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Sample records for saponified banana leaf

  1. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Ana

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves; Silvia Nietsche; Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira; Manoel Xavier de Oliveira Júnior; Roberto Célio Antunes Júnior; Carlos Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    Prata Ana is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible to several pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Ana cv. in the first and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments and four replications. lit an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found on Thap Maeo and Caip...

  2. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  3. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  4. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain

  5. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain uncle

  6. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  7. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  8. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  9. Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xian; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC) is a causal agent of vascular wilt and leaf chlorosis of banana plants. Chloroses resulting from FOC occur first in the lowest leaves of banana seedlings and gradually progress upward. To investigate the responses of different leaf positions to FOC infection, hydroponic experiments with FOC inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Fusarium-infected seedlings exhibited a decrease in net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of all leaves. The wilting process in Fusarium-infected seedlings varied with leaf position. Measurements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(max) and visualization with transmission electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between chloroplast impairment and severity of disease symptoms. Furthermore, results of malondialdehyde content and relative membrane conductivity measurements demonstrated that the membrane system was damaged in infected leaves. Additionally, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were increased and total soluble phenolic compounds were significantly accumulated in the leaves of infected plants. The structural and biochemical changes of infected plants was consistent with plant senescence. As the FOC was not detected in infected leaves, we proposed that the chloroplast and membrane could be damaged by fusaric acid produced by Fusarium. During the infection, fusaric acid was first accumulated in the lower leaves and water-soluble substances in the lower leaves could dramatically enhance fusaric acid production. Taken together, the senescence of infected banana plants was induced by Fusarium infection with fusaric acid production and the composition of different leaf positions largely contribute to the particular senescence process.

  10. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, S.A.L.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Ferreira, C.F.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Zapater, M.F.; Goodwin, S.B.; Guzmán, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Souza, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas

  11. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  12. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  13. Impact of high temperature on ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus immobilized on banana leaf sheath pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoang Du; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Le, Van Viet Man

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol fermentation was carried out with Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at various temperatures (30, 35, 40, and 45 °C). Fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast on banana leaf sheath pieces and the free yeast were evaluated and compared. Generally, ethanol production of the immobilized and free yeast was stable in a temperature range of 30-40 °C. Temperature of 45 °C restricted yeast growth and lengthened the fermentation. The immobilized yeast demonstrated faster sugar assimilation and higher ethanol level in the fermentation broth in comparison with the free yeast at all fermentation temperatures. Change in fatty acid level in cellular membrane was determined to clarify the response of the free and immobilized yeast to thermal stress. The free cells of K. marxianus responded to temperature increase by increasing saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0) level and by decreasing unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level in cellular membrane. For fermentation at 40 °C with immobilized cells of K. marxianus, however, the changes were not observed in both saturated fatty acid (C16:0) and unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level.

  14. Isolation and characterization of the mating type locus of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conde-Ferráez, L.; Waalwijk, C.; Canto-Canché, B.B.; Kema, G.H.J.; Crous, P.W.; James, A.C.; Abeln, E.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Idiomorphs mat1-1 and mat1-2 from Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana, were isolated. Degenerate oligos were used to amplify the HMG box of the mat1-2 idiomorph from M. fijiensis, showing homology with the HMG box of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Using a

  15. Isolation and characterization of the mating type locus of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conde-Ferráez, L.; Waalwijk, C.; Canto-Canché, B.B.; Kema, G.H.J.; Crous, P.W.; James, A.C.; Abeln, E.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Idiomorphs mat1-1 and mat1-2 from Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana, were isolated. Degenerate oligos were used to amplify the HMG box of the mat1-2 idiomorph from M. fijiensis, showing homology with the HMG box of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Using a D

  16. 假茎回收式香蕉茎叶粉碎机的设计%The Development of Recycling Type Banana Leaf Shredder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金燐; 张喜瑞; 李粤; 梁栋

    2016-01-01

    Banana straw contains high nutrition , if recycling will be a huge plant resources , current domestic develop-ment of banana stalk shredder mostly straw shattered after returning directly , and the little research that is shattered after the recycling machine .Aiming at this problem , we design a false stem recycling type crusher , banana leaf describes the overall design of the machine and structure of the main components .This machine is divided into false stem shattered in-stitutions and two parts in crushing mechanism , is mainly composed of a cutting device , spiral rotary device , double disc type false stem cutting device , lifting device , transmission device , fake stem crushing device , transmission channel , blade grinding device and banana straw debris collection device and so on , banana stem shattered , stem fragments recov-ery, in crushing counters-field set in one body .This machine design for the banana leaf resource utilization equipment research and development provides a feasible new models , for subsequent processing of banana false stem use reserve the necessary technology .%香蕉假茎含有较高的营养成分,若回收利用将是一种巨大的植物资源。目前,国内研制的香蕉秸秆粉碎机大多为假茎粉碎后直接还田,而对其粉碎后回收的机器研究很少。为此,设计了一种假茎回收式香蕉茎叶粉碎机,确定了其总体设计方案及主要部件的结构。该机分为假茎粉碎机构和蕉叶粉碎机构两部分,主要由切稍装置、螺旋扶茎装置、双圆盘式假茎切断装置、升降装置、传送装置、假茎粉碎装置、输送通道、叶片粉碎装置和假茎碎片收集装置等组成,将香蕉假茎粉碎、假茎碎片回收及蕉叶粉碎还田集于一体。该机的设计为香蕉茎叶资源利用设备的研发提供了可行的新型机型,为后续香蕉假茎的深加工利用储备了必要的技术。

  17. Isolation and Identification of Corynespora cassiicola Causing Banana Leaf Spot Disease%香蕉棒孢霉叶斑病菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善海; 黄思良; 张贺; 漆艳香; 覃丽萍; 谢玲; 付岗

    2011-01-01

    Three isolates were obtained from banana leaf spot sanples collected from Nanning, Guangxi by tissue isolation.The pathogenicity of the isolates was confirmed based on Koch's postulates.The conidia and conidiophores produced on the PDA-incubated colonies became longer than those on naturally occurred banana leaf spots.The pathogenic isolate CATAS100 was identified as a member of Corynespora cassicola based on its morphological characters on PDA medium and rDNA-ITS (ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer) sequence.This is the first report on molecular identification of Corynespora cassiicola causing banana leaf spots in China.%从广西南宁市采集香蕉棒孢霉叶斑病样本,用常规组织分离法获得3个菌株,经柯赫氏法则验证确定其为香蕉叶斑病的病原菌.该菌的形态特征在分离培养前后变化较大,自然病斑上的分生孢子和分生孢子梗均较短,经PDA培养基分离培养后显著变长,培养后的病原菌彤态特征与前人对Corynespora cassiicola的描述一致.根据形态特征及rDNA-ITS区序列比对结果,确定该病原菌株为多主棒孢菌[Corynespora cassiicola(Berk &Curt)Wei].

  18. 香蕉真菌性叶斑病病原种群结构季节性变化研究%Seasonal variation in population structure of banana mycotic leaf spot pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善海; 黄思良; 岑贞陆; 覃丽萍; 黎起秦; 付岗

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究香蕉叶斑病病原真菌种群结构的季节性变化,为香蕉叶斑病的流行学研究和防治提供理论依据.[方法]2009年6~10月,对南宁市金陵镇第1年生香蕉的真菌性叶斑病病原随机抽样,检测单个病斑的病原菌,并分析每个时期病原菌的种群结构.[结果]南宁市金陵镇香蕉真菌性叶斑病病原至少有9种,主要病原为香蕉暗双孢菌(Cordana musae).叶斑病类型以单一病原侵染为主,其独立侵染的检出率随着季节的变化呈先升后降趋势,最高峰(8月15目)达88.8%;复合侵染的叶斑病类型以两种病原共同侵染居多,检出率的变化趋势与单一病原相反;除Alternaria musae和Pestalotiopsis menezesiana外,其他7种病原之间可共同侵染香蕉;Cordana musae的总检出率呈振幅式上升,最高检出率达92.8%.[结论]季节变化是影响香蕉真菌性叶斑病病原种群结构的一个主要环境因子.Cordana musae是田间香蕉真菌性叶斑病病原菌的优势种,建议香蕉叶斑病的防治主要针对由Cordana musae引起的灰纹病.%[Objective]The present work was carried out to study the seasonal variation in population structure of banana mycotic leaf spot pathogen in order to provide information for its control. [Method]The effects of fungal pathogens, causing mycotic leaf spot diseases, were investigated on annual growth of banana plantations at Jinling Township (Nanning) from June to October, 2009. Pathogens of leaf spot were examined and the population structure was analyzed during each period. [Result]At least nine fungal pathogens of mycotic leaf spots of banana were observed, amongst which, the Cordana musae was the major pathogen. The single-pathogen-induced banana leaf spots (SBLS) were predominant. The detection rate of SBLS was slightly higher and declined rapidly along with seasonal variations, with the peak rate (88.8%) detected on 15 August. The co-infected banana leaf spots (CBLS) with two

  19. Genotoxicity induced by saponified coconut oil surfactant in prokaryote systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Tirzah Braz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2004-11-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic substances with special properties and chemical structures that allow a reduction in interfacial tension, which permits an increase in molecule solubilization. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is an important characteristic of surfactants that determines their aggregate state, which is generally related to its functional mechanism. In this work the genotoxic potential of saponified coconut oil (SCO), a surfactant obtained from Cocos nucifera, was analyzed using prokaryote systems. DNA strand breaks were not observed after treatment of a plasmid with SCO. Negative results were also obtained in the SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli strains PQ35 and PQ37. A moderate toxicity of SCO was observed after treatment of strain CC104 with a concentration above its CMC, in which micelles were found. Nevertheless, this treatment was not cytotoxic to a CC104mutMmutY strain. Furthermore, in this DNA repair-deficient strain treatment with a SCO dose below its CMC, in which only monomers were found, demonstrated the possibility of an antioxidant effect, since a reduction in spontaneous mutagenesis frequency was observed. Finally, in an Ames test without metabolic activation mutagenicity induction was observed in strains TA100 and TA104 with treatment doses below the CMC. The cytotoxic, antioxidant and mutagenic effects of SCO can be influenced by the aggregational state.

  20. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  1. Effect of leaf harvesting on reproduction and natural populations of Indian Wild Banana Ensete superbum (Roxb. Cheesman (Zingiberales: Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra R. Bhise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensete superbum (Roxb. Cheesman an important taxon in India is threatened in Maharashtra. It is sporadically distributed on high altitude slopes and rocky cliffs in the Western Ghats. It is an important medicinal and economic plant utilized by people living in rural areas, while the leaves are also utilized in urban areas. The leaves are harvested for commercial purposes. The effect of leaf harvest on natural population with respect to regeneration of new plantlets was evaluated. The results revealed that, non-scientific leaf harvesting resulted in significantly reduced flowering and fruiting, less number of new plantlets in the population, and population degradation. Therefore, leaf harvesting should be practiced in a controlled manner to maintain the population health of this highly potential species. 

  2. 广西香蕉真菌性叶斑病病原菌种群结构分析%Investigations on the fungal populations associated with banana leaf spot diseases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善海; 黄思良; 覃丽萍; 付岗; 岑贞陆; 谢玲

    2011-01-01

    2009年2-3月对广西香蕉主产区真菌性叶斑病病原进行抽样鉴定.结果显示,广西香蕉真菌性叶斑病病原至少有10种,主要病原为Cordana musae,分布广,检出率为56.77%~92.19%;Corynespora cassiicola和Deightoniella torulosa为次,两种病原菌均主要集中在南宁地区,检出率分别为32.34%和22.61%;叶斑病类型以单一病原侵染为主,检出率为78.13%~92.19%;复合侵染的叶斑病类型以2种病原共同侵染居多.%Investigations on banana leaf spot fungal pathogens were conducted in major banana production areas in Guangxi between February and March in 2009. The results showed that at least 10 fungal pathogens were found in the banana leaf spot samples. Cordana musae was the most frequently observed fungal pathogen with a detection rate of 56.77%-92.19% in the samples. Corynespora cassiicola and Deightoniella torulosa were mainly observed in the samples collected from the plantations at Nanning City, with the detection rates of 32.34% and 22. 61%, respectively. The banana leaf spots with only a single pathogen were predominant (78.13%-92.19%) compared to those with two or more fungal pathogens.

  3. Environmental factors influencing the development of black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) on bananas in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of environmental factors on the development of black leaf streak (BLS) were studied in Puerto Rico under field conditions. Environmental factors evaluated included temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and solar radiation. Their effect on BLS was determined by recording the youngest...

  4. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  5. Modelo matemático para estimativa da área foliar total de bananeira 'Prata-anã' Esteem method of total leaf area of 'Prata anã' banana tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Zucoloto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo para estimar a área foliar total de bananeira, cultivar Prata-Anã, utilizando dimensões lineares da terceira folha, como o comprimento, a largura e o número total de folhas na emissão da inflorescência. As regressões lineares foram determinadas considerando-se a área foliar total de cada planta (AFT como variável dependente e o comprimento (C e a largura (L da terceira folha, o produto de CxL, o número total de folhas por planta (N e o produto de CxLxN como variáveis independentes. O modelo linear que melhor estimou a área foliar total (AFTe da bananeira 'Prata-Anã', ao nível de 5% de significância com R² de 0,89, foi a equação AFTe = 0,5187(CxLxN + 9603,5.The objective of this work was to estimate the total leaf area of banana, cultivar Prata Anã, according to the linear dimensions of the third leaf, such as the length and the width and the total number of leves in the inflorescence emission. The linear regressions were determined considering total leaf area of each plant (AFT such as dependent variable and the length (C and the width (L of the third leaf, the product of CxL, the total number of leaf per plant (N and the product of CxLxN as independent variables. The best linear model that estimated the total leaf area (AFTe of banana 'Prata Anã' at the level of 5% of significance with R² of 0,89 was the equation AFTe = 0.5187 (CxLxN + 9603.5.

  6. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae引起云南省香蕉细菌性叶斑病%A New Bacterial Leaf Spot of Banana Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽华; 黄敏; 何鹏飞; Hon-hing HO; 吴毅歆; 何月秋

    2016-01-01

    To identify the pathogen causing a new bacterial leaf spot on banana (Musa sapientum L.) in Xinping County,Yunnan Province of China,the bacterium was isolated from the infected banana plant and identified by cultural and morphological studies,pathogenicity test,physiological and biochemical detection as well as sequences analyses of gyrB,16S rDNA and rpoB genes.The results showed that the leaf spot disease was caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae.The pathogen could infect banana fruit,pseudo-stem and leaf.Black spots appeared on diseased pseudo-stems within 3 days after inoculation and they enlarged lengthwise in both directions,causing massive brown necrosis of the internal tissues within the pseudo-stem in 7 days.This is the first report of K.pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae causing leaf spot of banana plants in the world.%为明确一种新的香蕉(Musa sapientum)细菌性叶斑病病原菌,以云南省新平县香蕉园区发现的一种新病害为供试材料,通过分离培养、形态观察、致病性测定、生理生化试验和gyrB,16S rDNA和rpoB基因片段分析,对病原菌进行了鉴定.该病由克雷伯氏肺炎球菌肺炎亚种(Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumoniae)引起,病菌可侵染香蕉叶片、假茎和果实.茎干被病原菌侵入3d后即可出现黑色小斑点,在接种部位附近呈上下方向蔓延趋势,7d后茎干上出现大面积棕色坏死,内部组织褐变.本文在世界上首次报道克雷伯氏肺炎球菌肺炎亚种可侵染香蕉植株,引起香蕉细菌性叶斑病.

  8. Positive selection and intragenic recombination contribute to high allelic diversity in effector genes of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of the black leaf streak disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Cordovez da Cunha, V.; Okmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have determined the nonhost-mediated recognition of the MfAvr4 and MfEcp2 effector proteins from the banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in tomato, by the cognate Cf-4 and Cf-Ecp2 resistance proteins, respectively. These two resistance proteins could thus mediate resistance

  9. Non-saponifiable fraction of cocoa shell butter: effect on rat and human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warocquier-Clerout, R; Sigot, M; Ouraghi, M; Chaveron, H

    1992-02-01

    Synopsis Non-saponifiable lipid fraction (ICSB) extracted from cocoa shell butter was solubilized in dimethylformamide (DMF) and analysed for its biological activity on growth of rat and human fibroblasts. Non-saponifiables (10 mug ml(-1)) partially protected cells from toxicity of DMF (1%) and allowed the growth of fibroblasts cultivated in optimal conditions (10% fetal calf serum-FCS, 37 degrees C) or improved the survival of cells maintained in altered conditions (2.5% FCS, 35 degrees C). At higher concentration (ICSB 50 mug ml(-1), DMF 1%), the protective effect was suppressed. ICSB was fractionated by chromatography into four compounds: sterols, terpenic alcohols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons +/- carotenoids. We found that biological activity of ICSB was mostly due to the major fraction containing sterols.

  10. Effect of impurity ions on preparation of novel saponifier for rare earth extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕飞; 冯宗玉; 黄小卫; 黄莉; 徐旸; 侯永可; 王猛

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium bicarbonate, prepared by the carbonation of magnesium hydroxide slurry, was used as a novel saponifier to eliminate the ammonia nitrogen pollution in the rare earth extraction separation process. The effect of impurity ions introduced by system on the carbonation reaction of magnesium hydroxide was studied in the work. The results showed that the presence of Ca2+could lead to side reactions so as to reduce the conversion rate of magnesium hydroxide, and a small number of rare earth ions would have great influence on the carbonation reaction. What’s more, there was no influence on carbonation reaction with the low concen-tration of Na+or Mg2+, the conversion rate of magnesium hydroxide could reach above 96%. This paper showed a practical theory which could provide scientific guidance for the preparation of novel saponifier in rare earth extraction separation process.

  11. 云南河口地区香蕉褐缘灰斑病的发生规律研究%Occurrence Regularity of Banana Sigatoka Leaf Spot Disease in Hekou of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建春; 邓成菊; 陈伟强; 李芹; 刘学敏; 杨绍琼; 王晓燕; 胡原鸿; 黄绍忠

    2013-01-01

    The study is about banana sigatoka leaf spot disease in Hekou of Yunnan province. The findings show that the occurrence and the rule of development of the disease are influenced by temperature and rainfall. The disease begins at spring, when the temperature rises and reaches peak between October and December. The degree of harm of the disease differs greatly between different geographic environments, disease index: eastern district (11.81) > central and southern district (10.40) >western district (7.94) but the basic rule is that the disease in low altitude districts begins earlier than high altitude districts and is more harmful than that of the low districts and the disease index decreased with the rises of altitude, which has certain guiding significance for agricultural production.%对云南河口地区香蕉褐缘灰斑病(Banana Sigatoka Leaf Spot Disease)进行研究,结果表明:病害的发生、发展规律主要受温度和降雨量的影响;春季气温回升时开始发病,10~11月危害达到高峰值;不同地理环境危害程度有明显差异,病情指数东部地区(11.81)>中南部地区(10.40)>西部地区(7.94),但危害的基本规律是低海拔地区比高海拔地区先发病,且发病程度比高海拔地区严重,病情指数随着海拔的升高而降低。

  12. Stomatal density and responsiveness of banana fruit stomates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Brun, W A

    1966-01-01

    Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host.

  13. Positive selection and intragenic recombination contribute to high allelic diversity in effector genes of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of the black leaf streak disease of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Cordovez, Viviane; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2014-06-01

    Previously, we have determined the nonhost-mediated recognition of the MfAvr4 and MfEcp2 effector proteins from the banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in tomato, by the cognate Cf-4 and Cf-Ecp2 resistance proteins, respectively. These two resistance proteins could thus mediate resistance against M. fijiensis if genetically transformed into banana (Musa spp.). However, disease resistance controlled by single dominant genes can be overcome by mutated effector alleles, whose products are not recognized by the cognate resistance proteins. Here, we surveyed the allelic variation within the MfAvr4, MfEcp2, MfEcp2-2 and MfEcp2-3 effector genes of M. fijiensis in a global population of the pathogen, and assayed its impact on recognition by the tomato Cf-4 and Cf-Ecp2 resistance proteins, respectively. We identified a large number of polymorphisms that could reflect a co-evolutionary arms race between host and pathogen. The analysis of nucleotide substitution patterns suggests that both positive selection and intragenic recombination have shaped the evolution of M. fijiensis effectors. Clear differences in allelic diversity were observed between strains originating from South-East Asia relative to strains from other banana-producing continents, consistent with the hypothesis that M. fijiensis originated in the Asian-Pacific region. Furthermore, transient co-expression of the MfAvr4 effector alleles and the tomato Cf-4 resistance gene, as well as of MfEcp2, MfEcp2-2 and MfEcp2-3 and the putative Cf-Ecp2 resistance gene, indicated that effector alleles able to overcome these resistance genes are already present in natural populations of the pathogen, thus questioning the durability of resistance that can be provided by these genes in the field. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. 香蕉叶片枯黄病害的调查和初步诊断%Investigation and Diagnosis of Banana Leaf Dry Yellow Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昌平; 文衍堂; 黄贵修

    2008-01-01

    2008年4月在海南省临高县和舍镇和美台镇的香蕉园发生大面积的香蕉叶片枯黄病害.田间调查和室内初步诊断结果表明,该病为香蕉条纹病(Banana streak disease,BSD),该病的防治只须割除枯黄病叶.无须喷施杀菌剂.

  15. Let's Go Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS, BLOOD PROFILE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP FED WITH CA-SAPONIFIED LEMURU OIL COATED BY HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Apri Astuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the physiological status, blood profiles and body composition of sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs. Twenty fat-tailed sheep (av. BW 23±1.2 kg were used in this experiment by using Completely Randomized Design with five treatments ration and four replications of each. Sheep fed with concentrate containing 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil and king grass (1:1 ad libitum. Treatments were control diet without herbs (R1; Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by curcumae domestica (R2; coated by Zingiber officinale Rosc (R3; coated by Eugenia polyantha (R4 and coated by Pluchea indica Less (R5. Data of physiological parameters were measured three times a day, in the morning, at noon and afternoon. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment through jugular vein, together with zero sample for Urea Space measurement. The variables observed were physiological data (heart rate, respiration rate, and rectal temperature, blood profiles (erythrocyte, hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV, leucocytes and body composition (water, protein and fat measured using Urea Space technique. Results of the study showed that sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs was not significantly different on heart rate, respiration rate and rectal temperature among treatments. Meanwhile, total leucocytes, neutrophil cell, and lymphocytes significantly increased (P<0.05 by the treatment. Body composition percentage (water, protein and fat were same in all treatments, except the total body fat and energy retained. In conclusion, supplementation of 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by Curcumae domestica, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Eugenia polyantha and Pluchea indica Less in fat-tailed sheep had no effect on physiological parameters, but improved the leucocyte and neutrophil cells. Total body fat and energy retained lower compared to control treatment. (Key words: Body composition, Ca-saponified, Herbs, Lemuru

  17. Effects of environmental parameters and irrigation on the turgor pressure of banana plants measured using the non-invasive, online monitoring leaf patch clamp pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Rüger, S; Shapira, O; Westhoff, M; Wegner, L H; Reuss, R; Gessner, P; Zimmermann, G; Israeli, Y; Zhou, A; Schwartz, A; Bamberg, E; Zimmermann, D

    2010-05-01

    Turgor pressure provides a sensitive indicator for irrigation scheduling. Leaf turgor pressure of Musa acuminate was measured by using the so-called leaf patch clamp pressure probe, i.e. by application of an external, magnetically generated and constantly retained clamp pressure to a leaf patch and determination of the attenuated output pressure P(p) that is highly correlated with the turgor pressure. Real-time recording of P(p) values was made using wireless telemetric transmitters, which send the data to a receiver base station where data are logged and transferred to a GPRS modem linked to an Internet server. Probes functioned over several months under field and laboratory conditions without damage to the leaf patch. Measurements showed that the magnetic-based probe could monitor very sensitively changes in turgor pressure induced by changes in microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, irradiation and wind) and irrigation. Irrigation effects could clearly be distinguished from environmental effects. Interestingly, oscillations in stomatal aperture, which occurred frequently below turgor pressures of 100 kPa towards noon at high transpiration or at high wind speed, were reflected in the P(p) values. The period of pressure oscillations was comparable with the period of oscillations in transpiration and photosynthesis. Multiple probe readings on individual leaves and/or on several leaves over the entire height of the plants further emphasised the great impact of this non-invasive turgor pressure sensor system for elucidating the dynamics of short- and long-distance water transport in higher plants.

