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Sample records for sao paulo hspe

  1. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  2. Sao Paulo pelletron accelerator: fortieth anniversary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Dirceu [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This year the 8MV Sao Paulo Pelletron tandem accelerator completes 40 years . This electrostatic accelerator was installed in the Sao Paulo University in 1972 , and it was the first of this model constructed the National Electrostatic Corporation with several innovations particularly with respect to the new concept of accelerator tube and the charge system. In the talk will be discussed the performance of the accelerator during all these years and the main result scientific results. (author)

  3. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  4. Constructing a Public Popular Education in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pia Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    Examines school reform implemented by Paulo Freire and the Workers' Party in Sao Paulo during 1989-92. Focuses on various institutional mechanisms created to support teachers' efforts to learn the skills necessary for realization of reform objectives. Appendices list reform objectives and outline phases and activities in a teacher-directed…

  5. Sao Paulo jätkab biennaali / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Sao Paulo biennaal sai 50aastaseks. Kuni 29. VII toimunud juubelinäitusest. 2002. a. leiab aset XXV Sao Paulo biennaal "Metropoliikonograafiad", kus esinevad kunstnikud kaheksast maailma suurlinnast.

  6. Automation in the Libraries of the City of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty selected Sao Paulo, Brazil, librarians who were interviewed indicated that, in their opinion, the development of library automation in this city is hampered by poor resources and cooperation, lack of professional and technical automation expertise, communication, and other psychological, organizational, and human related factors.…

  7. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  8. Paulo Freire as Secretary of Education in the Municipality of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in Sao Paulo, 1989-92, under the leadership of Paulo Freire. Explores theoretical and policy controversies surrounding the diminishing role of the state in Latin America, the impact of social movements on educational policymaking, and the limits and possibilities of democratic-socialist perspectives in…

  9. SEGMENTATION IN TOURISTIC SECTOR: LGBT TOURISTS OF SAO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Sanitá Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the tourism segment LGBT (Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender of Sao Paulo city and gather information about his profile as important support for the tourism sector in defining their marketing strategies. It was carried out an exploratory and statistical data from government and representatives of this public for a description and analysis of data on the composition and profile of this segment, as well as the strategies being used by companies to captivate it and loyalty it. It also composes a Descriptive Study carried out by the Tourism Observatory of São Paulo next to the participants of the Sao Paulo Gay Parade in 2011. As results, it appears that LGBT public presents behavioral particularities as buyers of tourist products, providing during their stay, higher investments than others tourism segments, because it comes as a tourist for a longer period of stay in Sao Paulo, thus leaving more financial resources in the city. It also presents as results, examples of effective use of differentiation strategies by organizations, attraction, service and loyalty in this segment.

  10. Characteristics and Trends of Luxury Commerce in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Costa Da Silva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the consolidation of consumption as prime stage of the production process and the diffusion of new forms of commerce in the city, as foundations for analyzing the urban space reproduction process in the contemporary period. Having as research place the metropolis of Sao Paulo - Brazil, we conducted an analysis and some thoughts on the place of commerce and consumption of luxury goods in the urban space reproduction process, analyzed from the perspective of the exten...

  11. Crime in Sao Paulo's metro system : sexual crimes against women

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccato, Vania; Paz, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates personal safety conditions in the Sao Paulo metro, the largest rapid transit system in Brazil. The study looks at all types of crimes, but devotes special attention to the nature and spatio-temporal dynamics of sexual crimes against women while in transit. The methodology combines Geographical Information System and crime records with data collected using Google Street View and other secondary data into a set of regression models. Findings show that sexual violence is...

  12. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-12-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  13. Clinical engineering & equipment policy for Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive equipment policy was established for the health system of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Research, development and regulation issues were integrated with all phases of the equipment life cycle, including: planning, procurement, acceptance testing, commissioning, maintenance, repair, refitting, and decommissioning. This policy was implemented by a multidisciplinary group, which advised and coordinated planning and procurement, created a technology management and maintenance network composed of clinical engineering teams and reference centers, and worked closely with manufacturers, universities and research institutes to improve the quality and increase the variety of domestic medical products in order to substitute for imported devices.

  14. Results of Occupational Monitoring Program in Technologic Navy Center in Sao Paulo; Resultados do programa de monitoracao ocupacional do Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Clarice F.A.; Bitelli, Ricardo D.; Oliveira, Rodemir, E-mail: clarice.acosta@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: bitelli@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rodemir@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The CTMSP, Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, is a nuclear research Center located in the State of Sao Paulo. CTMSP headquarters is placed at the Campus of the University of Sao Paulo. Most of CTMSP nuclear facilities are at the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located 120 km northwest from the Capital city of Sao Paulo. CTMSP has two major nuclear programs. One is the development of a PWR reactor for naval propulsion, and the other is associated with the front end fuel cycle technology comprising enrichment, conversion and reconversion. These activities require an extensive area monitoring program. This paper presents the results of this program covering the years of 2003 to 2011. The results include surface monitoring, dose rates and uranium concentrations in the air. (author)

  15. A Cooperative Project for Electrical Engineering Education at UNESP--Sao Paulo State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Janio Itiro; Torres, Germano Lambert; Origa de Oliveira, Luiz C.; Loyolla, Waldomiro

    UNESP--Sao Paulo State University--is a successful experiment at the Multicampus University in Brazil, maintaining intense and diversified education activities in the most developed state of the Federation, the Sao Paulo State. The multicampus structure that consists of 15 university campuses and two advanced ones, distributed throughout the State…

  16. Medical genetics services in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, Decio

    2004-01-01

    The city of Sao Paulo is located in the center of a metropolitan area with nearly 18 million inhabitants and 300,000 births/year. The currently existing medical genetics services are unable to meet the demand, due to their insufficient physical and personnel infrastructure. Institutions and experts in medical genetics could give short training and refresher courses to health professionals to enable them to work in the public health network. The city has a reasonably well developed health care network, represented by the Single Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS) and by the Family Health Program (Programa de Saude da Familia - PSF). The financial resources for such actions originate in the budget of the managing agencies of such systems. The limitations of genetic services provided to the population of the city could be overcome in a short period of time by developing programs within the public health care network. The city has institutions, professionals and financial resources to make this project feasible. To that end, the competent authorities of the Sao Paulo State and City Secretariats of Health should take managerial responsibility for the genetic services in the city. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  18. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  19. Dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons in the Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Weber, Rolf Roland [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A monitoring programme at Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was conducted in terms of dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (DDPAH) in water analysed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The study was done in order to establish a baseline data for this area and verify the petroleum hydrocarbon influence from the oil terminal (DTCS) and other human activities over the channel. The DDPAH concentrations on subsurface waters were low and only one station presented a chronic local contribution. An oil spill occurred in May 1994 and it was followed-up to verify its influence in this area. The obtained data were important to verity the influence of the oil spill along the channel. The oil spill reached the majority of the sampling stations, and the highest mean concentration found was close to the accident point (49.6 {mu}g I{sup -1}). Due to the intense wind driven currents of the Channel area, however, the elevation of the hydrocarbons levels in the surface waters was only temporary. (Author)

  20. [The demographic characteristics of slaves in Sao Paulo, 1777-1829].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, F V

    1992-01-01

    "The introduction and development of sugar and coffee production in Sao Paulo [Brazil] led to deep changes in its populational structure. The large number of slaves who entered the province, mainly adult men, destroyed the population's relative balance, both in terms of sex and age structures. The study, based on manuscripts known as ¿Macos de Populacao' which belong to the Arquivo do Estado de Sao Paulo, covers twenty-five different communities in Sao Paulo, in the years 1777, 1804 and 1829. The demographic characteristics of the slaves and their relation with economic variables were analysed.... Special attention was given to the slaves' marriage and their reproductive capacity." (EXCERPT)

  1. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  2. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Taricco, Mario Augusto; Plese, José Píndaro P; Flores, Camila; Teixeira, Saulo A; Luzio, José

    2014-03-01

    The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time) organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  3. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2012. Ano base 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  4. Water usage in bio ethanol production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de M.; Gomes, Rodolfo D.M.; Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F.; Mosqueira-Salazar, Klever Joao; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2012-07-01

    The chapter approaches the water availability, water use legislation, charges and taxes in the state of Sao Paulo, legislation regarding water disposal, potential for reducing water consumption, demand water streams, reusing water streams, and closing water circuits.

  5. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  6. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  7. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  8. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  9. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  10. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Talita; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Yamaguishi, Renata Bazante, E-mail: taoliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, Luciana Carvalho Bezerra de; Castro, Paula Maria Genova de; Monteiro Junior, Adalberto Jose; Maruyama, Lidia Sumile, E-mail: lcbm@usp.br [Instituto de Pesca, (IP/SAA-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de Sao Paulo

    2013-07-01

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  11. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1998. Ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997.

  12. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil; Estudo de localizacao de termoeletricas no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas; Ramos, Dorel Soares; Vieira, Silas [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliane@pea.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used.

  13. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  14. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  15. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  16. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  17. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  18. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  19. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  20. Reengineering Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Laboratories at Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Antonio C.; Consonni, Denise

    Brazilian engineering schools are under a strict program to reengineer their courses with the financial support of the federal agencies. At the electronic engineering department at the University of Sao Paulo, this process started by modifying the Basic Electricity and Electronic Laboratories. This paper describes the new structure of these labs…

  1. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  2. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  3. Vanglaülestõus vallandas Sao Paulos kaose / Erik Henno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henno, Erik

    2006-01-01

    11. mail vallandus Sao Paulo vanglates konflikt, mis laienes üle osariigi ning mille käigus süüdati kümneid busse, rünnati politseiautosid ja pangakontoreid, pantvangi võeti ligi 200 inimest. Kaubanduskeskused ja koolid jäid suletuks, ühistransport oli halvatud. Kaart: Vägivallalaine Brasiilias. Lisa: Maffia

  4. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  5. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy balance of the state of Sao Paulo - 2015: calendar year 2014; Balanco energetico do estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The State Energy Report 2015 prepared by the Secretariat of Energy, is the publication of the State Government that shows the supply and demand of energy used by the state economy, with the corresponding participation of the sectors involved. The energy policy of the State of Sao Paulo's strategic objective of expanding the energy supply from the load centers, energy security and expanding the share of renewable sources in the matrix. In order to achieve these objectives it is essential that count on complete and reliable information on the supply and demand of energy. This information is needed not only to the Secretary of Energy, in the formulation and implementation of state programs, but the municipalities and regions of the state so that they can formulate and present their demands as clearly as possible. It is therefore the production of strategic information to the counties together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services. The publication is essential reading for all who work with energy planning studies, feasibility of innovative technologies, search for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The evolution of the energy matrix of the State of Sao Paulo is one of the Balance sheet highlights, showing a greater share of biomass and natural gas since the mid- 90s . This issue also reports on CO{sub 2} emissions in the state, historical data vintages of the Sao Paulo sugarcane sector and a breakdown of electricity and derived from oil and gas. Thus, the State Energy Balance 2015 becomes an important tool aimed at implementation of public policies relevant to the infrastructure sector. (author)

  7. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area; Demanda do radiofarmaco fluor 18-FDG nas regioes metropolitanas do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Renato C.; Zouain, Desiree M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Planejamento e Inovacao Tecnologica]. E-mail: renato.sato@uol.com.br; dmzouain@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  8. Diagnostic about the use of electric power in Sao Paulo University; Diagnostico sobre o uso da energia eletrica na Universidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lineu B. dos; Galvao, Luiz C.R.; Saidel, Marco A.; Udaeta, Miguel E.M.; Kanayama, Paulo H. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the Energy Conservation Program in the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, named CONSERVUSP. The objectives of the program are to promote the use of energy efficiently within the University; to offer more energetic services without increasing the energy consumption and to promote the creation of research areas that would be able to graduate professionals aware of the importance of the rational use of energy. It will be also created a data bank with information on how energy is being used presently. This will permit the definition of the potentialities for energy conservation in the future. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. La experiencia del partido dos trabalhadores en la alcadía de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio KOWARICK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, Lucio Kowarick y André Singer analizan la gestión del Partido dos Trabalhadores en la Alcaldía de Sao Paulo encabezada por Luiza Erundina. Con esta evaluación pretenden conocer la acción del PT a través de uno de sus principales elementos de construcción del PT, el gobierno de las ciudades, que complementa a los otros dos, la vinculación con los movimientos sindicales y populares y la acción parlamentaria.ABSTRACT: In this article, Lucio Kowarick and Andre Singer analyses the government of Sao Paulo by Partido dos Trabalhadores, with Luiza Erundina. With this evaluation, they try to know the action of PT through one of the main elements of contruction of PT, the government of cities. The other are links with trade unions and popular movements and parliamentarian action.

  11. Legal protection of the Guarani aquifer in Ribeirao Preto (Sao Paulo State, Brasil); Tutela juridica do Aquifero Guarani em Ribeirao Preto (Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso Goulart, M.; Cavalheiro Navajas Sampaio Campos, H.; Nepomuceno, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer is one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world and represents a strategic reserve for the four countries of South America where it occurs: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The municipality of Ribeirao Preto, located in the north-east region of Sao Paulo, with a population of over 600,000 inhabitants, is supplied entirely by water from this aquifer. Hydrogeological studies reveal the existence of a large cone of drawdown in the centre of the city due to the intensive and indiscriminate use of water pumped out by wells for decades. In rural areas, where many of the rocky outcrops of the aquifer occur and which affords direct recharge by rain water, the risk of contamination by pesticides is of some concern. Over the years the Public Ministry of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto has provided guidelines for actions and initiatives in environmental protection, especially with regard to the Guarani aquifer. These actions and initiatives are based mainly on the principle of the supremacy of public interest over private interest and the principle of caution. On the basis of these premises the prosecutor works with the government and the private sector to monitor and readmitted environmental liabilities that threaten the aquifer (landfills, diffuse contamination etc.) and to maintain due discipline within the activities that take place within the recharge zone (agriculture, industry and urbanization) including those of regulation and territorial planning. (Author)

  12. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  13. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, V.M.; Faga, M.T.W. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br

    2007-07-15

    In the decision-making process for the construction and expansion of natural gas infrastructure, different factors must be considered to prioritize areas with high market potential for the given service. The aim of this paper is to propose a systemic model that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the distribution network, taking the advance of natural gas in the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) as a specific case study. (author)

  14. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  15. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S., E-mail: ticianelli@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg{sup -1} and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  16. Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, Sao Sebastiao Island, state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantelatto, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium is distributed globally in most biogeographical regions, and contains species with interestingmechanisms of evolution. We conducted an exhaustive survey on São Sebastião Island, the largest coastal island of the stateof São Paulo. Here we provide a list of species (M. acanthurus, M. carcinus, M. heterochirus, M. olfersi, M. potiuna togetherwith the diagnosis, distribution, and remarks on each species, and a key for their identification. We compare our findingswith available information on the genus. The high diversity of freshwater shrimps on the island is interesting in terms ofbiogeographical and evolutionary processes.

  17. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  18. Scenario of distributed energetic resources in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; O cenario dos recursos energeticos distribuidos no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the viability of the use of distributed resources for power production inside the state of Sao Paulo, taking into account its different forms, advantages and drawbacks. To accomplish the assessment and using de integrated energy resources planning, the full cost accounting for energy resources was applied to each administrative region of the state, which allowed a greater focus without jeopardizing the final results. The analysis were performed considering the usage of the most prospective energy sources such as wind, solar, natural gas, hydro and biomass generation; the results show that when the different aspects of each type of distributed generation are taken into account the renewable forms of energy generation are likely to be more competitive, when compared to traditional forms of generation. (author)

  19. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  20. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  1. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  2. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  3. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  4. Descriptive analysis of narrative photojournalism in two digital newspapers: Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín López Del Ramo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the paucity of studies in this field, this paper seeks to develop an analysis of new products in the digital news media’s narrative photojournalism, its components and substantive aspects, focusing on digital newspapers Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian. The sample consists of 35 pieces with a total of 899 photographs, of which 351 (39.1% correspond to Folha de Sao Paulo and 548 (60.9% to The Guardian. Drawing on a content analysis methodology, a self-designed record is used with indicators that are seldom referred to in studies on photography, such as structural design, functionality or integration of multimedia content. The results indicate that these products have different formats and configurations, possess a clear structure, are of a medium-high length, and contain simple functionality. A good hierarchical organization, variety, large size and high-quality images provide a strong visual impact. The textual elements complement and clarify the logical meaning of the story. The inclusion of audiovisual content and links is discreet but well contextualized. All this represents a significant aesthetic-communicative advance as compared to the conventional treatment of photography in the digital press.

  5. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  6. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  7. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M.M.; Grimoni, J.A.B.; Burani, G.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A.M.A.; Barbosa, E.J.S.; Hamzo, S.T.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Prist, R.; Sonnewend, J.E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  8. Perspectives for distributed generation of electricity in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso; Perspectivas da geracao distribuida de eletricidade nos estados de Sao Paulo, Bahia e Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Leite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses the concept of distributed generation of electricity and the current support policies for such kind of generation in the country. Their diffusion perspectives in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso are discussed. The more promising technologies and new policies for them are pointed out. (author)

  9. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  10. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Vitrificacao de residuos solidos galvanicos: solucao para a zona leste de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO{sub -}CaO-Na{sub O}, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  12. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  14. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  15. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  16. Feasibility study for the implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source facility in Sao Paulo

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda-Neto, J D T

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source is proposed here, using the forthcoming 30 MeV electron CW-Microtron under construction in Sao Paulo. A method to estimate photoneutron fluxes, based on thin target bremsstrahlung approximation, has been developed. The versatility and possible broad range of applications associated with such a facility are addressed.

  17. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  18. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  19. Nuclear technology in secondary school in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites, Daniela B.; Gordon, Ana Maria P.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dbenites@ipen.br, e-mail: amgordon@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and

  20. [Risk factors associated with overweight among adolescents from western Sao Paulo state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rômulo Aráujo; Conterato, Igor; Messias, Kelly Patrícia; Christofaro, Diego Giuliano Destro; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between being overweight and family risk factors in adolescents from Western Sao Paulo state. This cross-sectional study involved 1779 adolescents of both genders and with ages ranging between 11 and 17 years. The participants' body mass index was calculated, and the family risk factors were analyzed through a questionnaire. Excessive weight was associated with the male gender (CR = 1.55 [1.22-1.97]), studying in a private school (CR = 2.14 [1.56-2.94]) and mother's higher education (CR = 0.52 [0.33-0.83]). There is a need to implement initiatives to fight obesity in the school environment and reach the whole family structure, taking gender-related specificities into consideration.

  1. Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Santos, Levi F., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Pb-210 (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 y), a natural radionuclide from U-238 serie can be found in the atmosphere, as a product of {sup 222}Rn decay that emanates from the ground, where its atoms become rapidly fixed to aerosols and return to the earth as dry fallout or are washed out in the rain. This natural radionuclide has been widely used as an atmospheric tracer, to determine the aerosol residence time as well as chronometers in the environment. Pb-210 was measured during a period of two years, 2011 to 2013, in samples of rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) campus (23 deg 33’59.24” S - 46 deg 44’15.63” O at 760 m above sea level) which is located in the city of Sao Paulo, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pb-210 concentration was measured in a total of 123 rainy events by beta gross counting in a low background gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. The results obtained were correlated to seasons and rainfall. The concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in rainfall varied from the minimum detectable activity, 4.9 mBq L{sup -1} to 1408± 43 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations were obtained in the months of winter and the lowest in summer. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb, varied from 4.03 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1} to 46.4 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1}presenting a strong correlation with the amount of precipitation and hence showing seasonal trends. (author)

  2. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that {sup 7}Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of {sup 7}Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of {sup 7}Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of {sup 7}Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  3. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  6. Cash Transfers and Mayoral Elections: The Case of Sao Paulo's Renda Mínima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sanches Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recently published studies analyze the effects of national conditional cash transfer (CCT programs, such as the Brazilian Bolsa Família and the Mexican Oportunidades, on presidential elections. Most of them show that these programs boost incumbents' electoral support among the poor. This research note is the first scholarly attempt to investigate this phenomenon at a lower-level unit of a federal state, by assessing the impact of a municipal cash transfer program on a mayoral election. Specifically, it investigates whether Renda Mínima, the cash transfer program of the city of Sao Paulo, affected beneficiaries' electoral behavior in favor of the incumbent candidate in the 2004 mayoral election. This note analyzes survey data from CEBRAP/IBOPE and shows that cash transfers did, indeed, affect beneficiaries' behavior in the predicted direction, but only in cases where they did not benefit from any other CCT program, such as the federal Bolsa Família or the São Paulo state Renda Cidadã. These results suggest that the pro-incumbent effect of CCT programs may be diluted by similar programs launched by governments at other tiers of a federation, even if they are led by the same party.

  7. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  8. Elaboration, publication and implementation of a technical regulation of radiological protection at the State of Sao Paulo; Elaboracao, publicacao e implementacao de uma norma tecnica de protecao radiologica no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Furnari, Laura [Associacao Brasileira de Fisicos em Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Technological improvements of new equipment and some new topics of the international recommendations from ICRP 60 (1990) are considered in a meeting of radiation protection experts and representatives of professionals involved with the use of ionizing radiation in health care services. As a result a new regulation is proposed to the Sao Paulo State Health Department (Brazil). The importance of performing a quality assurance program is emphasized 2 refs., 2 tab.

  9. Thermoelectric power plant of Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, Planning; Planejamento da central termoeletrica da COSIPA - Companhia Siderurgica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo Sergio; Costa, Luiz Orlando; Silva, Clovis Aprigio da; Paiva Borges, Elmar de; Martinez, Francisco Gomes [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

    1990-02-01

    This paper shows the operational philosophy, control and supervision of the Thermoelectric power plant of the Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, in operations of fuel distribution, steam generation, electric power generation and air flow. 8 tabs.

  10. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  11. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  12. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05 with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99 after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance, use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use

  13. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city; Estudo sobre a composicao elementar nas amostras de liquen epifitico utilizado como bioindicador da poluicao aerea na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-07-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites

  14. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  15. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  16. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure.

