability of cell membrane, thus delaying the development of aging.

  19. Astragalus saponins induce apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via a caspase 3-dependent pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOSHUA K S Ko; Kathy K W Auyeung

    2008-01-01

    Objective Many Asian countriea including China, Japan and Korea have very high incidence of gastric cancer, in which about 42 % cases occur in mainland China. The precise targets and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Our previous study revealed that Astragalus saponins (AST) showed promising effects on the suppression of the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the anti-carcinogenic effects of AST in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Growth inhibition of AGS cells was determined by using the MTT viability test. Involvement of different members of the apoptotic cascade and other growth-related factors was explored by assessment of their protein expression using Western blot analysis. Distribution of cells in different phases of the cell cycle was assessed by flow eytometry. Results Our data indicate that AST induced growth-inhibition and apoptosis in AGS cells by activating caspase 3 with subsequent poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase had been observed in AST-treated AGS cells. The anti-proliferative effect of AST was associated with modulation of eydin B1 and p21. We then demonstrate that AST could downregulate the expression of VEGF, of which interaction with its receptors is important for angiogenesis during tumor formation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that AST is an effective agent in gastric cancer treatment by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, of which anti-angiogenesis could be an alternative mode of action.

  20. Saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina: isolation, characterization and ability to form immuno stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang L; Ross, Benjamin P; McGeary, Ross P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Davies, Nigel M

    2006-10-01

    ISCOMs have received much attention as vaccine adjuvants due to their immunostimulatory effects. They are colloidal particles typically comprised of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil A, a crude mixture of saponins extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. We have previously shown that ISCOMs can be prepared by ether injection wherein an ether solution of phospholipids and cholesterol in a mass ratio of 5:2 is injected into a solution of Quil A at a mass ratio of 7 lipids: 3 Quil A. The aim of this study was firstly to isolate and characterise discrete fractions of Quil A and secondly to investigate which of these fractions were able to form ISCOMs by the method of ether injection. Six fractions of Quil A were isolated by semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterised by analytical HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the qualitative Liebermann-Burchard and Molisch tests for triterpenoids and carbohydrates respectively. ISCOMs were subsequently prepared from the isolated fractions by the method of ether injection and the resulting preparations characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular weights of the major compounds in the fractions ranged from approximately 1200 to approximately 2300 Da; all fractions tested positive for triterpenoids and saccharides and four of the fractions were identified as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18 and QS-21 by analysis (LC-MS and analytical HPLC). Injection of ether solutions of lipids into aqueous solutions of QS-17, QS-18 or QS-21 all resulted in homogeneous ISCOM dispersions. The combination of lipids and QS-7 by ether injection produced lamellae and liposomes as the prominent structures and a minor amount of ISCOMs. The remaining two hydrophilic, low molecular weight fractions of Quil A did not produce ISCOMs, instead liposomes and helical structures predominated in the