  18. Distribution of mating-type alleles and M13 PCR markers in the black leaf spot fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis of bananas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C B; Miranda, E C; Hanada, R E; Sousa, N R; Gasparotto, L; Soares, M A; Silva, G F

    2013-02-08

    The fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causative agent of black sigatoka, which is one of the most destructive diseases of banana plants. Infection with this pathogen results in underdeveloped fruit, with no commercial value. We analyzed the distribution of the M. fijiensis mating-type system and its genetic variability using M13 phage DNA markers. We found a 1:1 distribution of mating-type alleles, indicating MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs. A polymorphism analysis using three different primers for M13 markers showed that only the M13 minisatellite primers generated polymorphic products. We then utilized this polymorphism to characterize 40 isolates from various Brazilian states. The largest genetic distances were found between isolates from the same location and between isolates from different parts of the country. Therefore, there was no correlation between the genetic similarity and the geographic origin of the isolates. The M13 marker was used to generate genetic fingerprints for five isolates; these fingerprints were compared with the band profiles obtained from inter-simple sequence repeat (UBC861) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism analyses. We found that the M13 marker was more effective than the other two markers for differentiating these isolates.

  19. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  20. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  1. Bananas go paraelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: peter.lunkenheimer@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2008-05-14

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  2. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  4. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  5. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  6. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species

  7. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  8. Achieving asepsis of banana leaves for the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Banana leaf is used in many centers in India during the care of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and other extensive blistering disorders. Sepsis is an important cause of death in TEN patients and use of banana leaf may be a source of such infection. Aims: We conducted this study to detect the bacterial flora of the banana leaf and to examine various methods of rendering the leaf aseptic. Methods: Five pieces of banana leaf, 2 x 2 cm in size, were cultured separately in blood agar as follows: One piece was heated over a flame and one was soaked in boiling water and one was autoclaved. Methylated spirit was applied over one piece and ignited. One piece was placed on the media, ′as is.′ The Petri dishes were incubated examined after 48 h. Results: All the pieces except the autoclaved specimen of the leaf grew coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS when aseptic precautions were not maintained and aerobic spore bearers when all aseptic measures were subsequently instituted during the procedure. Conclusion: We recommend measures to prevent possible transmission of bacterial infection by the leaf. Autoclaved and aseptically handled banana leaves may be used to reduce chance of infection in the treatment of TEN.

  9. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  10. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  11. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  12. BANANA.GENOTYPES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop Science Department, Makerere University, P.O.B0x 7062, Kampala, Uganda ... at 20 weeks after planting (WAP), while a sub-sct of5 East African highland bananas was also assessed at .... Roots were randomly spread on a 3 cm grid.

  13. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  14. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  15. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza Manoel, Jr.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis, inflicts huge costs on banana producers, due to crop losses and expenses for disease control. The global banana export trade relies on Cavendish clones that are highly susceptible to P. fijiensis

  16. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza Manoel, Jr.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis, inflicts huge costs on banana producers, due to crop losses and expenses for disease control. The global banana export trade relies on Cavendish clones that are highly susceptible to P.

  17. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza Manoel, Jr.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis, inflicts huge costs on banana producers, due to crop losses and expenses for disease control. The global banana export trade relies on Cavendish clones that are highly susceptible to P. fijiensis

  18. 香蕉突脐蠕孢叶斑病菌Brn1基因的PCR扩增与序列分析%PCR amplification and sequence analysis of Brn1 gene of Exserohilum rostratum causing banana leaf spot disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善海; 黄思良; 覃丽萍; 胡春锦; 余功明; 付岗

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为从分子水平进一步鉴定引起香蕉叶斑病的突脐蠕孢霉,对突脐蠕孢的Brn1基因序列进行了分析.[方法]用引物Brn1 01(5'-GCCAACATCGCAAACATGG-3’)and Brn1 02(5’-GCAAGCAGCACCGTCAATACCAAT-3')对3个分生孢子形态差异较大的香蕉突脐蠕孢叶斑病菌(CLER09 、D087和JL05)的Brn1基因进行PCR扩增和系统发育分析.[结果]不同菌株间存在简单的碱基缺失和替换,供试菌株与Exserohilum rostratum在系统发育树上聚类在同一个分支,与Exserohilum属其他种明显分开,形成一个独立的演化群.遗传距离分析表明,供试菌株与E.rostratum亲缘关系相近,菌株间的遗传距离为0.000~0.018,而Exserohilum属种间的遗传距离为0.020~0.093.[结论]E.rostratum菌株间的遗传变异较大,但仍属种内变异;Brn1基因可作为支持具有明显形态变异菌株为E.rostratum成员的分子依据.%[Objective]Different strains of Exserohilum rostratum,causing exserohilum banana leaf spot disease were characterized at molecular level using the conserved sequence of Brn1 gene.[Method] Brn1 gene of three pathogenic isolates (CLER09,D087 and JL05) of E.rostratum causing exserohilum banana leaf spot disease was amplified using primer pair Brn1 01 (5'-GCCAACATCGCAAACATGG-3') and Brn1 02 (5'-GCAAGCAGCACCGTCAATACCAAT-3'),and phylogenetic analysis was carried out.[Result] The results showed absence and substitute of single bases in Brn1 sequences among different isolates of E.rostratum isolated from diseased banana plant and sequence collected from GenBank database.The isolates collected from banana were clustered with E.rostratum in an absolute evolution group in the phylogenetic tree,and significantly distinguished from other species of Exserohilum spp.Analysis result of the genetic distance matrix showed that tested isolates were genetically close to E.rostratum sequences collected from GenBank database with intraspecies genetic distance of 0.000-0.018 and

  19. 低温胁迫下外源甜菜碱对香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱合成的影响%Effects of Exogenous Betaine on the Endogenous Betaine Synthesis in Leaf and Root of Banana under Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂富; 韦建学; 符良峰; 李绍鹏

    2011-01-01

    通过用不同浓度外源甜菜碱预处理香蕉幼苗后,置于人工气候箱中模拟低温胁迫,分别测定香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱的含量和甜菜碱合成关键酶甜菜碱醛脱氢酶(BADH)活性,以研究外源甜菜碱对香蕉叶片和根系内源甜菜碱合成的影响.结果表明,一定浓度的外源甜菜碱可极显著提高香蕉幼苗叶片BADH活性,极显著促进叶片内源BT的积累,胁迫24h后根系内源甜菜碱的含量虽显著高于常温对照,但BADH活性却无显著提升.结论:外源甜菜碱可促进低温胁迫下香蕉内源甜菜碱的合成和积累,叶片是其主要合成器官,根系可作为甜菜碱的贮存场所.%After being treated with different concentration of BT, then stressed in the artificial bioclimatic chamber under 7℃ low temperature, the effects of exogenous betaine on the endogenous betaine synthesis in leaf and root of banana were studied by measuring the content of edogenous betaine and the activity of the betaine key synthetase BADH in the leaves and roots of banana seedlings. The results indicated that after being treated with suitable concentration of BT, the activity of BADH and the content of endogenous betaine in leaves were also increased with highly significant difference. Though the content of endogenous betaine in roots was significantly higher than that in controller which grows under normal circumstance, the activity of BADH was not significantly increased. So it could be drew a conclusion that exogenous betaine could improve the synthesis and content of endogenous betaine in banana under low temperature stress, and leave is the place for synthesis, root is the place for storage.

  20. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  1. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...

  2. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  3. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop : Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Jong, Tristan V.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fereira, Claudia Fortes; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Francoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent

  4. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  5. Non-Saponifiable Lipid Composition of Four Salt-Secretor and Non-Secretor Mangrove Species from North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julayha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-saponifiable lipid (NSL of the fresh leaves and roots from two salt-secretor mangrove species, namely Aegiceras corniculatum (L. Blanco and Avicennia alba Bl. and two non-secretor mangroves, i.e. Acrostichum aureum L. and Excoecaria agallocha L. was analyzed with special emphasize to triterpenoids and phytosterols. Identification of the triterpenoids and phytosterols was confirmed by comparison of their retention time on the GC column with those of authentic standards and on the interpretation of GC-MS spectra. Triterpenoids and phytosterols comprised the major proportion of NSL. The triterpenoids and phytosterols mainly consisted of 7 and 4 compounds. Triterpenoids were the largest constituent of Ac. aureum and Ae. corniculatum leaves and roots, and E. agallocha roots. In contrast to these triterpenoids-rich species, phytosterols were relatively dominant in the roots of Av. alba. The species of Av. alba and E. agallocha in the leaves were distinguished from the others in that both species contained a larger quantity of phytol. Ae. corniculatum contained a large amount of betulin and α-amyrin in the roots, as well as lupeol in the roots of Av. alba. The diversity in the NSL composition noted with mangrove species in both the leaves and roots suggested that NSL of mangrove leaves and roots can be used as chemotaxonomical character to differentiate species.

  6. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  7. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  8. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  9. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−26 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Uganda, 21−43 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Burundi and 25−53 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Rwanda). The major causes of poor yields are declining soil fertility and soil moisture stress. In order to ...

  10. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  11. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  12. Mechanism of extractant loss in solvent extraction process (Ⅰ)——Transfer of saponified D2EHPA from organic phase to aqueous phase and its aggregation behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笃金; 吴瑾光; 李彦; 翁诗甫; 吴佩强; 徐光宪

    1995-01-01

    The phenomenon of the loss of saponified D2EHPA(di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid,HA)from organic phase to aqueous phase and its aggregation behaviour were studied with FT-IR and DLS(dynamic light scattering)techniques based on the fact that saponified extractant can form reversed micelles orw/o microemulsions in n-heptane,a non-polar diluent.The results indicate that "normal rnioelles" or o/wmicroemulsions are formed from acidic extractant and its sodium salt in aqueous phase,and the micelle ormicroemulsion drop has a non-polar core which can solubilize nheptane,so the equilibrated aqueous phasecontaining extractant is a complex fluid rather than a "real solution".Therefore,the aqueous aggregate for-mation leads to the extractant loss in solvent extraction process.Strong electrolytes can prevent or lessen theextractant loss.The results of this paper provide a theoretical possibility for solving the problem ofextractant and solvent loss in liquid-liquid extraction industry.

  13. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  14. Welfare gains from liberalized banana trade and a new international banana agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, H.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union import policy for bananas grants preferential trade access for ACP bananas and discriminates against bananas from other sources. It is shown that such trade discrimination cannot be defended by development-related motives. As a form of aid transfer to banana-exporting ACP countries, the EU import regime is highly inefficient. The effective value of financial transfers is low, while there are large associated welfare costs to domestic consumers and to non-preferred export co...

  15. Defense Gene Expression Associated with responses during the Biotrophic Phase of Mycosphaerella fjiensis Morelet, Infection in Banana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, H.E.; Rodriguez-Arango, E.; Morales, J.; Kema, G.H.J.; Arango, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Banana black leaf streak, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet, is a primary phytosanitary concern in export of this fruit around the world. To develop improved cultivars resistant to this disease, an understanding of host response to infection is necessary. In this study, we obtained

  16. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  17. Spatial distribution of banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a Cavendish banana plantation, Penang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUSTIN N. OKOLLE; MASHHOR MANSOR; ABU HASSAN AHMAD

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution of immatures of the banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) and their parasitisms from three major parasitoids were studied in a Cavendish banana plantation from April 2004 to December 2004. Infestation levels and parasitism ofE. thrax life stages were recorded from bunched plants (BP), flowering plants (FP), preflowered plants (PF),broad leaf followers (BLF) and narrow leaf followers (NLF), as well as on well managed and poorly managed plants. Mean numbers of the immatures and numbers parasitized from the nine blocks in the plantation were fitted to four dispersion indices. Significant numbers of E. thrax immatures and those parasitized by Ooencyrtus erionotae, Cotesia erionotae and Brachymeria albotibialis were recorded from BLF and PF; no eggs were found on BP and FP. Although infestation was higher on well managed plants, only larval parasitism was significandy different. Three of the four indices indicated that eggs and larvae were random while all the indices showed pupae to be clumped. Parasitized eggs and pupae were clumped (4/4 indices) while 3/4 indices revealed a random pattern for parasitized larvae.

  18. Development of the banana plants 'Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01' under the effect of paclobutrazol applied on the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Emanuel; Siqueira, Dalmo L; Salomão, Luiz C C; Peternelli, Luiz A; Ventrella, Marília C; Cavatte, Rithiely P Q

    2009-06-01

    Under some cultivation conditions, excessive growth of the pseudostem of banana plants can be considered a limiting factor, and thus, the use of growth regulators can constitute a valid alternative. This work aimed to evaluate the action of paclobutrazol on the growth of the pseudostem of banana plants and other characteristics of their development. An experiment was installed with five paclobutrazol doses (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 g of a.i. plant-1) combined with two banana plant cultivars ('Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01'). Paclobutrazol did not affect the number of days from planting to flowering, total leaf area and leaf emission rate. However, it increased leaf permanence on the plants and sucker number, reduced the foliar area of the leaves emitted after its application and provided an average reduction in pseudostem height of 26%.

  19. Potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of some constituents of coffee and banana residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, M K D; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, M M C

    2013-05-01

    Banana (stalk, leaf, rhizome, rachis and stem) and coffee (leaf and husks) residues are promising feedstock for fuel and chemical production. In this work we show the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate analysis to replace reference methods in the characterization of some constituents of coffee and banana residues. The evaluated parameters were Klason lignin (KL), acid soluble lignin (ASL), total lignin (TL), extractives, moisture, ash and acid insoluble residue (AIR) contents of 104 banana residues (B) and 102 coffee (C) residues from Brazil. PLS models were built for banana (B), coffee (C) and pooled samples (B+C). The precision of NIR methodology was better (p0.80. The range error ratios varied from 4.5 to 16.0. Based on the results of external validation, the statistical tests and figures of merit, NIR spectroscopy proved to be useful for chemical prediction of banana and coffee residues and can be used as a faster and more economical alternative to the standard methodologies.

  20. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  1. 合成硬脂酸铅的皂化法新工艺%New Saponifying Process for Synthesis of Lead Stearate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴茂英

    2001-01-01

    报导了硬脂酸铅皂化法新工艺。研究了反应温度、反应时间和第一步加碱量对产品质量的影响。结果表明,用皂化法工艺可得到优等品PbSt2,较复分解工艺,反应时间缩短、液-固比降低、滤饼湿含量比减小,一步式工艺得到粉状产品,二步式工艺得到颗粒状产品;最佳工艺条件为:一步式工艺反应温度65℃,反应时间10min;二步式工艺第一步的加碱量比50%,反应温度65℃,反应时间10min。%A new saponifying process for the synthesis of lead stearate is introduced.The effects of reaction temperature and time,the amount of alkali added in the first step on the quality of the product were studied.The results showed high class PbSt2 could be synthesized by this new saponifying process.Compared with metathetical process,the reaction time shortened,liquid-solid ratio and moisture content of filter cake decreased.Powder product could be prepared by one-step process,and particle product by two-step process.For the optimum processing conditions,the reaction temperature and time for one-step process were 65℃ and 10min,the amount of alkali added in the first step was 50%;reaction temperture and time were 65℃ and 10min for the two-step process.

  2. Banana Fibers – Variability and Fracture Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana fibers obtained from the stem of banana plant (Musa sapientum have been characterised for their diameter variability and their mechanical properties, with a stress on fracture morphology. The nature of representative stress strain curves and fracture at different strain rates have been analysed through SEM.

  3. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  4. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  5. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  6. 环境因素对香蕉叶斑病菌喙突脐蠕孢生长和产孢的影响%Effects of environmental factors on growth and sporulation of Exserohilum rostratum causing banana leaf spot disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善海; 黄思良; 岑贞陆; 覃丽萍; 付岗; 黎起秦

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of further indepth understanding of the biological characters of Exserohilum rostratum causing banana leaf spots, the influence of partial environmental factors (carbon sources, nitrogen sources and plant extracts) on growth and sporulation of 3 tested isolates (CLER09, D08 and JL05) were investigated. The results indicated that most of the conidia first germinated from the base, and bipolar germinations occurred after 10h of incubation at 28℃. All of the tested isolates showed similar growth reactions on utilizing 20 carbon sources and 26 nitrogen sources. They could utilize all of the tested carbon sources except inulin, and all of the tested nitrogen sources for their vegetative growth and sporulation. The vegetative growth of the isolates were better on 6 tested plant extract media as compared with potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. All of the tested plant extract media were more suitable for sporulation of isolates CLER09 and JL05 as compared with PDA medium. Except oatmeal agar medium, the other 5 media were more suitable for sporulation of isolate D087 as compared with PDA medium. Conidial morphology was found to be significantly influenced by plant extract media. The conidial lengths of isolates D087 and JL05 markedly extended on rice bran agar and elephant grass agar, while the conidial widths of isolate CLER09 markedly broadened on cornmeal agar medium.%为进一步明确香蕉叶斑病菌喙突脐蠕孢的生物学特性,调查了部分环境因素(碳氮源、植物成分培养基)对供试菌株(CLER09、D087和JL05)的营养生长和产孢的影响.结果显示,分生孢子主要先从基部萌芽,在28℃下约培养10h后出现两端萌芽;供试菌株对测试的20种碳源及26种氮源显示相似的生长反应,均可利用除菊糖外的测试碳源及氮源进行营养生长和产孢;测试的6种植物成分培养基对供试菌株的营养生长效果皆优于PDA培养基;除燕麦培养基外,其余5

  7. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.

  8. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  9. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  10. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop : Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Jong, Tristan V.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fereira, Claudia Fortes; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Francoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent f

  11. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop : Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Jong, Tristan V.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fereira, Claudia Fortes; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Francoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent f

  12. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  13. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bressan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta, heliconia (Heliconia spp., red ginger (Alpinia purpurata, and banana (Musa sp.. Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  14. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-22

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  15. Anthelminthic efficacy of banana crop residues on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Flávia Aparecida; Oliveira, Lincoln Nunes; da Silva, Rayana Brito; Nery, Patrícia Silva; Virgínio, Gercino Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to anthelminthics is common due to intensive and incorrect use. In searching for alternatives, extracts of banana plant were evaluated for egg hatching inhibition and fecal egg count reduction of sheep nematodes. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, pseudostem, and heart of the banana plant cv. Prata anã were tested at concentrations of 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg ml(-1) in egg hatching inhibition tests. For in vivo analysis, aqueous extracts were evaluated at dosages calculated according to the 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity testing in mice. Efficacy was evaluated at two time periods following oral administration. For the banana extracts at 2.5 mg ml(-1), egg hatching was significantly fewer than the negative control, with an LC(50) and LC(90) of 0.19 and 0.84 mg ml(-1), respectively. In vivo analysis for weeks 1 and 2 following a single treatment with aqueous leaf extract showed 33.1% and 32.5% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively. Further research on higher dosages with more frequent administration is needed to evaluate the potential for utilizing banana plant residues in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  16. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  17. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    This paper reports results from a 6-year long-term fertilizer X banana weevil trial for highland banana in ... Soil and foliar analyses, and visual observations (i.e. yellowing of leaves) ... organic amendments, causing further soil fertility decline.

  18. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  19. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  20. Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... poor depend on bananas for food and cash income, a decline in banana .... The objectives of this study were (i) to compare the rate of banana pollen .... acuminata and M. balbisiana in Australia was given as. 71% and 98% ...

  1. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performance of Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    ****Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Federal College of Forestry,. P. M. B. 2019 ... describe the structure of the banana market; analyze the conduct of the banana ... constrained from increased production by lack of capital, high yielding ... worlds, accounting to 95% of the annual export receipts of processed bananas.

  2. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  3. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  4. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  5. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  6. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  7. Use of competitive PCR to assay copy number of repetitive elements in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurens, F C; Noyer, J L; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1996-11-27

    Banana is one of the most important subtropical fruit crops. Genetic improvement by traditional breeding strategies is difficult and better knowledge of genomic structure is needed. Repeated sequences are powerful markers for genetic fingerprinting. The method proposed here to determine the copy number of nuclear repetitive elements is based on competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and can also be used for quantifying cytosolic sequences. The reliability of this method was investigated on crude preparations of total DNA. Variations due to the heterogeneity of crude DNA extracts showed that a single locus reference is needed for accurate quantification. A mapped microsatellite locus was used to normalize copy number measurements. Copy number assay of repetitive elements using this method clearly distinguishes between the two banana subspecies investigated: Musa acuminata spp. banskii and M. acuminata spp. malaccensis. Two repetitive sequence families, pMaCIR1115 and pA9-26, were assayed that cover up to 1% of the M. acuminata genome. Their copy number varied up to six fold between the two subspecies. Furthermore, sequence quantification showed that mitochondrial genomes are present in crude leaf-extracted banana DNA at up to 40 copies per cell.

  8. Determination of the fatty acid composition of saponified vegetable oils using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, F O; Garvin, K; Saeed, K

    2000-01-01

    A method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) for the determination of the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is described and illustrated with the analysis of palm kernel oil, palm oil, olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, vernonia oil, and castor oil. Solutions of the saponified oils, mixed with the matrix, meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, provided reproducible MALDI-TOF spectra in which the ions were dominated by sodiated sodium carboxylates [RCOONa + Na]+. Thus, palm kernel oil was found to contain capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. Palm oil had a fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic. The relative percentages of the fatty acids in olive oil were palmitoleic (1.2 +/- 0.5), palmitic (10.9 +/- 0.8), linoleic (0.6 +/- 0.1), linoleic (16.5 +/- 0.8), and oleic (70.5 +/- 1.2). For soybean oil, the relative percentages were: palmitoleic (0.4 +/- 0.4), palmitic (6.0 +/- 1.3), linolenic (14.5 +/- 1.8), linoleic (50.1 +/- 4.0), oleic (26.1 +/- 1.2), and stearic (2.2 +/- 0.7). This method was also applied to the analysis of two commercial soap formulations. The first soap gave a fatty acid profile that included: lauric (19.4% +/- 0.8), myristic (9.6% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (1.9% +/- 0.3), palmitic (16.3% +/- 0.9), linoleic (5.6% +/- 0.4), oleic (37.1% +/- 0.8), and stearic (10.1% +/- 0.7) and that of the second soap was: lauric (9.3% +/- 0.3), myristic (3.8% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (3.1% +/- 0.8), palmitic (19.4% +/- 0.8), linoleic (4.9% +/- 0.7), oleic (49.5% +/- 1.1), and stearic (10.0% +/- 0.9). The MALDI-TOFMS method described in this communication is simpler and less time-consuming than the established transesterification method that is coupled with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The new method could be used routinely to determine the qualitative fatty acid composition of vegetable oils

  9. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  10. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  11. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  12. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  13. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Castro

    Full Text Available Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7, organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  14. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Roderick

    Full Text Available A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI values for a banana (Musa spp. field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  15. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  16. Market opportunities for Ugandan banana products: National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Banana (Musa spp.) is the most important food crop in Uganda, and it is also the most important income source for the ... juice and alcoholic beverages sector. Concerning ... of marketing as 'a management concept based on markets and oriented .... promissing issue (as quality is a major criterion for consumer decisions) ...

  17. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  18. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  19. Relative susceptibility of banana cultivars to Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... 40 years ago in Ethiopia on Ensete, which is closely related to banana ..... Mwangi M, Valentine G, Aritua V, Ivey ML, Miller SA, Smith JJ. (2009). ... 44. Kull LS, Vuong TD, Powers KS, Eskridge KM, Steadman JR, Hartman.