  17. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  18. [Clinical relationships and ethical problems in primary care, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Pavone Zoboli, Elma Lourdes

    2010-08-01

    to identify ethical problems in primary care according to nurses' and doctors' perceptions. to know ethical issues of patient-professional relationships in primary care. Synthesis to integrate and reinterpret primary results of qualitative studies. Primary healthcare centers, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS AND/OR CONTEXT: Incidental sample of 34 nurses and 36 medical doctors working in primary healthcare centers selected by convenience. Individual, semi-structured interviews to identity situations considered as sources of ethical problems. The sample is socially representative of primary care health centers and professionals. Data collection assured discourse saturation. Hermeneutic-dialectical discourse analysis was used to study the results. Patient-professional relationships and team work were the main sources of ethical problems. The most important problems were patient information, privacy, confidentiality, interpersonal relationship, linkage and patient autonomy. These issues reflect the recent changes in clinical relation ships and show the peculiarities of primary care with its continuous care which lasts a long time. Healthcare involves multiprofessional team work in the midst of the patient claims for autonomy. Good care of patients needs requires a relationship based on communication and cooperation, and includes feelings and values, with communication skills. Ethical problems in primary care are common situations. For quality and humane primary care the relationship should consist of dialogue, trust and cooperation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figuty, L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Setor de Arqueologia; Baffa, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2006-03-15

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05{+-}0.07) Gy and (9.50{+-}0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  20. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  1. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using {sup 210}Pb as geochronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaris, T.P.P. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess {sup 210}Pb model was successfully used to assess {sup 210}Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The {sup 210}Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm{sup 2} yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the {sup 222}Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) {sup 210}Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model.

  2. Radiocarbon geochronology of the sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (Southern Brazilian upper margin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M.; Burone, Leticia; Nagai, Renata H.; Silveira, Ilson C.A.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Soutelino, Rafael G.; Ponsoni, Leandro; Klein, Daniel A., E-mail: mahiques@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this work was to generate an inventory of the data on radiocarbon dating obtained from sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (southern Brazilian upper margin) and to analyze the data in terms of Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and sedimentation rates. A total of 238 radiocarbon dating from materials collected using different sampling procedures was considered for this work. The sedimentation rates varied from less than 2 to 68 cm.kyr{sup -1}. The highest sedimentation rate values were found in a low-energy (ria type) coastal system as well as in the upwelling zones of Santa Catarina and Cabo Frio. The lowest rates were found on the outer shelf and upper slopes. Our results confirm the strong dependency of the shelf currents, with an emphasis to the terrigenous input from the Rio de La Plata outflow which is transported via the Brazilian coastal current, as well as of the coupled Brazil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current (BC-IWBC) dynamics on the sedimentary processes. At least three indicators of the paleo sea level were found at 12200 yr BP (conventional radiocarbon age) (103 meters below sea level - mbsl), 8300-8800 cal yr BP (13 mbsl) and 7700-8100 cal yr BP (6 mbsl). (author)

  3. [Relationship between low birthweight and air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Andréa; Gouveia, Nelson

    2005-12-01

    Air pollution has been investigated as a potential determinant for low birthweight. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of air pollution on birthweight. We analyzed all deliveries by mothers living in the municipality of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2000. We estimated the prevalence of low birthweight according to newborn, mother, and delivery characteristics. Only births occurring in the most central districts of the city were analyzed, totaling 311.735 events. For the evaluation of the effects of air pollution, we excluded preterm and multiple deliveries. Pollutants analyzed were ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particles (PM10), and carbon monoxide (CO). The effect of maternal exposure to air pollution on birthweight was evaluated using linear and logistic regression. A total of 4.6% of newborns weighed less than 2,500 g at birth. Maternal exposure to CO, PM10, and NO2 during the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased birthweight. Our results reinforce the notion that maternal exposure to air pollution during the first trimester of pregnancy may contribute to lesser weight gain in the fetus.

  4. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  6. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  7. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em robalo (Centropomus sp.) e pescada (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumidos na cidade de Sao Paulo por analise por ativacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, Karen C.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: karen.fabiano@usp.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1.

  8. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  9. Zn adsorption in soils of different morphogenesis from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Raul Henrique; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Mineral de Plantas]. E-mail: rsartori@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The zinc (Zn) adsorption by nine different morphogenetic soil from to Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were studied. Superficial samples of soils: Ferralsol, Feralsol, Vertisol, Acrisol, Cambisol, two Arenosol, Phaeozem and Gleysol were used. It was study the influence of soil characteristics on the parameters of adsorption of zinc, described by the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich, as well as the free energies of the adsorption reaction. Soil samples (0.5 g) were put in plastic bottle and suspended in 10 mL of solution 0.01 mol L{sup -1} of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} containing zinc in concentrations of 0.05; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 and 1.0 mmol L{sup -1}, as zinc nitrate and labeled with 1.11 kBq mL{sup -1} of {sup 65}Zn radionuclide. The pots were shaken during 24 hours. The Zn adsorption was calculated by counting the radioactivity in the solution, after centrifugation. The equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were efficient to describe the parameters of adsorption of Zn. The results showed that the different soils can be separated in three groups in agreement with the maximum adsorption of Zn: <500 mg kg{sup -1} (Ferralsol, Vertisol, Arenosol-1 and Arenosol-2); 500 to 1000 mg kg{sup -1} 20 (Ferralsol, Cambisol and Phaeozem) and > 1000 mg kg{sup -1} (Acrisol and Gleysol). The negative values of the free energy change ({partial_derivative}G) of the reaction of zinc adsorption indicated the spontaneity of the reaction in all studied concentrations and the metal binding affinity of soil, which decreased with the increase of the concentration of Zn in the solution. The adsorption values and free energy change value from the reaction were related to the chemical and physical soil characteristics. (author)

  10. Pesticide exposure and cancer among rural workers from Bariri, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sá Stoppelli, Illona Maria; Crestana, Sílvio

    2005-07-01

    This article reports an environmental health study on risk identification. It discusses risk factors linked to rural work and pesticide contact in a restricted geographic area and shows the necessity of improving rural workers' health in the central part of Sao Paulo State. The municipality of Bariri, which is the case studied in this research, typifies this agriculturally based region. The study focuses on environmental problems engendered by modern agriculture that may have human-health repercussions such as cancer, as indicated by hard statistical association on an extended cause-effect time scale. For specific cases, the research used a database containing records of Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in the city of Jau and a highly respected regional reference unit for over 85 years as one of the best in the Brazilian public health system for treating cancer. Statistics for age and gender were analyzed; relative risk was calculated for a group of cases registered from 2000 to 2002, as well as for a randomly selected control group from the same hospital. A map indicating the residences of cases (68) and non-cases (60) was made by geoprocessing techniques. For the period of time and the group studied, the authors concluded that the cancers of the skin and digestive system were the most prevalent. Bariri presented 24 cases representing all cancer types for each group of 10,000 citizens. The study indicated an almost two times higher probability of cancer development among rural workers, with a calculated relative risk between those exposed (agriculture workers) and the non-exposed (other occupations) of 1.6. No patterns of geographical distribution of cancer in that time period were recorded among rural workers of Bariri. However, the higher number of positive occurrences in the southwestern outskirts of the city indicated an area that must be prioritized in distributing environmental health information and conducting preventive education campaigns.

  11. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  12. Fiber intake, constipation, and overweight among adolescents living in Sao Paulo City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Erica Bloes; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gama, Cíntia Mendes; Lopez, Fabio Ancona; Taddei, José Augusto C; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the dietary fiber intake of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city and any association between low dietary fiber intake with constipation and overweight. In total, 716 adolescents were included within the study, of whom 314 attended private school and 402 attended public school. Evaluation of fiber intake was based on a 24-h daily intake record and a frequency questionnaire. Data concerning bowel movements and height and weight measurements were also taken. Fiber consumption, below that recommended ("age + 5"), was found in 61.8% and 41.4% (P = 0.000) of girls attending private and public schools, respectively, and in 44.1% and 25.6% of boys (P = 0.001). Adolescents who did not eat beans on more than 4 d/wk presented a higher risk of fiber intake below that recommended (age + 5; P < 0.05), with odds ratios ranging from 10.4 to 14.2 according gender and private or public schooling. Dietary fiber intake below that recommended was associated with a greater risk (P < 0.05) toward overweight in students attending public schooling (odds ratios 2.84 and 2.95 for males and females, respectively). Low dietary fiber intake was not associated with constipation. Intake of beans more than four times per week is associated with the appropriate level of fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake below the recommendation was not associated with constipation but was associated with being overweight among those students attending public schooling.

  13. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  14. Methodology for correlations between doses and detectability in standard mammographic images: application in Sao Paulo state; Metodologia para correlacao entre doses e detectabilidade em imagens mamograficas padroes: aplicacao no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Tania Aparecida Correia

    2005-07-01

    Measurements using mammography units were performed in loco in 50 health establishments, randomly sampled from an equipment list of the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saude (Health Establishments Brazilian Catalog). For the measurements six phantoms were utilized to establish different quality criteria and to evaluate doses in different breast thicknesses. Two different methods of measuring average glandular doses (AGD) were applied, and measurements of entrance surface doses (ESD) were also realized, in order to obtain mean values to Sao Paulo State. A study relating distribution and properties of different mammography trademarks with doses was performed. The sensitometry of processors allowed a quantification of the film-processing contrast index, A{sub g}, establishing a state mean value. The phantom images allowed the evaluation of detection limits of structures as microcalcifications, fibers, and masses, and state mean values were established for: spatial resolution (on surface and glandular breast position); image contrast; and detection expert ability from phantom images in two situations: before knowing the image targets and after viewing of a target map. Then, the results were compared to target detections in laboratory environment. Based on dose results, A{sub g}, image contrast, maximum contrast, and detection ratio, a relationship between them was determined. The results show that, in Sao Paulo State, mean glandular doses were lower than reference levels considering the Wu method, and close to or above reference levels for ail phantoms considering the Dance method. The ESD was always close to or above reference levels. The A{sub g} presented a mean value of (10,42 {+-} 0,20) for Sao Paulo State, and the image contrast was lower than the required limits established by the phantom manufacturers. The high contrast resolution showed that mammography units presented the expected values of line pair per mm in the State. The detectability evaluation

  15. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  16. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Adenocarcinoma do endometrio: retrospectiva de casos dos ultimos cinco anos no Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  17. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  18. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Levantamento das condicoes de funcionamento de servicos de radiodiagnostico medico - programa de vigilancia das radiacoes ionizantes no Estado de Sao Paulo - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Moraes, Anna Cristina Andrade de [Escola de Governo e Administracao Publica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fundacao do Desenvolvimento Administrativo (FUNDAP)

    1996-12-31

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an `inspection form` of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  20. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  1. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: anamariainforme@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  2. Toxoplasma gondii isolates: multilocus RFLP-PCR genotyping from human patients in Sao Paulo State, Brazil identified distinct genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia Brandão; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Qu, Daofeng; Su, Chunlei; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii samples collected from 62 patients with toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. DNA samples were isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluids of 25 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS, two patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 12 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, six newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis and 17 pregnant women with acute infection. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was based in clinical, radiological and laboratory features. Genotyping was performed using multilocus PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Among the 62 clinical samples, 20 (32%) were successfully genotyped at eight or more genetic loci and were grouped to three distinct genotypes. Eighteen samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #65 and the other two samples were identified as ToxoDB Genotypes #6 and #71, respectively (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Patients presenting Genotypes #6 and #71 had severe and atypical cerebral toxoplasmosis, characterized by diffuse encephalitis without extensive brain lesions. These results indicate that T. gondii Genotype #65 may have a high frequency in causing human toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This unusual finding highlights the need to investigate the possible association of parasite genotypes with human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas, the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR, and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%. Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17 with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%, potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35% had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%; other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P<0.05.

  4. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  5. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  6. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  7. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  8. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  9. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  10. Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in Sao Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo

  11. Cogeneration of electric power in the sugar and alcohol sectors: registration of the power plants in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Cogeracao de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro: cadastro das usinas em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Gustavo Goncalves [Federacao das Industrias do Estado de Sao Paulo (FIESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Helemilton Rios; Silva, Edison da [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the major difficult for the planning of co-generation industry of electricity from the sugar cane bagasse is the determination of their true potential. This question comes up, especially in the lack of information about the sugar and ethanol facilities, therefore for the study of potential, we can not just focus on the issue of the cane grinding, but also in technology, the configuration of the power plant and its capacity to export energy. This paper presents a proposal to minimize this difficulty, detailing a solution dedicated to the development of a database for the registration and monitoring of these plants, part of a series of actions regarding in the Understanding Protocol for the promotion of co-generation of bagasse, signed between FIESP and the Government of the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  12. Georeferenced energy information system integrated of energetic matrix of Sao Paulo state from 2005 to 2035; Sistema de informacoes energeticas georreferenciadas integrado a matriz energetica do estado de Sao Paulo: 2005-2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, Joao Malta [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A georeferenced information system energy or simply SIEG, is designed to integrate into the energy matrix of Sao Paulo from 2005 to 2035. Being an innovative request made by the Department of Sanitation and Energy of the state, this system would have the purpose to collect and aggregate information and data from several themes, relating this content in a geographic location spatialized. The main focus of the system is the analysis of the energy sector as a whole, from generation to final consumption, through all phases such as transmission and distribution. The energy data would also be crossed with various themes of support, contributing to the development of numerous reviews and generating sound conclusions. Issues such as environment, socio-economics, infrastructure, interconnected sectors, geographical conditions and other information could be entered, viewed and linked to the system. The SIEG is also a facilitator for planning and managing the energy sector with forecast models in possible future situations. (author)

  13. Study of the optical properties of aerosols in the Sao Paulo State by LIDAR Raman technique; Estudo das propriedades opticas dos aerossois no Estado de Sao Paulo com a tecnica de LIDAR Raman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata Facundes da

    2010-07-01

    The investigation reported in this dissertation has been divided in two parts. The first part was made to carry out an independent calibration of a Raman LIDAR system for water vapor in the CLA installed using a methodology that was developed at Howard University, based on a careful analysis of the efficiency of the optical system components aimed at determining the efficiency and displaying the spectral response of the system. After this study, which led to a better understanding of the eld of instrumental system, the second part, presents a preliminary study of the optical properties of aerosols in the troposphere by evaluating parameters such as, for example, the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, SR and LR, using a mobile Raman LIDAR system developed by Raymetrics LIDAR Systems, during campaigns conducted in some research institutes in the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  14. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  15. The impacts of a more distributed of revenue in the residence consumption of electric power in the state of Sao Paulo, BR; Os impactos de uma maior distribuicao de renda no consumo residencial de eletricidade do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Conrado Augustus de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: conrado@fem.unicamp.br; Bajay, Sergio V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    To identify how much high taxes of growth of the GNP reflected in improvements of social pointers, in the case, increase of the comfort caused for the addition of the electricity consumption, is a task of great difficulty. In this way, the work uses of two methodologies to project the residential consumption in the state of Sao Paulo: 1) high scene, based mainly on high taxes of growth of the GDP e; 2) bigger electric equipment penetration in the residential sector, as repercussion of one better income distribution. As main result the work enters the impact of the reduction of the participation in 50% of classroom D/E in the total number of domiciles of the State. (author)

  16. Public policies for energy substitution in bus: the case of city of Sao Paulo; Politicas publicas para a substituicao energetica em onibus: o caso da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gregorio da Cruz; Zisman, Sandra Francis [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has been on a leading position on fossil fuel substitution in light vehicles. In 2008 and 2009, ethanol contributed with more than 50% of the light vehicle fuel's consumption. A new energetic substitution program was launched in Sao Paulo, and it can be the turning point for the fossil fuel's substitution in the segment of collective transport. This program allows the development of new fuel and engine technologies, and creates opportunities for their deployment on the collective transport market. The economic consequence is a restructuring process that affects the already established markets. There are still big uncertainties about the program's execution, and also about what will be the winning solutions of this, already started, technological race. (author)

  17. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  18. {alpha}-{alpha} interaction reexamined in the context of the Sao Paulo potential: possible applications in astrophysics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasques, L.R.; Chamon, L.C.; Botero, D.F.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DFN/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Alves, L.F.M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Rossi Junior, E.S. [Centro Universitario FIEO(UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We have analyzed a large set of {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering data for bombarding energies ranging from 0.6 to 29.5 MeV. The complete lack of open reaction channels at these somehow low energies results in a vanishing imaginary part for the optical interaction. This characteristic makes the {alpha}-{alpha} reaction particularly interesting as the corresponding elastic scattering cross sections and phase shifts become very sensitive to the real part of the interaction. The data were analyzed within the context of the velocity-dependent Sao Paulo potential, which is a successful theoretical model for the description of heavy-ion reactions from sub-barrier to intermediate energies. We have shown that, even in this low energy region, the velocity dependence of the Sao Paulo potential model is a necessary ingredient for describing the data. Despite the reasonable description obtained with the Sao Paulo potential, the analyses indicate the necessity of an additional weak dependence of the interaction on the angular momentum. These important characteristics open the possibility for studying reactions with astrophysical interested. In particular, predictions of the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction will be presented. The understanding of the reaction rate for the {alpha}-capture process by a {sup 12}C nucleus is a crucial ingredient for predicting the stellar helium burning and the subsequent fate of stars as this reaction determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen towards the end of the Red Giants phase. It is well known that low mass stars evolve to White Dwarfs and this ratio determines the final abundance composition in White Dwarf matter and sets the trigger conditions for type Ia supernova explosions. The carbon-oxygen ratio also dictates the subsequent sequence of burning processes during the final stages of stellar evolution for massive stars. Thus, it has a key role in the determination of the abundance composition in

  19. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  20. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  1. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  2. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  3. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  4. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  5. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  6. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  7. Meat Consumption in Sao Paulo – Brazil: Trend in the Last Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Martins de Carvalho; Chester Luiz Galvão César; Regina Mara Fisberg; Dirce Maria Marchioni

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. SETTING: Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey ...

  8. [Journal of the Nursing School of the University of Sao Paulo -- 36 years looking after the quality of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Angelo, Margareth; Castilho, Valéria; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo; Trzeniak, Piotr

    2004-03-01

    REEUSP has been a trimestrial journal since 1998, which publishes 11 to 13 articles per issue on different nursing subareas; most of them on teaching, health technology, adult health (in its different specialties), mental and psychiatric health. The article and research emphasis keeps on the hospital. For being linked to a teaching unit, it presents quality on its publishing; many times produced from thesis and dissertations. It faces the challenge of stimulating the publishing of authors from other institutions; for not becoming endogenous. On the last 10 years, it received and published articles from 18 Brazilian states and several country cities from Sao Paulo State. Its graphic design was also remodeled for 2003, allowing higher clearness and easiness for reading. It accepts exchange with other journals and it is indexed on many basis. It was gotten a C international classification by CAPES.

  9. Evaluation of efficiency of equipment used in the conservation of fruits and vegetables in the terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo - CEAGESP; Avaliacao da eficiencia no uso dos equipamentos de refrigeracao utilizados na conservacao de frutas e hortalicas no entreposto terminal de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP-Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Josue; Ferreira, Marcos David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI); Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Gutierrez, Anita de Souza Dias [CEAGESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Qualidade em Horticultura

    2004-07-01

    The shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be directly related to store temperature. At determined temperature and humidity a better conservation of the product can be achieve. The cold chain delays the aging, having its conservation guaranteed until the consumer. It was carried through in the Terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo- CEAGESP, a research for evaluation of the condition of the cold chambers used. The cold storage equipment evaluation was measured using the follow parameters: temperature, humidity, isolation, type of equipment used, etc. It was analyzed, chambers used for cold storage, using thermal load calculation. Apple and pears were the most stored commodities in CEAGESP, 50 % and bananas the second one (31,4%). Based in the average volume of commercialization, it was observed that 57% of the motors were over dimensioned. (author)

  10. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  11. Sao Paulo city and London architectonic epigraphs: a comparison from an information design perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lena Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study on inscriptions containing the names of architects and builders found in the façades of building in the cities of São Paulo and London. For the study, 123 architectonic epigraphs found in São Paulo city historic centre were compared with 71 inscriptions of the same kind found in the regions of Westminster and Camden, in central London. The focus of the analysis is the informational aspects of the inscriptions, including its location, size, typographic configuration and content.

  12. Adulto ostomizado del municipio Sao Paulo: un estudio sobre el costo de los equipamientos especializados

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia; Paula, Cristina Amoroso Damiani de; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2008-01-01

    O estudo objetivou analisar o custo mensal do uso de dispositivos e adjuvantes por estomizados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, realizada em dois Ambulatórios de Especialidades, em São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em 635 prontuários de pacientes estomizados adultos, atendidos em junho de 2005. Os valores dos dispositivos e adjuvantes foram obtidos em registros eletrônicos e publicações oficiais da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e seus resultados foram submetidos aos tes...

  13. Absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiographs in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Doses absorvidas pelos pacientes submetidos a radiografias toracicas em hospitais do municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de

    2000-07-01

    Medical irradiation contributes with a significant amount to the dose received by the population. Here, this contribution was evaluated in a survey of absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiological examinations (postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections) in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo. Due to the variety of equipment and procedures used in radiological examinations, a selection of hospitals was made (12, totalizing 27 X-ray facilities), taking into account their representativeness as medical institutions in the city, in terms of characteristics and number of radiographs carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom, provided with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-1 00), was irradiated simulating the patient, and the radiographic image quality was evaluated. Absorbed doses were determined to the thoracic region (entrance and exit skin and lung doses), and to some important organs from the radiation protection point of view (lens of the eye, thyroid and gonads). The great variation on the exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, beam size) leads to a large interval of entrance skin doses-ESD (coefficients of variation, CV, of 60% and 76%, for PA and LAT projections, respectively, were found) and of organ doses (CV of 60% and 46%. for thyroid and lung respectively). Mean values of ESD for LAT and PA projections were 0.22 and 0.98 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses per exam (PA and LAT) to thyroid and lung, 0.15 and 0.24 mGy respectively,showed that the thyroid was irradiated by the primary beam in many cases. Values of lens of the eye and gonad absorbed doses were below 30 {mu}Gy. Comparison of the lung doses obtained in this study with values in the literature, calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, showed good agreement. On the other hand, the comparison shows significant differences in the dose values to organs outside the chest region (thyroid, lens of eye and gonads). The effective dose calculated for a chest examination, PA and

  14. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  15. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  16. Introduction and expansion of human American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Rodas, Lilian A Colebrusco; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Oliveira, Agda Maria; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the spread of human American visceral leishmaniasis and identify the key municipalities for developing surveillance and control activities. The area of the study was composed of the 316 municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo belonging to the five health districts in which human American visceral leishmaniasis occurs, using data on autochthonous cases and deaths according to the reporting year and municipality in which the death occurred. The incidence, mortality and case fatality rates for each municipality and for the entire area were calculated. An empirical Bayes estimator was used to calculate the local Bayesian incidence and rates of mortality per municipality, and Kriging was used to visualize the spatial distribution of temperature and rainfall. A total of 73 municipalities with transmission of the disease were identified. Human American visceral leishmaniasis was first detected in areas with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, but it also spread in cooler and wetter areas. The expansion of human American visceral leishmaniasis occurred along a main axis of dissemination, from Northwest to Southeast, following the Marechal Rondon highway and the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline, and along a secondary axis that was derived from the main axis, which runs both North and South, following the highway network. Rates of incidence according to health district exhibit a peak, followed by a fall, except the Sao Jose do Rio Preto region. Higher concentrations of municipalities with high incidence and mortality rates were observed in the Araçatuba, Presidente Prudente and Marília health districts. This study indicates possible determinants of the spread of disease, including the Marechal Rondon highway and the construction of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline. Climatic factors seemed to play no role in the spread. The use of spatial analysis techniques allowed the municipalities where cases and deaths are possibly underreported to be identified, which

  17. Coulthard, M. 1991. Linguagem e sexo. Sao Paulo: EditoraAtica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Buchweitz Garcez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discutir o sexo dos anjos podenio ser urn empreendimento tic intitil como sempre pareceu. Dessa forma, perguntar por que falamos de "Homens" quando nos referimos a toda a humanidade incluindo as mulheres ou perguntar por que afinal Deus 6 "ele", e nao "ela" ou "aquilo", significa refletir sobre as conseqiiencias para a sociedade da escolha (intencional? do genero masculino como o genero näo marcado. Significa, tambem, refletir sobre as linguagens faladas por homens e mulheres, se elas silo diferentes entre si e quais sic, as diferencas; e, uma vez constatadas as diferencas, refletir sobre como elas se manifestam, de onde vem e quais sao seas conseqUencias. Esse 6 objetivo de Malcolm Coulthard em Linguagem e Sexo: mostrar as diferencas lingufsticas relacionadas ao sexo do falante.

  18. Financing structure for the hydroelectric sector: the Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP case; Estrutura de financiamento do setor hidreletrico: o caso da CESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Thomaz Garcez

    1987-12-31

    The objective of this dissertation is to study the financial resources made use by Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP - for its implantation and later expansion, during the period of 1967 to 1980. The motivation in developing this subject originated of CESP`s importance in the Brazilian electric power sector. The dissertation is divided into three chapters. The first chapter describes the power sector in the state of Sao Paulo before CESP`s creation and after its consolidation. The second chapter studies some matter that shows the importance of company in the Brazilian power sector. In the third chapter, we study the performance of own resources and the third resources in CESP`s financing. At the end of the study the most important conclusion is that the own resources, more than third resources, were the prime motive liable in CESP`s financing during the period. (author) 102 refs., 23 figs.

  19. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in

  20. Changes in the spatial distribution of ozone, NO and CO in different vehicular emission scenarios in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquetto, J. B.; Silva, M. E. S.; Ynoue, R.; Cabral-Miranda, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) has been investigated using the WRF/Chem model version 3.2.1 in a 1X1 km emission grid. Based on a local emission inventory, a control simulation (CTRL) was performed for the period 28/01-02/02/2014, during a summer season characterized by intense solar radiation and temperature positive anomalies, which resulted in high pollutant concentration. Sensitivity tests were performed using different vehicular emission scenarios and CTRL. In scenario A), emissions were removed from a region which encompasses almost the entire urban area of the SPMA, only roads in the outskirts had regular emissions. Comparing scenario A) to CTRL, sharp decreases in CO, NO and NO2 were observed inside the SPMA. Ozone decreased slighlty during the day, probably due to the significant absence of precursor emissions which form ozone during the day in the presence of sunlight. On the other hand, ozone concentrations increased at night, influenced by the absence of ozone-consuming precursors inside the densely urbanized SPMA, in the absence of sunlight. In scenario B), we removed emissions from a smaller area, corresponding roughly to an expanded downtown area (where a few traffic restriction laws operate). The goal of this scenario was to observe possible impacts if more strict traffic restriction laws were implemented. In scenario C), emissions were decreased by 50% in the same area, in an attempt to characterize concentrations in an urban toll scenario. Results from scenarios B) and C) showed a decrease in NO, NO2 and CO, but less intense than in scenario A). On the other hand, a higher increase in ozone was detected both during the day and at night compared to the CTRL and scenario A). These results suggests that, along with lower concentrations of precursor gases and CO, higher ozone concentrations are likely to be expected in downtown Sao Paulo if more severe traffic restriction laws should be implemented. This is concerning

  1. Streptococcus pyogenes strains in Sao Paulo, Brazil: molecular characterization as a basis for StreptInCor coverage capacity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi de Barros, Samar; De Amicis, Karine Marafigo; Alencar, Raquel; Smeesters, Pierre Robert; Trunkel, Ariel; Postól, Edilberto; Almeida Junior, João Nóbrega; Rossi, Flavia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Kalil, Jorge; Guilherme, Luiza

    2015-08-05

    Several human diseases are caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, ranging from common infections to autoimmunity. Characterization of the most prevalent strains worldwide is a useful tool for evaluating the coverage capacity of vaccines under development. In this study, a collection of S. pyogenes strains from Sao Paulo, Brazil, was analyzed to describe the diversity of strains and assess the vaccine coverage capacity of StreptInCor. Molecular epidemiology of S. pyogenes strains was performed by emm-genotyping the 229 isolates from different clinical sites, and PCR was used for superantigen profile analysis. The emm-pattern and tissue tropism for these M types were also predicted and compared based on the emm-cluster classification. The strains were fit into 12 different emm-clusters, revealing a diverse phylogenetic origin and, consequently, different mechanisms of infection and escape of the host immune system. Forty-eight emm-types were distinguished in 229 samples, and the 10 most frequently observed types accounted for 69 % of all isolates, indicating a diverse profile of circulating strains comparable to other countries under development. A similar proportion of E and A-C emm-patterns were observed, whereas pattern D was less frequent, indicating that the strains of this collection primarily had a tissue tropism for the throat. In silico analysis of the coverage capacity of StreptInCor, an M protein-conserved regionally based vaccine candidate developed by our group, had a range of 94.5 % to 59.7 %, with a mean of 71.0 % identity between the vaccine antigen and the predicted amino acid sequence of the emm-types included here. This is the first report of S. pyogenes strain characterization in Sao Paulo, one of the largest cities in the world; thus, the strain panel described here is a representative sample for vaccine coverage capacity analysis. Our results enabled evaluation of StreptInCor candidate vaccine coverage capacity against diverse M-types, indicating

  2. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  3. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city; Analise de liquens por ativacao neutronica para estudo da poluicao atmosferica da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: alessandrafuga@yahoo.com.br; Marcelli, Marcelo P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia]. E-mail: mpmarcelli@superig.com.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at {mu}g g{sup -1} levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g{sup -1} levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  4. Implementation of the integrated planning process of energy resources in the administrative region of the Aracatuba in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Implementacao do processo de planejamento integrado de recursos energeticos na regiao administrativa de Aracatuba no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jonathas Luiz de Oliveira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Novos Instrumentos para o Planejamento Energetico Regional Visando o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel' considers, through the Integrated energy Resources Planning - IRP -, to identify to the necessities and strategical expectations for the region and the elaboration of business-oriented plans in distributed resources, to evaluate the economic potential of these resources and to develop strategical projects aiming to reach the sustainable development of the west region of Sao Paulo state. Structuralized to get information organized and reliable in order to help the decision being aimed at the sustainable development and evidencing the benefits of an ample or holistic vision suggested by the IRP, the methodology of work consider phases as the consolidation of resources and technologies, research of field, determination of the potential, accomplishment of the IRP with the evaluation of the complete costs (economical, environmental, social and political respects). The study of the region points at energy resources, as much for expansion of offers as for substitution of the existing ones, considering its social, environmental respects as much as economical and political, placing them of form if to classify in space, through the geo-referring; and classifying them qualitatively, taking itself in account all characteristics previously raised. (author)

  5. Electrical efficiency: case study of electric motors at machines room of a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo; Eficiencia eletrica: estudo de caso dos motores eletricos da sala de maquinas de um frigorifico no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Conselho Integrado de Infraestrutura Rural], E-mail: rossi@agri.unicamp.br; Silva, Roberto P.B. da; Barros, Regiane S. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    To estimate the potential for energy saving in cold compressor motor of a food industry, a study was conducted in a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo. It was analyzed only the engine room of the company because according to measurements this one corresponds approximately 97% of all electricity consumption of the unit. It was found that the electrical efficiency indices were low, demonstrating the possibilities for adoption of conservation measures and the rationalization of electric energy. It was evident that the establishment of an efficiency study to change the electrical equipment used was feasible and, therefore, was demonstrated and proposed a new arrangement for the current system. Soon after the diagnosis of the use of electricity was found that from the six Machinery, five were oversized. Then it was suggested to replace these machines by others with lower power and greater efficiency, as well as conducted an analysis of technical and economic feasibility of the project, demonstrating the possibilities for the rational use of energy and the optimization of financial resources company (author)

  6. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  7. Dose evaluation for periapical radiographs in the city of Limeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil;Avaliacao de dose para radiografias periapicais na cidade de Limeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Melquisedec O. da [Vigilancia Sanitaria de Limeira, SP (Brazil); Leite, Marina S.; Costa, Alessandro M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Ghillardi Netto, Thomaz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2009-07-01

    In this work a study of the entrance surface air kerma for periapical radiographs in the city of Limeira, Sao Paulo state, was carried out. Measurements were performed in ten X-ray equipment for periapical radiographs. The values obtained were compared with the diagnostic reference level recommended in national regulation and has suggested a local diagnostic reference level of 2.70 mGy. (author)

  8. Temporal evaluation of radiation detection system, used by the division of radiation protection of the Navy Technological Centre in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Acosta, Clarice de Freitas; Ikari, Andreza Iris R.; Ferreira, Marcio de Oliveira; Alves, Henrique da Silva; Duarte, Marcelo Antonio [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents a temporal evaluation of the radiation detection system used by in division of radiation protection of the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. About fifty efficiencies results of the system were compiled over the last two years for this purpose. Less than 1% of the standard deviation was found for both portable and fixed detectors, which indicates a significant stability of the detection system used in CTMSP over the period analyzed. (author)

  9. Survival After Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Subway System: First Successful Targeted Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Program in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Vianna, Caio Brito; Monteiro Alves, Maurício; Timerman, Sergio; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Kern, Karl B

    2015-10-09

    Targeted automated external defibrillator (AED) programs have improved survival rates among patients who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in US airports, as well as European and Japanese railways. The Sao Paulo (Brazil) Metro subway carries 4.5 million people per day. A targeted AED program was begun in the Sao Paulo Metro with the objective to improve survival from cardiac arrest. A prospective, longitudinal, observational study of all cardiac arrests in the Sao Paulo Metro was performed from September 2006 through November 2012. This study focused on cardiac arrest by ventricular arrhythmias, and the primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge with minimal neurological impairment. A total of 62 patients had an initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. Because no data on cardiac arrest treatment or outcomes existed before beginning this project, the first 16 months of the implementation was used as the initial experience and compared with the subsequent 5 years of full operation. Return of spontaneous circulation was not different between the initial 16 months and the subsequent 5 years (6 of 8 [75%] vs. 39 of 54 [72%]; P=0.88). However, survival to discharge was significantly different once the full program was instituted (0 of 8 vs. 23 of 54 [43%]; P=0.001). Implementation of a targeted AED program in the Sao Paulo Metro subway system saved lives. A short interval between arrest and defibrillation was key for good long-term, neurologically intact survival. These results support strategic expansion of targeted AED programs in other large Latin American cities. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  11. Risk factors associated with hemoglobin levels and nutritional status among Brazilian children attending daycare centers in Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Mariana; Martorell, Reynaldo; Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-03-01

    Like many other developing countries, Brazil has been going a nutritional transition which presence both malnutrition and overweight. Stunting and overweight are the major public health problems in Brazilian children. The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of stunting, overweight and anemia in preschool children and examine if those nutritional problems are related; also identify if these nutritional problems have the same risk factors. Data from the "Efficient Daycare Center Project" which include 270 children attending nurseries of eight daycare centers in Sao Paulo city, Brazil were used for this study. Data on height and weight were converted to z-scores using WHO anthro software. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were determined on finger-prick blood samples. The co-occurrence of stunting, overweight and anemia was investigated by contingency tables a log-linear model. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the association of HAZ, WAZ, WHZ and Hb levels with their risk factors. The results showed high prevalence of overweight (22.2%), risk of stunting (22.6%) and anemia (37%). Percent of daycare attendance, age, number of siblings under 5 years old and per capita income are associated with Hb levels. This study provides evidence that Brazil is going through a nutritional transition and suggest that the adoption of public policies to expand and improve services in daycare centers may help to prevent multi-nutritional problems in preschool children.

  12. Toxic metal, micro and macronutrient assessment in fish most consumed by Iguape community, Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vieira, Andre S.; Bordon, Isabella C.A.C., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br, E-mail: isabella.bordon@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Farias, Luciana A., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2013-07-01

    It is well-known that, fish is an important source of protein for populations around the world. As such, fish consumption has increased because it is a healthy and low cholesterol source of protein and other nutrients. The city of Iguape, in the extreme south of the Sao Paulo State coast, is located in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest region. During the last two centuries the city suffered from drastic environmental changes, reinforcing the importance of environmental monitoring in this region. In the present study, 23 samples of the three most consumed fish species by the Iguape city population were analyzed. Fish samples were bought at local markets, conditioned in isothermic boxes in crushed ice (-4 deg C) and then identified before registering the biometric information (total length, total weight and body weight). The following micro and macronutrients As, Br, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentration in muscle from 02 predatory fish species Macrodon ancylodon (King weakfish - Pescada) and Centropomus parallelus (Fat snook - Robalo peba) and one detritivorus species: Anchoviella lepidentostole (Broadband anchovy - Manjuba) were assessed by INAA. Toxic metals Cd, Hg and Pb were also evaluated by AAS. Statistical correlation between element concentrations and fish species were tested. (author)

  13. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-11-01

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Integrated energy resources planning for Sao Paulo state region; Proposicao para o interior paulista do planejamento integrado de recursos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Ino, William Takanori; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work has in view the elaboration of projections based on IRP (Integrated Energy Resources Planning) in order to propose an alternative of sustainable development to one region of the State of Sao Paulo. Using the data of the region, gathered in the past years by several researches of the GEPEA-USP, scenarios of the development and consume of energy have been created. In these scenarios, two possibilities to supply the demand of the region were considered: energy of clean sources and/or renewable as well as energy of sources that have lower costs. In order to simulate the behavior of several factors of the offer and demand, the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) has been used. Both scenarios have vantages and disadvantages, but the clean sources scenario certainly could supply the needs of the region for the next twenty years. Uncertainties in longer periods make the forecasts no much reliable, because changes in both, demand and offer, could invalidate the study. The best is an accompaniment of the sector's behavior in order to make shorter projections, ten years for example, to set the generator estate and policies of consumption. Long forecasts are good to show the limits of the system and the reserve to preview emergency situations as occurred in 2001 with shortness of water supply and consequently broke of energy catering. (author)

  15. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  18. Calculations on the threshold anomaly of weakly bound projectiles with Sao Paulo and Woods-Saxon polarization potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Camacho, A; Aguilera, E F; Martinez-Quiroz, E [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gomes, P R S; Lubian, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminenese, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, cep 24210-340 (Brazil); Canto, L F, E-mail: arturo.gomez@inin.gob.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro, R.J., cep 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A thorough study of the energy dependence of the nuclear optical potential in reactions involving the weakly bound projectiles {sup 8}B, {sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li on the target {sup 58}Ni and {sup 9}Be on {sup 27}Al is carried out by performing a {chi}{sup 2}-analysis of recent measurements of elastic scattering cross sections for energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. For this purpose two different potential types are used: the double folding Sao Paulo potential and the Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations performed for the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the polarization potentials show that these potentials besides satisfying the dispersion relation, for some nuclear systems the uncertainties on the energy dependence of the polarization potentials allow to conclude that these systems present a behavior consistent with the Breakup Theshold Anomaly. In other cases, due to the large uncertainties, it is not possible to make a definitive conclusion about the anomalies.

  19. The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jaqueline S; Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; Ferreira, Marizete M da C; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. RESULTS The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not.

  20. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  1. Proposal of lead time reduction in the thermoelectric products line of a small company in the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veríssimo Soulé

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM is a way manufacturing companies may increase their flexibility. Manufacturing flexibility is a key to differentiation and enhancement of competitiveness. There is few empirical research on the topic of how small and medium-sized enterprises (SME may benefit from QRM, what may impact the appropriation of this approach by these important actors of our economy. This article aims to present the results of a project which applied QRM to reduce the lead time of a small company located in the state of Sao Paulo. It was proposed to a balance the throughputs of slow operations, reducing 50% of production batches; b implement cellular manufacturing and improvements in the management of Work In Process, using the POLCA system and visual management; c implement an integrated sales and operations planning (S&OP and rules for prioritization of orders. It was identified that the proposal would generate a lead time reduction from 39 to 21.3 days and a decrease of at least 51% in the raw materials stock costs. During the research, the following conclusions could be drawn: a problems in management, investment capacity and relationship with suppliers are frequent in family-owned SMEs; b QRM approach can be adapted to work within this environment; c the knowledge developed in academia can be an important tool to help family-owned SMEs to supplant these obstacles.

  2. Coaching and Mentoring as a Tool for Internal Customer Focus: A Regional Study in Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Oste Graziano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research had as objective identifies the dimensions involved in the implementation of Coaching, for the manager's performance as manager close to your team, in real situation of work; the study includes the same investigation in relation to Mentoring, taking as study people's that work area of São Paulo focus. The data collected in the research they were collected through a questionnaire with open and closed subjects. The research showed as results of the pertinent subjects to the coaching and the mentoring that the great majority, or almost all had some training type, that happened in group, with the managers' presence just in the beginning and adding 8 hours, could end like this with that subject that in the researched respondents the work of the coaching is accomplished inside of the retail organizations. Concerning the mentoring, it can be concluded that she is inside present of the organization and it is represented by the leader. 

  3. Evolucao dos precos relativos de grupos alimentares entre 1939 e 2010, em Sao Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yuka Yuba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução dos preços relativos dos grupos de produtos alimentares e sua influência nas políticas públicas para uma alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do município de São Paulo de 1939 a 2010, a partir da aplicação de métodos de cálculo de números-índices. Foram utilizados dados do banco de preços e estruturas de ponderação da Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (1939 a 1988 e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (1989 a 2010. O banco de preços foi organizado, sua consistência foi testada e os preços foram deflacionados pelo Índice de Preços ao Consumidor. Os dados relativos a preços deflacionados foram calculados e agregados por categorias e grupos alimentares da pirâmide alimentar adaptada. Os índices de preços de cada grupo foram construídos aplicando a fórmula de Laspeyres modificada. O índice geral de preços da alimentação foi comparado com índices de cada grupo alimentar e respectiva categoria: alimentos in natura; alimentos industrializados; bebidas; carnes, leguminosas, leite e ovos; cereais e tubérculos; e refeições fora do domicílio. RESULTADOS: Os grupos alimentares de gorduras, óleos, condimentos, açúcares e alimentos processados (alimentos industrializados apresentaram tendência de redução de preços em termos relativos. O índice dos alimentos in natura, como frutas e verduras, apresentaram tendência de elevação de preços. Outros grupos alimentares, como cereais, farinhas e massas, carnes, leite e ovos, apresentaram estabilidade de preços relativos ao longo do tempo. CONCLUSÕES: A evolução dos preços relativos dos alimentos no município de São Paulo mostra tendência desfavorável à manutenção da alimentação saudável em nível domiciliar em longo prazo.

  4. Hydrobiological aspects of Paraibuna and Paraitinga dams. Sao Paulo, with emphasis on phytoplankton community; Aspectos hidrobiologicos do complexo de represas Paraibuna-Paraitinga, Sao Paulo, com enfase na comunidade fitoplanctonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Janara de Camargo

    2010-07-01

    The inland waters are less on the Earth's surface and are extremely important for the survival of living things, why the concern for quality increases daily. The dams Paraibuna and Paraitinga, located in Paraibuna city, state of Sao Paulo, totaling 224 km{sup 2} of extension of water surface, with the current function of generating electricity. In order to analyze the water quality of these dams, this paper presents a diagnostic physical, chemical, and biological, which was used in the phytoplankton community and calculation of quality indexes. Four samples were taken at nine sampling points distributed along the dams. The physical and chemical analysis of water showed low concentrations of nutrients such as nitrate (mean 0,42 {+-} 0,23 mg.L{sup -1} and phosphate (<0,05 mg.L{sup -1}). Most metals and trace elements analyzed were within the limit established by federal law. The element phosphorus (mean 0,0293 {+-} 0,0153 mg.L{sup -1}) is presented above the values established by CONAMA Resolution 357/05 (0,020 mg.L{sup -1}) on all sampling points in the month of May, but this fact did not seem to influence the phytoplankton amount. High levels of dissolved oxygen and transparency, low levels of turbidity, conductivity and dissolved solids, pH close to neutrality, together with high diversity and low dominance of phytoplankton, with a predominance of green algae, showed that the dams still retain features of aquatic environment preserved, which suffer little influence of anthropogenic factors. However, the presence, even at low densities, of cyanobacteria and the existence of plantations and livestock activities in the borders of these dams deserve special attention in terms of their correct management to not become harmful factors to the quality of those waters. (author)

  5. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data; Comparacao da concentracao de selenio em soro sanguineo da populacao de idosos da cidade de Sao Paulo com os dados da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-07-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -}'2 s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of {sup 75}Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92{+-}0.07) {mu}mol L{sup -1} was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 {mu}mol L-1. (author)

  6. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

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    Breen Gerome

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response.