  20. Purification, properties, and diagnosis of banana bract mosaic potyvirus and its distinction from abaca mosaic potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Geering, A D; Gambley, C F; Kessling, A F; White, M

    1997-07-01

    ABSTRACT Using biochemical, serological, and cytopathological evidence, we have confirmed that banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) is a distinct member of the family Potyviridae. Virions of a Philippine isolate of BBrMV were purified from field-infected banana cv. Cardaba. Particles were approximately 725-nm long, banded at a density equivalent to 1.29 to 1.31 g/ml in cesium chloride equilibrium gradients, and had an A(260/280) of 1.17. Yields of about 4 mg/kg were obtained from fresh or frozen leaf midrib or lamina tissue. Three major protein species with sizes of 31, 37, and 39 kDa were resolved from dissociated virions, and all reacted specifically with polyclonal antibodies to BBrMV. Infected leaf cells contained typical pinwheel inclusions. Virus-specific cDNA was amplified from field samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using potyvirus degenerate primers. In plate-trapped antigen-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), weak serological relationships were demonstrated between BBrMV and other members of the family Potyviridae, including abaca mosaic (AbaMV), dasheen mosaic, maize dwarf mosaic, sorghum mosaic, sugarcane mosaic, and wheat streak mosaic viruses. Despite similarities in the symptoms caused by the two viruses, AbaMV was serologically distinct from BBrMV and reacted only weakly, or not at all, with BBrMV antibodies in double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA. No cross reactions were observed when RT-PCR products from the two viruses were examined by Southern blot hybridization using BBrMV- and AbaMV-specific digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. BBrMV was consistently associated with banana bract mosaic disease, as assessed by DAS-ELISA and Southern blot hybridization using DNA probes. The known geographical distribution of BBrMV was extended to include India (Kokkan disease) and Sri Lanka.

  1. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-ba...

  2. Resistance identification of banana varieties to banana bacterial soft rot caused by Dickeya ( Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv.paradisiaca )%香蕉品种对香蕉细菌性软腐病的抗性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲小明; 林壁润; 吕顺; 沈会芳; 周佳暖; 周建坤; 韩秀香

    2012-01-01

    Banana bacterial soft rot caused by Dickeya paradisiaca {Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. Paradisiaca) was a new devastating invasive disease in China, and using resistant varieties would be an effective method to control the disease. Detached leaf method and pot experiments were used to identify the resistance of 39 banana varieties. The results showed that the levels of resistance of these 39 banana varieties were different, among which 'Huangdi Banana' was highly resistant (HR), 'Red Dwarf' was resistant (R), and 'Aijiao Dundilei' and 'Long-zhou Zhongba' were moderately resistant (MR). Such method could identify resistant varieties effectively, rapidly and accurately, and the resistance results by detached leaf and pot experiments were consistent with those by the field experiments.%由菊欧文氏杆菌香蕉致病变种[Dickeya paradisiaca(原名Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv.paradisiaca)]引起的香蕉细菌性软腐病是我国新入侵的毁灭性香蕉病害,应用抗病品种将是防治该病害的有效方法.采用离体叶片法和盆栽法相结合的筛选方法对39个香蕉品种进行抗性鉴定,结果表明,供试品种对香蕉细菌性软腐病菌的抗性存在明显差异,其中表现高抗(HR)的品种为‘皇帝蕉’,抗病(R)品种为‘红河矮’,中抗(MR)品种为‘矮脚遁地蕾’和‘龙州中把’.离体和盆栽鉴定结果与品种田间抗病性一致,可有效、快速、准确地筛选出抗病品种.

  3. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  4. Primary Experiment of Foliwell TM-Garl Against Nematodes of Banana%无线美防治香蕉线虫试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 李钟明

    2014-01-01

    为了减轻香蕉线虫危害,研究了新型防线虫药剂---无线美对香蕉线虫病的防治效果及对香蕉植株外观的影响。结果表明:与常规药剂相比,无线美不但能有效防治香蕉线虫病,而且对香蕉的叶长、叶宽、茎粗及根系生长有促进作用。%In order to reduce the harm of nematodes for banana ,the control effects of new pesticide FoliwellTM-Garland on nematodes and plant appearance were studied .The results showed compared with normal pesticide , FoliwellTM-Garland could promote the growth of leaf length ,leaf width ,stem diameter and root of banana ,and could control nematodes effectively .

  5. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  6. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  7. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  8. Weed management in banana production: The use of Nelsonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    reduced in banana grown with N. canescens cover crop than in plants grown without. ... benefiting the soil and other crops (SAN, 1996; Creamer ... canopy that is more competitive than weeds for light, ... suppress weeds, to what extent it affects banana yield as .... time taken in weeding plots with cover crop was about a.

  9. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced sp

  10. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  11. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  12. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  13. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    Full Length Research Paper. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for ... banana pulp and inoculum were spiked with 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g of un-calcined eggshells and calcined eggshells, for ..... the death of AD bacteria. Figure 5 shows ...

  14. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  15. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  16. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  17. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  18. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  19. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel,Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Background Uganda?s banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2?3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to ...

  20. Pathological Status of Pyricularia angulata Causing Blast and Pitting Disease of Banana in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Sangeetha; Singh, Hari Shankar; Petikam, Srinivas; Biswal, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of leaf blast on nursery plants and pitting disease on maturing banana bunches has been recorded in banana plantations during rainy season in Eastern India during 2014 to 2015. Taxonomical identification as well as DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of fungus isolated from affected tissue culture derived plantlets and fruits confirmed the pathogen to be Pyricularia angulata Hashioka “in both the cases”. Koch’s postulates were proved on young plantlets as well as on maturing fruits of cv. Grand Naine under simulated conditions. Evolutionary history was inferred and presented for our P. angulata strain PG9001 with GenBank accession no. KU984740. The analysis indicated that the P. angulata is phylogenitically distinct from other related species related to both Pyricularia and Magnaporthe. Detailed symptoms of blast lesions on young leaves, transition leaves, mid rib, petioles, peduncle, maturing bunches, bunch stalks and cushions were documented. Notably, the distinct small pitting spots on maturing bunches reduced the visual appeal of mature fruits. Appearance of pitting symptoms on fruits in relation with age of fruits and their distribution pattern on bunch and fingers was also documented in detail. Further, the roles of transitory leaves, weed hosts, seasonality on disease occurrence have also been documented. PMID:28167884

  1. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  2. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  3. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  4. Phenylphenalenones protect banana plants from infection by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and are deactivated by metabolic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, William; Chandran, Jima N; Menezes, Riya C; Otálvaro, Felipe; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Phenylphenalenones, polycyclic aromatic natural products from some monocotyledonous plants, are known as phytoalexins in banana (Musa spp.). In this study, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics along with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to explore the chemical responses of the susceptible 'Williams' and the resistant 'Khai Thong Ruang' Musa varieties to the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the agent of the black leaf Sigatoka disease. Principal component analysis discriminated strongly between infected and non-infected plant tissue, mainly because of specialized metabolism induced in response to the fungus. Phenylphenalenones are among the major induced compounds, and the resistance level of the plants was correlated with the progress of the disease. However, a virulent strain of M. fijiensis was able to overcome plant resistance by converting phenylphenalenones to sulfate conjugates. Here, we report the first metabolic detoxification of fungitoxic phenylphenalenones to evade the chemical defence of Musa plants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Tetrahedratic cross-couplings: novel physics for banana liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald; Cladis, P. E.

    2005-06-01

    Liquid crystal phases (LCs) formed by achiral bent-core molecules (banana LCs) are distinguishable from those of their classical (i.e., rod/disc-shaped) counterparts with only quadrupolar order. We argue that the interplay between tetrahedratic (octupolar) and quadrupolar order clarifies the physics of banana LCs sufficiently to account for two effects only observed in achiral banana LCs: a 100 times larger field-induced anisotropy than observed in classical LCs and ambidextrous chirality where left- and right-handed chiral domains co-exist.

  6. Seasonal variation of nutrients leaves concentration of banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SPVariação sazonal da concentração de nutrientes em folhas de bananeiras, no Vale do Ribeira-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Mendonça

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Vale do Ribeira, SP, main agricultural activity is the banana crop, which accounts for most of this fruit production in the State of São Paulo. The nutritional balance of the plant is one of the most important factors for the banana plant can complete the cycle and achieve high productivity. Aiming to evaluate the seasonal variation of leaf nutrient concentration in banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SP, we used the results of 252 chemical analyses of plant tissue, collected from August 2009 to September 2010, in the 18 representative properties for the region, ten cultivated with subgroup Cavendish banana plant and eight of subgroup Prata banana plant. The largest variation between the macronutrient occurred for K and S, and among the micronutrients, especially for Fe and B. In some dates of evaluation, there was a higher leaf concentration of P, K, Ca and Zn, in subgroup Cavendish banana plants, while the subgroup Prata banana plants showed higher leaf concentration, especially of Mn, B and N. Climatic conditions, especially rain, influenced the leaf nutrient content, especially for K, N, S, B and Fe. O Vale do Ribeira, SP, tem como principal atividade agropecuária o cultivo da bananeira, sendo responsável pela maior parte da produção dessa frutífera no estado de São Paulo. O equilíbrio nutricional da planta é um dos fatores mais importantes para que esta consiga completar o ciclo e alcançar alta produtividade. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação sazonal da concentração foliar de nutrientes em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Ribeira-SP, foram utilizados 252 resultados de análise química de nutrientes do tecido vegetal, coletados no período de agosto de 2009 a setembro de 2010, de 18 propriedades representativas na região, dez cultivadas com bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish e oito do subgrupo Prata. A maior variação entre os macronutrientes ocorreu para o K e o S e entre os micronutrientes, principalmente, para o Fe e o B

  7. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Central and Eastern Provinces account for 26 %. The rest of the provinces ... from traditional cash crops, especially coffee. (Coffea arabica) ..... Impact Study of the Tissue Culture. Banana. Project in ... local cultivars. INIBAP Newsletter for Asia.

  8. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  9. A screening method for banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... sordidus Germar) resistance using reference genotypes ... experiments to assess weevil resistance/susceptibility. ..... change into adults. ... management for the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) ... Pest Manage.

  10. Anthelmintic effects of dried ground banana plant leaves ( Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to provide information about endoparasites control with ... Conclusion: However, further investigation is needed to establish the optimal ... delivery form and confirm the economic feasibility of using banana plantation ...

  11. Influence of triadimefon on the growth and development of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... reaction in sterols biosynthesis by interacting with the ... and shed some light on its phytotoxic effect. .... Table 4. Photosynthetic pigments content of banana cultivars, Hindi, Basrai and Williams cultured on MS solid medium.

  12. Effect of different nematicide applications per year on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... per year on banana ( Musa AAA) root nematode control and crop yield. ... The relationship between cost and benefit of the nematicide applications was also ... Rotation of the nematicides according to their physic-chemical properties and ...

  13. Characterisation of colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-12-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations.

  14. SHELF LIFE OF PLANTAIN AND BANANA CHIPS DURING STORAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: fluorescent light, packaging materials, shelf life, cooking banana hybrid, yellow colour. INTRODUCTION ... the developing world and are grown in about 120 countries (Olorunda, 2000). ... both domestic and export markets. Locally ...

  15. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  16. 香蕉MaPRMT1基因的分离及表达分析%Isolation and Expression Analysis of MaPRMT1 Gene in Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡; 张建斌; 贾彩红; 杨景豪; 徐碧玉; 金志强

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of experiment was to lay molecular foundation for studying maturity mechanism of banana after harvest. [Method] The combined method of suppressing subtractive hybridization and cDNA micro-array were used to obtain cDNA segment of one PRMT gene in banana and the whole cDNA sequence of the gene was cloned.The bioinformatics analysis was operated on it,in addition, the expression profile analysis was conducted in different organs and different mature periods of banana.[Result] The whole length of cDNA in MaPRMT1 was 1 158 bp and possessed a complete open reading frame,which could encode 385 amino acids.It had high homology with PRMT in plant,containing one Methyltransf_1 domain.The MaPRMT1 gene was expressed in root,stem,leaf and fruit of banana and the expression levels in stem and leaf were relatively high.As the increase of days after harvest,the expression level declined gradually,however it reached maximum when ethylene release was biggest,then it declined.[Conclusion] MaPRMT1 belonged to the first kind of arginine methyltransferase and it was expressed differently in different organs and fruits at different mature periods.

  17. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  18. Características morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar de plantas variantes e não variantes somaclonais de bananeiras (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivadas in vitro Morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaf epidermis of variant plants and somaclonal non-variants of banana trees (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Araújo Lacerda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variação somaclonal corresponde ao aparecimento de plantas anormais durante o processo de multiplicação in vitro, principalmente relacionada à estatura, no caso o gigantismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi averiguar as diferenças morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar na tentativa de diferenciar as plantas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou uma diferença significativa entre o diâmetro polar dos estômatos da 'Prata-anã' não variante e suas variantes, ambas em condições in vitro, observando-se que o mesmo não ocorre para as plantas in vivo. O número médio de estômatos é menor nas plantas variantes somaclonais, porém sem diferenças significativas a não ser para a planta PIII. A descamação de cera é evidente somente nas plantas variantes de ambos os materiais (in vitro e in vivo. Conclui-se que os caracteres morfoanatômicos da epiderme foliar, como densidade estomática, diâmetro estomático polar e a uniformidade da cera atuam como marcadores morfológicos para caracterizar as plantas micropropagadas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais para a característica gigantismo.Somaclonal variation corresponds to the emergence of abnormal plants during the process of multiplication in vitro, mainly related to stature, in the case the gigantism. The aim of this work was to discover morphoanatomical differences of the leaf epidermis in an attempt to differentiate plants of "Prata-anã" from their somaclonal variants. Analysis by scanning electronic microscopy showed significant difference between the polar diameter of the stomata of the "Prata-anã" non-variant and its variants, both in vitro. The same does not happen for plants in vivo. The average number of stomata is lower in the somaclonal variant plants, but without significant differences except for plant PIII. Wax peeling is only evident in the variant plants of both the

  19. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  20. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  1. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  2. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  3. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  4. PCR multiplex para a detecção de BSV e CMV em bananeiras micropropagadas Multiplex PCR for detection of Banana streak virus and Cucumber mosaic virus from micropropagated banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vasquez Figueiredo

    2007-09-01

    sometimes unsuccessful. The methodology presented in this work overcomes this drawback because it is based on the detection of viral nucleic acids in banana leaf samples. Primers BADNA 1A and BADNA 4 were used to BSV detection, and primers "CMV sense" and "CMV antisense" were adopted to CMV detection. The simultaneous amplification of two different sized amplicons was obtained. Following electrophoresis, a 597 pb fragment correlated with BSV and a 488 fragment correlated with CMV were detected. This assay is an additional tool which should be used to confirm the virus-free status of the mother plants propagated through tissue culture.

  5. Fertilizantes comerciais e polpa de banana no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae Commercial fertilizers and banana pulp for in vitro cultivation of a Phalaenopsis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2012-12-01

    addition of 'Nanica' banana pulp in a culture medium for in vitro cultivation of a hybrid of Phalaenopsis. Seedlings germinated in vitro, in MS medium, were subcultivated in culture media with a basis of commercial fertilizers and MS medium modified with half the concentration of macronutrients. The culture media were evaluated with and without the addition of the banana pulp (100g L-1 during the stage of maturation 4. The basis of these culture media was composed of sucrose (30g L-1, activated charcoal (1g L-1 and agar (9g L-1. After 180 days the following variables were analyzed: leaf area, number of leaves and roots, root length and dry weight of leaves and roots. We were able to conclude that the treatment composed by Biofert® supplemented with banana pulp presented the best results for the hybrid development in vitro, and actually presented statistically superior results in relation to MS without banana.

  6. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  7. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E Arango Isaza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules

  8. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F; V de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C; Lindquist, Erika A; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A J; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V; Goodwin, Stephen B; Kema, Gert H J

    2016-08-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  9. Leaf Collection Posting Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  10. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  11. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  12. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. COMPONENTS OF CELL WALL, ENZYME ACTIVITY IN PEDICEL AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BANANAS TO FINGER DROP

    OpenAIRE

    GLORIA ANNABELL COBEÑA RUIZ; LUIZ CARLOS CHAMHUM SALOMÃO; DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA; SEBASTIÃO TAVARES DE REZENDE; LEILA CRISTINA ROSA DE LINS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A major problem in post-harvest handling of bananas is the individual detachment of the fruit from the hands. This study aimed to establishing the relationship between carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity in the pedicel region of three cultivars of bananas, resistant and susceptible to natural dropping, during post-harvest ripening, and the susceptibility of bananas to finger dropping. Cultivars ‘Terra’ (plantain, AAB group) and ‘Prata’ (banana, AAB group) triploids and th...

  14. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  15. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia de Maria Borges; Joelma Pereira; Eliseu Marlônio Pereira de Lucena

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp.) verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fra...

  16. "Banana-mania." Gender Politics in Yoshimoto Banana's Works and Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Mekkin Guðmundsdóttir Beck 1988

    2011-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana, a popular female writer in Japan, writes stories about Japanese adolescents finding their way in Japan. A great majority of them are female and must face a culture where there are basically separate worlds for men and women, the domestic and the corporate. The characters do not seem to experience this even if it is evident in the texts. Banana’s writing shows that women and men have a real hard time relating to each other, resulting in alienation in their divided worlds. Her...

  17. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Mahouachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain” subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA and cinnamic acids (CA were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  18. 海南香蕉根颈象甲产卵选择性研究%Oviposition Preference of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢辉; 王明军; 钟义海; 卢芙萍; 徐雪莲; 陈青

    2011-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), is a kind of important pest on bananas, causing serious damage to many banana gardens in Hainan. In order to clarify the oviposition characteristic of C. Sordidus on the banana in Hainan, and offer the guide for the field controlling technology, the oviposition preference of C. Sordidus adult on the different host plant and leaf sheath, and the oviposition rate with different feeding ways, were studied and analyzed experimentally in the laboratory. The results showed that the oviposition rate of C. Sordidus on Brazil banana (Musa AAA cavendish) and Thailand banana (Musa AAA Croup KlaiHom Thong) was 32.87% and 30.93% separately, which were significantly higher than that on Tai Chiao (Musa AAB Sikl), Plantain (Musa ABA), Huangdi banana (Musa AA Pisang Mas), and Fenjiao (Musa ABB Pisang Awak). The adult preferred to oviposit on the middle leaf sheath, particularly the second leaf sheath, with the highest selectivity coefficient of 45.78%, significantly higher than the others. Moreover, when rotten and fresh banana pesudostem were separately used for oviposition of adult female C. Sordidus, the weekly average oviposition rate was 4 and 2 respectively, indicating that C. Sordidus preferred to oviposite on rotten pesudostem.%为了研究香蕉根颈象甲在海南香蕉上的产卵特性,指导田间防控技术,室内研究了香蕉根颈象甲成虫对寄主植物、叶鞘部位的产卵选择性及不同饲养方式下的产卵率.结果表明,在巴西蕉和泰国蕉上,香蕉根颈象甲的产卵率分别为32.87%和30.93%,均显著高于台蕉、大蕉、皇帝蕉和粉蕉;香蕉根颈甲成虫嗜好在香蕉假茎中部叶鞘产卵,在第2层叶鞘的选择性最高,选择系数为45.78%,显著高于其它几层叶鞘的选择系数;分别提供腐烂和新鲜的香蕉假茎让香蕉根颈象甲产卵,周平均产卵量分别为4粒和2粒,可见,香蕉根颈象甲喜欢在腐烂的假茎上产卵.

  19. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  20. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  1. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  2. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  3. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  4. First Characterisation of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Banana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhal, Chadi; De Clerck, Caroline; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Levicek, Carolina; Boullis, Antoine; Kaddes, Amine; Jijakli, Haïssam M; Verheggen, François; Massart, Sébastien

    2017-05-16

    Banana (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in term of worldwide fruit production, and has economical and nutritional key values. The Cavendish cultivars correspond to more than 90% of the production of dessert banana while cooking cultivars are widely consumed locally around the banana belt production area. Many plants, if not all, produce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) as a means of communication with their environment. Although flower and fruit VOCs have been studied for banana, the VOCs produced by the plant have never been identified despite their importance in plant health and development. A volatile collection methodology was optimized to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of VOCs analysis from banana plants. We have identified 11 VOCs for the Cavendish, mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene (87.90 ± 11.28 ng/μl), methyl salicylate (33.82 ± 14.29) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (29.60 ± 11.66), and 14 VOCs for the Pacific Plantain cultivar, mainly (Z,E)-α-farnesene (799.64 ± 503.15), (E,E)-α-farnesene (571.24 ± 381.70) and (E) β ocimene (241.76 ± 158.49). This exploratory study paves the way for an in-depth characterisation of VOCs emitted by Musa plants.

  5. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  6. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  7. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Morón, Moisés; Monzón, Mario D.; Badalló, Pere; Paz, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight) at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production. PMID:28773490

  8. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  9. 基于单片机控制的自动香蕉秸秆粉碎机研究%Research of Automatic Banana Straw Pulverizer Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬进; 张燕; 喻晓; 马兆玉

    2014-01-01

    Banana stalks as the main byproduct of bananas , has been treated as waste , not only didn't get reasonable use , but also caused the pollution of the environment .So far , and use of banana straw is still in the more primitive is in-efficient stage , greatly restricted the banana leaf by-products industry the development of industrialization and commer-cialization .Therefore , this project will design a practical , high efficiency of the banana straw pulverized , the machine is based on 51 single chip microcomputer automatic control , coupled with the hydraulic system and step motor to cooperate with each other can well solve the dehydration of banana straw crushing processing problem .%香蕉秸秆作为主要的香蕉副产品,一直被当作废弃物,不仅没有得到合理的利用,而且还造成了环境污染。至今为止,对香蕉秸秆的利用仍停留在较原始、较低效的阶段,极大地制约了香蕉茎叶副产物产业化、商品化的发展。为此,设计了一种实用性强、效率较高的香蕉秸秆粉碎机,可基于单片机进行全自动控制,设计的液压系统与步进电机相互配合能较好地解决香蕉秸秆破碎处理的问题。

  10. 2种灌溉施肥方式对香蕉生长和果实品质的影响%Effects of Two Irrigating Fertilization Methods on Growth and Fruit Quality of Bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣香; 康专苗

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment is conducted to investigate the effects of drip fertigation (DF), sprinkling tape irrigation with fertilizer broadcasting (SI) on banana growth. The results obtained are as follows: Two kinds of irrigation and fertilization methods have no different effects on banana growth; on banana leaves, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium content had no significant difference, drip irrigation to banana leaf phosphorus content was obviously higher than that of sprinkler irrigation; the two irrigation fertilization methods on banana quality influence have no difference; DF is advantageous to save water and the cost of labor, and there are more economic benefits in DF. The study provided a theoretical basis for the use of drip fertigation on cultivation of banana.%通过田间试验探讨滴灌施肥和喷水带灌溉施肥对香蕉生长和果实品质的影响。结果表明:2种灌溉施肥方式对香蕉长势影响无显著差异,对香蕉叶片 N、 K、 Ca、 Mg 的含量无显著差异,滴灌地香蕉叶片 P 的含量显著高于喷灌地;2种灌溉施肥方式对香蕉品质的影响无明显差异;滴灌施肥方式有利于节水、节省用工成本,滴灌条件下的经济效益更好。本研究结果为滴灌施肥技术在香蕉生产上的应用提供理论依据。

  11. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Aguilar-Barragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM without applications and Intensive management (IM more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L-1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L-1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  12. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L−1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L−1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  13. Chemical management in fungicide sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  14. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Crous, Pedro W.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  15. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  16. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  17. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Slamet Minardi; Sri Hartati1); Hery Widijanto; Defi Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 =...

  18. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  19. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  20. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  1. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved...