  7. Epidemiology of septic arthritis of the knee at Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo

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    Camilo Partezani Helito

    Full Text Available Background: Septic arthritis is an infrequent disease although very important due to the possibility of disastrous outcomes if treatment is not adequately established. Adequate information concerning the epidemiology of septic arthritis is still lacking due to the uncommon nature of the disease as well as the struggle to establish a correct case-definition. Objective: To epidemiologically characterize the population seen at Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo with a diagnosis of septic arthritis between 2006 and 2011. Methods: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the knee between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics, the microorganisms that caused the infection and the patients' treatment and evolution were analyzed. Results: Septic arthritis of the knee was more common among men, with distribution across a variety of age ranges. Most diagnoses were made through positive synovial fluid cultures. The most prevalent clinical comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and the most commonly reported joint disease was osteoarthritis. Staphylococcus aureus was the prevailing pathogen. Fever was present in 36% of the cases. All patients presented elevation in inflammatory tests. Gram staining was positive in only 50.8% of the synovial fluid samples analyzed. Six patients presented complications and unfavorable evolution of their condition. Conclusion: S. aureus is still the most common pathogen in acute knee infections in our environment. Gram staining, absence of fever and normal leukocyte count cannot be used to rule out septic arthritis.

  8. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH

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    Lotufo Paulo A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively. Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively. No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia.

  9. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

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    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  10. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  11. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

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    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  12. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  13. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

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    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  14. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

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    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  15. The first experiments with the Microtron injector of IF/USP - Inst. of Physics of the Sao Paulo University, Brazil

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    Vanin, Vito R.; Maidana, Nora L.; Lopez Pino, Neivy; Jahnke, Viktor [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Fernandez-Varea, J.M. [Universid de Barcelona (Spain); Sempau, J. [Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The first accelerating structures of the Sao Paulo microtron accelerator presently deliver a CW 1.8 MeV electron beam, which can be used in atomic physics studies. A beam line with focalization quadrupole magnets, energy analysing dipole magnet with a collimator, irradiation chamber, movable target system, and Faraday cup was developed. A beam monitor based on optical transition radiation was developed and will be presented in another session in this conference; here, we will show the experimental results of the two experiments performed with the Microtron electron beam. One of the experiments consists in measuring the K-shell ionization cross-section by electron impact in a thin Au target. The cross-section can be deduced from the Au K X-Rays production rate, measured with a HPGe X-ray detector positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the beam direction. The electron current is integrated in a Keithley picoamperimeter, and the target surface mass-density measured by gravimetry. This target was chosen to check the experimental method, since the Au cross-section is well known. The other experiment is the measurement of the angular distribution of the Bremsstrahlung energy spectra, using a silver target. The energy spectra is obtained using a HPGe gamma-ray detector, for three different angles: 30, 60 and 90 degrees with respect to the beam direction. The obtained spectra are unfolded, using a response function obtained by simulation, with some parameters fitted to the experimental response function measured with a Cs-137 activity-calibrated radioactive source. (author)

  16. Study of socio environmental actions of Energy and Nuclear Research Institute of Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: rmutarelli@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Over the years the evolution of environmental concept comes solidifying increasingly through programs, conferences and various activities taking place in Brazil and worldwide. As a result of this development, sustainability and social responsibility began to be seen as something present in day to day business and institutions. In particular, the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), state authority associated with University of Sao Paulo (USP) and managed by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), subordinate the Ministry of Science and Technology, which is the focus of this work, has the mission the commitment to society as regards: improving the quality of life of the population, producing scientific knowledge, developing technologies, generating products and services and training human resources in nuclear and related. Based on the mission of IPEN and in the lack of assessment tools of social actions, this paper aims to propose an instrument for assessing social responsibility and serve as a methodological option, strongly committed to the pursuit of improvements of IPEN. Through indicators and dimensions, built up a methodology that seeks to assess social responsibility and identify strengths, to be encouraged and weaknesses, which can be studied and improved. This methodology was applied to IPEN and the results that are presented in this work identified positives regarding their actions to their domestic audience and points to be improved in relation to their external audience. As an initial evaluation, the results were satisfactory; however, this work will continue in order to suggest the implementation of social and environmental actions feasible to be applied in IPEN. (author)

  17. Fluorose dentaria em criancas de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998-2010

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    Paulo Capel Narvai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência de prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças de 12 anos em contexto de exposição a múltiplas fontes de flúor. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se análise de tendência da prevalência de fluorose dentária no período de 1998 a 2010 na cidade de São Paulo, SP. As prevalências foram calculadas para diferentes anos (1998, 2002, 2008 e 2010, a partir de dados secundários obtidos em levantamentos epidemiológicos com amostras representativas da população de 12 anos de idade. A ocorrência de fluorose foi avaliada sob luz natural utilizando o índice de Dean, preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e categorizada em normal, questionável, muito leve, leve, moderada e severa. Em 1998 foram examinadas 125 crianças; 249 em 2002; 4.085 em 2008; e 231 em 2010. RESULTADOS: Em 1998 a prevalência de fluorose foi de 43,8% (IC95%35,6;52,8, em 2002 de 33,7% (IC95% 28,2;39,8, de 40,3% (IC95% 38,8;41,8 em 2008 e de 38,1% (IC95% 32,1;44,5 em 2010. As categorias muito leve + leve registraram 38,4% (IC95%30,3;47,6 em 1998, 32,1% (IC95% 26,6;38,2 em 2002, 38,0% (IC95% 36,5;39,5 em 2008 e 36,4% (IC95%30,4;42,7 em 2010. Não se observou fluorose severa com significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças paulistanas pode ser classificada como estacionária no período de 1998 a 2010, tanto em geral quanto ao se considerarem apenas as categorias muito leve + leve.

  18. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  19. Determinantes sociais da saude e o Programa Saude da Familia no municipio de Sao Paulo

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    Tatiana Pluciennik Dowbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a situação do trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde no âmbito do Programa Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo de caso com métodos mistos de pesquisa, ancorados em estratégia sequencial explanatória, com 171 gerentes das unidades do Programa Saúde da Família em São Paulo, SP, em 2005/2006. Questionários autopreenchíveis foram aplicados. Entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais foram realizados com amostra intencional de profissionais envolvidos no trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por análise descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla, análise de agrupamento e testes de correlação entre variáveis. Os dados qualitativos foram apurados por análise de conteúdo e a criação de categorias temáticas. RESULTADOS Apesar da concentração de atividades direcionadas ao cuidado com a doença, o Programa Saúde da Família realizou atividades relacionadas à determinação social da saúde, contemplando todas as formas de abordagem da promoção da saúde (biológico, comportamental, psicológico, social e estrutural e os principais determinantes sociais da saúde descritos na literatura. Houve diferença significativa quanto à abrangência dos determinantes trabalhados nas unidades em relação às diferentes regiões do município. Constatou-se fragilidade das iniciativas e a sua desconexão com a estrutura programática do Programa Saúde da Família. CONCLUSÕES A quantidade e variedade de atividades com determinantes sociais da saúde realizadas no Programa Saúde da Família mostram potencial para trabalhar a determinação social da saúde. Mas a fluidez de objetivo e o caráter extraordinário das atividades descritas questionam sua sustentabilidade como parte integral da atual estrutura organizacional do programa.

  20. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  1. Methodology of post-occupation energetic evaluation: case study of a building of the commercial and services sector of Sao Paulo city, Southeast Brazil; Metodologia de avaliacao pos-ocupacao energetica: caso de um edificio do setor de comercio e servicos da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Romero, Marcelo de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Pratini, Edison F. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents a methodology for the post-occupational energetic evaluation and shows the application in a case study in Sao Paulo city. In this case study it was considered the building performance throughout its service life in what concerns physical aspects, as well as, functional aspects and users behaviour, as these are factors which combines result in the final energetic performance of the building. Recommendations for performance improvement were presented 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  2. The Rio de Janeiro - Sao Paulo pipeline: the interests onset in the emptiness of the energy and regional development federal politics; Oleoduto Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo: embate de interesses no vazio da politica federal de energia e de desenvolvimento regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    The PETROBRAS project in constructing a pipeline between the Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo states originated a dispute of strategic interests between the PETROBRAS and the Rio de Janeiro state. However, the relevant dimension in this dispute is the absence of a Brazilian politics for the development of refining as an important thruster of regional development; this theme deserve to be inserted in the Brazilian energy politic agenda.

  3. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  4. Professor Ernst Bresslau, founder of the Zoology Departments at the Universities of Cologne and Sao Paulo: lessons to learn from his life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Hans-Joachim

    2017-06-01

    In this article, the life history of the founding father of the departments of Zoology at the Universities of Cologne and Sao Paulo, Prof. Ernst Bresslau, is described on occasion of the establishing of the "Ernst Bresslau Guest Professorship" at the University of Cologne. His main scientific achievements are discussed, in particular his research on the evolutionary origin of the mammary apparatus, in addition to his broad interest in biological topics. Among the many technical advancements that he introduced was the micro slow-motion camera developed together with the Zeiss Company which allowed to film ciliary beats at high speeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Urbanización de asentamientos informales en Sao Paulo de 2005 a 2012. Participación comunitaria y resultados

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane Lugli, Verónica Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    En la búsqueda de una ciudad deseable para vivir, una ciudad de todos y todas y para todos y todas, las pequeñas acciones constituyen un gran movimiento impulsor. En este estudio procuramos reconocer, definir y ponderar las aportaciones del vecindario de los barrios informales de Sao Paulo (la ciudad más poblada de Brasil) entre los años 2005 y 2012, a sus procesos de urbanización e identificar y cuantificar la importancia de la participación ciudadana para el éxito de la propuesta urbanístic...

  6. Agricultural production and sustainable development in a Brazilian region (Southwest, Sao Paulo State): motivations and barriers to adopting sustainable and ecologically friendly practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, A. E.; De Castro, R.; Jabbour, C. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the adoption level of practices associated with more sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices. Additionally, the motivations for and barriers to the adoption of these practices by farmers are investigated. Data were collected through...... closed questionnaires taken by a random sample of farmers in the Southwest, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the second half of 2013. Overall, sustainable agricultural practices recommended in the literature and analysed in this study are being not fully adopted by farmers of the studied area. The results...

  7. Comparação entre diferentes fontes de dados sobre homicídios no município de São Paulo Comparing distinct homicides database for Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kilsztajn

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo compara dados de homicídios de residentes no município de São Paulo entre 1996 e 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim, Fundação Seade e Ministério da Saúde; e de homicídios por distrito de residência da vítima no município de São Paulo em 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim e pela Fundação Seade. Foram considerados homicídios os óbitos por agressão; intervenção legal e eventos de intenção não determinada causados por disparo de arma de fogo e por contato com objeto cortante/penetrante ou contundente. A diferença entre os números da Fundação Seade e do Ministério da Saúde é desprezível, mas a diferença entre os números do Pro-aim e da Fundação Seade para homicídios de residentes ocorridos na capital em 2000 é expressiva para muitos distritos do município de São Paulo. Além disso, o Pro-aim não registra óbitos de residentes na capital ocorridos em outro município. As análises da taxa de homicídio por distrito do município de São Paulo que utilizam dados do Pro-aim podem levar a resultados muito diferentes das que utilizam dados da Fundação Seade.The article compares city (Pro-aim, state (Fundação Seade and federal (Ministério da Saúde data for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city between 1996 and 2000; and Pro-aim and Fundação Seade data for homicides per district in Sao Paulo municipality, in 2000. As homicides were considered deaths caused by assault, legal intervention and events of undetermined intent caused by firearm discharge and contact with sharp or blunt objects. The difference between Fundação Seade and Ministério da Saúde data is worthless. But the difference between Pro-aim and Fundação Seade numbers for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city in 2000 has statistical significance for a large number of districts. Furthermore, Pro-aim does not record deaths of residents in Sao Paulo city occurred in other cities. Analysis of homicide rates per district in Sao Paulo city that

  8. Guidelines for the development and environmental protection of the outcrop area in the Guarani aquifer system in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Diretrizes para o desenvolvimento e protecao ambiental da area de afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburquerque Filho, J. L.; Carvalho, A. M. de; Ikematsu, P.; Costa Barbosa, M.; Iritani, M.; Nogueira Pressinoti, M. M.; Rocha, G.; Pereira Militao da Silva, M.; Theodorovicz, A.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) is an important public water source. The unconfined areas are those where the aquifer is more vulnerable to contamination, justifying the creation of a Protection and Recovery Source Area (Area de Protecao e Recuperacao de Manancial - APRM), as established in Act 9.866/97 of Sao Paulo State. We present here the results of the project Environmental Diagnosis in Support of the Plan for the Development and Environmental Protection Plan of the Outcrop Area of the Guarani Aquifer System in Sao Paulo State (Plano de Desenvolvimento e Protecao Ambiental da Area de Afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no Estado de Sao Paulo PDPA-SAG) and describe the areas of intervention defined by this law. The characterization of the area studied focuses on the physical and socio-economic aspects of the region, in addition to the pertinent legislation. Partial results indicate that the condition of the aquifer is satisfactory, but territorial discipline continues to be of prime importance. (Author)

  9. Effects of vinasse accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs of water used for washing cane sugar in water resources in Dobrada municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Efeitos da estocagem de vinhaca e das aguas de lavagem da cana-de-acucar na qualidade dos recursos hidricos da regiao de Dobrada, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabadia, Jose Antonio Beltrao; Reboucas, Aldo da Cunha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1996-12-31

    This work shows the results of a monitoring carried out in an area of about 21 km{sup 2}, Dobrada Municipality, central west region of the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), where the impacts in ground water and surface water were evaluated by the infiltration and percolation of vinasse and water used for washing cane sugar, through accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs, respectively, in areas of Bauru Aquifer (Cretaceous). The Bauru Aquifer, free and porous, occurs in a extended area of 104.000 km{sup 2} in Sao Paulo State, as a major exploitable aquifer (more than 15.000 wells), used for domestic and industrial water supplies. For the groundwater, the following measures were found in analyses exceeding drinking water standards (WHO; CONAMA/Brazil and Sao Paulo State): manganese (0,03 to 3,5 mg/l), iron (0.45 to 34 mg/l), aluminum (1 to 52 mg/l) and phosphate (0,03 to 0.38 mg/l). For superficial water, the following measures exceeded drinking water standards: total iron (3 mg/l) and phosphate (0,035 mg/l). The main purpose of this research is to improve the field methodology to characterize the impacts of vinasse and washing water of cane sugar infiltration/percolation., detaching the relationship between ground and surface water, with the major aim to supply the legislation to protect drinking water resources. (author) 11 refs.

  10. Cost of production of live attenuated dengue vaccines: a case study of the Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, R T; Francis, D P; Frazatti-Gallina, N M; Precioso, A R; Raw, I; Watler, P; Whitehead, P; Whitehead, S S

    2012-07-06

    A vaccine to prevent dengue disease is urgently needed. Fortunately, a few tetravalent candidate vaccines are in the later stages of development and show promise. But, if the cost of these candidates is too high, their beneficial potential will not be realized. The price of a vaccine is one of the most important factors affecting its ultimate application in developing countries. In recent years, new vaccines such as those for human papilloma virus and pneumococcal disease (conjugate vaccine) have been introduced with prices in developed countries exceeding $50 per dose. These prices are above the level affordable by developing countries. In contrast, other vaccines such as those against Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2 strain vaccine) and meningitis type A have prices in developing countries below one dollar per dose, and it is expected that their introduction and use will proceed more rapidly. Because dengue disease is caused by four related viruses, vaccines must be able to protect against all four. Although there are several live attenuated dengue vaccine candidates under clinical evaluation, there remains uncertainty about the cost of production of these tetravalent vaccines, and this uncertainty is an impediment to rapid progress in planning for the introduction and distribution of dengue vaccines once they are licensed. We have undertaken a detailed economic analysis, using standard industrial methodologies and applying generally accepted accounting practices, of the cost of production of a live attenuated vaccine, originally developed at the US National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), to be produced at the Instituto Butantan in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We determined direct costs of materials, direct costs of personnel and labor, indirect costs, and depreciation. These were analyzed assuming a steady-state production of 60 million doses per year. Although this study does not seek to compute the price of the final

  11. [Current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil: effects and problems associated with the introduction of ethanol-fueled motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuto, M; Tsugane, S; Hamada, G S

    1990-05-01

    Recently suggestions have been advanced that alternative fuels including ethanol, methanol or methane instead of so called "fossil fuels" may help improve the current conditions of air pollution. According to results of general survey in Sao Paulo, since their introduction in 1978, ethanol-fueled cars have increased their share to almost 50% of all light vehicles in 1983. The current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA) is described in relation to the use of such alternative fuel. The average concentrations in air of SO2 and lead have been decreasing drastically during the period of 1982-88, whereas non-methane hydrocarbon, NO2 and O3 levels have been increasing to attain the worst levels in the world as indicated in Fig. 2. The use of ethanol-fuel, which contains less sulphate and lead, is thought to have contributed more or less to the above reductions of SO2 and lead in the air. However, the pollutants that have increased may derive mainly from diesel and gasoline exhausts of heavy vehicles. The general state of air pollutions appears not to have been improved, suggesting the difficulty in resolving air pollution issues. On the other hand, a current problem specific to ethanol-fuel is the aldehydes or other carcinogenic components in exhaust. Peak formaldehyde concentration, for example, have been reported to have reached 159 ppb in SPMA, which may be one of the highest levels shown in ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effect of the elimination of chronic diseases on disability-free life expectancy among elderly individuals in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gonçalves Campolina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to establish whether the elimination of certain chronic diseases is capable of leading to the compression of morbidity among elderly individuals in Sao Paulo (Brazil, 2010. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with official data for the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil in 2010 and data from the SABE (Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. A total of 907 elderly individuals were evaluated, 640 of whom were women (64.6%. Sullivan's method was used for the calculation of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE. Life tables for cause elimination were used to calculate the probabilities of death with the elimination of health conditions. In absolute terms, the gains in LE and DFLE were greater in the younger age group (60 to 74 years in both genders. In relative terms (%DFLE in LE, the gains were higher among women aged 75 years or older and among men aged 60 years. If eliminated, heart disease was the condition that would most lead to the compression of morbidity in both genders. The elimination of chronic diseases from the elderly population could lead to a compression of morbidity in men and women at both 60 years of age and 75 years of age or older.

  13. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Marcos J. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mjsalvador1531@yahoo.com.br; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], E-mail: david_tatsuo@hotmail.com, E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Hattori, Gustavo Y. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Benjamin Constant (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias], E-mail: hattori@ufam.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  14. Isolamento do vírus da raiva em Artibeus fimbriatus no Estado de São Paulo Isolation of rabies virus in Artibeus fimbriatus bat in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice M Sequetin Cunha

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se, pela primeira vez, o isolamento e a identificação do vírus da raiva em morcego frugívoro Artibeus fimbriatus no município de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo. O vírus foi isolado de exemplar encontrado em área urbana, caído sob uma árvore e ainda vivo. O diagnóstico foi realizado pelas técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos.This is the first report of the isolation and identification of the rabies virus in the frugivorous bat Artibeus fimbriatus in the city of Sao José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The virus was isolated from an animal found in an urban area. The animal was found on the ground under a tree, still alive. Diagnosis was made by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation of mice.

  15. Environmental license process complexity in natural protected areas: case of OSBAT pipeline operated by TRANSPETRO in the state of Sao Paulo; Complexidade do licenciamento ambiental em areas naturais protegidas: caso do duto OSBAT operado pela TRANSPETRO no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    It presents the environmental license process enforced to obtain the Implementation License (LI) of the OSBAT pipeway part substitution, in the Sao Sebastiao city, State of Sao Paulo, with the analyses centered on the several public power instances and on the many special legal protection aspects around the natural area scenarios of the project interference. The license process had the duration of seventeen months, since the LI protocol and its emission. The process had the involvement of several organisms, the main part from the Sistema Nacional de Meio Ambiente - SISNAMA, and represented an interesting experience that can contribute to the agility of other license process of infrastructure works on protected natural areas, which has the incidence of an extensive legislation and activities restriction. (author)

  16. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  17. Avenues plan to the metropolitan road ring: notes for a discussion on the energy (un)sustainable use in Sao Paulo's metropolis; Do plano de avenidas ao rodoanel metropolitano: notas para uma discussao sobre o uso (in)sustentavel de energia na macrometropole de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondani, M.; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: devas@iee.usp.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The energy demand of any particular city depends, upon others, on its urbanization process as a direct function of the accessibility parameter. The 'heat islands' are directly related to deforestation and verticalization, being Sao Paulo a major example of a urban process leading to desertification of entire surrounding macro-metropolis, with climate changings and resulting increase in the end-uses energy demand. The interface between efficiency on transport system, energy end-uses efficiency and environmental sustainability provide guidelines to the deployment of a sustainable consumer demand pattern. (author)

  18. Concentration of metals adjacent to Tiete river border avenues; Concentracao de metais em solos adjacentes a Avenida Marginal do Rio Tiete, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia C. e; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Nammoura Neto, Georges M.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work analysed different 5 cm depth fragments soils, with distinct characteristic s, collected at 8 points of the Tiete river marginal avenue at the Sao Paulo metropolitan region. The technique used for the analysis was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Together with samples, metal concentration were measured in three reference materials BEN (IWG-GIT), GS-N (IWG-GIT) and Soil-7 (IAEA) for quality control of the results. These metals were analysed: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), antimony (Sb) e zinc (Zn); the obtained concentrations were compared with intervention limit values stipulated by the Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB). Those values indicate the soil quality for different use

  19. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  20. The program for rational using of energy and alternative sources - PUREFA from Sao Paulo University (USP) - Brazil; O programa de uso racional de energia e fontes alternativas - PUREFA da USP: analise de resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Castello Branco, Paula Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br, gimenes@pea.usp.br, paulacastello@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the results of project PUREFA - Program of Rational Use of Energy and Alternative Sources of the University of Sao Paulo, as they arise from the measures pertaining to its 13 Physical Goals, as well as their respective impacts for the University. The project used resources from FINEP, totaling approximately R$ 2,2 million, involving several units of the USP, both in the capital and in the countryside. Concluded actions include: Enhancing the system of management of energy (integrating action comprehending all others); Adding new distributed generation capacity at USP, installing 9 kWp of photovoltaic generation and 15 kW of biogas fired generation; Setting up of a policy of permanent incentive to the efficient and rational use of energy; Creation of norms of energy efficiency in buildings; Substitution of public and internal lighting systems, as well as air-conditioners; Installation of Systems of Solar Heating at Sao Carlos, Piracicaba and Sao Paulo in substitution to the electric showers; Installation of Systems for Solar Water Heating at the Central Restaurant of the CUASO Campus in Sao Paulo. The results show the importance of destining resources for energy saving in the public sector, the fast payback of corresponding investments and the potential for synergies and multiplying effects of such joint actions when applied to the University. (author)

  1. Urban policies and citizenship. Some mechanisms for the production of urban space in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocco

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reasons for the present conditions in the city of Sao Paolo, attempts at managing the place, preparation of the master plan, problems with establishment of particular mechanisms for creating urban space and reasons for success or failure of particular endeavours. An important aspect in solving physical problems of future development is prevention of social and physical segregation. Urban policies are presented with three types of measures. In conclusion, two examples of policy implementation are shown.

  2. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  3. Comportamento de compra de insumos agrícolas dos fornecedores de cana-de-açúcar no estado de São Paulo = Sao Paulo state sugarcane suppliers purchase behavior of agricultural inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Richard D´Aragone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicação apresenta análises sobre o comportamento de compra de insumos agrícolas pelos fornecedores de cana-de-açúcar do estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados a partir da aplicação de questionários em encontros presenciais denominados “painéis”. Notou-se uma visão estratégica por parte dos fornecedores nos quesitos que abrangem o processo de compra. Para escolha dos produtos, o foco é claro em preço e qualidade, enquanto que para escolha dos locais de compra, o cerne é difundido em diversos atributos diferenciados, mostrando que neste aspecto os interesses de cada fornecedor não são tendenciais. = This publication presents the analysis of the purchase behavior of agricultural inputs by Sao Paulo sugarcane suppliers. Data were collected from questionnaires in presential meetings called "panels". It was noted a strategic vision by the suppliers in the categories covering the purchase process. Concerning products choice, the focus is clearly in price and quality, while the choice of stores, the focus is widespread in many different attributes, showing that in this aspect the interests of each supplier are not biased.

  4. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  5. Methodology of technical analysis to reduce cost in the planning of the works of 'Energy for All' program in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Metodologia de analise tecnica para reducao de custo no planejamento das obras do programa 'Luz para Todos' em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betiol Junior, Genesio; Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto; Carmo, Jose R. do; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Comissao de Eletrificacao Rural do Estado de Sao Paulo (CERESP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This article relates the development of a research about low cost for rural electrification projects, which have been used like a base to develop a technical analysis in whole projects of the program 'Luz para Todos'. This program was made in 2002 with the purpose to offer electricity for whole people in Brazilian rural area. This method was developed seeking in to achieve cost reduction in the planning made by electric companies in Sao Paulo state. At first, were analyzed the rural electric projects made by electricity companies in the program 'Luz da Terra', in front of to the commitment in achieving cost reduction in the rural electric projects. The program 'Luz da Terra' was made whit a social purpose and it was developed in the whole Sao Paulo state, during 1996 until 2004. One of the main demands to achieve reasonable costs and to allow the program's viability was the previous analyses of rural distribution projects, before them changing to work of electricity, checking out if they had well defined. social, technical and economics methods. For that, were chosen quantitative and non-quantitative indicators, agreement whit a comparative analysis of each company performance in the program 'Luz da Terra', in agreement whit historical series, based on the group of the final result of each distribution electricity project. In a second moment, the same methodology was adjusted to confront the plans data of each company's future works in the program 'Luz para Todos', using the results of the first program. The research allowed the identification of some planner's tendencies when developing from a more rigorous model of low cost, like was the program 'Luz da Terra', to the actual program 'Luz para Todos'. Applied to all companies in the Sao Paulo state, the study served as a support to renegotiate budgets, what provided savings of more than US$ 10,000.000 in a total of 42

  6. Surface and borehole investigations at the shallow geo physic controlled site of IAG-USP-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Investigacoes geofisicas de superficie e de poco no sitio controlado de geofisica rasa do IAG-USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porsani, Jorge Luis [IAG-USP - Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: porsani@iag.usp.br; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues [Pos-Graduacao em Geofisica - IAG/USP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: welitom@iag.usp.br; Elis, Vagner Roberto; Diogo, Liliana Alcazar; Hiodo, Francisco Yukio [IAG-USP - Dept. de Geofisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: vagnelis@iag.usp.br, liliana@iag.usp.br; Marrano, Antonio [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amarrano@ipt.br; Birelli, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S/A-IPT, Divisao de Geologia, Laboratorio de Geofisica Aplicada, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: birelli@ipt.br

    2004-09-15

    This paper presents the results obtained from surface and borehole geophysical investigations carried out at the Shallow Geophysical Test Site of IAG-USP. The main objective was to characterize the sediments and the top of basement. The area is constituted by sandy-clay sediments of Sao Paulo Basin (Sao Paulo and Resend Formations) on the granite-gneiss basement with different degrees of weathering. In the area of studies, three boreholes were drilled for geological and geophysical research purposes (pioneer in Brazil). These boreholes were used to verify the stratigraphy, to collect the sample for laboratory measurements, to calibrate the results of surface geophysics and to carry out well logging. The surface methods used were: seismic (reflection and refraction), electric-resistivity (profiling and vertical electric sounding) and GPR-Ground Penetrating Radar. The integration of results show excellent agreement and allow constructing a geological-geophysical model for the site which is at the border of Sao Paulo sedimentary basin. Moreover, the various geophysics methods, commonly used in geological, geotechnical and environmental researches, have been tested under controlled conditions. (author)

  7. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  8. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  9. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  10. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  11. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  12. Quality of life and physical activity associated to lower prevalence of depression in community-dwelling elderly subjects from Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos-Ferreira, Ricardo; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Steffens, David C; Bottino, Cassio M C

    2013-09-05

    Studies investigating major depression and associated factors in older people from developing countries are scarce. Cross-sectional study of a community-based sample of 1563 elderly subjects aged 60 years or older from Sao Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of major depression (MD) and the relationship with sociodemographic factors, cognitive and functional impairment (CFI), clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) and clinical diseases were analyzed. A brief instrument for screening of depressive symptoms in elderly people, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, the Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination, and a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were applied to the subjects. Major depression was diagnosed in 60 patients (3.8%). A higher odds ratio of MD was associated with female gender, being widowed, previous depressive episode, hypertension, use of psychotropic medication, (CFI), and alcohol use. A lower odds ratio of depression diagnosis was associated with physical activity and going to cinema. The cross-sectional design of the study; our sample was restricted only to community residents, excluding persons in hospitals or nursing homes. Our study shows significant association between depression and potentially modifiable factors, reinforcing the benefit of probable preventive measures, to incentive healthy lifestyle, leisure activities and the practice of physical exercise, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of CSDS, especially in primary care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from < 0.3 to 9.3 × 10 most probable number per gram and the most frequent serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  14. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  15. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Caminha Caro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM by the Unified Health System (SUS in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process of OPM dispensation, or responsible for their acquisition flow in the cities of that region. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by the researchers themselves, composed of questions aiming to identify the physical rehabilitation centers in the towns, the staff members involved, the provision of assistive technology through SUS, delivery time and existence of waiting lists. Results and discussion: The data were statistically measured, categorized, described and correlated with the current legislation aimed to guarantee access to assistive technology. We observed that the practice around this resource in the 3rd region concentrates in a single care center, causing long waits and poor efficiency of the services provided, in addition to maintaining a paternalistic aspect. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that, although the right to access to assistive technology is legally guaranteed, there are still many difficulties and challenges around this practice.

  16. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Assessment. Mental illness was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Apgar scores of newborns were estimated and their weight measured. Results 21.9% of mothers reported lifetime violence (2% during pregnancy and 24.3% had a common mental disorder in the past 12 months. The exposures were correlated and each was associated with low education. Lifetime violence was strongly associated with Common Mental Disorders. Violence during pregnancy (PR = 2.59(1.05–6.40 and threat of physical violence (PR = 1.86(1.03–3.35 and any common mental disorders (PR = 2.09 (1.21–3.63 (as well as depression, anxiety and PTSD separately were independently associated with low birth weight. Conclusion Efforts to improve neonatal outcomes in low income countries may be neglecting two important independent, but correlated risk factors: maternal experience of violence and common mental disorder.

  17. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helen S.B. da; Marques, Leila S.; Kawauchi, Roberto K., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br, E-mail: keiji@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  18. Evaluation of mutagenic potential of contaminated atmosphere at Ibirapuera Park, Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil, using the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Izildinha [Secretaria da Saude do Municipio de Sao Paulo, Supervisao de Saude de Vila Prudente, Praca Centenario de Vila Prudente, 108, 03132-050 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: maria-izildinha@uol.com.br; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomes, Heliana de A [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas, Rodovia Pocos de Caldas, Km. 13, 37701-970 Pocos de Caldas (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Laboratorio de Poluicao Atmosferica Experimental, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 455, 01246-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Assuncao, Joao V. de [Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Saude Ambiental, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Trad-SHM assay was used to check mutagenic potential of atmospheric contamination at Ibirapuera Park, located in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and variation of risk along the year, besides determining which Tradescantia clone, BNL 4430 or KU-20, better indicates risk. Thirty pots of both clones were exposed during one-year period (September, 2002-August, 2003). Twenty inflorescences were taken from each clone twice a month in the morning, in order to estimate the frequency of mutations in stamen hairs. Results were compared to air pollution and climatic data measured next to the exposure site. KU-20 showed stamen-hair mutations greater than BNL 4430. Greatest mutation rates in KU-20 were observed in condition of high monthly mean of NO{sub 2} and average peak concentrations of NO during the day, indicating that mutagenic effects originated from vehicular pollution. Clone KU-20 revealed to be more appropriate for biomonitoring purposes at the Park. - Clone KU-20 showed to be more appropriate than clone BNL 4430 to indicate vehicular pollution mutagenic risks in Trad-SHM assay.

  19. Fibrilação atrial e demência: resultados do São Paulo ageing & health study Atrial fibrillation and dementia: results from the Sao Paulo ageing & health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Andrea Kawabata-Yoshihara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A fibrilação atrial é um fator de risco controverso para demência. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a associação entre fibrilação atrial e demência em participantes do São Paulo Ageing & Health. MÉTODOS: O São Paulo Ageing & Health é um estudo transversal, de base populacional, de idosos residentes em um uma região de baixa renda da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Diagnóstico de demência foi realizado de acordo com o protocolo do grupo 10/66, com base em critérios do Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais (DSM-IV. O diagnóstico de fibrilação atrial foi feito por eletrocardiograma de 12 derivações, avaliado por dois cardiologistas. Dados demográficos e de fatores de risco cardiovasculares também foram obtidos. RESULTADOS: A demência foi diagnosticada em 66 (4,3% e fibrilação atrial em 36 (2,4% de 1.524 participantes com um eletrocardiograma válido. A razão de chances bruta para demência em participantes com fibrilação atrial foi 2,8 (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,0-8,1; p = 0,06 em comparação com indivíduos sem fibrilação atrial. Relação positiva foi encontrada em mulheres (RC 4,2; IC 95%: 1,2-15,1; p = 0,03. Após ajuste para idade, no entanto, essa associação tornou-se não significativa (RC 2,2, IC 95%: 0,6-8,9; p = 0,26. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve associação independente entre a fibrilação atrial e demência nessa amostra. A prevalência da fibrilação atrial pode ser baixa nesta população em virtude da mortalidade cardiovascular prematura.BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a controversial risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between AF and dementia in the "Sao Paulo Ageing & Health" (SPAH study participants. METHODS: SPAH is a cross-sectional, population-based study of elderly people living in a deprived neighborhood in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dementia diagnosis was performed according to

  20. [Microbiological study of dental clinic air at the University Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo Dental School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, M C; de Campos, A C; Tommasi, D; dos Santos, M A

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the environmental microbiote and to verify its occurrence in different areas. During 3 months, from April to June 1986, several air samples of working areas of the Dental Clinic of Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo were analised. The study consisted of 10 exposures in strategically selected points during 10 minutes each, blood-agar plates and Sabouraud-agar plates. It was done the identification in genera and in some cases at species, according to the conventional methods. The plates were incubated, and the colonies isolated and identified. It was done the statistical analysis (Z test) and it was observed bigger incidence of bacteria than fungi and more diversity of the fungi than bacteria. From the Odontological health point of view, the isolated microorganisms (ubiquitous in the air) do not reveal patogenicity however the determinants of the local hygiene.

  1. SEROPREVALENCE OF CHAGASIC INFECTION IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS IN A BLOOD CENTER IN THE STATE OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study aimed at estimating the number of cases of non-negative serological reactions to Chagas disease in blood donors at the Blood Center of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010 and at relating them to their cities of origin. Five hundred and seventy-four non-negative results for Chagas disease were evaluated. Of these, 371 (64.8% were reagent, and 203 (35.4% were inconclusive. The prevalence of Chagas disease in blood donors was 0.05%. There were, on average, 72 cases/year, and a prevalence of males was observed (64.8%. Forty-three (7.49% individuals were 18 to 30 years old; 92 (16.02% were 31 to 40; 147 (25.61% 41 to 50, and 292 (50.87% were older than 50 years. It was observed that 29.3% of females with reagent serology were at their fertile age (18 and 45 years. The majority of donors were originally from cities in the southwestern and central regions of São Paulo, but individuals from other states contributed with 20%. The provenance of most donors was the city of Botucatu/SP, followed by the city of Taquarituba/SP. Therefore, the profile of donors at this blood center favors the occurrence of a larger number of non-negative serological reactions. Although there has been a significant reduction in the number of new cases/year for this disease, it is still a public-health problem, and results suggest the need for new epidemiological assessments in the studied region.

  2. Conditional factors for untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of Sao Paulo

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    Raquel Marianna Lopes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze what sociodemographic and economic variables were associated with the presence of untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo. This cross-sectional study had a complex sample design. It was based on secondary data generated by the Levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal (Epidemiological Oral Health Survey in the city of São Paulo, conducted in 2008, whose sample comprised 4,246 12-year-old children from the public and private schools of all the administrative districts of the city. A questionnaire was applied and an epidemiological exam was performed in accordance with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendations. The variables of interest were categorized into a dependent variable of untreated dental caries (carious component of the DMFT index that corresponds to carious, missing and filled teeth and independent variables related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the children and their families, and to their access to dental services. The EPI-INFO 06 and STATA 10 programs were used for the analysis; the prevalence ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were applied to the population parameters. The Poisson regression model was used, adjusted for sampling of the complex type. Caries was associated with ethnicity (higher rate in black people, p = 0.042, attending public school (p = 0.000, lower average family income (p = 0.002, overcrowded dwellings (p = 0.000 and presence of pain (p = 0.000. Caries is a multifactorial disease influenced by social health determinants that intensify its risk.

  3. Consumo de alcool e risco para doenca coronariana na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo: uma analise do Projeto GENACIS

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    Maria Cristina Pereira Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Examinar a associação entre consumo de álcool e risco para doença coronariana em amostra populacional. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, conduzido de janeiro/2006 a junho/2007, na região metropolitana de São Paulo, como parte do estudo internacional (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. Os sujeitos (1.501, sendo 609 homens e 892 mulheres eram residentes da região metropolitana de São Paulo, tinham 30 anos ou mais de idade e foram selecionados aleatoriamente, a partir de amostragem complexa por conglomerados. Todos os indivíduos consentiram em participar da pesquisa. A variável dependente foi risco cardíaco avaliado através do WHO Rose Angina Questionnaire. A análise multivariada consistiu em regressão logística, tendo sido realizado ajuste para uso de tabaco e índice de massa corpórea. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi 75%. Ser mulher, ter mais idade, ser negro, fumante e ter um índice de massa corpórea elevado, foram associados a maior risco para doença coronariana. Indivíduos que nunca beberam na vida (OR = 2,22 e ex-bebedores (OR = 2,42 tiveram maior risco de doença cardíaca do que aqueles que informaram beber até 19 g de álcool por dia, sem episódios de beber excessivo. Entre os que tiveram episódios de embriaguês observou-se uma tendência a maior risco (OR = 3,95, p = 0,09. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem um menor risco para doença coronariana entre os bebedores moderados. Destaca-se que os estudos que avaliam o impacto do álcool sobre doença cardíaca precisam identificar o padrão de uso de álcool dos sujeitos, visto que este aspecto pode modificar o risco. Políticas públicas são necessárias para reduzir o uso nocivo de álcool e a morbidade a ele relacionada no país.

  4. Portugueses e experiências políticas: a luta e o pão: São Paulo 1870-1945 The Portuguese and political experiences: the struggle and the bread: Sao Paulo 1870-1945

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    Maria Izilda Santos de Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende ser uma contribuição para o estudo das experiências cotidianas de imigrantes na cidade de São Paulo, no período entre 1870 e 1945. A análise procurará recuperar a teia de relações cotidianas na sua dimensão da experiência no mundo dos negócios e do trabalho, recobrando as atividades de produção e comercialização do pão, observando a trama das conexões e tensões que se estabeleciam entre proprietários e trabalhadores nas padarias, na sua maioria de origem portuguesa. Privilegiando a documentação do DEOPS (Departamento Estadual de Ordem Política e Social , particularmente os prontuários, a proposta recupera enfrentamentos, formas de resistência, luta e greves que atingiram o setor da panificação.This article is intended to be a contribution to the study of the everyday experiences of immigrants in the city of Sao Paulo during the period between 1870 and 1945. The analysis will seek to recapture the web of relationships in their everyday life and experience with respect to business and labor, relating aspects of their activities in the production and marketing of bread, and observing the interchange of communication and tensions that were prevalent between the owners and workers of the bakeries of which most of them were of Portuguese origin. Focusing mainly on documents from DEOPS (State Department of Political and Social Order, particularly the charts, the article retrieves information concerning confrontations, forms of resistance, struggles and strikes that plagued the bakery sector.

  5. Primary Cicatricial Alopecias: A Review of Histopathologic Findings in 38 Patients from a Clinical University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Moure, Emanuella Rosyane Duarte; Romiti, Ricardo; Machado, Maria Cecília da Matta Rivitti; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Scarring alopecias are classified into primary and secondary types according to the initial site of inflammation. In primary scarring alopecias, the hair follicle is the main target of destruction; the term secondary cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular destruction is not the primary pathologic event. AIMS To review the histopathologic diagnoses of cases of cicatricial alopecia in order to classify them according to the North American Hair Research Society. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with biopsy specimens diagnosed as cicatricial alopecia seen from 2000 to 2005 at the Dermatologic Department of Hospital das Clinicas, São Paulo University Medical School had hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stained slides reevaluated and sub-typed into different primary cicatricial alopecias. RESULTS Thirty-eight cases of primary cicatricial alopecias were reclassified as: chronic cutaneous lupus (17), lichen planus pilaris (4), pseudopelade of Brocq (12), folliculitis decalvans (3), dissecting folliculitis (1), and non-specific scarring alopecia (1). In our cases, the methods employed allowed an accurate diagnosis in 12 of 13 cases (92.3%) previously classified as non-specific cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSIONS Even in the late, pauci or non-inflammatory phases, an approach with systematic evaluation of a constellation of criteria in routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stain allowed for a more accurate diagnosis of cicatricial alopecias. PMID:19060995

  6. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  7. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Vivianni Palmeira Wanderley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill.

  8. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill-Sao Paulo, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira Wanderley, Vivianni; Affonso Fonseca, Fernando Luiz; Vala Quiaios, André; Nuno Domingues, José; Paixão, Susana; Figueiredo, João; Ferreira, Ana; de Almeida Pinto, Cleonice; da Silva, Odair Ramos; Alvarenga, Rogério; Machi Junior, Amaury; Luiz Savóia, Eriane Justo; Daminello Raimundo, Rodrigo

    2017-01-11

    We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population's health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André's landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil). The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill.

  9. Prevalence, incidence density, and genotype distribution of GB virus C infection in a cohort of recently HIV-1-infected subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Maria Teresa M Giret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29 in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year.