  3. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  4. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  5. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  6. 巴西香蕉苗静置水培营养液配方的初步筛选%Screening of the Nutrient Solution Formulas for Static Hydroponics of Banana (Musa AAA Cavendish Subgroup 'Brazil') Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小娟; 杨腊英; 谢德啸; 周端咏; 魏巍; 郭利佳; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    采用静置水培法,使用4种不同的营养液配方,并以清水培养和椰糠基质栽培为对照,对巴西香蕉苗进行生长比较试验。结果表明:在香蕉苗增加的生物量方面,BXM配方(巴西木植物营养液)处理与椰糠栽培的差异不显著,但与日本园试配方、Hoagland植物营养液配方、1/2 MS培养基营养元素配方和清水培养的差异显著;在株高和叶面积方面,均以椰糠栽培的最大,BXM配方处理的居次,接下来依次是Hoagland植物营养液配方、日本园试配方、1/2 MS培养基配方和清水培养。综上所述,在这4种营养液配方中,BXM配方是巴西香蕉苗生长的最适营养液配方。%In order to study water culture techniques, growths of the banana (Musa AAA cavendish subgroup cv. Brazil) plantlets under the static culture and substrate culture were 'compared. Four nutrient solutions including Hoagland solution, Murashige and Skoog (1/2MS) solution, BXM solution and RSYY solution were used to culture banana plantlets, which grew in tap water or in substrate culture (pearlite as substrate). The data showed that banana plantlets grew well in the four tested nutrient solutions, and there was a significant increase in biomass of the banana plantlets grew in static nutrient solution over that in tap water. Among the four nutrient solutions, the biomass of the banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution was next to that in substrate (pearlite) culture, and was significantly more than that in Hoagland solution, 1/2MS solution and RSYY solution. The indexes such as plant height and leaf area of banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution were largest among the four nutrient solutions, and then that grew in Hoagland solution, RSYY solution and MS solution reduced in turn. In conclusion, the banana plantlets grew best in BXM solution among the four nutrient solutions. So BXM solution is suggested, when growing banana plantlets in water culture.

  7. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  8. Integrating banana and ruminant production in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, Harry; Gourdine, Jean Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; Tournebize, Regis; Bassien-Capsa, Mylène; González-García, Eliel

    2012-08-01

    Using a mechanistic model, we compared five alternative farming systems with the purpose of transforming monoculture (MON) banana farms into mixed farming systems (MFS) with ruminants feeding banana by-products (leaves, pseudostems and nonmarketable fruits) and forage from the fallow land. The paper presents the main structure of the model (land surface changes, available biomass for animals, stocking rates, productive or reproductive indicators), and impact assessment (change in farm productivity) is discussed. Five MFS with typical local ruminant production systems were used to compare MON to the strategies using forage from fallow and/or integrating Creole cattle (CC), Creole goats (CG) or Martinik sheep (MS) into banana farming. One hectare MON shifted into an MFS allows a stocking rate of 1,184, 285, and 418 kg of live weight per hectare for CC, CG and MS, respectively. Banana by-products seem to be better valorized by the CC scenario. However, parameters such as length of the cycle, local prices for cattle, goat and sheep meat, work time and farmer's skills in ruminant management may have been taken into account by the farmer when choosing the ruminant species to rear.

  9. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease

  10. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  11. Fabrication of Biomembrane from Banana Stem for Lead Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afianti Sulastri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (i.e. lead (Pb is one of the environmental issues recently due to its danger for human health. Therefore, strategy for removing Pb from waste water treatment is important. One of the prospective methods to remove Pb is membrane biofilter. Here, the purpose of this study was to prepare the membrane biofilter for Pb removal process. In this study, membrane biofilter was produced from banana stem. Banana stem was selected because of its abundant availability   in Indonesia. And, for somewhat, this banana stem can be environmental problems (become waste since Indonesia is one of the top producers in the world. In short of the experimental procedure, we conducted three steps of experiments: (1 Preparation of microbial cellulose using Acetobacter xylinum using banana stem for a main source; (2 Synthesis of cellulose acetate; and (3 Preparation of biomembrane from obtained cellulose acetate. To produce membrane biofilter, the cellulose acetate was dissolved into dichloromethane to form a dope solution. Then, the doped solution was printed in Petri dish. Some biomembrane properties were characterized for identification, i.e. infrared spectra, electron microscope, and elemental analysis. Experimental results showed that we succeeded to prepare biomembrane with a pore size of 5 μm. The filtration efficiency of our prepared membrane was 93.7% of Pb when using Pb with a concentration of 10 ppm.

  12. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  13. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  14. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease dia

  15. Impact of Diseases on Export and Smallholder Production of Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ma, Li Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15 of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cu

  16. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1 (TEF-1) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, compri

  17. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group) a

  18. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  19. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the major banana growing districts further north. The mapping approach developed was based on very high spatial resolution airborne orthophotos. Object-based image analysis was used to: (1 detect banana plants using edge and line detection approaches; (2 produce accurate and realistic outlines around classified banana plants; and (3 evaluate the mapping results. The mapping approach was developed based on 10 image tiles of 1 km × 1 km and was applied to orthophotos (3600 image tiles from September 2011 covering the entire Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland. Based on field inspections of the classified maps, a user’s mapping accuracy of 88% (n = 146 was achieved. The results will facilitate the detection of banana plants and increase the inspection rate of Banana Bunchy Top Virus in the future.

  20. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa.

  1. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  2. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  3. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Brink, van den Paul J.; Tedengren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and

  4. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  5. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Prado, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Marilene S; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H G; White, James F; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  6. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Beltrán-García

    Full Text Available In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg. Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg, a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg. A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  7. Screening the banana biodiversity for drought tolerance: can an in vitro growth model and proteomics be used as a tool to discover tolerant varieties and understand homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine eVanhove

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for research aimed at understanding drought tolerance, screening for drought tolerant varieties and breeding cops with an improved water use efficiency. Bananas and plantains are a major staple food and export product with a worldwide production of over 135 million tonnes per year. Water however is the most limiting abiotic factor in banana production. A screening of the Musa biodiversity has not yet been performed. We at KU Leuven host the Musa International Germplasm collection with over 1200 accessions. To screen the Musa biodiversity for drought tolerant varieties, we developed a screening test for in vitro plants. Five varieties representing different genomic constitutions in banana (AAAh, AAA, AAB, AABp and ABB were selected and subjected to a mild osmotic stress. The ABB variety showed the smallest stress induced growth reduction. To get an insight into the acclimation and the accomplishment of homeostasis, the leaf proteome of this variety was characterized via 2D DIGE. After extraction of the leaf proteome of 6 control and 6 stressed plants, 2600 spots could be distinguished. A PCA analysis indicates that control and stressed plants can blindly be classified based on their proteome. One hundred and twelve proteins were significantly more abundant in the stressed plants and eighteen proteins were significantly more abundant in control plants (FDR α 0.05. Twenty four differential proteins could be identified. The proteome analysis clearly shows that there is a new balance in the stressed plants and that the respiration, metabolism of ROS and several dehydrogenases involved in NAD/NADH homeostasis play an important role.

  8. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing. Besides energy scarcity and unreliability, banana production, marketing and industrial processing generate large quantities of organic wastes that are disposed of majorly by unregulated dumping in places such as swamps, thereby forming huge putrefying biomass that emit green house gases (methane and carbon dioxide). On the other hand, the energy content of banana waste, if harnessed through appropriate waste-to-energy technologies, would not only solve the energy requirement for processing of banana pulp, but would also offer an additional benefit of avoiding fossil fuels through the use of renewable energy. The potential waste-to-energy technologies that can be used in valorisation of banana waste can be grouped into three: Thermal (Direct combustion and Incineration), Thermo-chemical (Torrefaction, Plasma treatment, Gasification and Pyrolysis) and Biochemical (Composting, Ethanol fermentation and Anaerobic Digestion). However, due to high moisture content of banana waste, direct application of either thermal or thermo-chemical waste-to-energy technologies is challenging. Although, supercritical water gasification does not require drying of feedstock beforehand and can be a promising thermo-chemical technology for gasification of wet biomass such as banana waste, it is an expensive technology that may not be adopted by banana farmers in Uganda. Biochemical conversion technologies are

  9. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  10. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  11. Roseomonas musae sp. nov., a new bacterium isolated from a banana phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Duangmal, Kannika; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Muramatsu, Yuki; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-negative, coccobacilli, non-spore forming and non-motile bacterium, designated PN1(T), was isolated from a banana leaf collected in Mattra island, Thailand. This isolate was observed to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0, and to grow with 0-3 % NaCl. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PN1(T) is closely related to members of the genus Roseomonas, exhibiting the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Roseomonas aestuarii JC17(T) (96.5 %). The DNA G + C content of strain PN1(T) was determined to be 69.7 mol %. Based on physiological and biochemical tests, and genotypic differences between strain PN1(T) and the validly named species of the genus Roseomonas, it is proposed that the strain be classified as a new species of Roseomonas for which the name Roseomonas musae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PN1(T) (= BCC 44863(T) = NBRC 107870(T)).

  12. An assessment of software for flow cytometry analysis in banana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alves Lara Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is a technique that yields rapid results in analyses of cell properties such as volume, morphological complexity and quantitative DNA content, and it is considered more convenient than other techniques. However, the analysis usually generates histograms marked by variations that can be produced by many factors, including differences between the software packages that capture the data generated by the flow cytometer. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the performance of four software products commonly used in flow cytometry based on quantifications of DNA content and analyses of the coefficients of variation associated with the software outputs. Readings were obtained from 25 ‘NBA’ (AA banana leaf samples using the FACSCalibur (BD flow cytometer, and 25 histograms from each software product (CellQuest™, WinMDI™, FlowJo™ and FCS Express™ were analyzed to obtain the estimated DNA content and the coefficient of variation (CV of the estimates. The values of DNA content obtained from the software did not differ significantly. However, the CV analysis showed that the precision of the WinMDI™ software was low and that the CV values were underestimated, whereas the remaining software showed CV values that were in relatively close agreement with those found in the literature. The CellQuest™ software is recommended because it was developed by the same company that produces the flow cytometer used in the present study.

  13. Somaclonal variation in tissue culture of banana cv. 'Kluai Num Wa'[Musa (ABB group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of cytokinins, 6-Benzyladenine (BA and/or coconut water (CW and pH of medium were studied for their effects on shoot formation, growth and somaclonal variation of banana tissue culture. Thecultures were carried out on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium for 30 days. The average shoot length (5.82 cm was obtained in liquid medium supplemented with 15% CW. While a high number of shoots at 3.8shoots/explant were obtained in liquid medium supplemented with 5 mg/l BA. For fresh weight, liquid medium supplemented with 5 mg/l BA in combination with 15% CW gave the best results (2.26 g/shoot. Anoptimum pH for promotion shoot length (5.67 cm was 5.6 whereas the lower value (pH 4 promoted a high number of shoot formation (3.89 shoots/explant. The highest fresh weight of 1.33 g/shoot was obtained onmedium adjusted pH to 8. After maintaining the shoots by successive subculturing (3-4 week-intervals on MS medium with 5 mg/l BA several morphological abnormalities were obtained. Among those, chloroticleaves (1.5% were firstly observed in the first subculture and increased to 3% in the second subculture. Moreover, a narrow leaf at 25.76% was also observed in this period. Further subculture, more somaclonalvariation, such as a thin long shoots, nodular shoots and bamboo-like leaf, appeared. Isozyme marker revealed a difference in zymogram patterns among those somaclonal variants.

  14. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  15. Partial purification of chlorophyll degrading enzymes from cavendish banana (Musa Cavendishi)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janave, Machhindra T; Sharma, Arun

    2004-01-01

    ...), due to incomplete degradation of chlorophyll (Chl). Earlier, evidence for the existence of two distinct degradative pathways--chlorophyllase and chlorophyll oxidase pathways in these bananas was provided...

  16. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  17. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  18. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  19. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  20. Recreating the Banana Grower: The Role of Private Certification Systems in the Windward Islands Banana Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haakon Aasprong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Private standards and certification schemes in agrifood networks tend to be de-scribed as neoliberal, suggesting that they share a common understanding of that which they seek to govern and the tools to be used. Although such certification systems do have many features in common, this article argues that much is to be learned by contrasting certification systems with regard to their ideational ground-ings. Through a historically grounded discussion of the adoption and implementa-tion of two certification systems – GLOBALGAP and Fairtrade – in the Wind-ward Islands banana industry, it is argued that there are important differences with regard to how the systems envision shared key concepts such as accountability, adaptability, professionalism and not least sustainability. These differences permeate the standards as well as their enforcement structures, demonstrating a flexibility in certification as governmental technology which is often overlooked. Moreover, the article explores how the certification systems’ governmental rationalities articulate with local understandings of the role of farmers and agriculture in the Windward Islands, arguing that the tension existing between the visions embedded in the systems mirrors a tension within these islands societies. This tension preceded the adoption of the certification systems and continues to influence their implementation today.

  1. Modeling leaf venation morphogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Laguna, M F; Jagla, E A

    2007-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the formation of leaf venation patterns is driven by mechanical instabilities in the growing leaf. In contrast to the prevalent canalization hypothesis based on polar auxin transport, mechanical instabilities lead very naturally to hierarchical patterns with an abundant number of closed loops as they exists in almost every leaf venation. We propose a continuum model where the vein formation is driven by a mechanical collapse of the mesophyll layer in the growing leaf, and present a numerical study of this model using a phase field approach. The results show the same qualitative features as real venation patterns and, furthermore, have the same statistical properties.

  2. Characterization of recommended banana cultivars using morphological and molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onildo Nunes de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New banana varieties with superior agronomical characteristics have been developed through introductionand/or genetic breeding. In order to guarantee its marketing and intellectual property, these new varieties need to becharacterized by efficient inheritable qualitative morphological and molecular descriptors. The aim of the research was tocharacterize recommended banana varieties using qualitative morphological and molecular descriptors. Twelve genotypeswere analyzed using 61 morphological descriptors where 17 were related to the plant, 24 to the bunch and 20 regarding theflower. Eighty-one molecular markers; 47 RAPD primers and 34 SSR primers were used. The morphological and moleculardescriptors were efficient in the characterization and identification of specific characteristics for most of the varieties evaluated.Plant and inflorescence descriptors presented the greatest variability of characteristics that can facilitate its use for cultivarprotection and registration

  3. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  4. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  5. Identification of Potential for Banana in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. MANTEL; ZHANG XUELEI; ZHANG GANLIN

    2003-01-01

    Land use alternatives are sought to boost agricultural income and productivity in Hainan Island, China.Regional differences exist in crop limitations, such as typhoon risk, low temperatures, poor soil fertility, and drought. In this study a crop zonation was made for a range of crops, among which is banana, as a way to: 1)establish areas for potential expansion for banana, and 2) identify limitations and options for crop and land management. A spatial soil and terrain database of Hainan Island (1:250 000) was linked to the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The qualitative models were verified by comparing suitability maps with actual land use. The results may support policy formulation on issues such as alternatives to current land use, assessment of best management practices, and the need for fertilizer programmes.

  6. 从a hand of bananas 说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞洛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 英语怎么说“一串香蕉”?我们可以说a bunch of bananas,也可以说a handof bananas.但是,后者更趋形象生动.名词hand在此起双重作用,它既表示“串”(bunch),相当汉语“量词”,又含有一种巧妙的比喻,bananas为本体,而hand则成了喻体.类似a hand of bananas的表达在英语中不为鲜见.如hand这样起双重作用的名词可作以下分类.

  7. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M. [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  8. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  9. A study of Yoshimoto Banana : Focusing on expression of sense

    OpenAIRE

    李, 銀炯

    2003-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana's 'expression of sense' is based on human five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching). And her 'expression of sense' seems to be connected to the theme of her works by describing or implying mood, consciousness and feeling. 'Expression of sense' can reveal the individuality of a writer more than any other lingual expression because it is based on human subjectivity. In that point of view, I considered how her 'expression of sense'(which intend to bring great ef...

  10. Use of abaca and banana fibers for water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Zaida Ortega; Jennifer Vaswani; Miriam Velasco; Mario Domingo Monzón; Juan Emilio González

    2014-01-01

    Some previous researches show the potential of natural fibers for the production of filters, as these materials are commonly used in the production of tea bags or filters for tobacco. This paper focuses on the use of banana and abaca fiber for water purification, showing thus their capacity for heavy metals adsorption; on the other hand, since the filtering media used is formed by natural materials, microbiological analysis was carried out, ensuring that no organic pollution happens during th...

  11. Design of Banana Stalk Cutting Machine Based on Hydraulic System%基于液压系统控制的香蕉秸秆切片机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张燕

    2014-01-01

    香蕉产业在海南经济中占有很大的比重,但香蕉生产的同时也产生了75%左右的香蕉茎叶副产物。完成香蕉采摘后,剩余的茎叶等废弃不用,造成了资源的严重浪费。为此,设计了一种新型的香蕉秸秆切片机,采用上下刀盘偏置高速交替旋转切削的方法,并以高压气体辅助切削,以达到良好的切片效果和质量,并采用液压控制系统对整个投料、切削过程进行自动控制,从而节省了人力,大大提高了秸秆切片的效率和资源的再回收利用率,减轻了因香蕉秸秆处理不当所造成的废物和废气对人体的危害,促进香蕉茎叶副产品产业化及商品化的发展。%The banana industry occupies a large proportion in Hainan economy , but also produced about 75%of the ba-nana leaf byproducts of banana production at the same time .Complete the banana after picking , the rest of the stems and leaves are discarded , causing a serious waste of resources .So we designed a banana stalk cutting machine model , using the method of upper and lower cutter offset high-speed rotation of cutting , and the high pressure gas assisted cutting , in order to achieve the slicing effect and good quality .And the whole feeding hydraulic control system , the cutting process is automatically controlled , thereby saving manpower , greatly improving the efficiency of straw slice , recycling in order to improve the utilization rate of resources , reduce the harm of banana straw due to improper handling caused by waste and waste gas on the human body , and will promote the banana stems and leaves of vice industry the development of industri -alization , commercialization .

  12. 土壤-香蕉幼苗体系中重金属Cd的迁移与分配%Migration and Accumulation of Cadmium in Soil and Banana System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月华; 毕仁军; 江剑侑

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to study the process of absorption and accumulation characteristics of heavy metal Cd2+ in soil and banana system. [ Method] Taking sandy latosol as test soil, banana as test plant, potted cultivation was used to study the characteristics of the concentration and accumulation index of Cd2+ in the soil, root, stem and leaf of banana. [ Result ] The results showed that concentration of Cd2+ had great effects on the enrichment effect in banana seedling, the concentration of Cd2+ was higher, and the enrichment coefficient of banana seedling was smaller. The accumulation of Cd2+ in different parts of banana seedling was very different. Cd2+ were absorbed and attributed in root largely, and few were transported to the above ground part. [ Conclusion] This study can provide theoretical basis for recognizing heavy metals residue in banana seedling, health risk and pollution control.%[目的]研究重金属Cd在土壤-香蕉幼苗体系中的迁移分配规律.[方法]以沙质砖红壤为供试土壤,以香蕉为试验植物,采用盆栽模拟试验方法研究了Cd在土壤、香蕉根系、茎、叶中的浓度和富集系数的变化规律.[结果]不同Cd处理浓度对香蕉苗体内Cd富集效果有很大的影响.当低浓度Cd处理土壤时,富集系数最大,高浓度时富集系数最小.香蕉苗不同部位吸收累积重金属Cd有明显差异,大部分累积在根部,向茎和叶迁移的量较小.[结论]该研究可为科学认识香蕉中重金属的残留问题、健康风险及其污染控制提供理论依据.

  13. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  14. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  15. Production and economic viability of banana managed with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca E. L. Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aimed to evaluate the yield and economic viability of three crop cycles of the banana cv. ‘Prata Anã’ in association with perennial herbaceous legumes, natural vegetation, or compared with the conventional management. The research was conducted using a complete randomized block design with split-split plots and four replicates. The plots were formed by four irrigation depths: 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop evapotranspiration, and the subplots by cover crops (Calopogonium muconoides, Pueraria phaseoloides, and natural cover without N addition or no cover crops with addition of N fertilization (conventional management. The subsubplots were formed by the second, third and fourth banana production cycles. Yield and economic viability of the cultivation were estimated for a period of seven years. The conventional management promoted greater yield and economic viability in the cultivation of ‘Prata Anã’ banana, due to the N fertilization. Managements with leguminous cover crops were also economically viable, but they should be investigated in combination with N fertilization and compared with the conventional method.

  16. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  17. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  18. Physiological responses in the banana plantlets treateds with strobilurinsRespostas fisiológicas em mudas de banananeira tratadas com estrobilurinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivia Helena Modenese-Gorla da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are reports that strobilurin besides having a fungicide effect can promote physiologic benefits to the plants. However, this effect on banana plants was not studied yet. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of strobirulins on the physiology of banana plantlets. For this purpose, cultivar Grand Naine banana plantlets were transferred to pots containing substrate and kept in a nursery with 50% shading. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments (water, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin and five replications. The treatments were applied at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting at a dose 100 g a. i. ha-1 with manual spray. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, shoot dry matter in strobilurin treated plants were higher than the untreated plants, however, the effect of fungicide treatment was different, being the most pronounced effect of pyraclostrobin compared to azoxystrobin. Plants treated with pyraclostrobin had higher leaf area, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content of leaf total nitrogen than the plants treated with azoxystrobin and water, which did not differ. Strobilurins affect the physiology of the banana plantlets differently, the effect being more pronounced by pyraclostrobin.Há relatos de que estrobilurinas, além de atuarem como fungicida, promovem benefícios fisiológicos às plantas. Assim sendo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de estrobirulinas na fisiologia de mudas de bananeira. Para tal, mudas micropropagadas da cultivar Grand Naine foram repicadas para vasos contendo substrato e mantidas em viveiro a 50% de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (água, azoxistrobina e piraclostrobina e cinco repetições. As estrobirulinas foram aplicadas com pulverizador manual aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a repicagem, na dose de 100 g i. a. ha-1. A altura da planta, di

  19. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  20. Effect of Looting Powder on Transplanting Banana Tissue Seedling%生根粉对香蕉组培苗移栽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炫; 刘以道; 覃和业; 王永壮; 蒋盛军

    2011-01-01

    The effect of looting powder on transplanting tissue seedling of banana was carried out during 2010~2011 to improve the survival ratio of banana tissue seedling. The results showed that there was very significant effect on transplanting tissue seedling of banana by different looting powder treatment. Compared with treatment 3, treatment 4 and CK,the averages of plant height of treatment 1 and 2 lowed 35.66%, 38.98%, 34.53% respectively; the averages of leaf length shortened 23.89%, 26.56%, 27.35% respectively; the averages of leaf width narrowed 29.14%, 34.38%, 27.10% respectively; and the averages of root length shortened 23.25%, 21.85%, 14.35% respectively. Compared with CK, the difference of plant height, leaf length, leaf width and root length of banana tissue seedling by treatment 3 and treatment 4 were not obvious. The treamentl and 2 had inhibition on the growth of banana tissue seedling, while treatment 3 and 4 could promote the growth and the survival rate of tissue seedling and were time-saving, efficient as well.%为提高组培香蕉苗的成活率,2010~2011年在海南研究了生根粉对香蕉组培苗移栽的影响.结果表明:不同生根粉处理对香蕉组培苗移栽的影响极显著,其中,生根粉1和生根粉2处理的香蕉假植苗与生根粉3、生根粉4和CK的相比,株高平均值分别降低35.66%,38.98%,34.53%,叶长平均值分别短23.89%,26.56%,27.35%,叶宽平均值分别窄29.14%,34.38%,27.10%,根长平均值分别短23.25%,21.85%,14.35%.生根粉3、生根粉4处理的香蕉假植苗株高、叶长、叶宽、根长与CK的相比差异不显著.生根粉1和生根粉2处理对香蕉假植苗的生长有明显的抑制作用;生根粉3与生根粉4处理对香蕉假植苗的生长有促进作用,且具有省时、高效、成活率高等优点.