  10. Prevalence, Incidence Density, and Genotype Distribution of GB Virus C Infection in a Cohort of Recently HIV-1-Infected Subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giret, Maria Teresa M.; Miraglia, João Luiz; Sucupira, Maria Cecília Araripe; Nishiya, Anna; Levi, José Eduardo; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. Methodology/Principal Findings The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29) in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. Conclusion/Significance GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year. PMID:21483671

  11. Teor de ácido cianídrico em variedades de mandioca cultivadas em quintais do estado de São Paulo Cyanide contents in cassava cultivars used for "in natura" consumption in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, além das culturas comerciais que destinam sua produção às indústrias de transformação ou aos mercados hortifrutigranjeiros, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é muito difundida em culturas denominadas de "fundo de quintal". Nesse caso, muitas variedades são cultivadas e utilizadas precipuamente para consumo doméstico, tendo o presente trabalho por objetivo avaliar a amplitude de variação do seu teor de ácido cianídrico (HCN. Foram analisadas raízes de 206 variedades originárias de uma coleta sistemática realizada em 126 municípios paulistas, utilizando-se o método de Liebig, com maceração por 24 horas. Os resultados mostraram que a amplitude máxima de variação do ácido cianídrico foi de 16 a 482 mg.kg-1 na polpa crua das raízes. A maioria das variedades (67,0% apresentou até 100 mg.kg-1 de HCN, que, apesar de alto em relação aos citados na literatura, sugere que possa ser considerado o limite superior de segurança para variedades de mesa.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely cultivated in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, mostly as raw material for industrial purposes (production of cassava flour, starch, etc.. A small proportion of cassava production is destinated to "in natura" consumption, obtained essentially from backyard plantations. In this case, many varieties are used, with unknown cyanide contents, which can cause severe human intoxication. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the cyanide content range of these varieties. Roots of 206 varieties, collected at 126 sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed as to their cyanide contents, using the Liebig method, with maceration for a 24-hour period. Results showed a cyanide content variation from 16 to 482 mg.kg-1 of HCN in the tuber root fresh pulps. On the other hand, most of the varieties (67% under testing presented root cyanide contents below 100 mg.kg-1. So, this cyanide content may be considered as

  12. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

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    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  13. Preventing nipple trauma in lactating women in the University Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo: a best practice implementation project.

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    Shimoda, Gilcéria Tochika; Soares, Alda Valeria Neves; Aragaki, Ilva Marico Mizumoto; McArthur, Alexa

    2015-03-12

    Nipple trauma in lactating women is an important issue in facilitating successful breastfeeding. Evidence suggests that early postnatal education on the positioning and attachment technique, early observation of mothers and correcting breastfeeding techniques at an early stage may reduce nipple trauma. The aim of this project was to improve breastfeeding practice and thereby reduce nipple trauma in lactating women in a public hospital in Sao Paulo. More specifically the objectives of this project were: firstly, to assess the current practice in nurses' assistance concerning the prevention of nipple trauma; secondly, to adapt and trial a Breastfeeding Assessment Form to observe and educate the lactating mother during the early post-natal period; and thirdly, to assess the impact of introducing the assessment strategy on breastfeeding and nipple trauma rates. The Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System online tool was utilized for this project. A clinical audit was conducted to assess compliance with best practice in nursing assistance concerning the prevention of nipple trauma. The project concluded with a second audit, which assessed the change in practice following the implementation of strategies to improve practice. The project was successful in that there was an improvement across all of the audit criteria following the introduction of the strategy to promote best practice. Criterion 1, concerning nursing staff knowledge, improved in compliance by 73%. Criterion 2 and 4, concerning women's knowledge about prevention and management of nipple trauma, improved by 53% and 55% respectively. Breastfeeding assessment improved by 26% from baseline to follow-up audit. Moreover, an improvement in women's satisfaction and exclusive breastfeeding rates was observed; however, nipple trauma rates did not decrease. This implementation project had great impact on both nursing staff as well as lactating women's knowledge of preventing and

  14. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

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    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  15. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus evaluation among asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects in a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil in the period of 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luciana Peniche; Watanabe, Aripuana Sakurada Aranha; Camargo, Clarice Neves; Melchior, Thais Boim; Granato, Celso; Bellei, Nancy

    2017-10-27

    RSV is recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract infections. Immunocompromised patients, health care workers (HCW) and children contacts are at increased risk of acquiring the infection. However, the impact of asymptomatic infection in transmission has not been well studied. This study evaluated the frequency and viral load (VL) of RSV in nasal swab samples of individuals with different risk factors for acquiring infection in a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We included 196 symptomatic children and their 192 asymptomatic caregivers, 70 symptomatic and 95 asymptomatic HCW, 43 samples from symptomatic HIV positive outpatients and 100 samples of asymptomatic HIV patients in the period of 2009 to 2013. RSV infection was detected in 10.1% (70/696) of samples, 4.4% (17/387) of asymptomatic patients and 17.1% (53/309) from symptomatic patients. (p< 0.0001). The VL of symptomatic patients (4.7 log copies/mL) was significantly higher compared to asymptomatic patients (2.3 log copies/mL). RSV detection among asymptomatic caregivers (6.8%; 13/192) was significantly higher compared to other asymptomatic adults, HIV and HCWS (2.0%; 4/195; p = 0.0252). A close contact with an infected child at home was an important risk to RSV acquisition [OR 22.6 (95% CI 4.8 to 106.7)]. Children who possibly transmitted the virus to their asymptomatic contacts had significantly higher viral load than children who probably did not transmit (p < 0.0001). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cognitive and Functional Profile of the elderly that frequent the Community Center for the Elderly in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state

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    Nathalia Barros de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing population must be accompanied by the promotion of healthy aging and maintain maximum functional capacity. Objective: To understand the cognitive and functional profile of the elderly who take part in the Community Center for the Elderly in Santos, Sao Paulo state. Method: Ninety elderly people were evaluated in this study. The following instruments were used: Social-demographic profile Questionnaire, Socialeconomic Questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire (SMC-Q, Independence in Activities of Daily Living Scale (Katz Scale, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (Lawton & Brody. Results: The average age of the elderly was 72.5 years old and the predominant gender was female (95.5%. There was a preponderance of participants from 1 to 4 years of education, and Class C was the predominant economic class. In the MMSE scores, 63.33% of the participants were below of the cutoff established for education, and in the SMC-Q, 71.11% of the elderly presented subjective dysfunction of memory. In the performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL, 84.44% of the participants are independent. As for the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, only 33.33% of the participants are independent. In the statistical analyses between cognitive profile and functional performance, associations were found between MMSE and SMC-Q, MMSE and Lawton & Brody Scale, and SMC-Q and Lawton & Brody Scale. Conclusions: A significant portion of the elderly patrons of the Community Center presents functional decline and cognitive decline.

  18. What is the impact of interventions that prevent fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; da Silva, Zilda Pereira; Santos, Patrícia Carla; Raspantini, Priscila Ribeiro; Moura, Barbara Laisa Alves; de Almeida, Marcia Furquim; do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2015-07-23

    There is a global growing trend of preterm births and a decline trend of fetal deaths. Is there an impact of the decline of fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil? The time trends were evaluated by gestational age through exponential regression analysis. Data analyzed included the fetal mortality ratio, proportion of preterm live births, fertility rate of women 35 years and over, prenatal care, mother's education, multiple births and cesarean section deliveries. A survival analysis was carried out for 2000 and 2010. Preterm births showed the highest annual increase (3.2%) in the less than 28 weeks of gestation group and fetal mortality ratio decreased (7.4%) in the same gestational age group. There was an increase of cesarean section births and it was higher in the education (8.8%) and an increased trend in multiple births and fertility rates of women of 35 years and over. The variables were highly correlated to which other over time. In 2000, 8.2% of all pregnancies resulted in preterm births (0.9% in fetal deaths and 7.3% in live births). In 2010, the preterm birth increased to 9.4% (0.8% were preterm fetal deaths and 8.6% preterm live births). The results suggest that 45.2% could be the maximum contribution of successful interventions to prevent a fetal death on the increase in preterm live births. This increasing trend is also related to changes of the women reproductive profile with the change of the women reproductive profile and access to prenatal care.

  19. Estomizado adulto no município de São Paulo: um estudo sobre o custo de equipamentos especializados Adulto ostomizado del municipio Sao Paulo: un estudio sobre el costo de los equipamientos especializados Adult ostomy patients in the city of São Paulo: a study of specialized equipment costs

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    Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar o custo mensal do uso de dispositivos e adjuvantes por estomizados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, realizada em dois Ambulatórios de Especialidades, em São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em 635 prontuários de pacientes estomizados adultos, atendidos em junho de 2005. Os valores dos dispositivos e adjuvantes foram obtidos em registros eletrônicos e publicações oficiais da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e seus resultados foram submetidos aos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni e Spearman. A maioria dos indivíduos era do sexo feminino (51%, idade > 60anos, com colostomia provisória (64,5%. O custo individual mensal médio foi R$ 137,72, maior para os urostomizados, com estomas definitivos, com neoplasias de vias urinárias e atendidos no serviço que possui enfermeiro especialista. Houve correlação estatisticamente significativa e positiva entre o custo mensal e o tempo de estomia. Este estudo contribuiu para a avaliação do custo do estomizado no Estado de São Paulo.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar el costo mensual del uso de dispositivos y adjuvantes por ostomizados. Se trata de una investigación retrospectiva, realizada en dos Consultorios externos de Especialidades, en Sao Paulo. Los datos fueron recolectados en 635 historias clínicas de pacientes adultos ostomizados, atendidos en junio del 2005. Los valores de los dispositivos y adjuvantes fueron obtenidos en registros electrónicos y publicaciones oficiales de la Secretaría de Estado de la Salud de Sao Paulo y sus resultados fueron sometidos a los tests de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni y Spearman. La mayoría de los individuos era del sexo femenino (51%, edad >60 años, con colostomía provisional (64,5%. El costo individual mensual promedio fue de R$ 137,72, mayor para los urostomizados, con esto mas definitivos, con neoplasias de vías urinarias

  20. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo; Avaliacao do impacto da atividade agropecuaria na qualidade da agua em areas de captacao superficial nas bacias hidrograficas dos Rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-07-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  1. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  2. Introducao e expansao da Leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos no estado de Sao Paulo, 1999-2011

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    Marisa Furtado Mozini Cardim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar a expansão da ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos e identificar localidades prioritárias para o desenvolvimento de ações de vigilância e controle. MÉTODOS : A área de estudo constituiu-se dos 316 municípios do estado de São Paulo pertencentes às cinco regiões de saúde com ocorrência da leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos, utilizando os casos autóctones e óbitos, com ano de notificação e município de ocorrência. Calcularam-se taxas de incidência e de mortalidade e letalidade por município, por região e para a área de estudo. Utilizaram-se o estimador bayesiano empírico para obtenção de taxas de incidência e de mortalidade bayesianas locais para cada município e a krigagem para visualização da distribuição espacial das temperaturas e das precipitações pluviométricas. RESULTADOS : Foram detectados 73 municípios com transmissão da doença. As primeiras ocorrências deram-se em áreas com maiores temperaturas e menores pluviosidades, mas sua disseminação também ocorreu em áreas menos quentes e mais úmidas. A expansão da leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos apresentou um eixo principal de disseminação no sentido noroeste para sudeste, acompanhando a rodovia Marechal Rondon e o gasoduto Bolívia-Brasil, e um eixo secundário, na direção norte-sul, acompanhando a malha rodoviária. As taxas de incidência, segundo regiões de saúde, apresentaram um pico seguido de queda, com exceção da região de São José do Rio Preto. Observou-se maior concentração de municípios com altas taxas de incidência e mortalidade nas regiões de saúde de Araçatuba, Presidente Prudente e Marília. CONCLUSÕES : Possíveis fatores determinantes da expansão da doença incluíram a rodovia Marechal Rondon e a construção do gasoduto Bolívia-Brasil. Fatores climáticos pareceram não ter papel determinante nessa expansão. O uso de técnicas de análise espacial

  3. Plantas invasoras da cultura do arroz (Oryza sativa L. no Estado de São Paulo. 1. Dicotiledôneas Weeds occuring in rice crops (Oryza sativa L. in the State of Sao Paulo. 1. Dicotyledons

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    C. Aranha

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das plantas invasoras na cultura do arroz, concentrado nas regiões com maior área cultivada no Estado de São Paulo. Cada uma das espécies levantadas foi estudada em seu ciclo, porte, fenologia e modo ou modos de reprodução. O hábito de crescimento herbáceo, o ciclo anual, o florescimento e frutificação nos meses mais quentes do ano e a reprodução através de sementes foram evidentemente preponderantes. Cada gênero representado por mais de uma espécie mereceu a confecção de chave analítica auxiliar objetivando oferecer algum subsidio para a identificação da espécie em sua primeira fase de desenvolvimento. Foram levantadas as sinonímias científica e vulgar e, sempre que possível, localizada a etimologia do termo que se prestou à nomenclatura genérica ou especifica. De cada espécie é fornecida uma diagnose da plântula além da ilustração planificada, tornando, portanto, mais fá cil o re conhecimento da mesma. Das 15 famílias dicotiledôneas encontradas, num total de 31 espécies identificadas, quantitativamente merecem destaque as seguintes: Compositae, Malvaceae e Amaranthaceae.A survey of weeds growing in rice crops in the State of Sao Paulo was conducted. The life cycle, size, phenology and mode of reproduction of each of the collected species were studied. The herbaceous growth, annual life cycle, blooming and fructification during the warmest months of the year and dissemination by seeds were mainly predominant for the studied species. From the 15 dicotyledoneous families observed with a to tal of 31 identified species, three were quantitatively more important: Compositae, Malvaceae and Amaranthaceae. A toxonomical key was written for those genera with more than one species in an attempt to help identification in the first growth stage. All the scientific and common names and when possible, the etimology of the genera or species are included. In order to facilitate the keying and

  4. Planning projects for generation of electrical energy in the state of Sao Paulo, according to the degree of interference on air quality: an atmospheric qualification index using fuzzy sets; Ordenamento de projetos de geracao de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo, segundo o grau de interferencia na qualidade do ar: um indice de qualificacao atmosferica (IQA) utilizando fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Duarte, Pamella Santos [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental issues are of great importance when assessing the feasibility and priority installation of new developments in electric power generation. In this sense, fuzzy logic can help define the regions that have favorable characteristics for receiving certain forms of generation. This study sought to order for the State of Sao Paulo, four kinds of generation projects: those using municipal solid waste gasification, those which make use of landfill gas with a change in firing (to reduce emissions), thermoelectric plants (TEPs) to bagasse (with 15% straw) and Small Hydropower (SHP). Such an ordering considered not only the type of generation but also the allocation of projects in the four regions, defined by regional vocations as defined by the State Water Resources Plan (Annex III of the State Law No. 9.034/94): Agriculture, Conservation, In Industrialization and Industrial. As a result, the use of fuzzy sets allowed the creation of a ranking of the alternatives (which totaled 14 possibilities), based exclusively on the degree of interference in air quality resulting from the installation of every form of generation. Such information may help the decision-making governing bodies to establish priorities in order, thereby accelerating the process of installation and operation of projects for generating electricity. (author)

  5. Valores Pessoais como Base para Segmentação Estratégica: um estudo com profissionais paulistasPersonal Values as Basis for Strategic Segmentation: a study with professionals from Sao PauloValores Personales como Base para la Segmentación Estratégica: un estudio con profesionales de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIRALDI, Janaina de Moura Engracia

    2010-09-01

    with the survey method of data collection in a sample of executives from Sao Paulo who are considered to be potential buyers of high value and innovative goods. An exploratory factor analysis was employed in order to reduce the values scale used and a cluster analysis was performed to identify the groups of executives according to the importance attached to different personal values. Concluding, it was observed that there was a similarity among the three personal values dimensions, named as Civility (concerns about having a good conduct before society according to social rules of interaction, Self-Direction (intellectual aspects and practical orientation in their conducts and Conformity (restriction of actions, inclinations and impulses, that are likely to harm others and would violate expectations and the ones reported in the theory Rokeach’s theory about instrumental personal values. Furthermore, three groups of executives were identified (good conduct group, low restriction group and high restriction group. The differences observed in the importance of personal values here presented by the dimensions called Civility, Self-Direction and Conformity can lead to different buying behaviors and product preferences. From the results found in this study, the companies could adapt their current and new products offers, as well as their communication, in order to better serve these segments of executives from Sao Paulo.RESUMENUna importante base de segmentación para las empresas, como también los valores personales de los consumidores, son los temas investigados en el presente artículo. Para realizar el referido estudio se utilizó una investigación descriptiva con método transversal simple de recolección de datos en campo en una muestra de ejecutivos de Sao Paulo, considerados como potenciales compradores de productos del alto valor agregado y de innovaciones. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio para reducir la escala de valores utilizada y un an

  6. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudo comparativo de constituintes nutricionais e do teor de mercurio total em peixes comercializados na cidade de Cananeia, litoral de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Soraia M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: soraiamn@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg{sup -1} for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg{sup -1} established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species)

  7. Steps in the diagnosis of energy for the establishment of a rational use of energy in an agroprocessing of wood forest planting in the southwest of the state of Sao Paulo; Etapas do diagnostico energetico para a implantacao de um programa de uso racional de energia em um agroindustria de beneficiamento de madeira de florestas plantadas na regiao sudoeste do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima; Souza, Caroline Mazzini de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2010-07-01

    This work shows the steps for implementing a program of rational use of electricity in a pine sawmill processing through energy diagnosis and also provide an energy efficiency index, the reference consumption in Kw.h power and volume of timber in cubic meters. The study was conducted in a sawmill located at Itapeva, southwest of Sao Paulo. The region's economic potential is based on the processing of wood with the main export destination. Much of the lumber does not have advanced technology, because it may present with excessive spending power. The species used are Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda. We collected data on the electrical installation of the mill and the main parts of the installation as tables and distribution lines and equipment engines were studied. The diagnostic results show that while the industry had a good general appearance, electrical installations and equipment using electric power for its functioning need more care, both in maintenance and in use. An energy efficiency program, if effected, could reduce the cost of the process and provides environmental benefits by less need for electric power generation. (author)

  8. Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

    2013-01-01

    A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estudo espacial e temporal da hanseníase no estado de São Paulo, 2004-2006 Estudio espacial y temporal de la hanseníasis en Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2004-2006 Spatial and temporal study of leprosy in the state of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução temporal e espacial da endemia de hanseníase no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico-social utilizando o número de casos de hanseníase notificados ao Ministério da Saúde de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006. Foram geradas séries mensais em cada departamento regional de saúde, cujas seqüências foram ajustadas por um modelo markoviano para os coeficientes de detecção de hanseníase. O coeficiente de detecção com o número de casos acumulados no período em cada município foi usado para produzir a distribuição espacial da endemia; uma análise de correlação foi realizada com os coeficientes de detecção de hanseníase e os componentes do Índice de Paulista de Responsabilidade Social. RESULTADOS: Dos 645 municípios do estado de São Paulo, 22 não detectaram casos de hanseníase no período. Na maioria das regiões a tendência da endemia foi decrescente; as séries temporais apresentaram flutuação aleatória, em torno de valores esperados. O declínio foi influenciado por uma queda generalizada nos coeficientes de detecção ao final de 2005. Houve correlação positiva entre os coeficientes de detecção e os componentes "escolaridade" e "longevidade", e negativa com "riqueza" do Índice de Paulista de Responsabilidade Social. CONCLUSÕES: O resultado da análise das séries temporais sugere haver declínio da endemia para a maioria das regiões do estado de São Paulo, enquanto que para a análise espacial são altos os coeficientes ao norte do estado.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la evolución temporal y espacial de la endemia de hanseníasis en el estado de Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico-social utilizando el número de casos de hanseníasis notificados al Ministerio de la Salud de enero de 2004 a diciembre de 2006. Fueron generadas series mensuales en cada departamento regional de salud, cuyas secuencias fueron ajustadas por un modelo markoviano para los coeficientes de detecci

  10. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  11. Development and validation of methodology SPE-LC-MS/MS for pharmaceuticals and illicit drug determination in the waters of Guarapiranga Dam, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Desenvolvimento e validacao de metodologia SPE-LC-MS/MS para a determinacao de farmacos e droga de abuso nas aguas da represa Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihomatsu, Helena Miho

    2015-07-01

    This study presents the development of the methodology of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, SPE-LC-MS/MS, for the determination of 21 (twenty one) pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic groups, 1 (one) illicit drug and its major metabolite, in surface water samples. The chromatographic separation was optimized by studying the performance of different stationary and mobile phases. Quantitation of selected compounds was performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) and the mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The validation of the proposed methodology was performed using the parameters of selectivity, matrix effect, dynamic range, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The validation of methodology allowed to apply the methodology in the evaluation of the distribution of the 23 (twenty one) selected compounds, in Guarapiranga Dam waters, an of the major producer system of drinking water of the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP). The presence of these pollutants in aquatic environments is from the direct release of urban sewage from the homes of your surroundings, as a result of poor sanitation system. The waters of Guarapiranga dam were evaluated in 14 (fourteen) locations strategically chosen and sampled in 3 (three) campaigns of sample collection (August 2011, September 2012 and April 2013). In these samples were quantified acetaminophen (9.6 - 254 ng L{sup -1}), atenolol (8.5 - 177 ng L{sup -1}), benzoylecgonine (7.9 - 139 ng L{sup -1}), caffeine (27 - 27386 ng L{sup -1}) carbamazepine (12 - 358 ng L{sup -1}), chlorthalidone (9.4 - 35 ng L{sup -1}), cocaine (12.8 - 2560 ng L{sup -1}), diclofenac (8 - 36 ng L{sup -1}), enalapril (20 ng L{sup -1}), losartan (6.7 - 114 ng L{sup -1}) and valsartan (9.7 - 47 ng L{sup -1}). The sample siting GU103-12 (23°41'88.5”S 46°44'67.3”W) was the