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwa Fama Tongo, Lyna; Muengula, Marcel; Zinga, I; Kalonji, Adrien; Iskra-Caruana, M.L.; Bragard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting produc- tion and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiol- ogical survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers’ fields for two consecutive sea- sons coverin...

  2. Golden bananas in the field: elevated fruit pro-vitamin A from the expression of a single banana transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Kleidon, Jennifer; Hoang, Phuong; Geijskes, Jason; Daniells, Jeff; Zaplin, Ella; Rosenberg, Yvonne; James, Anthony; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Deo, Pradeep; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Namanya, Priver; Becker, Douglas; Tindamanyire, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Harding, Robert; Dale, James

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro-vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA-biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20 μg/g of dry weight (dw) β-carotene equivalent (β-CE) in the fruit. Expression of a Fe'i banana-derived phytoene synthase 2a (MtPsy2a) gene resulted in the generation of lines with PVA levels exceeding the target level with one line reaching 55 μg/g dw β-CE. Expression of the maize phytoene synthase 1 (ZmPsy1) gene, used to develop 'Golden Rice 2', also resulted in increased fruit PVA levels although many lines displayed undesirable phenotypes. Constitutive expression of either transgene with the maize polyubiquitin promoter increased PVA accumulation from the earliest stage of fruit development. In contrast, PVA accumulation was restricted to the late stages of fruit development when either the banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase or the expansin 1 promoters were used to drive the same transgenes. Wild-type plants with the longest fruit development time had also the highest fruit PVA concentrations. The results from this study suggest that early activation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and extended fruit maturation time are essential factors to achieve optimal PVA concentrations in banana fruit. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Golden bananas in the field: elevated fruit pro?vitamin A from the expression of a single banana transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Jean?Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Kleidon, Jennifer; Hoang, Phuong; Geijskes, Jason; Daniells, Jeff; Zaplin, Ella; Rosenberg, Yvonne; James, Anthony; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Deo, Pradeep; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Namanya, Priver; Becker, Douglas; Tindamanyire, James

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro?vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA?biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20??g/g of dry weight (dw) ??ca...

  4. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce. Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  5. Avaliação de clones de banana Cavendish Evaluation of cavendish banana clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Na bananeira ocorrem variações somaclonais em taxa muito superior ao que se observa na maioria das outras culturas, provavelmente em função da instabilidade mitótica. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar clones de bananeira Cavendish coletados em diferentes locais. Os clones Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063 coletados em São Paulo, Santa Catarina e Bahia foram avaliados no Lote 54-P da Thelo Produção Agropecuária (Grupo Plena, no Projeto Jaíba, Etapa 1, no município de Matias Cardoso-MG. Avaliaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de brotos, peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos e de pencas por cacho, comprimento e circunferência do fruto e número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita. Observou-se grande similaridade nas características dos clones. No entanto, os resultados obtidos permitem a recomendação dos clones N. IAC Abóbora Verde e G.N. Williams.Somaclonal variations occur in bananas at greater rates compared to other crops, probably due to mitotic instability. The objective of the present research was to evaluate Cavendish banana clones collected from different sites. The 'Grand Naine' clones (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 and 'Nanicão' (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 and N. SC-063 collected from the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Bahia, were evaluated at the Station 54-P of the Thelo Agricultural Production (Plena Group, in the Jaíba Project, Stage 1, in the city of Matias Cardoso-MG. The characteristics of the plant as height and pseudostem circumference, number of live leaves at flowering and harvesting, number of shoots, weight of bunch and hand, number of fruits and hands per bunch, fruit length and

  6. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  7. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  8. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  9. Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address

  10. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  11. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hont, D' A.; Denoeud, F.; Aury, J.M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit

  12. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  13. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  14. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination...

  15. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  16. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for...; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing season; Harvesting only of hard green...

  17. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  18. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl

  19. Detecting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil and symptomless banana tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana produc

  20. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), m

  1. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single satisfa

  2. First report of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  3. Molecular Characterization of Banana (AA Diploids with Contrasting Levels of Black and Yellow Sigatoka Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most banana cultivars are susceptible to many diseases, whereas Sigatoka leads to greatest yield losses. One of the strategies to overcome this disease is thorough banana genetic breeding which consists in the obtainment of improved (AA diploids which are then crossed with triploids obtaining (AAAB tetraploid disease resistant bananas also presenting other important agronomic characteristics. The prior knowledge of the genetic diversity of (AA diploids, is therefore considered indispensable in order to direct the crosses being made. The objective of the present work was to analyze the genetic diversity of 20 (AA banana diploids with contrasting levels of reaction to yellow and black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella musicola and M. fijensis, respectively, using molecular markers. From the dendrogram data it is shown that a great number of experimental hybrids can be obtained from the combination of genetically different diploids, therefore making the banana genetic breeding program more efficient regarding its objectives.

  4. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  5. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  6. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  7. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  8. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  9. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  10. Systemic acquired resistance in Cavendish banana induced by infection with an incompatible strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanli; Yi, Ganjun; Peng, Xinxiang; Huang, Bingzhi; Liu, Ee; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-07-15

    Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). The fact that there are no economically viable biological, chemical, or cultural measures of controlling the disease in an infected field leads to search for alternative strategies involving activation of the plant's innate defense system. The mechanisms underlying systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are much less understood in monocots than in dicots. Since systemic protection of plants by attenuated or avirulent pathogens is a typical SAR response, the establishment of a biologically induced SAR model in banana is helpful to investigate the mechanism of SAR to Fusarium wilt. This paper described one such model using incompatible Foc race 1 to induce resistance against Foc tropical race 4 in an in vitro pathosystem. Consistent with the observation that the SAR provided the highest level of protection when the time interval between primary infection and challenge inoculation was 10d, the activities of defense-related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) in systemic tissues also reached the maximum level and were 2.00-2.43 times higher than that of the corresponding controls on the tenth day. The total salicylic acid (SA) content in roots of banana plantlets increased from about 1 to more than 5 μg g⁻¹ FW after the second leaf being inoculated with Foc race 1. The systemic up-regulation of MaNPR1A and MaNPR1B was followed by the second up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3. Although SA and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling are mostly antagonistic, systemic expression of PR genes regulated by different signaling pathways were simultaneously up-regulated after primary infection, indicating that both pathways are involved in the activation of the SAR.

  11. Secagem de bananas prata e d'água por convecção forçada Drying of banana prata and banana d'água by forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de variáveis como cultivar, formato (cilindro e disco, branqueamento e condições do ar aquecido (temperatura: 50 e 70 ºC e velocidade: 0,14 e 0,42 m/s sobre o comportamento de secagem convectiva de bananas com uso de modelagem matemática. As bananas foram desidratadas em secador de bandejas e pesada em intervalos pré-determinados. O modelo exponencial foi bem ajustado às curvas de secagem (R²: 0,98-0,99, mostrando que os fatores mais influentes sobre a taxa de secagem foram a temperatura, a velocidade do ar e o branqueamento. De acordo com as constantes cinéticas apresentadas pelo modelo recomenda-se a secagem de banana, em qualquer dos formatos estudados, nas seguintes condições: para banana-prata, uso de branqueamento e secagem a 50 ºC/0,42 m/s; e para banana-d'água, sem uso de branqueamento e secagem a 70 ºC/0,42 m/s.The influence of variables such as cultivar, shape (cylinder and disc, blanching, and heated air conditions (temperatures of 50 and 70 ºC and velocities of 0.14 and 0.42 m/s on convective drying behavior of bananas using mathematical modeling. The bananas were dehydrated in a tray dryer and were weighed in predetermined periods of time. The exponential model showed good agreement with the drying curves (R²: 0.98-0.99 indicating that the factors that influenced the drying rate the most were temperature, air velocity, and blanching. According to the kinetics constants obtained with the model, the drying of bananas is recommended, including all shapes investigated under the following conditions: banana prata, blanching and drying at 50 ºC/0.42 m/s; and banana d'água, no blanching and drying at 70 ºC/0.42 m/s.

  12. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  13. Leaf growth is conformal

    CERN Document Server

    Alim, Karen; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  14. Leaf growth is conformal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  15. Development of the banana plants 'Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01' under the effect of paclobutrazol applied on the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Under some cultivation conditions, excessive growth of the pseudostem of banana plants can be considered a limiting factor, and thus, the use of growth regulators can constitute a valid alternative. This work aimed to evaluate the action of paclobutrazol on the growth of the pseudostem of banana plants and other characteristics of their development. An experiment was installed with five paclobutrazol doses (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 g of a.i. plant-1 combined with two banana plant cultivars ('Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01'. Paclobutrazol did not affect the number of days from planting to flowering, total leaf area and leaf emission rate. However, it increased leaf permanence on the plants and sucker number, reduced the foliar area of the leaves emitted after its application and provided an average reduction in pseudostem height of 26%.Em algumas condições de cultivo o crescimento excessivo do pseudocaule de bananeiras pode ser considerado um fator limitante, assim a utilização de reguladores de crescimento pode constituir uma alternativa. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ação do paclobutrazol sobre o crescimento do pseudocaule de bananeiras e outras características do seu desenvolvimento. Para isso foi instalado um experimento com cinco doses do paclobutrazol (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0 g de i.a.planta-1 combinadas com dois cultivares de bananeira ('Prata Anã' e 'FHIA-01'. O paclobutrazol não afetou o número dedias do plantio ao florescimento, a área foliar total e a taxade emissão de folhas. Contudo, aumentou a permanência das folhas nas plantas e o número de perfilhos, reduziu a área foliar das folhas emitidas após a sua aplicação e proporcionou uma redução média de 26% na altura do pseudocaule.

  16. Differential Protein Accumulation in Banana Fruit during Ripening 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Puigjaner, Eva; Vendrell, Miguel; Ludevid, M. Dolors

    1992-01-01

    Banana (Musa acuminata, cv Dwarf Cavendish) proteins were extracted from pulp tissue at different stages of ripening and analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The results provide evidence of differential protein accumulation during ripening. Two sets of polypeptides have been detected that increase substantially in ripe fruit. These polypeptides were characterized as glycoproteins by western blotting and concanavalin A binding assays. Antibodies againts tomato polygalacturonase cross-react with one of these sets of proteins. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668607

  17. An Electrostatic Lens to Reduce Parallax in Banana Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Esch, P; Medjoubi, K; Esch, Patrick Van; Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Medjoubi, Kadda

    2005-01-01

    Cylindrical "banana" gas detectors are often used in fixed-target experiments, because they are free of parallax effects in the equatorial plane. However, there is a growing demand to increase the height of these detectors in order to be more efficient or to cover more solid angle, and hence a parallax effect starts to limit the resolution in that direction. In this paper we propose a hardware correction for this problem which reduces the parallax error thanks to an applied potential on the front window that makes the electrostatic field lines radially pointing to the interaction point at the entrance window. A detailed analytical analysis of the solution is also presented.

  18. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityananda Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be due to increased sytheses of the enzymes. In an in vitro culture, the fungus exhibited some peroxidase but no polyphenoloxidase activity.

  19. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  20. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  1. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  2. Estudo comparativo da eficiência da difenilcarbazida e do óleo de coco saponificado microemulsionados na inibição da corrosão de aço carbono Comparative effectiveness microemulsions of diphenylcarbazide and saponified coconut oil in the carbon steel corrosion inhibition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia G. F. T. Rossi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of microemulsions (ME of saponified coconut oil (OCS-ME and diphenylcarbazide (DC-ME on a carbon steel corrosion inhibition process was evaluated using an electrochemical method of polarization resistance. The ME was prepared with OCS, butanol, kerosene and saline solutions. OCS-ME and DC-ME showed highest inhibitions effects (77% and 92%, respectively at lower concentrations (0.5% and 0.48 - 0.50%, respectively. The surfactant OCS (in H2O showed lower efficiency (63% at 0.20 - 0.25% concentration. The greatest inhibitory effect of DC-ME could be correlated with the chemical structure and the rich O/W ME system, which are very important for adsorption phenomena in interfacial ME systems.

  3. Induction of banana Fusarium Wilt disease with biocontrol bacteria and pathogen by inoculation%接种生防菌和病原菌对香蕉抗枯萎病的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛玉潇; 贾慧升; 王国芬; 刘磊; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    Banana vitroplants of 4--5 leaves were inoculated in different ways with two biocontrol bacteria Bacillus subtilis strains A5-6 and C10-1 and the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen (Foc4) to observe their changes of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activities in leaves, which are related to plant tolerance to the disease. The PPO, POD and PAL activities in the leaves of the banana plants were determined by using the physiological and biochemical methods. The banana plants inoculated with the strains A5 -6 and C10-1 separately showed higher leaf PPO, POD and PAL activities than those inoculated with the sterile water control, and the banana plants inoculated with mixture of the biocontrol bacteria and Foc4 pathogen had higher leaf PPO, POD and PAL activities than those inoculated with Foc4 alone.%使用2株生防枯草芽孢杆菌A5-6,C10-1和香蕉枯萎病病原菌(Foc4),以不同的接种方式对4~5叶香蕉组培苗进行根部接种,以苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)这3种与植物抗病性密切相关的酶活性变化为指标,研究植物产生抗性的时间和强度的变化趋势。结果表明,经过生防菌A5-6和C10-1诱导处理的叶片PAL,POD,PPO的活性均高于对照(CK),生防菌和病原菌混合接种处理的POD和PPO酶活峰值高于生防菌和病原菌单独接种的处理。

  4. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-05

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption.

  5. Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from banana starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F

    2002-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, banana maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of banana glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of banana glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of banana glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. Banana starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of banana maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products.

  6. Banana Bark as A Part of Acoustic Design Unit by Hybrid Technology Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Dian Permanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Banana bark is one of tropical indigenous natural resources that can be used as main material for many products. Being a fast-growing renewable material, it is durable and has natural patterns that people find visually attractive. Naturally, its textures and patterns are its main values; therefore it has the potential to be developed further. This research is needed to optimize the growth of small craft industries of banana bark, including the community where production activities take place, and also to provide information or reference of banana bark utilizations. Previous experiments conclude that banana bark has porous structure, high flexibility, relatively water-resistant due to its natural wax coating that resists water droplets, unless being washed down immensely. Also, due to its softwood- and paper-like properties, ithas many possibilities to be formed and processed into various functional products, mostly as craft products. In the subsequent study, the research about the utilization of banana bark in small industries starting from the harvesting system, handling problems in raw material supply, applying proper technology in improving the material’s quality, improving the human-resource working culture by appropriate technologies, and also innovating the product’s designs. The recommended designs can be implemented to improve the performance and qualities of banana bark products.Keywords: applied technology; banana bark; renewable materials; design; sustainability.

  7. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  8. Cultivo de bananas em diferentes áreas na ilha de Tenerife Banana production under different conditions in Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar a produção e a qualidade de bananas produzidas em diferentes condições de cultivo na ilha de Tenerife, foram estudadas três regiões da ilha (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal, onde se produzem bananas ao ar livre das cultivares Gruesa, Gran Enana e Laja. Nas áreas de Cueva del Polvo e Hoya Melleque, emprega-se o cultivo convencional e, na propriedade Canaria Forestal, pratica-se o orgânico. Os espaçamentos adotados foram de 1,67 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova; 1,3 x 3,0 m, com uma planta por cova, e 2,0 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova, respectivamente, para as propriedades em Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal. Diante dos dados observados, é possível verificar que as plantas da cv. Gran Enana apresentam maior altura e as da cv. Gruesa, maior espessura de pseudocaule. Também se pode inferir que, dentre as áreas e cultivares estudadas, não houve grande variabilidade nas características físicas dos frutos. A produtividade média encontrada foi de 99,8 t.ha-1, valor considerado adequado.Aiming to characterize the production and the banana quality produced in different plantation conditions of Tenerife Island, three regions of the island were studied (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal where bananas of Gruesa, Gran Enana and Laja cultivars are produced in open-air conditions. In Cueva del Polvo and Hoya Melleque the production was carried out in conventional management, while in Canaria Forestal the plants were carried out under organic system. Plants spacing was 1.67 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole; 1.3 x 3.0 m, with one plant per hole and; 2.0 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole, respectivitly to Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal. Our data show that plants of Gran Enana are higher and Gruesa plants have the thickest pseudostem. Differences were not found regarding the physical fruit characteristics and the average yield was 99.8 t.ha-1.

  9. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  10. Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Garcia, E; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-09-01

    Banana flour (BF) was obtained from unripe banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) and characterized in its chemical composition. Experimental bread was formulated with BF flour and the product was studied regarding chemical composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. The chemical composition of BF showed that total starch (73.36%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) were the highest constituents. Of the total starch, available starch was 56.29% and resistant starch 17.50%. BF bread had higher protein and total starch content than control bread, but the first had higher lipid amount. Appreciable differences were found in available, resistant starch and indigestible fraction between the bread studied, since BF bread showed higher resistant starch and indigestible fraction content. HI-based predicted glycemic index for the BF bread was 65.08%, which was significantly lower than control bread (81.88%), suggesting a "slow carbohydrate" feature for the BF-based goods. Results revealed BF as a potential ingredient for bakery products containing slowly digestible carbohydrates.

  11. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  12. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  13. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  14. Desempenho agronômico de bananeiras micropropagadas em Botucatu-SP Agronomic characteristics of micropropagated bananas from Botucatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de bananeira 'Prata-anã', 'Maçã' e 'Nanicão', no município de Botucatu-SP. As mudas provenientes de micropropagação foram aclimatadas em estufa durante noventa dias e, posteriormente, plantadas no campo, conforme as recomendações técnicas para a cultura. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento, como número de dias do plantio à colheita, número de folhas ativas, altura de plantas e diâmetro do pseudocaule, medidas na época de emissão da inflorescência. Também foram mensuradas características de produção, entre as quais o número de frutos, diâmetro, comprimento e peso da segunda penca, peso total das pencas e número de frutos por cacho, na época da colheita. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o ciclo cultural médio variou com as cultivares, sendo de 416 dias, contados do plantio à colheita para a cv 'Nanicão', que foi a mais precoce, seguido da 'Prata-anã' (434 dias e da 'Maçã' (437 dias. As três cultivares apresentaram produtividade estimada no primeiro ciclo (planta-mãe de 30,56 t.ha-1; 19,50 t.ha-1 e 14,37 t.ha-1, respectivamente, para 'Nanicão', 'Prata-anã' e 'Maçã'. Houve correlação positiva entre algumas características de crescimento e produção.The research had as purpose to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of the bananas' cultivars 'Prata-anã' (group AAB, 'Maçã' (group AAB and 'Nanicão' (group AAA under the conditions of Botucatu city, São Paulo state, Brazil. The plants origined by tissue culture were climatizated in greenhouse during 90 days and after they were planted in the yield. Were evaluated the growth parameters as days number between the planting until the harvest , leaf number, plants height and stem diameter at the flowering time. Also, were measured production parameters as fruits number, banana bunches number, fruits diameter, banana bunches weight, height and weight of second banana

  15. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  16. [In vitro activity of different fungicides on the growth in Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis Stover and Dickson, Cladosporium musae Morelet and Deightoniella torulosa (Syd.) Ellis, isolated parasites of the banana phyllosphere in the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Daouda; Badou, Odjochoumou Jean; Bomisso, Edson Lezin; Camara, Brahima; Ake, Séverin

    2009-05-01

    In Côte-d'Ivoire, banana leaf surfaces are attacked by Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, Cladosporium musae, and Deigthonielle torulosa. Control is based on fungicides recommanded for Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Fungicides belonging to triazoles and strobilurines types were added, at different concentrations, to the PDA medium, using this PDA medium containing no fungicide as the control. Mycelium disc and spores of Cladosporium musae, Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Deightoniella torulosa were put on the different media. Total inhibition of mycelium growth of every fungus on the PDA amended with propiconazole was observed. The fungicides used show different activities according to their concentration and their mode of action. The application of a fungicide should talke into account the pathogenic fungus involved in the leaf attacked. Against Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, the Ci(50) are different according to the concentrations (0.44 to 1.06 ppm). Correlations ranked from 0.71 to 0.91 are also different according to fungicide used. The Ci(50) of Cladosporium musae (0.10 to 2.44 ppm) and Deightoniella torulosa (0.26 to 0.52 ppm) are different and their correlations are respectively 0.78 to 0.99 and 0.86 to 0.95. An assessment of the sensitivity of parasitic fungi of banana can be made by mycelium growth measurement of fungi isolated from resistance zones.

  17. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source.

  18. DEM simulation of particle flow on a single deck banana screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chusheng; Wang Hong; Zhao Yuemin; Zhao Lala; Dong Hailin

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical study of particle flow on a banana screen deck using the discrete element method (DEM) was presented in this paper.The motion characteristics and penetrating mechanisms of particles on the screen deck were studied.Effects of geometric parameters of screen deck on banana screening process were also investigated.The results show that when the values of inclination of discharge and increment of screen deck inclination are 10° and 5° respectively,the banana screening process get a good screening performance in the simulation.The relationship between screen deck length and screening efficiency was further confirmed.The conclusion that the screening efficiency will not significantly increase when the deck lengthL ≥430 mm (L/B ≥3.5) was obtained,which can provide theoretical basis for the optimization of banana screen.

  19. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  20. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology.

  1. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The decreased productivity levels in crop production as a consequence of disease infection have been a great concern amongst agricultural communities. A similar threat is facing the banana-cultivating community due to Panama disease. Panama disease...

  2. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  3. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  4. Predicting the benefits of banana bunchy top virus exclusion from commercial plantations in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen...

  5. Predicting the Benefits of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia: e42391

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David C Cook; Shuang Liu; Jacqueline Edwards; Oscar N Villalta; Jean-Philippe Aurambout; Darren J Kriticos; Andre Drenth; Paul J De Barro

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen...

  6. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  7. Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker.

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ratna Djuita; Rita Megia

    2010-01-01

    Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker. The research aims todetect genomic integrity of in vitro irradiated banana using microsatellite marker. These studies were done on bananacv. Pisang Mas irradiated by 15 Gy of gamma ray. The DNA was isolated from each accesion following Dixie.Amplification of DNA products were done by Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR 2400 using ten primers, and thenelectroforesis in agarose 1%. Finally a vertical polyacrylamide gel...

  8. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.

  9. A Comparison of Banana Fiber Insulation with Biodegradable Fibrous Thermal Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Krishpersad Manohar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental concern about the disposal of discarded thermal insulation focused research in developing new and innovative biodegradable materials to facilitate and improve the thermal demands of society. Banana fiber is a lignocellulose material derived from the discarded tree trunk and can be a cheap, abundantly available, reliable, biodegradable and renewable raw material source. Thermal conductivity measurements on 50.4 mm thick slab-like banana fiber specimens showed characteristics cons...

  10. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  11. CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING PERFORMANCE OF THE BANANA INDUSTRY IN ERITREA

    OpenAIRE

    Zereyesus, Yacob Abrehe

    2003-01-01

    The current marketing of agricultural products in general, and of bananas in particular, poses special problems for Eritrean farmers. Poor climatic conditions coupled with crude and inefficient agricultural technologies render agricultural output sub-optimal. The major production problems include shortage of capital and scarcity of land; shortage of farming materials; spoilage of bananas during harvesting due to inappropriate harvesting techniques and facilities and lack of technical know how...

  12. Impact of GlobalGAP certification on EU banana imports: A gravity modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Amjad; Brümmer, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a gravity framework and using data from 2010 to 2012 for 74 countries, we investigate whether the intensity of GlobalGAP standard adoption has a positive impact on EU banana import values. Intensity is measured by using number of GlobalGAP certified producers and hectares harvested under GlobalGAP certification. Using random and fixed effect estimation we find that intensity of certification, in terms of producers and hectares are associated with higher banana imports. However the es...

  13. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Lemchi, J.; Onyeka, U.; Tenkouano, A.

    2001-01-01

    Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome) were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet) on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration...