  12. Validação de dados termopluviométricos obtidos via sensoriamento remoto para o Estado de São Paulo Validation of temperature and rainfall data obtained by remote sensing for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila B. Camparotto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados termopluviométricos são utilizados em diversos estudos. Contudo, a escassez de dados resultante da baixa densidade de estações meteorológicas é um problema frequentemente encontrado. Com isto, a utilização de dados estimados por satélites tem-se mostrado importante para regiões nas quais eles são escassos. Neste trabalho foram realizadas comparações entre dados mensais de precipitação pluvial estimados pelo satélite TRMM e de temperatura, estimados pelo satélite Aqua/MODIS aos dados observados por estações de superfície, para diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, no período de 2003 a 2010. Os resultados demonstraram que para os dados de precipitação pluvial os menores erros foram observados nos meses de inverno e os maiores nos meses de verão. Em relação aos dados de temperatura observou-se que, com a inclusão de um fator de correção, os dados do satélite Aqua apresentaram boa exatidão em todos os meses. De maneira geral, os resultados obtidos indicam que os satélites TRMM e Aqua são alternativas eficientes na aquisição de informações em locais onde há falhas ou escassez dos mesmos podendo ser também utilizados na análise da consistência de dados coletados por meio de redes meteorológicas.Temperature and rainfall data are used in several scientific studies. However, the paucity of data resulting from the low density of weather stations is a problem frequently encountered in these studies. Thus, the use of estimated data from satellites has become an important tool in regions where they are scarce. In this study comparisons were made between monthly rainfall data estimated by TRMM satellite and temperature data estimated by the satellite Aqua/MODIS data observed by surface stations, for different locations in the State of Sao Paulo during the period 2003 to 2010. The results showed that for the rainfall data, smaller errors were observed during the winter and higher during the summer

  13. Perda dentária precoce em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade: estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1998 Early tooth loss in adults aged 35 - 44: State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Dados secundários de condições de saúde bucal em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade foram analisados a fim de estimar a prevalência da perda dentária precoce e do ataque de cárie dentária. Uma amostra não probabilística, de exames epidemiológicos provenientes de 5.777 professores e funcionários de escolas públicas e particulares, aleatoriamente selecionadas em 131 cidades do estado de São Paulo foi utilizada. Os critérios de observação do ataque de cárie recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997 foram empregados. O índice CPOD, correspondendo ao número de dentes permanentes cariados, perdidos e restaurados, e a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais foram analisados de acordo com o sexo, a idade, o grupo étnico, acesso à água de abastecimento fluoretada, tipo de escola: rural e urbana e o tamanho da população da cidade. O censo de 1991 - na época a mais recente fonte disponível - ofereceu informação de base municipal do perfil sócio-econômico. Análise espacial foi empregada para avaliar associação entre o perfil de saúde bucal e os indicadores sócio-econômicos. O ataque de cárie na amostra de adultos foi 22,39 (6,24. Perda dentária foi responsável pela metade do valor do ataque. Taxas crescentes de perda dentária precoce foram observadas para adultos mais velhos, negros, que trabalhavam em escolas rurais, em cidades pequenas e áreas não fluoretadas. Indicadores sócio-econômicos municipais mostraram correlação com a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais. Estes resultados podem auxiliar na formulação de políticas públicas dirigidas à promoção da saúde bucal.Secondary data on the oral health status of adults aged 35 - 44 were analysed in order to estimate the prevalence of caries and early tooth loss. A non-probabilistic sample of 5,777 teachers and workers of public and private schools randomly selected in 131 cities of the State of Sao Paulo

  14. Gestão dos Riscos Urbanos em São Paulo: as áreas contaminadas Urban Risk Management in Sao Paulo: contaminated sites Gestion des risques dans São Paulo: Les zones contaminées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Zilda dos Santos Ramires

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a problemática relacionada às áreas contaminadas. Esta questão ambiental passou a ser de conhecimento público a partir da década de 1980, por meio do processo de desconcentração industrial verificado na mais densa área urbana do Brasil. Na primeira parte, será analisado como este fenômeno, somado a mudança do uso do solo urbano resultou no surgimento das áreas de risco, uma vez que as áreas contaminadas estão sendo utilizadas ou receberam novos usos, como residenciais ou serviços, sem que fossem realizados estudos ambientais específicos com posterior recuperação e/ou remediação. Com o objetivo de auxiliar no entendimento, abrangência e magnitude da questão, será apresentado um mapeamento, por distrito, das indústrias existentes na mancha urbana paulista; o qual expressa à distribuição dos riscos e perigos construídos ao longo de décadas no território do município de São Paulo. Na segunda parte, aborda-se como o poder público trata o tema; suas dificuldades e acertos. Por fim, estão as conclusões, que indicam que a aplicação efetiva da legislação específica para a gestão de áreas contaminadas, com a exigência da realização dos estudos ambientais, além da disponibilização das informações à sociedade, com aumento da visibilidade do problema, pode ser o caminho para solucioná-los, ainda que hoje a participação popular, incipiente nesse caso, seja fundamental nesse processo.La problématique de ce travail s´inscrit autour des zones contaminées. La question de l´environnement est devenue publique à partir des années 1980 à cause du processus de déconcentration industrielle qui s´est opéré dans les aires urbaines les plus denses du Brésil. Dans la première partie on analyse comment ce phénomène a contribué à l´apparition de nouvelles zones de risque, suite au changement de l´usage du sol urbain. En effet, des habitations et des services ont

  15. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  16. Controle da hanseníase no Estado de São Paulo: análise histórica Control de la hanseníasis en el Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil: análisis histórico Hansen's disease control in the State of São Paulo: a historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Araujo Opromolla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Para controle da hanseníase, doença infectocontagiosa conhecida desde os tempos bíblicos, são mostradas as intrincadas convergências de histórias nacionais, de políticas médicas, governamentais e internacionais. O estudo descreve a história e as ações de controle da hanseníase, a partir do começo do século XIX, no estado de São Paulo, e sua conexão com o desenvolvimento da saúde pública, utilizando análises bibliográficas e documentais.Para control de la hanseníasis, enfermedad infectocontagiosa conocida desde los tiempos bíblicos, se muestran las intrincadas convergencias de historias brasileñas, de políticas médicas, gubernamentales e internacionales. El estudio describe la historia y las acciones de control de la hanseníasis, a partir del comienzo del siglo XIX, en el estado de Sao Paulo, y su conexión con el desarrollo de la salud pública, utilizando análisis bibliográficas y documentales.Leprosy is an infectious contagious disease known since Biblical times. Global effort for disease control reveals intricate convergences of national history and of medical, governmental, and international policies. The study describes the history of Hansen's disease and control actions undertaken in the state of São Paulo starting in the 19th century and its connection with the development of public health in that state, by means of a bibliographic and documental analysis.

  17. Pipeline maintenance, evaluation and inspection in water crossing: OSBRA case in Paranaiba River; Inspecao, avaliacao e manutencao de oleoduto em travessia: caso OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo-Brasilia) no Rio Paranaiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Newton Camelo de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Vieira Paulo de Tarso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Attempting to pipeline integrity proceeding of PETROBRAS, the OSBRA (Sao Paulo-Brasilia Pipeline) Management promoted field inspections by divers at Paranaiba River water crossing, located at your right-of-way pipeline. These services were composed by topography, visual inspections and local screened of the pipeline, determining the equipment layout at that water crossing. At Paranaiba River, the pipeline is seated above the river bed. The results indicated high spans in the pipeline structure. Considering this configuration, were made water speed and vibration measurements near the equipment. The activities were executed in order to assist the structural analysis of the pipeline. These studies had concluded to a temporary solution, which consisted in reducing loads and building additional supports. (author)

  18. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  19. Determination of total and organic mercury and evaluation of methylation and demethylation processes in sediments of the Rio Grande Reservoir, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Determinacao de mercurio total e organico e avaliacao dos processos de metilacao e desmetilacao em sedimentos do Reservatorio Rio Grande, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Robson Leocadio

    2010-07-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is a very important water supply for this region. In the present study bottom waters and sediment samples collected in this reservoir, in four sampling points, in four campaigns, from September 2008 to January 2010, were analyzed. Firstly total Hg was determined in sediment and bottom waters by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). Following, the analytical methodology for organic Hg was adapted from literature, where the organomercurial compounds were extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium and subsequent destruction of organic compounds by bromine chloride. The validation of this methodology, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by means of IAEA 405 and BCR-CRM 580 reference materials analyses. For methylation and demethylation processes evaluation in this environment, the following physical and chemical parameters were assessed, in situ: pH, water temperature, redox potential (EH), transparency and depth. For the sediment samples, granulometry, total organic carbon, sulphate-reducing bacteria, total N and P, besides the metals Co, Cu, Fe and Mn were evaluated. The selection of these parameters was related to the factors that influence the behavior of MeHg in the sediments and its transition zone. Total Hg ranging from 1.0 to 71.0 mg kg'-{sup 1} and organic mercury from <10.0 to 47.2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in sediments and methylation rates from 0.06 to 1.4% were found, along the reservoir. Different methylation conditions along the reservoir and its influences were also discussed. As supplementary study the concentration of some metals and trace elements in the sediments by neutron activation analysis technique was determined. As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm and Yb were determined. The enrichment factor in relation to earth crust values using Sc as normalizer element reached values

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  1. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  2. Uso de medicamentos por pessoas com deficiências em áreas do estado de São Paulo Uso de medicamentos por personas con deficiencias en áreas del Estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Use of medicines by persons with disabilities in São Paulo state areas, Southeastern Brazil

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    Shamyr Sulyvan Castro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de medicamentos e os principais grupos terapêuticos consumidos por pessoas com deficiências físicas, auditivas ou visuais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em que foram analisados dados do Inquérito Multicêntrico de Saúde no Estado de São Paulo (ISA-SP em 2002 e do Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo (ISA-Capital, realizado em 2003. Os entrevistados que referiram deficiências foram estudados segundo as variáveis que compõem o banco de dados: área, sexo, renda, faixa etária, raça, consumo de medicamentos e tipos de medicamentos consumidos. RESULTADOS: A percentagem de consumo entre as pessoas com deficiência foi de: 62,8% entre os visuais; 60,2% entre os auditivos e 70,1% entre os físicos. As pessoas com deficiência física consumiram 20% mais medicamentos que os não-deficientes. Entre as pessoas com deficiência visual, os medicamentos mais consumidos foram os diuréticos, agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina e analgésicos. Pessoas com deficiência auditiva utilizaram mais analgésicos e agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre indivíduos com deficiência física, analgésicos, antitrombóticos e agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina foram os medicamentos mais consumidos. CONCLUSÕES: Houve maior consumo de medicamentos entre as pessoas com deficiências quando comparados com os não-deficientes, sendo os indivíduos com deficiência física os que mais consumiram fármacos, seguidos de deficientes visuais e auditivos.OBJETIVO: Analizar el consumo de medicamentos y los principales grupos terapéuticos consumidos por personas con deficiencias físicas, auditivas o visuales. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en que fueron analizados datos de la Pesquisa Multicentrica de Salud en el Estado de Sao Paulo (ISA-SP en 2002 y de la Pesquisa de Salud en el Municipio de Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital, realizado en 2003. Los entrevistados que refirieron deficiencias fueron estudiados según las variables

  3. Mundial FIFA 2014 en San Paulo y sus impactos: estádio arena Corinthians como equipamiento de ocio/FIFA World Cup 2014 in Sao Paulo and its impacts: arena Corinthians arena as leisure equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caroline Lopes de Paula; Ricardo Ricci Uvinha

    2016-01-01

    .... Twelve host cities were chosen for the event, including São Paulo. "Having such picture in mind, the real impacts to leisure and tourism segments after holding the FIFA World Cup 2014 in the City of...

  4. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  5. Urban stormwater flood management in the Cordeiro watershed, Sao Paulo, Brazil: does the interaction between socio-political and technical aspects create an opportunity to attain community resilience?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borba, M.L.; Warner, J.F.; Porto, M.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the urban Cordeiro watershed, São Paulo, Brazil, the impervious surface has reduced stormwater infiltration and the drainage system has become insufficient. Engineering firms have been contracted, under government supervision, to implement the construction of six water reservoirs in order to

  6. Análise espacial e sazonal da leptospirose no município de São Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Análisis espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis en el municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Spatial and seasonal analysis on leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Spinelli Martins Soares

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial e sazonal da leptospirose, identificando possíveis componentes ecológicos e sociais para a sua transmissão. MÉTODOS: Foram georreferenciados 2.490 casos em cada distrito do município de São Paulo, SP, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Foram realizados mapas temáticos com as variáveis taxa de incidência, letalidade, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicilio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Para identificar o padrão espacial (disperso, em aglomerado ou randômico, foram analisadas pelo Índice de Moran global e local. Foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para testar associações entre as variáveis com padrão espacial em aglomerados. RESULTADOS: O padrão espacial em aglomerados foi observado nas variáveis taxa de incidência de leptospirose, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicílio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Foram notificados 773 casos no período seco e 1.717 no úmido. A incidência e a letalidade estão correlacionadas com as condições socioeconômicas da população, independentemente do período. CONCLUSÕES: A leptospirose está distribuída por todo o município de São Paulo e sua incidência aumenta no período das chuvas. No período seco, os locais de aparecimento dos casos coincidem com as áreas de piores condições de moradia e, durante o período úmido, também aumenta em outros distritos, provavelmente devido à proximidade de rios e córregos.OBJETIVO: Analizar la distribución espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis, identificando posibles componentes ecológicos y sociales para su transmisión. MÉTODOS: Fueron georeferenciados 2.490 casos en cada distrito del municipio de Sao Paulo, en sureste de Brasil, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Los datos fueron obtenidos del Sistema

  7. Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2009-10-01

    programa de vacunación contra la gripe. Las estimativas de la población y los datos de mortalidad fueron, respectivamente, obtenidos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br y del Ministerio de la Salud (www.datasus.gov.br para el período entre el 1980 y 2006. Se estimó el riesgo de muerte por el método directo de ajuste, en el que se utilizó la población estándar (mundial referente al 1960. RESULTADOS: Las comparaciones entre las inclinaciones de las líneas de regresión resultaron semejantes para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y CE (p = 0,941, sin embargo, para las EIC (p = 0,022, se observó significativa reducción de la línea del período postvacuna cuando comparada con la línea del período prevacuna. El cambio en la tendencia de la mortalidad tras el 1996 fue significativo sólo para las EIC (p = 0,022, permaneciendo inalterada para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y EE (p = 0,941. CONCLUSIÓN: La vacunación contra la gripe se asoció a la significativa reducción de la mortalidad por EIC.BACKGROUND: The effect of vaccination against the influenza virus on the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality by CVD before and after the start of the vaccination against the Influenza virus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD, cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD and external causes (EC in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, aged > 60 years, before and after the start of the vaccination program against Influenza. The population estimates and mortality data were obtained, respectively, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br and from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (www.datasus.gov.br for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: The comparisons between

  8. Comportamento socioambiental do consumidor: um estudo com universitários do interior paulista Consumer socio-environmental behavior: a study with college students in the countryside of the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenita Rodrigues da Silva Tamashiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Responsabilidade Social Corporativa vem se consolidando cada vez mais, dentro de um cenário de mercado muito competitivo e de consumidores mais exigentes e seletivos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se as ações de responsabilidade socioambiental influenciam no processo de decisão de compra dos consumidores. Para tanto, foram aplicados 100 questionários a alunos de um curso de administração de uma universidade no Estado de São Paulo, sendo que, 68 questionários foram validados e analisados, aplicando-se a estatística descritiva. Os resultados demonstraram que: i as ações socioambientais não afetam o processo de compra desses consumidores; ii que as empresas devem informar aos seus públicos em quais ações sociais e ambientais estão envolvidas e quais são os impactos positivos que suas ações têm gerado à biodiversidade e à sociedade.Corporate Social Responsibility is increasingly being consolidated within a very competitive market scenario comprising more selective and demanding consumers. Thus, the purpose of this research was to verify whether socio-environmental actions influence consumer purchase decision. To this end, 100 questionnaires were applied to undergraduate students from a business administration course at a university in the State of Sao Paulo; 68 questionnaires were validated and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results showed that: i socio-environmental actions do notaffect the purchase process of these consumers; ii companies should inform consumers which social and environmental actions they are involved in and which positive impacts their actions have generated to biodiversity and society.

  9. Descriptions of two new species of Eunice Cuvier, 1817 (Polychaeta: Eunicidae from coastal islands of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.M. Nogueira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Eunice from coastal islands of the state of São Paulo are described, both of them living in colonies of the coral Mussismilia hispida. One species was also collected from a sandy beach. Eunice insularis has short palps and antennae in a horseshoe, without articulations; most of the specimens studied are abranchiate, but some have one branchial filament in a few parapodia. Eunice marconii also has palps and antennae without articulations, in a horseshoe, and 1-3 long slender branchial filaments from the anterior to posteriormost chaetigers. These new species are compared with the morphologically closest congeners.

  10. Uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão em rodovias do Estado de São Paulo: um risco à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito? Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Yonamine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é comum o uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão, o que pode culminar na ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência do uso de anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros. Motoristas (N = 134 foram abordados em duas rodovias do Estado de São Paulo e solicitados a responder um questionário, assim como a fornecer uma amostra de urina para realização de análises toxicológicas. Todos os dados foram analisados em Stata 8.0. Todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, de idade média de 40,8 anos e de baixa escolaridade. A presença de anfetaminas foi detectada em 10,8% das amostras de urina, cujo uso foi justificado para manter a vigília durante o trabalho. O uso de anfetaminas foi detectado entre caminhoneiros em rodovias de São Paulo. Cessado o efeito estimulante, a sonolência advinda de uma possível privação de sono diminui a atenção e o bom desempenho na direção, predispondo o condutor aos acidentes de trânsito e seus custos relacionados.The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134 were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to

  11. A influência francesa na estruturação da escola de educação física da Força Pública de São Paulo, Brasil (1906-1914 = The French Influence in the Structuring of the School of Physical Education of the Armed Forces of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1906-1914

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    Daniel Barsottini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la influencia cultural francesa en el campo de la Educación Física en el contexto de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sao Paulo a principios de década de los años 20 del pasado siglo, al tiempo que analizar las demandas políticas del gobierno del estado en la organización de esta escuela. En cuanto a los procedimientos metodológicos, hubo una investigación documental, que se caracterizó por la recogida de datos para la investigación sobre la estructura de la Escuela de Educación Física de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sao Paulo (1906-1914, desarrollada a través de libros, folletos, cartas, diarios y resúmenes que se recogieron en el Museo de la Policía Militar de São Paulo. Llegando a la conclusión de que la formación de esta escuela, fue un objetivo secundario de una misión militar francesa, puesto que el objetivo principal fue la modernización de la policía en materia de capacitación y equipo, de las demandas políticas y económicas del contexto de la época. También se observa que esta influencia ha creado una tradición representada por una cultura en la gimnasia, artes marciales, esgrima y danza.-----------------------------------------------------------------O objetivo deste estudo reside na descrição da influência cultural francesa no campo da Educação Física no contexto da Força Pública de São Paulo no início do século XX, mas também analisa as demandas políticas do governo paulista na organização desta escola. Em relação aos procedimentos metodológicos, realizamos uma pesquisa documental sobre o tema, que se caracteriza pelo levantamento de fontes primárias sobre a estruturação da Escola de Educação Física da Força Pública de São Paulo (1906-1914. Tais documentos, compostos por livros, tratados, cartas, revistas e resumos foram coletados no Museu da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo. Concluímos que a formação desta escola dá-se como objetivo secund

  12. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  13. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo city (Brazil); Ampliacao de mercado para o gas natural utilizando informacoes urbanas: estudo de caso dos distritos paulistanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa M.; Faga, Murilo T.W.; Santos, Edmilson M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the city of Sao Paulo for the Brazilian natural gas market, the aim of this paper is to propose an analytical methodology that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, characterizing the gas consumption possibilities and attractiveness for each of the 96 districts composing the city. The methodology is developed through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. On this paper, examples of essential information that compose the methodology are presented for three districts: Itaquera, Moema and Tatuape, which have different socio-economic and geographical profiles. (author)

  14. Days out-of-role due to common physical and mental health problems: Results from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

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    Laura Helena Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative importance of common physical and mental disorders with regard to the number of days out-of-role (DOR; number of days for which a person is completely unable to work or carry out normal activities because of health problems in a population-based sample of adults in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. METHODS: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey was administered during face-to-face interviews with 2,942 adult household residents. The presence of 8 chronic physical disorders and 3 classes of mental disorders (mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders was assessed for the previous year along with the number of days in the previous month for which each respondent was completely unable to work or carry out normal daily activities due to health problems. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations of the disorders and their comorbidities with the number of days out-of-role while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Both individual-level and population-level associations were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 13.1% of the respondents reported 1 or more days out-of-role in the previous month, with an annual median of 41.4 days out-of-role. The disorders considered in this study accounted for 71.7% of all DOR; the disorders that caused the greatest number of DOR at the individual-level were digestive (22.6, mood (19.9, substance use (15.0, chronic pain (16.5, and anxiety (14.0 disorders. The disorders associated with the highest population-attributable DOR were chronic pain (35.2%, mood (16.5%, and anxiety (15.0% disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Because pain, anxiety, and mood disorders have high effects at both the individual and societal levels, targeted interventions to reduce the impairments associated with these disorders have the highest potential to reduce the societal burdens of chronic illness in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  15. Ambiente atmosférico urbano e admissão hospitalar de crianças, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Urban atmospheric environment and hospital admission for children in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil Ambiente atmosférico urbano e ingresos hospitalarios de niños en la ciudad de Sâo Paulo, Brasil

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    Edelci Nunes da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações climáticas constituem risco para a saúde pública. Contudo, poucos estudos têm procurado identificar como a dinâmica do clima afeta a saúde, a fim de se obter dados que alimentem modelos de previsão de riscos para a saúde. Nas cidades tropicais esses estudos são particularmente escassos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar como as condições atmosféricas intraurbanas afetam a saúde respiratória das crianças menores de cinco anos no setor Sul/Sudeste, da cidade de São Paulo, associando as variáveis atmosféricas e o índice bioclimático PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature com as admissões hospitalares. Analisaram-se 12.269 casos de internamento por doenças respiratórias em crianças – CID 10, Capítulo 10 - Doenças Respiratórias (J00-J32; J40-J47; J80-J99. Os dados diários de temperaturas média, mínima e máxima do ar (ºC, humidade relativa média do ar (% e velocidade média do vento (m/s foram obtidos na estação meteorológica do aeroporto de Congonhas e o índice de qualidade do ar, como controle, na CETESB/CONGONHAS. Utilizou-se a análise estatística descritiva e modelo de regressão. Os resultados apontaram associação estatística entre as variáveis atmosféricas, a poluição e os internamentos hospitalares. Não foram identificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para o grupo de crianças com doenças respiratórias, menores de cinco anos residentes em distritos com diferentes condições socioambientais.Climatic changes pose public health risks. However, few studies have tried to identify how climate dynamics affect health, in order to obtain evidence-based data for risk-prediction models. Moreover, such studies are particularly scarce for tropical cities. This study aimed to verify how intra-urban atmospheric conditions affect the respiratory health of children under five in the South- eastern part of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by associating atmospheric variables and the

  16. Analysis of knowledge in astronomy of the students of technology in industrial automation at the Federal Institute Sao Paulo at the campus Cubatao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Capasso Moraes, Ataliba

    This work is part of a research of the academic Masters in Science in Education in its final stages. It seeks to present the results of the survey conducted among students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão. In the first step, the students’ lack of knowledge to the related primary concepts of Astronomy turned out. Correcting these deficiencies found, external to the program content, a Basic Course in Astronomy, containing dialogued or expository lectures with the aid of audiovisual resources and access to textbooks. Analyzed the responses of this second step, it was found that students had a significant improvement in learning.