  14. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION TYPE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BANANA STARCH

    OpenAIRE

    D. Guerra-DellaValle; M. M. Sánchez-Rivera; P.B. Zamudio-Flores; G. Méndez-Montealvo; L.A. Bello-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Isolation of non-conventional starches has increased in the last decade; chemical modification of these no conventional starches may produce starches with improved physicochemical and functional properties that are not available from commercial starches. Banana starch was acetylated and oxidized and the thermal, pasting and rheological characteristics were evaluated. The low carbonyl and carboxyl groups might be due to the starch source. The acetylated banana starch obtained had a low degree ...

  15. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small dif...

  16. Banana Republic公司重塑自我

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路易斯·李; 肖前

    2004-01-01

    对马卡·汉森来说,去年的假日销售旺季是考验她能否成为时装趋势预言家的一场初试。51岁的汉森于去年6月被任命为Banana Republic公司的总裁,当时她认定美利奴羊毛弹性针织衫市场上最叫卖的颜色是蓝色。事实证明,她错了。汉森说:“苔绿色才是最畅销的,而我们的货却准备不足。”

  17. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  18. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  19. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  20. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  1. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  2. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  3. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  4. The antagonistic effect of Banana bunchy top virus multifunctional protein B4 against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Mao, Qianzhuo; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2016-06-01

    The viral-induced banana bunchy top disease and the fungal-induced banana blight are two major causes of concern for industrial scale production of bananas. Banana blight is particularly troublesome, affecting ∼80% of crops worldwide. Strict guidelines and protocols are in place in order to ameliorate the effects of this devastating disease, yet little success has been achieved. From the data presented here, we have found that Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-infected bananas are more resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). BBTV appears to be antagonistic towards Foc, thus improving the survivability of plants against blight. The BBTV suppressor of RNA silencing, namely protein B4, displays fungicidal properties in vitro. Furthermore, transgenic tomatoes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged protein B4 demonstrate enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol). Differential gene expression analysis indicates that increased numbers of photogenesis-related gene transcripts are present in dark-green leaves of B4-GFP-modified tomato plants relative to those found in WT plants. Conversely, the transcript abundance of immunity-related genes is substantially lower in transgenic tomatoes compared with WT plants, suggesting that plant defences may be influenced by protein B4. This viral-fungal interaction provides new insights into microbial community dynamics within a single host and has potential commercial value for the breeding of transgenic resistance to Fusarium-related blight/wilt. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Characterization of banana, potato, and rice starch blends for their physicochemical and pasting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika B. Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were studied to assess their suitability as an alternate for chemically modified starches. The blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were prepared in the respective ratio of 1:3:2, 3:2:1, and 2:1:3. The blend with higher proportion of banana and rice starches (BPR-213 showed highest water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity. The blend with higher proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed highest swelling power at 95°C but lowest water solubility at 95°C among other starch blends. The blend made with higher amount of potato starch (BPR-132 had significantly higher paste clarity than other blends (p < 0.05. The potato starch had significantly higher least gelation concentration than all other starches and their blends (p < 0.05. The banana starch and blend with highest proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed significantly lesser percent syneresis and thus highest freeze–thaw stability. Potato starch as well as it blends with greater amount of potato starch (BPR-132 showed highest value for peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and final viscosity than other blends.

  6. Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched banana biofibre resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, banana fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the banana fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic banana fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich banana residues and fibres; major user's of banana fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of banana biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in ‘senescence associated’ dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212

  8. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  9. High-efficiency phenotyping for vitamin A in banana using artificial neural networks and colorimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in Brazil and an important source of minerals, vitamins and carbohydrates for human diet. The characterization of banana superior genotypes allows identifying those with nutritional quality for cultivation and to integrate genetic improvement programs. However, identification and quantification of the provitamin carotenoids are hampered by the instruments and reagents cost for chemical analyzes, and it may become unworkable if the number of samples to be analyzed is high. Thus, the objective was to verify the potential of indirect phenotyping of the vitamin A content in banana through artificial neural networks (ANNs using colorimetric data. Fifteen banana cultivars with four replications were evaluated, totaling 60 samples. For each sample, colorimetric data were obtained and the vitamin A content was estimated in the ripe banana pulp. For the prediction of the vitamin A content by colorimetric data, multilayer perceptron ANNs were used. Ten network architectures were tested with a single hidden layer. The network selected by the best fit (least mean square error had four neurons in the hidden layer, enabling high efficiency in prediction of vitamin A (r2 = 0.98. The colorimetric parameters a* and Hue angle were the most important in this study. High-scale indirect phenotyping of vitamin A by ANNs on banana pulp is possible and feasible.

  10. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

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    Slamet Minardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 = 100 gr of phosphate rock, B2 = 200 gr phosphate rock, and B3 = 300 gr of phosphate rock. The third factor is application method, which is consisted of M1 = directly applied into the soil. M2 = incubated before applied into the soil. The observation of soil includes: soil pH, soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, total-N, total-P, available-P and the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Result shows that available-P in the Alfisols is very low. The interaction amongs the treatment significantly affect the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Banana corm extract and phosphate rock applied directly into the soil increase soil pH.

  11. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (peffect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  12. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

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    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  13. Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Modified Banana Shell

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    MR Mehrasbi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heavy Metals in Water resources is one of the most important environmental problems of countries. Up to now various methods of removing of these metals is considered, which is including using of low prices materials. In this study the potential of banana shells was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions such as Pb and Cd from aqueous solution. "nMaterials and Methods: Banana shells were pretreated separately with 0.4 mol/L NaOH, 0.4 mol/L HNO and distilled water and their adsorption ability were compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of the initial ion concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. Adsorption isotherms of metal ions on adsorbents were determined and correlated with common isotherm equations such as Lungmuir, Freundlich and BET models."nResults: The maximum adsorption capacities were achieved by alkali modified banana shells (36 mg/g for Pb and by acidic modified banana shells (16 mg/g for Cd. Experimental results showed that the best pH for adsorption was 6 and the adsorption values decreased with lowering pH. Isotherm models indicated best fit for Freundlich model for modified banana shells."nConclusion: In comparing the parameters of models, it was observed that the capacity of banana shells for adsorption of lead is higher  than for adsorption of cadmium, but the adsorption of  cadmium is stronger than the adsorption of lead.

  14. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  15. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp. in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old and very small in size (less than 1 ha. Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5% whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  16. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.

  17. Use of abaca and banana fibers for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some previous researches show the potential of natural fibers for the production of filters, as these materials are commonly used in the production of tea bags or filters for tobacco. This paper focuses on the use of banana and abaca fiber for water purification, showing thus their capacity for heavy metals adsorption; on the other hand, since the filtering media used is formed by natural materials, microbiological analysis was carried out, ensuring that no organic pollution happens during the filtering process. This research has been approached with cupper and iron (Cu2+ and Fe2+, being both materials commonly used in water supply systems. Spanish regulation allows maximum levels of 2 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2 mg/L for Fe2+. Two types of vegetable fibers were used: banana fiber from Canary Islands and abaca fiber from Ecuador. Also different length fibers have been used, studying that way the effect of the superficial area on the adsorptive of ions on natural material. The amount of fiber used has also been varied, from 5 to 20 g per 100mL of water sample. Concentration of the metallic ions has also been modified, i.e.: 2, 4 and 6 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/L for Fe2+. Ions were either studied separately or when both were present in concentrations mentioned above. It has been shown that both types of fiber show ability for metallic content reduction in water, without introducing microbial pollution in treated samples.

  18. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ogbonna Emerole; K. Charles Osondu; O. Chidozie Anyiro; O. Alexan Orji

    2013-01-01

    This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert) banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists) and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April) and rain season (May-October)...

  19. Perceptions and outlook on intercropping coffee with banana as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J.A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...

  20. Perceptions and outlook on intercropping coffee with banana as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J. A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...

  1. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira̵...

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-20

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  4. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  5. Resfriamento de banana-prata com ar forçado Forced-air cooling of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÁRBARA TERUEL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as curvas de resfriamento de banana-prata (Musa balbisiana Colla e os valores do tempo de meio e sete oitavos de resfriamento, partindo do cálculo da Taxa Adimensional de Temperatura. Os frutos foram resfriados num sistema com ar forçado a 7ºC, umidade relativa de 87,6±3,8%, e velocidade do ar entre 1 e 0,2 m/s. Aplicou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, usando um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois fluxos de ar (fatores e duas embalagens (níveis, para um nível de significância de 10%. Os fluxos de ar foram 1.933 a 1.160 m³/h, e as embalagens se diferenciaram pela porcentagem de área de abertura disponível para a ventilação (40 e 3,2%. Foi constatada uma diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento, tanto quando aplicadas as duas taxas de ar como quando usadas as duas embalagens. O menor tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a maior taxa de ar (1.933 m³/h com a embalagem de maior área de aberturas (40%. O maior tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a menor taxa de ar (1160 m³/h com a embalagem de 3,2% de área efetiva de abertura. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o tempo de resfriamento depende, em grande medida, da taxa de ar e do tipo de embalagem usada. O tempo de resfriamento variou em média entre 117 a 555 min, dependendo do tratamento aplicado. Não se constatou diferença significativa nas perdas de massa entre os diferentes tratamentos.This work presents the cooling curves for bananas Prata, (Musa balbisiana Colla, and determinates half-cooling and seven-eight cooling times and the cooling rate. Bananas were kept in a cold room with a forced-air system at 7ºC and RH = 87.6±3.8%. The experiment was conducted in a 2x2 factorial design, to test the effects of two flow rates (factors of air passing through the product, and two types of boxes (levels. The statistical analysis was performed at p<0.10. The air flow rates were 1933

  6. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  7. Arabidopsis onset of leaf death mutants identify a regulatory pathway controlling leaf senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Sturre, Marcel J.G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of leaf senescence is controlled by leaf age and ethylene can promote leaf senescence within a specific age window. We exploited the interaction between leaf age and ethylene and isolated mutants with altered leaf senescence that are named as onset of leaf death (old) mutants. Early leaf

  8. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  9. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch. 286 pages Optimizing photosynthesis can contribute to improving crop yield, which is necessary to meet the increasing global...

  10. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  11. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  12. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%, ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%, ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%, and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%. Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis.

  13. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-09-26

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were 'catalytic activity' (1327, 56.4%), 'heme binding' (65, 2.76%), 'tetrapyrrole binding' (66, 2.81%), and 'oxidoreductase activity' (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis.

  14. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  15. Banana-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations.

  16. Efeitos do Banana streak virus no desenvolvimento de cultivares de bananeira Effects of banana streak virus on the development of banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos da infecção pelo BSV no crescimento de cinco cultivares de bananeira. Mudas micropropagadas das cultivares SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo e Pioneira foram inoculadas com BSV pela cochonilha Planacoccus citri Risso. Como controles utilizaram-se mudas não inoculadas e inoculadas com cochonilhas não virulíferas. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas, a área foliar e as massas da matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Os primeiros sintomas do BSV foram detectados 15 dias após a inoculação em todas as plantas inoculadas com o vírus. Houve diferenças estatísticas significativas nas variáveis analisadas, concluindo-se que o vírus afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas de todas as cultivares avaliadas.On this study, the BSV effects on five banana cultivars were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Micropropagated plants of cultivars SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo and Pioneira were inoculated with BSV using mealybug Planacoccus citri Risso as a vector. Controls plants were inoculated with non-viruliferous mealybugs or not inoculated. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and root and shoot dry mass were evaluated. Disease symptoms were first visible 15 days after plant inoculation with virus. Statistical differences were detected for the host growth variables evaluated. It was concluded that BSV affected significantly the growth of all studied cultivars.

  17. Análise do comércio de bananas em Lavras: Minas Gerais Analysis of banana trade in Lavras: Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A participação de Lavras na oferta de banana no mercado local é muito pequena, considerando-se que o Brasil é o segundo país maior produtor com 6,6 milhões de toneladas e Minas Gerais é o quarto entre os Estados produtores dessa fruta. Visando a quantificar a participação de Lavras e região na oferta de banana no mercado local, realizou-se esse trabalho em duas etapas: 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. A aplicação mensal de questionários nos principais estabelecimentos comerciais de hortifruti e feiras - livre de Lavras, permitiu conhecer o volume comercializado, procedência e perdas das principais cultivares de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que em 2002/2003 foram comercializados 945,24 t e em 2004/2005 foi de 1.001,98 t. Desse volume, 6,56% em 2002/2003 e 14,62% em 2004/2005 tiveram como origem Lavras. O consumo per capita anual manteve-se em torno de 11,8 kg nos dois períodos pesquisados. As bananas tipo 'Prata', foram as mais comercializadas nas duas etapas, 54,7% no primeiro período e 58,7% no segundo, sendo que 7,91% e 18,35% , respectivamente, tiveram como origem Lavras. O volume de banana 'Marmelo' e do tipo 'Nanicão', foram de 1,91% e 28,4%, respectivamente, sendo que 84,0% da 'Marmelo' e 3,43% da tipo 'Nanicão' na segunda etapa foram procedentes de Lavras. A banana 'Maçã' teve uma redução de 125,30 t para 107,47 t, correspondendo a 13,26%, sendo que a oferta dessa cultivar, originada de Lavras, manteve-se em 13,8%. As bananas 'Maçã' e 'Marmelo' apresentaram as menores perdas, 3,56% e 4,78% e as dos tipos 'Prata'e 'Nanicão'as maiores perdas, 9,39% e 10, 75%, respectivamente.The participation of Lavras in the banana production offered to the local commerce is still very low considering that Brazil is the second banana producer of the world, with a production around 6.6 ton/year and per-capita consumption of 24.4 kg/year. Minas Gerais ranks in the fifth place among the most important Brazilian state producers. This

  18. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MANURES AND AMENDMENTS IN SOIL PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K VANILARASU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during 2010-2011, to study the effect of organic manures (Farmyard manure, Vermicompost, Neem cake and Wood ash, organic amendments (Arbuscular mycorrhizae, Azospirillum, Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum and green manures (Sunhemp and Cowpea in comparison with inorganic fertilizers on leaf nutrient and soil physiochemical properties of banana cv. Grand Naine. The treatment T10 with the combined application of organic manures, amendments and green manures (Farmyard manure @ 10 kg + Neem cake @ 1.25 kg + Vermicompost @ 5 kg and Wood ash @ 1.75 kg /plant + Triple green manuring with Sunhemp + Double intercropping of Cow pea + biofertilizers viz., Arbuscular Mycorrhizae @ 25 g , Azospirillum @ 50 g, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria @ 50 g and Trichoderma harzianum @ 50 g/plant registered the maximum growth, yield and yield attributes, leaf nutrient status of N, P and K at 5th and 7th month after planting and soil physiochemical properties at harvesting stage because the role of organic manures and amendments to make the soil has healthy as well as possible and also, the unavailable form of soil nutrients to available form by enhancing mineralization and solubilization process in soil by adding organic manures and microbial agents make easy uptake of nutrients when crop required comparing to chemical fertilizers.

  19. Novel process for the simultaneous extraction and degumming of banana fibers under solid-state cultivation Novo processo para a extração e simultânea degomagem de fibras de banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicemol Jacob

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Various process parameters for the production of polygalacturonase by Streptomyces lydicus under solid-state fermentation were optimized. The optimum particle size of wheat bran for polygalacturonase production was in the range of 500-1000 µm. Initial moisture content of 70% was found to be the optimum for enzyme production. The most suitable inoculum size was 1.25 x 10(5 CFU/mL and the optimum incubation temperature was 30ºC. Addition of carbon sources resulted in 37% increase in enzyme yield (425 U/g, whereas no significant enhancement was obtained on nitrogen supplementation. Maximum enzyme yield was recorded at 72 h. When compared to the initial production medium (108.5 U/g, the enzyme yield was 3.9 fold after optimization. Solid-state fermentation was effectively employed to develop a novel process for the simultaneous extraction and degumming of banana fibers. Streptomyces lydicus was allowed to grow on wheat bran medium in which banana leaf sheath pieces were incorporated and the fiber bundles were separated after a two-step fermentative process.Vários parâmetros de processo de produção de poligalacturonase por Streptomyces lydicus por fermentação em estado sólido foram otimizados. O tamanho ótimo de partícula de farelo de trigo para a produção de poligalacturonase esteve na faixa de 500 a 1000 mm. O teor inicial de umidade de 70% foi o melhor para a produção da enzima. O inóculo inicial mais adequado foi de 1,25 x 10(5 UFC/mL e a temperatura ótima de incubação foi 30ºC. A adição de fontes de carbono resultou em aumento de 37% no rendimento da enzima (425U/g, enquanto que a suplementação com nitrogênio não melhorou o rendimento. O rendimento máximo da enzima foi obtido em 72h. A otimização resultou em um aumento de 3,9 vezes na quantidade de enzima produzida inicialmente (108,5U/g. A fermentação em estado-sólido foi eficiente para o desenvolvimento de um novo processo de extração e simultânea degomagem

  20. SUSCETIBILIDADE VARIETAL DE FRUTOS DE BANANEIRA AO FRIO COLD DAMAGE IN BANANAS

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    LUIZ ALBERTO LICHTEMBERG

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No Sul do Brasil, os danos causados pelo frio depreciam a qualidade da banana que permanece no campo durante o outono e inverno, dificultando a sua comercialização. Visando a verificar diferenças entre cultivares quanto à resistência ao frio no campo e em pós-colheita, foram realizados três experimentos em Itajaí-SC. No primeiro, foram avaliados os danos de frio em 13 cultivares do grupo AAA, 7 cultivares do grupo AAB, 6 híbridos do grupo AAAB e 1 cultivar do grupo ABB, em cachos colhidos em outubro de 1997. No segundo experimento, foram avaliados danos de frio em cultivares dos grupos AAA, AAB, ABB e AAAB, em cachos colhidos de 07-05-99 a 27-08-99. No terceiro experimento, foram avaliados danos de frio em bananas de quatro cultivares, armazenadas a 10°C, durante 5, 10 e 20 dias. O genoma B conferiu maior resistência da fruta às baixas temperaturas, tanto a campo quanto na armazenagem. Verificaram-se diferenças quanto a danos de frio tanto entre grupos genômicos, quanto entre cultivares do mesmo grupo. A maior resistência às baixas temperaturas pode permitir o transporte de bananas dos grupos AAB, ABB e AAAB a longas distâncias, em temperaturas inferiores a 12°C.In Southern Brazil, banana bunches that remain in the field during the Fall and Winter are subject to cold damage. Three experiments were carried out in Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with the purpose of investigating the differences among banana cultivars as to their resistance to cold damage. In the first experiment, 13 AAA group cultivars, 7 AAB group cultivars, 6 AAAB hybrids and 1 ABB group cultivar were evaluated as to the level of cold damage. The second experiment evaluated banana bunches of cultivars of AAA, AAB, ABB, and AAAB groups, harvested from May 07/99 to August 27/99. The third experiment examined cold damage to banana clusters stored at 10°C during 5, 10 and 20 days. The B genome appeared to confer the greatest cold resistance to banana fruits, both in the

  1. Avaliação econômica da elaboração de banana-passa proveniente de cultivo orgânico e convencional Economic evaluation of dried banana production of the organic and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Bittencourt; Queiroz,Marlene R. de; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foi realizada a avaliação econômica da produção de banana-passa de uma agroindústria localizada no município de Guaraqueçaba - PR. Foi avaliado o processamento da banana-passa convencional e da banana orgânica produzida na região, comparando-se os indicadores de viabilidade econômica. A banana-passa orgânica é exportada para a Europa e a banana-passa convencional é comercializada na região de Curitiba - PR. Ambos os processamentos apresentaram viabilidade econômica positiva, a...

  2. Effect of Banana Fibers on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Compressed Earth Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the built environment in developing countries is a major challenge in the 21st century. The use of local materials in construction of buildings is one of the potential ways to support sustainable development in both urban and rural areas. Building with Compressed Earthen Blocks (CEBs is becoming more popular due to their low cost and relative abundance of materials. The proposed Green-Compressed Earth Block (GCEB consists of ordinary CEB ingredients plus Banana fibers, which will be the focus of this study. Banana fibers are widely available worldwide as agricultural waste from Banana cultivation. Banana fibers are environmentally friendly and present important attributes, such as low density, light weight, low cost, high tensile strength, as well as being water and fire resistant. This kind of waste has a greater chance of being utilized for different application in construction and building materials. This focused on the use of banana fiber and its effect on the compressive and flexural strength in CEB. The deflection at the mid-span of the blocks studied was calculated using the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT. The results of this study will highlight general trends in the strength properties of different soil mixes for CEBs. These efforts are necessary to ensure that GCEB technology becomes more widely accepted in the world of building materials and is considered a reliable option for providing low-cost housing.

  3. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  4. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.

  5. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  6. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of preserving fresh-cut banana immersed in sweetened fruit juice for relatively longer periods, favoring commercialization. This type of conservation, although widely used in Brazil for fruit salads, consists of a more complex system in a physiological basis, requiring adjustment of the solution parameters, such as sugar concentration, pH and acidity, considering the viability and freshness of the plant tissue. In this short review, we discuss some experimental data and present a new method for preserving fresh-cut banana. Reduction of enzymatic activity, either in temporary dipping treatment or permanent immersion of banana slices is regarded as a key factor for maintaining its quality during cold storage.

  7. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  8. Experimental study of bamboo using banana and linen fibre reinforced polymeric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural fibres such as bamboo, jute, banana, coir, linen and the like in Fibre Reinforced Polymeric (FRP composites have become so vital due to their high effective stiffness and strength, availability, low cost, specific strength, better dimensional stability and mechanical properties, eco-friendly and biodegradable as compared with synthetic fibres. The interest in natural fibre reinforced polymeric composites is rapidly springing up in terms of research and industrial applications. The increased applications of these natural fibres in such composites are a proof to this claim. The paper deals with the detailed study of bamboo fibre, banana fibre and linen fibre cut into 2−4 mm of length with epoxy resin having random orientations. Various tests like Impact test (IZOD and CHARPY test, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test and Rockwell Hardness test were conducted on 10 specimens of bamboo epoxy resin composite, bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite and bamboo−linen epoxy resin composite. It is analysed and proved that bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite shows better results in Impact test with values of 4 Joules for Izod test and 5 Joules for Charpy test and in FTIR test, compatibility of fibres with polymers in bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite are the best while bamboo−linen epoxy resin composite shows better result in Rockwell hardness test with value of 40 RHN.

  9. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  10. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  11. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  12. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial and temporal variations in percolation fluxes in a tropical Andosol influenced by banana cropping patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Lacas, J.-G.; Sansoulet, J.

    2007-03-01

    SummarySpatial variability in percolation fluxes was studied in field plots cropped with banana plants, which induce very heterogeneous rainfall partitioning at the soil surface, with high subsequent infiltration in Andosols. Percolation fluxes were measured for just over a year at 1-7 day intervals in eight wick (WL) and gravity lysimeters (GL) that had been buried in the soil at a depth of 60 cm. The results revealed that WL captured unsaturated fluxes while GL only functioned after ponding occurred. The percolation flux measurements were highly biased with both systems, i.e. overpercolation with WL and underpercolation with GL. Percolation fluxes seemed, however, to be mainly unsaturated in the soil types studied. High percolation flux variability was noted on a plot scale, which could be explained by the vegetation structure: total percolation flux (WL) was 2.1-fold higher under banana plants; saturated percolation flux (GL) was 7-fold higher under banana plants and almost absent between banana plants. Eighty-eight per cent of the total variance in percolation flux could be explained by the rainfall intensity under the banana canopy, calculated while taking the rainfall partitioning by the vegetation and the initial water status into account. The number of lysimeters required for assessing percolation flux in a field plot can be reduced by taking the spatial patterns of the flux boundary conditions into account.

  14. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  15. Effect of banana on blood pressure of hypertensive individuals: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension or high blood pressure is a critical condition which can strain the heart, injure blood vessels, leads to augment the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, and if untreated may cause death. Several herbal approaches have been made to treat hypertensive individuals. Banana is a well known tropical fruit with little known anti hypertensive properties. The objective of this research was to investigate changes in blood pressure after consuming banana among the hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct this research. Data was collected by questionnaire and personal interviewing. Two ripened bananas (Musa acuminata were provided to each subject for 20 days. Blood pressures of the participants were taken before and after the experimentation. Results Most of the subjects were in the age group >60 years followed by 30-40 years and 51-60 years. 57.1% of the respondents were female. Noticeable changes observed in the pre and post experimentation results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after banana consumption. Conclusion Results of this research strongly supports that banana contains phytochemicals, thus its intake significantly reduces blood pressure among hypertensive individuals. However, more clinical studies in human are still required that may provide evidence of efficacy.

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  17. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  18. Vomiting, abdominal distention and early feeding of banana (Musa paradisiaca) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M; Wahab, A Samik; Soeparto, Pitono

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between banana given as early solid food with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction (SIO) among neonates, in a rural community in West Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Mothers having newborn infants were interviewed and 3,420 neonates were followed for 28 days. Compared with infants who were not given solid food, the relative risk (RR) for infants given food other than banana as early solid food was 1.87, 95% CI 0.48-8.24, p=0.4, while for infants given banana only as early solid food the RR was 9.15, 95% CI 1.96-42.58, p 0.0005. After adjustment for birthweight, colostrum, and breastfeeding, the odds ratio for infants given banana and the appearance of SIO was 2.99, 95% CI 2.65-5.14; p=0.0012. These data indicate that banana given as early solid food is an important risk factor for the appearance of SIO in neonates.

  19. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  20. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  1. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Banana by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paranthaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of endosulfan, carbendazim, chloropyripos in 10 banana samples in southern area of Tamilnadu, India (hill banana, karpuravalli, monthan, nendran, ney poovan, pachanadan, poovan, rasthali, red banana, robusta was investigated. Approach: In 7 samples, Carbendazim was found at concentrations ranging from 0.002-0.11 mg kg-1. In three samples, carbendazim was not found, whereas endosulfan, chloropyripos was not detected in any sample. Results: Analysis was carried out using HPLC-UV and samples were confirmed by GC-MS. The seven samples contained carbendazim that not exceeded the FAO/WHO codex alimentarius standards for MRLs (Maximum Residue Limit values of carbendazim pesticide on banana (whole is 1.0 mg kg-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the HPLC results carbendazim is finding in Hill banana (0.007 mg kg-1, Monthan (0.019 mg kg-1, Nendran (0.002 mg kg-1, Pachanadan (0.007 mg kg-1, Poovan (0.016 mg kg-1, Rasthali (0.017 mg kg-1 and Robusta (0.11 mg kg-1 and carbendazim is not finding Karpuravalli, Ney poovan and Red banana. Endosulfan, Chloropyrifos and Carbendazim in Robusta Banana sample are identified by matching their retention times and characteristic ion. TIC chromatogram for a positive Robusta Banana sample.

  2. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  3. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  4. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  5. ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR BANANA CROP VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DE MANEJOS NUTRICIONAIS NA CULTURA DE BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Seiko Tsutsui Esperancini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper fertilizing management, in order to optimize fruit quality and yield, is a relevant stage on the production process to the rural entrepreneur profitability. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of five nutrient management practices for banana crop, Cavendish cultivars, in the Médio Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The effective operational cost (EOC and total operational cost (TOC structures and three profitability indicators were used. Significant differences were observed among the management systems, and the system that resulted in major economic advantage to the producer provided an average profit rate 25.6% higher than other treatments, with total net revenue about 29.5% higher than other management types. The unitary cost was lower for the most profitable nutrient management practice, although the yield was 9.5% lower than the management system that presented the highest yield levels.

    KEY-WORDS: Musa sp.; banana crop; fertilization; production cost; profitability.

    O manejo adequado da adubação, visando à otimização da produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, é uma etapa representativa do processo produtivo para rentabilidade do empreendedor rural. Neste contexto, objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica de cinco tipos de manejo nutricional de bananeiras de cultivares do subgrupo Cavendish, na região do Médio Paranapanema (SP, em 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas estruturas do custo operacional efetivo (COE e custo operacional total (COT e três indicadores de rentabilidade. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre os manejos, sendo que o sistema de manejo que resultou em maior vantagem econômica para o produtor proporcionou índice médio de lucratividade 25,6% superior aos demais

  6. Banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S I Torgova; T A Geivandova; O Francescangeli; A Strigazzi

    2003-08-01

    3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a new type of liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with asymmetrical five-membered heterocycle as a central unit. They have a bent shape and are very convenient model-compounds for studying the dependence of the LC properties on the molecular design. We have also synthesized and investigated ‘banana-shaped’ 1,2,4-oxadiazoles using the ester groups as the linkage units. The new compounds exhibit spontaneous polarization in the smectic phase, even if there is no chiral group in the molecules. Preliminary experimental data suggest the presence of spontaneous polarization in the nematic phase as well. In order to study the structural properties of the LC phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on powder samples have been carried out. Based on the XRD data, a model of the structural arrangement of the bent molecules in the smectic phase is provided, which accounts for the macroscopic spontaneous polarization as well as the ferroelectric switching behavior.

  7. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mpon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007 with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% respectively. Modification of the fibres was carried out by grafting ethyl acrylate in the presence of ammonium nitrate cerium(IV. Optimisation of the copolymerisation reaction conditions was studied by measuring the rate of conversion, the rate of grafting and the grafting efficiency. The results showed that at low values of ceric ion concentration (0.04 M, at ambient temperature, after three hours and at a concentration of 0.2 M ethyl acrylate, maximum values of the parameters cited were obtained.

  8. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.

  9. Experimental Investigations on Thermal Conductivity of Fenugreek and Banana Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Venkatesh, Talari; Seeli, Hepsiba

    2017-06-01

    The use of composite materials in manufacturing has significantly increased in the past decade. Research is being done to identify natural fibers that can be used as composites. Several natural fibers are already being used in the industry as composites. The appealing advantages of using natural fibers are reflected in lower density when compared to synthetic fibers and also in saving costs. This research paper highlights the experiment that analyses the use of biodegradable fenugreek composite as natural fiber and concludes that fenugreek natural fibers are an excellent substitute to the synthetic fibers in terms of reinforcement properties for the polymers. These fenugreek fibers are naturally sourced, renewable, cost effective and bio-friendly. In thermal energy storage systems as well as in air conditioning systems, thermal insulators are predominantly used to enhance the storage properties. An experiment was created to investigate the thermal properties of fenugreek banana composites for different fiber concentrations. The experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical models to describe the variation of thermal conductivity with the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was observed.

  10. Flame resistant cellulosic substrate using banana pseudostem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardancy was imparted in cellulosic cotton textile using banana pseudostem sap (BPS, an eco-friendly natural product. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied in pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics. Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analysed in terms of limiting oxygen index (LOI, horizontal and vertical flammability. Fabrics treated with the non-diluted BPS were found to have good flame retardant property with LOI of 30 compared to the control fabric with LOI of 18, i.e., an increase of 1.6 times. In the vertical flammability test, the BPS treated fabric showed flame for a few seconds and then, got extinguished. In the horizontal flammability test, the treated fabric showed no flame, but was burning only with an afterglow with a propagation rate of 7.5 mm/min, which was almost 10 times lower than that noted with the control fabric. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the chemical composition by FTIR, SEM and EDX, besides the pure BPS being characterized by EDX and mass spectroscopy. The fabric after the treatment was found to produce stable natural khaki colour, and there was no significant degradation in mechanical strengths. Based on the results, the mechanism of imparting flame retardancy to cellulosic textile and the formation of natural colour on it using the proposed BPS treatment have been postulated.

  11. Pseudo-Stem Banana Fibers: Characterization and Chromium Removal

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    Helena Becker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, pseudo-stems of the banana tree were collected, characterized and used as adsorbent materials for the removal of the chromium ions from aqueous solution. The characterization of pseudo-stems by FTIR suggests the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The predominant groups were carbonyls (0.312 ± 0.010 mmol g–1 adsorbent, phenols (0.237 ± 0.021 mmol g–1 adsorbent, lactones (0.041 ± 0.003 mmol g–1 adsorbent and basic groups (0.096 ± 0.006 mmol g–1 adsorbent. The textural propriety of the adsorbent, surface area, pore volume and pore diameter were found to be 0.383 m2 g–1, 0.003525 cm3 g–1 and 368.3 Å, respectively. The pHpzc value was found 7.5 and so the adsorption assays of chromium removal from solution were more efficiently at acidic pH values. The experiments show that approximately 95% and 78% of the Cr (VI was removed from solution by untreated and treated fiber, respectively, in 300 minutes of the contact time.

  12. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.

  13. Comparative leaf development in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    Recent accumulation of our knowledge on basic leaf development mechanisms in model angiosperm species has allowed us to pursue evolutionary development (evo/devo) studies of various kinds of leaf development. As a result, unexpected findings and clues have been unearthed aiding our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the diversity of leaf morphology, although the covered remain limited. In this review, we highlight recent findings of diversified leaf development in angiosperms. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Problems in Deep Processing of Banana in China%我国香蕉深加工问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解明明; 柯佑鹏

    2013-01-01

    Only deep processing the banana is the main approach to develop banana industry. This paper states the nutritive value and economic value of banana, reviews the progress of deep processing the banana, indicates the major problems about deep processing the banana, and put forward the development countermeasures.%发展香蕉深加工是发展香蕉产业的重要途径.本文阐述香蕉的营养价值和经济价值,综述香蕉深加工研究进展,指出香蕉深加工中存在的问题,并提出发展对策.

  15. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA. Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we found this cultivator cum entrepreneur diversified his land productivity. The monthly income generated from selling banana fruits, suckers and rubber seedlings were 30.2 %, 39.9% and 29.9% of his total farm income, respectively. The cultivator provide a novel insight in managing banana farm by introducing new techniques of planting, fertilization regime and diversification of income in his banana farm intercropped with rubber seedlings.

  16. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  19. Leaf growth of contrasting Poa species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorani, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the grass genus Poa a wide variation in final leaf size and leaf growth rate exists. In this thesis leaf growth was analyzed at different levels. At the cellular level, inherent variation in leaf elongation rate and final leaf size was correlated to the length of the elongation zone and to merist

  20. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  1. 滚扎甩碎组合式香蕉茎秆纤维提取机设计与试验%Design and experiment on rolling and crushing combined extracting machine for banana stem fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜瑞; 郑侃; 梁栋; 张劲; 薛忠

    2013-01-01

    Banana stalk is the main byproduct of bananas after post-harvest, and is mainly decayed naturally or discarded in the field, due to large stalk, high moisture content and other characteristics, resulting in a great waste of resources and an environmental pollution problem. Meanwhile, banana stalk contains high-quality plant fiber, which is lightweight, with strong permeability, also has high economic value, which is suitable for the production of medium and top-grade products, such as suits, shirts, ties, and various decorations, as well as fine paper. So far, the domestic and foreign research on fiber extraction and application mostly concentrates in rice straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, biogases, or pineapple leaf, etc. Drawing on the previous studies, water immersion method, biochemical and mechanical extraction method and other methods are available, but just the immersion method and the biochemical method are mainly adopted by researchers. Domestic mechanical extraction of banana stalk fiber is still in its infancy, due to its regional characteristics, particularly for fiber extraction machinery, which is rarely reported both at home and abroad. Based on the above issues, a banana fiber extracting machine with a hybrid of rolling and smashing was put forward and designed in this paper, which was mainly composed of a conveying device, rolling device, rolling device Ⅱ, smashing device, machine cover, walking wheel, drainage pipe, motor, and machine chassis. During the working period, banana stalk was conveyed to a rolling deviceⅠvia conveyor belt, and crushed first through the relative rotation of the upper roller and lower roller (distance between two rollers of 5-10 cm). Then, it was conveyed to rolling deviceⅡ, and was crushed secondly through the relative rotation of the upper roller and lower roller (distance between two rollers of 2-5 cm). After the above two steps, more than 80% of water was extruded, and was discharged through the drainage device

  2. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  3. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  4. Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica de fibra de bananeira roxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: anapaulabispo43@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  6. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  7. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  8. Multivariate Modelling of the Canary Islands Banana Output. The Role of Farmer Income Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González-Concepción

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest importer of bananas and the only major managed market in the international banana trade. Spain is the main banana producer within the European Union (EU, followed by France and Portugal. In all these countries the fruit is grown in overseas islands situated in tropical or sub-tropical areas and bananas are a pillar of the economic, social and environmental balance of these regions. Spanish production comes from the Canary Islands, an insular environment located in the Atlantic Ocean more than 1000 km south of the Iberian Peninsula and near the northwest coast of Africa. In the context of high production costs and strong competition from Latin American imports, the compensatory aid that local farmers have been receiving from the EU since 1993 has helped the archipelago to maintain its agricultural position while constituting a main support from an economic, social and landscaping standpoint. This research analyses the Canary Islands banana output evolution through the use of certain multivariate dynamic models that consider the influence of past production costs, past farmer income and future expectations, including a sensitivity analysis. We consider annual data time series on production, perceived prices and production costs for the period 1938-2002. Model predictions are contrasted using data for the period 2003-2006, thus spanning a wide period of time that includes key points such as the 1993 reform and the introduction of the 2006 reform. The empirical work highlights, as do all EU norms, the importance of maintaining adequate farmer income expectations to assure subsistence banana production.

  9. REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY HYPERTENSION WITH SMOOTHIE BANANA (MUSA PARADISIACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Puji Lestari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is a major problem that often happen in Indonesia. Hypertension can cause many complications. In Indonesia almost patients with hypertension got farmacologic therapy, but there is no difference. Banana smoothie is one of nonfarmacologic therapy that can be used to lower blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of banana smoothie on regulation in patients with primary hypertension. Method: This study used quasy experimental design. The population in this study were patients with primary hypertension in Kedungturi village Taman Sidoarjo. The sampling technique used nonprobability sampling type of purposive sampling. The total number of sample were 16 respondents who were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result:The Result of paired t-test at the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in experiment group showed p value = 0.000. Independent t test between experiment group post-test and control group post-test showed p value = 0.000 for systolic blood pressure and p value = 0.002 for diastolic blood pressure. This result showed that there was a difference value of pretest and post-test systolic and diastolic blood pressure. With the result of independen t-test we know that there is a difference value between exsperiment and control blood pressure. Discussion: This study explain that there was significant effect of banana smoothie to regulate blood pressure in patients with primary hypertention. Banana smoothie can regulate the blood pressure because of high kalium substance. The function of kalium is to reduce the effect of natrium so the blood pressure can down. It can be conclude that banana smoothie can regulate the blood pressure in patients with primary hypertention. In further day patients with hypertension can choose banana smoothie to regulate their blood pressure.

  10. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  12. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Sanderson Bellamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and environmental standards set by RA and their certifying body, the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN. This study was one of the first, independent studies of the environmental impact of some of the principles set by RA and SAN. The study focuses on insect and bird diversity as an indicator of ecosystem health. Five RA certified farms, six non-RA certified farms, and five organic certified farms were sampled. The data was analyzed with RDA multivariate analyses and Monte Carlo permutation tests. The results showed that RA certified farms had less insect diversity compared to non-RA certified farms and that both farm types had less insect diversity than organic farms. There was little difference between RA and non-RA certified farms with regards bird community composition. Thus, organic farming conserves biodiversity, while alternative environmental labels (e.g. a Rainforest alliance seal may not have any visible positive effect on in-farm biodiversity. This study points to the need for improvements in SAN certification standards to achieve improved environmental conditions.

  13. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  14. Comparative study on the mechanical properties of banana and sisal woven rovings polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faizur Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber polymer composites are widely used in many applications. Banana and sisal woven rovings reinforced polyester composites were manufactured by hand lay-up technique. The woven rovings were modified chemically by alkali treatment to enhance the mechanical properties. Tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength were evaluated for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% volume fractions of both woven rovings. The results of banana and sisal woven rovings composites were compared and it indicated that sisal woven rovings with higher volume fractions reveals better mechanical strength.

  15. Citric acid production by Koji fermentation using banana peel as a novel substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Sivakumar, Nallusamy

    2010-07-01

    The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters that affect citric acid production such as moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum level and incubation time were quantified. Moisture (70%), 28 degrees C temperature, an initial pH 3, 10(8) spores/ml as inoculum and 72h incubation was found to be suitable for maximum citric acid production by A. niger using banana peel as a substrate.

  16. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  17. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L. for Adsorption Procion Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-05-01

    cellulose. The morphology of cellulose more homogenous than kepok banana peel powder. It was observed that the optimum adsorption of Procion dye by cellulose was on the initial concentration of 30 mg/L, pH solution of 5 and contact time within 30 minutes. The obtained result that cellulose has removal percentage to adsorp Procion dye more higher than kepok banana peel powder. The adsorption equilibrium showed the Langmuir isotherm was described well for adsorption process (R2 = 0.991 than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.922.

  18. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast genome and paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C

    1994-03-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as markers to determine the transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in diploid banana crosses. Progenies from two controlled crosses were studied with heterologous cytoplasmic probes. This analysis provided evidence for a strong bias towards maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Musa acuminata. These results suggest the existence of two separate mechanisms of organelle transmission and selection, but no model to explain this can be proposed at the present time. Knowledge of the organelle mode of inheritance constitutes an important point for phylogeny analyses in bananas and may offer a powerful tool to confirm hybrid origins.

  19. What do global p-modes tell us about banana cells?

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    We have calculated the effects of giant convection cells also know as sectoral rolls or banana cells, on p-mode splitting coefficients. We use the technique of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory formulated by Lavely & Ritzwoller in order to estimate the frequency shifts. A possible way of detecting giant cells is to look for even splitting coefficients of 'nearly degenerate' modes in the observational data since these modes have the largest shifts. We find that banana cells having an azimuthal wave number of 16 and maximum vertical velocity of 180 m/s cannot be ruled out from GONG data for even splitting coefficients.

  20. Effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in F1 hybrid calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Ichijho, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in calves was investigated. Twenty Fl hybrid calves were used in this study (treated group n=10, control group n=10). Banana (2 g/kg BW) was administered to the calves for 5 days. Leukocyte subsets were examined on days 0, 5, 10, and 15. The numbers CD3+, (CD3+)CD45R-, and (CD3+)TcR+ cells significantly increased between day 0 and day 5 in the treated group (Pbanana to calves increased T-lymphocytes, suggesting it might be possible to enhance protective functions against infections.

  1. Effect of enzymatic clarifier complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA on the quality of banana juice

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Helena Cardoso; Hilary Castle de Menezes; Marisa de Nazaré Hoelz Jackix; Elisabeth Borges Gonçalves

    1999-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi observado o efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA, adicionados na proporção de 0,03% v/p sobre purê de banana (Musa cavendishii), em condições amenas de hidrólise (40ºC, 15 minutos) visando determinar a qualidade, aqui representada pelos indicadores: rendimento; viscosidade; Brix; pH; composição centesimal; contagens de bolores e leveduras e de mesófilos, e propriedades sensoriais de cor, aroma, sabor e corpo dos sucos de banana clarificados. O s...

  2. 百通推出全新Banana Peel投影仪电缆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,创新的百通Banana Peel投影仪电缆5788AV和6788AV隆重推出。其采用复合电缆,专门设计用于支持室内音频/视频(A/V)的高性能安装。产品灵活且采用百通Banana Peel构造的专利技术,可在当今高科技楼宇逐房多媒体系统安装施工中为安装者带采方便。

  3. Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Modified Banana Shell

    OpenAIRE

    MR Mehrasbi; Z Farahmand kia

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Heavy Metals in Water resources is one of the most important environmental problems of countries. Up to now various methods of removing of these metals is considered, which is including using of low prices materials. In this study the potential of banana shells was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions such as Pb and Cd from aqueous solution. "nMaterials and Methods: Banana shells were pretreated separately with 0.4 mol/L NaOH, 0.4 mol/L HNO and distilled wate...

  4. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS BOKASHI MANURE - TEAK LEAF IN GUNUNG KIDUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartatik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available “IBM” activities aim to improve the efficiency of farm businesses and Gunung Dowo farmer groups in Gunung Kidul through the use of technology bokashi fermentation produces manure - leaf. “IBM”activities carried on farm work and cattle ranchers in the hamlet of Gunung Dowo Village , Giring, Paliyan , Gunung Kidul . Beef cattle breeders are educated and trained in the use of cow dung and teak leaves falling into manure Bokashi - teak leaves and fermentation technology to improve the quality of animal feed hay. To farmers are educated and trained in the use of manure Bokashi - teak leaves to plant peppers cassava , banana , mango, and forage . Measure of the success of this activity seen from the participants' responses and practice the skills of participants in a given technology. The participants were very enthusiastic in participating in education, and training activities. Bokashi produced has good physical qualities are colored black and crumb. The results of the analysis of the content of N , P, and K bokashi made by farmers in Gunung Dowo is 0.887 percent N , 0.313 percent P, and 1.55 percent K

  5. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  7. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, I.J.; Reich, P.B.; Westoby, M.; Ackerly, D.D.; Baruch, Z.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chapin, T.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Diemer, M.; Flexas, J.; Garnier, E.; Groom, P.K.; Gulias, J.; Hikosaka, K.; Lamont, B.B.; Lee, T.; Lee, W.; Lusk, C.; Midgley, J.J.; Navas, M.L.; Niinements, Ü.; Oleksyn, J.; Osada, N.; Poorter, H.; Poot, P.; Prior, L.; Pyankov, V.I.; Roumet, C.; Thomas, S.C.; Tjoelker, M.G.; Veneklaas, E.J.; Villar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients

  8. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents.

  9. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potentialInvestigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to analysis in accordance with the American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM. The carbohydrates were extracted by distilled water and characterized by physical, chemical and biochemical methods. The carbohydrates were subjected to anaerobic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol which was confirmed by the preparation of UV active derivatives namely ethyl benzoate and ethyl salicylate. The highest % yield of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty acid ethyl ester was found to be 75% and 38%, respectively. The yield of bioethanol from banana peels and radish leaves was found to be 1.37% and 1.23%, respectively.

  10. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 1. Morphological and compositional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.) in relation to consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Olivier; Dufour, Dominique; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-09

    The morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics of 23 unripe cultivated varieties of Colombian Musaceae were assessed. Fresh pulp dry matter helped to discriminate the following consumption subgroups: FHIA dessert hybrids (hydes: 24.6%) plantains (pl: 41.1%). Banana flour starch content on dry basis (db) varied from 74.2 to 88.2% among the varieties, with: pl: 86.5% > cook and hycook: 84% > des: 81.9% > hydes: 79.7% (p plantain subgroup (5.6), which also had lower titratable acidity than those of the cooking banana and FHIA groups with 7.9, 13.6, and 15.6 mEq H(+)/100 g db, respectively (p plantain subgroup in relation to stakeholder and the consumer preferences.

  11. Viability of banana pith use as adsorbent for uranium ions; Viabilidade do uso da casca de banana como adsorvente de ions de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena R.; Yamaura, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mboniolo@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work banana pith was investigated as adsorbent for uranium ions from nitric solutions. The use of this type of biomaterial reduces environmental impact of two forms, the banana pith that is considered a pollutant, is removed of place where was generated or deposited and contaminated effluents can be treated by this residual biomass. One another important aspect is the reutilization of both biomass and metals adsorbed that can be recovered by desorption processes. It is a natural material of low cost and easy application. Influence of adsorbent size and adsorption kinetic were studied. The studies of adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models. In concentration range of 0.1 - 4.0 g/L, the adsorption process was described better by Freundlich equation. (author)

  12. Leaf chlorophyll content as a proxy for leaf photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Holly; Chen, Jing M; Luo, Xiangzhong; Bartlett, Paul; Chen, Bin; Staebler, Ralf M

    2017-09-01

    Improving the accuracy of estimates of forest carbon exchange is a central priority for understanding ecosystem response to increased atmospheric CO2 levels and improving carbon cycle modelling. However, the spatially continuous parameterization of photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) at global scales and appropriate temporal intervals within terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) remains unresolved. This research investigates the use of biochemical parameters for modelling leaf photosynthetic capacity within a deciduous forest. Particular attention is given to the impacts of seasonality on both leaf biophysical variables and physiological processes, and their interdependent relationships. Four deciduous tree species were sampled across three growing seasons (2013-2015), approximately every 10 days for leaf chlorophyll content (ChlLeaf ) and canopy structure. Leaf nitrogen (NArea ) was also measured during 2014. Leaf photosynthesis was measured during 2014-2015 using a Li-6400 gas-exchange system, with A-Ci curves to model Vcmax. Results showed that seasonality and variations between species resulted in weak relationships between Vcmax normalized to 25°C (Vcmax25) and NArea (R(2)  = 0.62, P models to derive ChlLeaf . TBMs largely treat photosynthetic parameters as either fixed constants or varying according to leaf nitrogen content. This research challenges assumptions that simple NArea -Vcmax25 relationships can reliably be used to constrain photosynthetic capacity in TBMs, even within the same plant functional type. It is suggested that ChlLeaf provides a more accurate, direct proxy for Vcmax25 and is also more easily retrievable from satellite data. These results have important implications for carbon modelling within deciduous ecosystems. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

  13. Estado nutricional de bananeiras tipo Prata sob diferentes sistemas de irrigação Nutritional status of Prata type bananas under different irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores foliares de nutrientes e a produtividade de bananeiras tipo Prata, submetidas a diferentes sistemas de irrigação, durante o primeiro ciclo de produção. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x2: três sistemas de irrigação (aspersão convencional, microaspersão e gotejamento; e dois genótipos (Prata-Anã e seu híbrido PA42-44. Utilizaram-se quatro repetições, no espaçamento de 3,0x2,5 m. Procedeu-se às avaliações aos 90, 180 e 360 dias após o plantio. Os genótipos e os sistemas de irrigação apresentaram interações significativas quanto aos teores foliares de B e Cu, aos 180 dias após o plantio; e os genótipos diferiram entre si quanto aos teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu e Mn, independentemente dos sistemas de irrigação. Os teores foliares dos nutrientes ocorreram em níveis adequados ou acima deles. Os menores teores foliares de micronutrientes ocorrem sob gotejamento. Os genótipos apresentam produtividade similar nos diferentes sistemas de irrigação.The objective of this work was to evaluate nutrient leaf contents and the productivity of 'Prata-Anã' banana submitted to different irrigation systems, during the first production cycle. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with six treatments in 3x2 factorial arrangement: three irrigation systems (conventional sprinkler, microsprinkler and drip; and two genotypes (Prata-Anã and its hybrid PA42-44. Four replicates were used in a 3.0x2.5-m spacing. The evaluations were done at 90, 180 and 360 days after planting. The genotypes and the irrigation systems showed significant interaction for leaf contents of B and Cu, at 180 days after planting; and the genotypes differed from each other for leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Mn, independently of the irrigation system used. Nutrient leaf contents occurred in sufficient levels or above them

  14. Physical Characteristics, Chemical Composition, Organoleptic Test And The Number Of Microbes In The Biscuits With Addition Of Flour Banana Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati; Aryani, A.; Shintawati, R.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study to analyze the physical characteristics, chemical composition and organoleptic test of biscuit flour with the addition of flour banana peel. Materials used are banana peels Kepok. Kepok banana peel has been found to contain high fiber food. Biscuit-making stage includes the formation of cream, adding flour and wheat flour dietary fiber from banana peels to concentrations of 0% as control, 25%, 50% and 75% of 100 grams of wheat flour; mixing; molding; baking in the oven for 20-25 minutes with a temperature of 180°C. Parameters to be measured, namely the physical characteristics include: hardness, softness, consistency, crispness. Furthermore, the biscuits were tested by chemical analysis (proximate). Organoleptic test include: aroma, taste, mouthfeel, aftertaste. Data were analyzed statistically using SAS computing programs. Physical and organoleptic test results biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has sufficient level of preference between like-liked. Based on the results of the proximate analysis of biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has generally been in accordance with the National Standards of Indonesia (SNI). Conclusion of the study that the addition of flour banana peels in biscuits has the potential to become functional foods that contain high fiber.

  15. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  16. Expression and distribution of extensins and AGPs in susceptible and resistant banana cultivars in response to wounding and Fusarium oxysporum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunli; Fan, Wei; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Fabrice, Musana Rwalinda; Xie, Ling; Ma, Juan; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2017-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is soil-borne disease of banana (Musa spp.) causing significant economic losses. Extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell wall components important for pathogen defence. Their significance for Foc resistance in banana was not reported so far. In this study, two banana cultivars differing in Foc sensitivity were used to monitor the changes in transcript levels, abundance and distribution of extensins and AGPs after wounding and Foc inoculation. Extensins mainly appeared in the root cap and meristematic cells. AGPs recognized by JIM13, JIM8, PN16.4B4 and CCRC-M134 antibodies located in root hairs, xylem and root cap. Individual AGPs and extensins showed specific radial distribution in banana roots. At the transcript level, seven extensins and 23 AGPs were differentially expressed between two banana cultivars before and after treatments. Two extensins and five AGPs responded to the treatments at the protein level. Most extensins and AGPs were up-regulated by wounding and pathogen inoculation of intact plants but down-regulated by pathogen attack of wounded plants. Main components responsible for the resistance of banana were MaELP-2 and MaPELP-2. Our data revealed that AGPs and extensins represent dynamic cell wall components involved in wounding and Foc resistance. PMID:28218299

  17. Indexação biológica de genótipos de bananeira para o Banana streak virus Germplasm biological indexing for Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma (BAG de bananeira é a base do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi indexar os acessos do BAG para o vírus das estrias da bananeira (Banana streak virus, BSV. Cada amostra foliar, coletada dos 220 acessos do BAG foi utilizada na inoculação de três plantas de bananeira 'Caipira' produzidas por micropropagação. As plantas foram inoculadas, através da cochonilha vetora Planococcus citri Risso, fornecendo-se um acesso de aquisição de 24 horas e de transmissão de 48 horas. Como controle positivo e negativo foram utilizadas plantas previamente analisadas por PCR, quanto a presença de BSV. Entre 15 e 70 dias após a inoculação, as plantas indicadoras apresentaram os primeiros sintomas. Desta forma, verificou-se que 44 dos 220 acessos estavam infectados com BSV.The Germplasm Active Bank (BAG of banana is the base of the genetic breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. The objective of this work was to index the accessions of the BAG for Banana streak virus (BSV. Each sample collected in the 220 accessions of BAG was used to inoculate three 'Caipira' banana plants, produced by micropropagation. The plants were inoculated using the mealybug Planococcus citri Risso as vector. The vector being allowed an access of acquisition of 24 hours and 48 hours of transmission. Plants were previously analysed by PCR for the presence or absence of BSV were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Between 15 and 70 days after inoculation the test plants showed the first disease symptoms. Using this methodology, it was observed that 44 of the 220 accesses were infected with BSV.

  18. Trapping Effect of Baxi Banana(Musa AAA Cavendish)Pseudostem on Two Banana Weevil Species%巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科明; 许桂莺; 彭正强

    2015-01-01

    This study is to determine the effect of Baxi banana pseudostem as attractant to two banana weevil species , and to provide theoretical guidance for control of banana weevil species. Field traps of pseudostem to banana weevils weredeployed for the analysis,meanwhile,indoor selection response of banana weevil to Baxi banana pseudostem was conducted by using double pitfall olfactometer. Significant trapping effects of Baxi banana pseudostem on two ba⁃nana weevils were found by field trapping and number of the trapped banana weevils in five and ten days reaching 8.3~11.3 and 14.7~18.0 individuals per trap,respectively.Indoor selection response results showed that both the two banana weevils showed significant selection effect to the Baxi banana pseudostem when compared with blank control. Baxi banana pseudostem could be used to control the two banana weevil species.%为明确巴西蕉假茎对香蕉假茎象甲和香蕉球茎象甲的诱捕效果,为利用巴西蕉假茎防治香蕉象甲这一农业防治措施提供理论依据,采用假茎田间诱捕试验及室内选择反应试验,研究了巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果。田间诱捕试验结果表明,巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲具有有效的诱捕作用,其5d和10d的诱捕量分别达8.3~11.3和14.7~18.0头/诱捕器;室内选择反应试验结果表明,与空白对照相比,2种香蕉象甲对巴西蕉假茎均表现出显著的选择趋性。因此,巴西蕉假茎可用于蕉园香蕉象甲的诱捕防治。

  19. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-02-03

    Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties and also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L. on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Premal Kapadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  1. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Pfennig, S.; Brink, van den P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple planta

  2. Nutritional potential of green banana flour obtained by drying in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vieira Bezerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition of peeled and unpeeled green banana Cavendish (AAA flour obtained by drying in spouted bed, aiming at adding nutritional value to food products. The bananas were sliced and crushed to obtain a paste and fed to the spouted bed dryer (12 cm height and T = 80 ºC in order to obtain flour. The flours obtained were subjected to analysis of moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrates, total starch, resistant starch, fiber. The green banana flours, mainly unpeeled, are good sources of fiber and resistant starch with an average of 21.91g/100g and 68.02g/100g respectively. The protein content was found in an average of 4.76g/100g, being classified as a low biological value protein with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. The results showed that unpeeled green banana flour obtained by spouted bed drying can be a valuable tool to add nutritional value to products in order to increase their non-digestible fraction.

  3. Isolation of retro-transcribed RNA from in vitro Mycosphaerella fijiensis-infected banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, C M; Peraza-Echeverría, L; Islas-Flores, I R; Canto-Canché, B B; Grijalva-Arango, R

    2010-07-27

    High polyphenol and polysaccharide levels in plant tissues such as banana fruit and leaves constitute a significant challenge to the extraction of sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA required for cDNA library synthesis and molecular analysis. To determine their comparative effectiveness at eliminating polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins, three protocols for RNA extraction from in vitro banana plantlet leaves were tested: Concert(TM) Plant RNA isolation kit, a small-scale protocol based on Valderrama-Cháirez, and a modified version of the Valderrama-Cháirez protocol. RNA quantity and purity were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry using DEPC-treated water and Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Purity was greater using Tris-HCl. The Concert(TM) Plant protocol produced the poorest quality RNA. Reverse transcription into cDNAs from RNA isolated from in vitro banana plantlet leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis using the modified Valderrama-Cháirez protocol, followed by PCR using primers designed against gamma-actin from banana and M. fijiensis, yielded products of the anticipated size. In addition, this protocol reduced the processing time, lowered costs, used less expensive equipment, and could be used for other plants that have the same problems with high polyphenol and polysaccharide levels.

  4. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  5. Ethanol Production from Banana Fruit and its Lignocellulosic Residues: Exergy and Renewability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Tropical countries such as Brazil and Colombia have the possibility of using their lands for growing vegetable products to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. The objective of this work is to apply exergy analysis to evaluate the renewability of anhydrous ethanol production from surplus banana fruit production and its residual biomass. The study takes into account all production stages: growing, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, and dehydration. It also considers the cogeneration plant and residues treatment. Four production routes were analyzed according to the biomass used as feedstock: banana pulp, banana fruit, hanging cluster or banana skin. Based on the exergy concept, performance indicators are proposed and calculated. In order to quantify the renewability of the ethanol production processes, a new indicator called “Renewability Performance Indicator” is defined and applied to the four ethanol production routes studied. The results show that when amilaceous material is used, better results than lignocellulosic material are obtained and four production processes studied must be classified as non-renewable.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  6. Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, S S; Patel, P R; Patel, S S; Nikam, S D; Rane, T U; Sayyed, R Z

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.

  7. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-09

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  8. Women with metabolic syndrome improve antrophometric and biochemical parameters with green banana flour consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of green banana flour (GBF may promote health benefits, such as, decreased appetite, weight loss, glycemic control, intestinal function and lipid profile improvement, aging delay, cancer and heart disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green banana flour consumption on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in overweight women. Methods: The glycemic index of flour in the study was determined. The effects of consumption of 20 g of green banana flour/day on weight, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, body composition, hemoglobin, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, liver function and energy intake were evaluated in 25 overweight women for 45 days. Results: The glycemic index of the flour under study was classified as low. Reduction (p < 0.05 in systolic blood pressure, hip circumference and fasting glucose levels were found in women who had metabolic syndrome criteria. Conclusions: Consumption of green banana flour (20 g/day for 45 days did not promote weight loss or changes in body composition in overweight women. It was noted, however, decreased hip circumference. Significant health parameter improvements were also noted in individuals with metabolic syndrome, which showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose.

  9. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  10. Detection of Bacterial Wilt Pathogen and Isolation of Its Bacteriophage from Banana in Lumajang Area, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardian Susilo Addy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease on banana is an important disease in Lumajang District and causes severe yield loss. Utilizing bacteriophage as natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria has been widely known as one of the control strategies. This research was aimed at determining the causing agent of bacterial wilt on banana isolated from Lumajang area, to obtain wide-host range bacteriophages against bacterial wilt pathogen and to know the basic characteristic of bacteriophages, particularly its nucleic acid type. Causative agent of bacterial wilt was isolated from symptomatic banana trees from seven districts in Lumajang area on determinative CPG plates followed by rapid detection by PCR technique using specific pair-primer. Bacteriophages were also isolated from soil of infected banana crop in Sukodono District. Morphological observation showed that all bacterial isolates have similar characteristic as common bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, detection of FliC region in all isolates confirmed that all isolates were R. solanacearum according to the presence of 400 bp of FliC DNA fragment. Moreover, two bacteriophages were obtained from this experiment (ϕRSSKD1 and ϕRSSKD2, which were able to infect all nine R. solanacearum isolates. Nucleic acid analysis showed that the nucleic acid of bacteriophages was DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid.

  11. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the devastating Black Sigatoka pathogen of bananas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Adibon, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Zwiers, L.H.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola en M. eumusae veroorzaken de Sigatoka-ziekte in banaan. Op dit moment is de toepassing van fungiciden de enige optie om deze ziekte te bestrijden. Het PRPB (Pesticide Reduction Program for Banana) investeert in de ontwikkeling van technieken voor de genotype- en

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of mating-type loci of Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Crous, P.W.; Zwiers, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The devastating Sigatoka disease complex of banana is primarily caused by three closely related heterothallic fungi belonging to the genus Mycosphaerella: M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Previous phylogenetic work showing common ancestry led us to analyze the mating-type loci of these

  14. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  15. Asymmetric banana-shaped liquid crystals with two different terminal alkoxy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, R.; Cuypers, R.; Giesbers, M.; Koudijs, A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Two series of asymmetric banana-shaped compounds have been synthesized and studied. In the 1,3-phenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoyloxy)]benzoate series the lack of symmetry was derived solely from the difference in length of the two terminal alkoxy chains. In the 3,4'-biphenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoy

  16. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2017-04-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.

  17. Acceptability of Musa Balbisiana (Saba Banana Puree in Two Treatments in Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. De Castro Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana or Saba is a variety of banana fruit that is nutritious and readily available in the market the whole year round. This experimental study aimed to determine the acceptability of the ice cream made from Saba banana puree in two treatments (treatment 1- cooked puree and treatment 2- uncooked puree. Data gathered were described and analyzed using a special Analysis of Variance. The sensory characteristics of the ice cream in two treatments were compared with one another based on the 9-point hedonic scale utilized by trained panelist in the education sector in secondary, tertiary and graduate school level that specialized in food related discipline such as Food Technology, Food Service Management, Technology and Livelihood Education- Food Trades and Hotel and Restaurant Management. Results indicated that in treatment 1( cooked puree the taste and texture of the ice cream were liked extremely however its color was rated liked very much, while in treatment 2 (uncooked puree the texture and color were rated liked moderately while its taste was rated liked very much. A comparison of the sensory characteristics between the two treatments revealed that there is a significant difference in terms of taste, texture and color and overall acceptability of the Saba banana ice cream. It is then recommended that in preparing Saba banana puree using treatment 1 (cooking method, the fruit should be subjected in numerous sieving process using a fine mesh siever or sifter to produce good quality puree texture.

  18. Characterization and study of functional properties of banana starch green variety of Mysore (Musa AAB - Mysore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina de Medeiros FONTES

    Full Text Available Abstract So that there is innovation in the development of food products with starch in its formulation, it can take into account the banana starch, which has higher content when the fruit is fully green. The starches and derivatives are used as ingredients or additives basic components added in small amounts to enhance the production, presentation and preservation of the product. This study aimed to characterize the green banana variety Mysore (Musa AAB - Mysore, studying their functional properties as well as its importance and use in the food industry. The starch extracted from green bananas were performed physico-chemical studies and functional properties. The yield amounted to a starch quality, with characteristics similar to other species of bananas. The results of studies of its functional properties reveal a less prone to starch retrogradation phenomenon. Starch showed results that indicate its use in many areas of the food industry (chilled foods, soups, pates, especially for the preparation of sauces sector, becoming an alternative technology and development of food products.

  19. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  20. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas.

  1. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were le

  2. Senescent spotting of banana peel is inhibited by modified atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa cavendishii [Musa acuminata] AA Group cv. Sucrier) were placed in trays and held at 29-30 degreesC. Covering the trays with 'Sun wrap' polyvinyl chloride film prevented the early senescent peel spotting, typical for this cultivar. Carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations within

  3. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with s

  4. Effect of beta-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A source. However the studies  on  carotenoid from yellow  banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum  level in group treated with  of β - carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/ dL , was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of   control group ( 22.08 ± 1.35 mg /dL . β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  5. Effect of β-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A sources. However the studies on carotenoid from yellow banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. The β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum level in group treated with of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/dL, was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of control group (22.08 ± 1.35 mg/dL. The β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  6. Effect of storage time on the retrogradation of banana starch extrudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Ottenhof, M-A; Agama-Acevedo, E; Farhat, I A

    2005-02-23

    Starch was isolated from banana starch and the retrogradation phenomenon was studied using diverse techniques, including an enzymatic measurement. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) showed that the sample stored for 7 h presented small peaks and when the storage time increased the peaks increased in intensity. The type of diffraction pattern found in banana extrudates is typical of the A-type crystal polymorph. The crystallinity index from the diffractograms, showed a plateau after approximately 20 h of storage. The short-range order measurement with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that banana starch retrogradation reached a maximum value at approximately 11 h of storage, a value that agrees with the results obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), because the maximum enthalpy value (approximately 5 J/g) was calculated in the stored sample for 8 h, without changes in the stored samples for more time. Retrograded resistant starch values did not change after 12 h of storage, obtaining the maximum starch retrogradation level. FTIR, DSC, and the enzymatic technique showed the changes at the molecular level in starch during storage; in the case of WAXS, they determine the long-range order that explains the differences found in the starch retrogradation pattern measurement in banana starch.

  7. Identification of genes involved in the response of banana to crown rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Frettinger, Patrick; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc; Lepoivre, Philippe; Jijakli, Haissam

    2011-01-01

    Variations in banana susceptibility to crown rot disease have been observed but the molecular mechanisms underlying these quantitative host-pathogen relationships are still unknown. This study was designed to compare gene expression between crowns of banana fruit showing a high susceptibility (S(+)) and crowns showing a low susceptibility (S(-)) to the disease. Comparisons were performed at two situation times: i) between crowns (S(+) and S(-)) collected 1 h before inoculation and ii) between crowns (S+ and S-) collected 13 days after inoculation. Gene expression comparisons were performed with cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and results were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Among genes identified as differentially expressed between S(+) and S(-) crowns, two were involved in signal transduction, three in proteolytic machinery, two had similarity to pathogenesis-related protein 14, one to a CCR4-associated factor protein, and one to a cellulose synthase. Paradoxically, the overexpression of the cellulose synthase gene was associated with banana showing a high susceptibility in both pre- and post-inoculation situations. Finally, the cDNA-AFLP identified a gene that seems to be associated with the quantitative banana responses to crown rot disease; this gene encodes a dopamine-β-monooxygenase, which is involved in the catecholamine pathway. To our knowledge, this work is the first to address both pre- and post-infection gene expression with the same host-pathogen combination and distinct susceptibility levels.

  8. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560...

  9. Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUYU SURYASARI POERBA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poerba YS, Ahmad F (2010 Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 11: 118-123. This study was done to assess the molecular diversity of 36 accessions (18 cultivars of the plantain and cooking bananas (Musa acuminata x M. balbisiana, AAB, ABB subgroups based on Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR markers and to determine genetic relationships in the bananas. RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting of these banana varieties was carried out by five primers of RAPDs and two primers of ISSRs. RAPD primers produced 63 amplified fragments varying from 250 to 2500 bp in size. 96.82% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. ISSR primers produced 26 amplified fragments varying from 350 bp to 2000 bp in size. The results showed that 92.86% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. The range of genetic distance of 18 cultivars was from 0.06-0.67.

  10. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  11. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. α- and β-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of α-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas.

  12. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  13. Performance of five cooking banana accessions at the National Germplasm Repository under limestone soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of cooking bananas from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami were used for evaluation under local edaphic and environmental conditions. The number of pseudostems per mat, height at fruiting, and cycling time were determined during the first fruiting cycle, and bunch number and b...

  14. Water quality under intensive banana production and extensive pastureland in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arya, D.R.; Geissen, V.; Ponce-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Becker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intensive banana production with high mineral-fertilizer application and of extensive pastures were compared regarding water quality in a lowland region of SE Mexico. We monitored NO, NO, and PO43– concentrations in groundwater (80 m depth), subsurface water (5 m depth), and surface

  15. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.

  16. [Diversity of soil bacterial community in banana orchards infected with wilt disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Xiao-yu; Zhou, Deng-bo; Tan, Xin; Gao, Zhu-fen; Zhang, Xi-yan; Qi, Chun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Six soil samples including 3 wilt disease-infected samples and 3 disease-free samples were collected from the banana orchards in 3 areas in Lingao County, Hainan Province of South China. The soil physical and chemical properties were determined by conventional methods, and the diversity of soil bacterial community was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Then, the relationships between the soil bacterial community composition and the soil physical and chemical properties were investigated. In the same areas, most of the soil physical and chemical properties were poorer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards, with the most obvious difference in soil available P content and pH. The T-RFLP analysis showed the diversity of soil bacterial community was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards. The lengths of the dominant T-RFs in the 3 areas were 144, 147 and 233 bp, respectively. Through the comparison with phylogenetic assignment tool, it was deduced that the dominant species in the 3 areas were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus and Eubacterium ruminantium. The distribution of most T-RFs was related to the soil alkaline hydrolyzable N, available K, available P and water content, and the relative abundance of most T-RFs was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.

  17. Analisis Psikologis Tokoh Utama Dalam Novel “Kitchen” Karya Banana Yoshimoto

    OpenAIRE

    Arista, Dwi

    2014-01-01

    Pada umumnya dalam karya sastra, sastrawan selalu memasuki pengalaman dalam karyanya dan memiliki kebebasan dalam menentukan watak tokohnya. Karena itu setiap tokoh memiliki kondisi psikologis yang berbeda-beda. Salah satu karya sastra yang akan ditelaah tokoh utamanya adalah novel Kitchen yang dittulis oleh Banana Yoshimoto. Novel ini menginspirasikan bahwa dalam hidup dibutuhkan perjuangan dan kedewasaan dalam menentukan sikap. Dalam novel ini diceritakan bagaim...

  18. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the ma

  19. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  20. Allometric growth relationships of East Africa highland bananas (Musa AAA-EAHB) cv. Kisansa and Mbwazirume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Corbeels, M.; Kaizzi, C.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Highland bananas are an important staple food in East Africa, but there is little information on their physiology and growth patterns. This makes it difficult to identify opportunities for yield improvement. We studied allometric relationships by evaluating different phenological stages of highland