  17. Spontaneous reporting of adverse events following pandemic influenza A (H1N1 immunization in a reference center in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Danise Senna Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper describes adverse events (AEs temporally associated to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine observed in a reference center in São Paulo, Brazil, during a 2010 mass vaccination campaign. Methods A retrospective study involving persons who sought medical care for AEs following influenza vaccination. Data were retrieved from medical records, vaccine AE notification forms, and a computerized system for immunobiological registration. Results Sixty-six vaccinees sought medical care for AEs after immunization. The most frequent AEs were fever, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. No serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Few vaccinees spontaneously reported AEs to influenza A (H1N1 vaccine at this center.

  18. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  19. Cause-specific mortality and income inequality in São Paulo, Brazil Mortalidad según causas básicas y desigualdad de renta en el Municipio de Sao Paulo, Brasil Mortalidade segundo causas básicas e desigualdade de renda no Município de São Paulo

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    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze cause-specific mortality rates according to the relative income hypothesis. METHODS: All 96 administrative areas of the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, were divided into two groups based on the Gini coefficient of income inequality: high (>0.25 and low (OBJETIVO: Analizar causas básicas de óbito según la teoría de renta relativa. MÉTODOS: Los 96 distritos del Municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil fueron divididos en dos grupos según desigualdad de renta, con base en el índice de Gini (alta ? 0,25 y baja OBJETIVO: Analisar causas básicas de óbito segundo a teoria de renda relativa. MÉTODOS: Os 96 distritos do Município de São Paulo, SP, foram divididos em dois grupos segundo desigualdade de renda, com base no índice de Gini (alta > 0,25 e baixa <0,25. Foi aplicada a metodologia propensity score matching para controlar por fatores de confusão referentes às diferenças socioeconômicas e demográficas entre os distritos. RESULTADOS: A diferença entre a mortalidade de distritos desiguais e mais igualitários foi estatisticamente significativa para homicídios (8,57 por 10.000 residentes [IC95% 2,60; 14,53], doença isquêmica do coração (5,47 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,76; 10,17], aids (3,58 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,58; 6,57] e doenças respiratórias (3,56 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,18; 6,94]. As dez causas básicas mais frequentes foram responsáveis por 72,3% do total da diferença. A mortalidade infantil também foi estatisticamente maior para distritos mais desiguais (2,80 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,86; 4,74], assim como mortalidade masculina (27,37 por 10.000 [IC95% 6,19; 48,55] e feminina (15,07 por 10.000 [IC95% 3,65; 26,48]. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados estão de acordo com o esperado pela teoria da renda relativa. A mortalidade por todas as causas básicas analisadas foi maior em distritos mais desiguais depois do uso da metodologia do propensity score matching. Estudos sobre a desigualdade de renda realizados

  20. Fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens pobres na cidade de São Paulo, 2007 Factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes pobres en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, 2007 Factors associated with induced abortion among poor youth in the city of São Paulo, 2007

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    Rebeca de Souza e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo investiga fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens residentes numa comunidade pobre da cidade de São Paulo. A amostra foi composta por 102 homens e 99 mulheres de 14 a 25 anos de idade que já haviam iniciado suas vidas sexuais. Usou-se o modelo hierárquico de regressão logística. As variáveis não ter companheiro sexual no momento da entrevista, sexo do entrevistado, idade no momento da entrevista, priorizar morar só e número de gestações compuseram o modelo final. Dar muita importância a morar só quadruplica a chance de ocorrer um aborto. Jovens mais velhos foram menos propensos a se deparar com um aborto, dado que a chance de se optar pelo aborto se reduz 17% para cada incremento de um ano na idade dos jovens. Isso é indicativo de que as gestações ocorreram de forma inesperada, intempestiva, como é praxe nas condutas adolescentes, sendo as maiores candidatas a terminarem em aborto provocado. Evidencia-se, portanto, a necessidade de serem investidos recursos financeiros para obtenção de métodos contraceptivos eficazes e inócuos, destinados ao início da vida sexual.Este artículo investiga factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes residentes en una comunidad pobre de la ciudad de Sao Paulo. La muestra estaba compuesta por 102 hombres y 99 mujeres de 14 a 25 años de edad que ya habían dado inicio a sus vidas sexuales. Se usó el modelo jerárquico de regresión logística. Las variables: no tener compañero sexual en el momento de la entrevista, sexo del entrevistado, edad en el momento de la entrevista, priorizar vivir solo, y número de gestaciones, compusieron el modelo final. Dar mucha importancia a vivir solo cuadruplica la posibilidad de que se produzca un aborto. Jóvenes de mayor edad fueron menos propensos a encontrarse con un aborto, dado que la posibilidad de optar por un aborto se reduce un 17%, respectoa cada incremento de un año en la edad de los jóvenes. Eso es indicativo de

  1. Coinfecção de Tb/HIV em um distrito administrativo do município de São Paulo Coinfección de TB/VIH en un distrito administrativo del municipio de Sao Paulo Coinfection of Tuberculosis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus in an administrative district in the city of São Paulo

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    Paula Hino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o perfil sóciodemográfico e epidemiológico de pessoas com co-infecção Tb/HIV, residentes no distrito administrativo Capão Redondo do Município de São Paulo no período de 2000 a 2009. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: De um total de 1.612 casos de tuberculose, 162 casos foram positivos para o HIV. Houve predomínio da faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos (39,5%, sexo masculino (61,1% e a forma pulmonar (68,5%. Apenas 47,5% dos casos evoluíram para a cura, 13% abandonaram o tratamento e 32,2% foram a óbito. RESULTADOS: Ressalta-se a necessidade do conhecimento da situação da co-infecção Tb/HIV no sentido de oferecer uma assistência adequada a esta clientela, considerando que ambas as enfermidades não podem ser discutidas isoladamente. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os casos de associação Tb/HIV contribuem para a não adesão ao tratamento e aumento da taxa de mortalidade.OBJETIVO: caracterizar el perfil sociodemográfico y epidemiológico de personas con coinfección TB/VIH, residentes en el distrito administrativo Capão Redondo del Municipio de Sao Paulo en el período de 2000 a 2009. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: De un total de 1.612 casos de tuberculosis, 162 casos fueron positivos para el VIH. Hubo predominio del grupo etáreo de 30 a 39 años (39,5%, sexo masculino (61,1% y la forma pulmonar (68,5%. Apenas el 47,5% de los casos evolucionaron para la cura, 13% abandonaron el tratamiento y 32,2% fueron a óbito. RESULTADOS: Se resalta la necesidad de conocimiento de la situación de la coinfección TB/VIH en el sentido de ofrecer una asistencia adecuada a esta clientela, considerando que ambas enfermedades no pueden ser discutidas aisladamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Se concluye que los casos de asociación TB/VIH contribuyen para la no adhesión al tratamiento y aumento de la tasa de mortalidad.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sociodemographic and epidemiological

  2. Perfil dos usuários de serviços de Saúde Mental do município de Lorena - São Paulo Perfil de los usuarios de servicios de Salud Mental del municipio de Lorena - Sao Paulo Profile of users of mental health services in the city of Lorena - São Paulo

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    Maria Odete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do Ambulatório de Saúde Mental e do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial de Lorena - São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório descritivo com dados coletados em 5.830 prontuários dos usuários desses dois serviços de Saúde Mental. RESULTADOS:Foram analisados 5.490 prontuários no Ambulatório e 340 no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial. No Ambulatório 68% dos usuários eram mulheres e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, 61% eram homens. Os diagnósticos que prevaleceram no Ambulatório foram: transtornos neuróticos, relacionados ao estresse e os somatoformes, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, foram os transtornos decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas. O grupo de medicamentos mais prescritos no Ambulatório foi o de antidepressivos, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, os antipsicóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que os serviços de Saúde Mental atuam de forma desarticulada com a Atenção Básica de Saúde e faz-se necessário implantar o apoio matricial nesse município.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el perfil de los usuarios del Consultorio Externo de Salud Mental y del Centro de Atención Psicosocial de Lorena - Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudio exploratorio descriptivo cuyos datos fueron recolecatos en 5.830 historias clínicas de los usuarios de esos dos servicios de Salud Mental. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 5.490 historias clínicas em el Consultorio Externo y 340 en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial. En el Consultorio externo el 68% de los usuarios eran mujeres y en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial, el 61% eran hombres. Los diagnósticos que prevalecieron en el Consultorio Externo fueron: trastornos neuróticos, relacionados al estrés y los somatoformes, y en el centro de Atención Psicosocial, fueron los trastornos generados por el uso de sustancias psicoactivas. El grupo de medicamentos más prescritos en el Consultorio Externo fue el de los antidepresivos, y en el Centro de Atenci

  3. The coal carbon and the soil organic matter isotopes in the studies of vegetation and climate change in the Quaternary and the soil formation tax from the Sao Paulo State, Southeastern region, Brazil; Isotopos do carbono dos carvoes e da materia organica do solo em estudos de mudanca de vegetacao e clima no quaternario e da taxa de formacao de solos do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, S.E.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Boulet, R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. ORSTOM; Aravena, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Scheel-Ybert, R. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Inst. de Botanique

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes in the Jaguariuna and Botucatu regions (state of Sao Paulo, southeast of Brazil) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, based on {sigma}{sup 13} C values of soil organic matter (SOM), {sup 14} C dating and analysis of charcoal present in the soil profiles. Sampling sites were located under natural vegetation (cerradao), along the slopes of small hills. charcoal was found predominantly between 50 and 150 cm deep, indicating a period of greater frequency of fires in this area, between 3000 and 6000 years BP. The presence of charcoal on tops of the hills suggests that sedimentation could not be the major process responsible for burying the charcoal within the soil. Biological activity (termites, ants, earthworms) played an important role in this process. For Jaguariuna site, more enriched values of {sigma}{sup 13} C of SOM were observed from the late Pleistocene until mid Holocene, indicating drier climate when compared with present-day conditions. For Botucatu site, the {sigma}{sup 13} C profile suggests predominance of C{sub 3} vegetation during the entire Holocene. (author)

  4. Qualidade das informações registradas nas declarações de óbito fetal em São Paulo, SP Calidad de las informaciones registradas en las declaraciones de óbito fetal en Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Quality of information registered on fetal deaths certificates in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2011-10-01

    acesso às informações hospitalares.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la calidad de la información registrada en las declaraciones de óbito fetal. MÉTODOS: Estudio documental con 710 óbitos fetales en hospitales de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, en el primer semestre de 2008, registrados en la base unificada de óbitos de la Fundación Sistema Estatal de Análisis de Datos y de la Secretaria de Estado de la Salud de Sao Paulo. Se analizó la completitud de las variables de las declaraciones de óbito fetal emitidas por hospitales y Servicio de Verificación de Óbitos. Los registros de las declaraciones de óbito de una muestra de 212 óbitos fetales de hospitales del Sistema Único de Salud (público fueron comparados con los dados de los prontuarios y del registro del Servicio de Verificación de Óbitos. RESULTADOS: Entre as declaraciones de óbito, 75% fueron emitidas por el Servicio de Verificación de Óbitos, más frecuente en los hospitales públicos (78%. La completitud de las variables de las declaraciones de óbito emitidas por los hospitales fue más elevada y fue mayor en los hospitales no-públicos. Hubo mayor completitud, concordancia y sensibilidad en las declaraciones de óbito emitidas por los hospitales. Hubo baja concordancia y elevada especificidad para las variables relativas a las características maternas. Mayor registro de las variables sexo, peso al nacer y duración de la gestación fue observada en las declaraciones emitidas en el Servicio de Verificación de Óbito. La autopsia no resultó en mejoramiento de la indicación de las causas de muerte: la muerte fetal no especificada representó 65,7% y la hipoxia intrauterina, 24,3%, mientras que en las declaraciones emitidas por los hospitales fue de 18,1% y 41,7%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario mejorar la completitud y la indicación de las causas de muerte de los óbitos fetales. La elevada proporción de autopsias no mejoró la calidad de la información y la indicación de las causas de

  5. Cross-sectoral assessment of public policies in health and the environment: Scenario of the municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Marina Kolland; Oliveira, Lilian Ribeiro de; Ferolla, Luna Marquez; Paschoalotto, Marco Antônio Catussi; Lopes, José Eduardo Ferreira; Passador, João Luiz; Passador, Claudia Souza

    2017-12-01

    From the identification of the current and rising demand for integrated solutions by government players, especially at the stage of evaluation of public policies, this paper carried out an cross-sectoral outcome assessment of local government cost-effectiveness in the fields of health and environment. The analysis is based on the amount of resources allocated by each of the 645 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, to each field, involving consolidated evaluation indicators (IDSUS and IAA, respectively). This study required the prior distribution of municipalities in clusters within homogeneous groups previously proposed in IDSUS calculation methodology. The results suggest that the addressed areas are intimately connected, indicating that larger (and better) environmental investments can produce promising outcomes toward health performance. Therefore, there is a demand for integrated public policies in the context of environmental health. Also, there is the indication that the resource management and the proper allocation thereof may be more relevant than the total amount spent; and that lower cost-effectiveness values do not necessarily demonstrate high scores in the assessed performance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of atmospheric instability indices derived from radiosonde observations and precipitation values measured with a weather radar and a rain gauge network in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Radio soundings are carried out daily in more than 800 stations throughout the world. The data collected in the soundings are used in many meteorological applications such as numerical weather prediction and climate models. Despite the relatively large number of sounding stations, they are unevenly distributed over the globe. It is generally assumed that the desired distance between stations is 300 km. In this study, we performed a comparison of 20 soundings of two stations located 85 km apart (State of São Paulo, Brazil; 23.511811° S, 46.637528° W, and 23.212578° S, 45.866581° W) to determine whether there is a concordance between atmospheric instability indices derived from the data collected by soundings at the these different locations. Additionally, precipitation data obtained by a meteorological radar and a rain gauge network during the same period as the soundings are compared to the stability indices to establish a correlation between precipitation values and these indices.

  7. Prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children aged 6 to 12 years in Embu das Artes, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Edson; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in school children in the city of Embu das Artes in São Paulo State. 2880 school children from seven public schools, aged between 6 and 12 years, were evaluated (clinical findings) by a pediatric rheumatologist. A board certified Pediatric Rheumatologist evaluated the subjects with suspected inflammatory arthropathy. Children with higher suspicion were referred to a specialized service. One hundred and forty-one children have presented abnormalities on examination of musculoskeletal system, with isolated pain on palpation the most common finding in the first evaluation (60.9%), with improvement in almost all cases in the second examination. Most of the abnormalities were related to recent injuries or congenital malformations. Six children have clinical findings suggestive of chronic arthropathy and were referred to a specialized pediatric rheumatology clinic. Of these, a 12 year-old girl fulfilled the criteria for JIA. The other diagnoses were aseptic necrosis of the hip (P = 1) of and post-trauma synovitis (P = 4). The prevalence of JIA in children aged between 6 and 12 years was 1/2.880 (or 0.34/1.000).

  8. Human coronavirus ocurrence in different populations of Sao Paulo: a comprehensive nine-year study using a pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay

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    Tatiane K. Cabeça

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses (HCoVs are considered one of the most common respiratory viruses associated with respiratory tract illnesses. An emergent human coronavirus was identified as the causal agent of an epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS during 2002-2003. The severity of the disease combined with its rapid spread requires the continuous surveillance of coronaviruses in worldwide populations. Epidemiological and clinical data of HCoVs infectious in the Brazilian population are scarce and restricted to one or two groups of patients. Our study aimed to investigate retrospectively the presence of HCoVs in different populations of São Paulo presenting acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs during the years of 2001-2010. A pancoronavirus RT-PCR was performed in this study. Coronaviruses were detected in 126 (11.5% of 1,087 specimens. Peaks detection frequency was observed during 2002-2004 and 2008-2009, with the highest detection in 2008. The prevalence of HCoVs was higher among children with heart diseases (24.6%, patients under stem cell transplantation program (24.3% and renal transplanted patients (20.2%. Coryza, cough and fever were the most common symptoms at presentation of positive cases and wheezing, a lower respiratory tract infection symptom was reported by 12% of the total, and 27% of high at-risk patients. HCoVs may have an important role among patients with underlying conditions and transplanted ones.

  9. Nutritional and clinical status, and dietary patterns of people living with HIV/AIDS in ambulatory care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erika Ferrari Rafael; Lewi, David Salomão; Vedovato, Gabriela Milhassi; Garcia, Vânia Regina Salles; Tenore, Simone Barros; Bassichetto, Katia Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Nutrition currently plays a key role in the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), especially in the case of metabolic alterations due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which could be related to cardiovascular diseases (CD). to describe the nutritional and clinical status, and the quality of diet of PLHA. It is a cross-sectional study involving a network of ambulatory care facilities for PLHA in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients, in use of HAART or not, were selected from December 2004 to may 2006, through routine clinic visits. We collected: socio-demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric measures and dietary data. Diet quality was evaluated according to a "protecting" or "non-protecting" pattern of consumption scores for CD. The sample had 238 patients on HAART and 76 without treatment. Mean serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were higher in the HAART group (p nutritional and metabolic conditions among patients on HAART associated with CD. It is necessary to manage health intervention programs for PLHA in order to control cardiovascular risk factors before final outcomes.

  10. Variabilidade espacial de atributos de um solo sob videira em Vitória Brasil (SP Spatial variability of soil characteristics under grapevine in Vitoria Brasil (State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

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    M. P. Carvalho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a variabilidade espacial de alguns atributos físicos e químicos de uma associação de solos cultivada sob videira (Vitis vinifera-L, do município de Vitória Brasil, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar a dependência espacial de tais atributos, assim como caracterizar as respectivas variabilidades, distribuições de freqüência e números mínimos de subamostras do solo para a cultura da videira. Para isso, coletaram-se dados do solo, dispostos segundo uma malha com 156 pontos amostrais, sendo analisados por meio da geoestatística. As maiores variabilidades foram verificadas para a macroporosidade (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB e CTC, ao passo que as menores foram para a densidade do solo (DS, pH e V. O número mínimo de subamostras, necessário para formar uma amostra composta e representativa, variou de 1 (pH e V a 241 (Mg, tendo seu valor médio de 64 subamostras. Quanto à dependência espacial, o P e o V apresentaram, respectivamente, forte e fraca dependência, enquanto o restante dos atributos apresentou moderada dependência. Desta forma, o alcance dos atributos físicos variou de 2,56 a 4,32 m, enquanto o dos químicos variou de 1,82 a 5,64 m.The spatial variability of some physical and chemical characteristics of a compound of soils under grapevine (Vitis vinifera-L cultivation was studied in the county Vitória Brasil, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Main objective was research into the spatial dependence of these soil characteristics and their variability, frequency distribution and minimum number of soil subsamples for grapevine crop. Soil data were collected in grid sampling at 156 points, using geoestatistics for the data analysis. Highest variability was found for macroporosity (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB, and CTC, and the smallest for bulk density (BD, pH, and V. The minimum number of soil subsamples to form a compound and representative sample varied between 1 (pH and V and 241 (Mg, with a mean of 64

  11. Cafeteria e sua Influência no Consumo do Café na Cidade de São PauloThe Coffee Shop Influence on Coffee Consumption in the City of Sao PauloCafetería y su Influencia en el Consumo de Café en la Ciudad de São Paulo

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    BAZANINI, Roberto

    2005-09-01

    based on descriptive and deductive positions, also on its own information. The perceived characteristics can be intrinsic such as the taste, aroma, color, appearance and consistency or extrinsic which refers to the outer part that surrounds the product such as the environment, packaging, brand and also the country of origin. This study is aimed at examining whether intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of coffee drink stimulate the consumer to attend coffee shops (specialized environment for consuming coffee. For such, an exploratory survey was made, using field and bibliographical researches whose results were dealt by the content analysis. One of the instruments to collect data was a program of interviews with 87 people, who regularly attend coffee shops. The specific places are located in Sao Paulo (two of them at a mall in the Higienópolis neighborhood and the other one is at an University campus in the center of the city. The results show that the interviewees considered first the coffee taste, and then the coffee aroma as the most significant intrinsic characteristics. Nevertheless, they recognized value in a pleasant, comfortable and refined environment. Both characteristics have been complementary and the quoted factors were Coffee is a product of high national demand and has been present in the consumer habits indicating a great search for distinguished and quality coffees. The evaluations of this product are based on descriptive and deductive positions, also on its own information. The perceived characteristics can be intrinsic such as the taste, aroma, color, appearance and consistency or extrinsic which refers to the outer part that surrounds the product such as the environment, packaging, brand and also the country of origin. This study is aimed at examining whether intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of coffee drink stimulate the consumer to attend coffee shops (specialized environment for consuming coffee. For such, an exploratory survey was made

  12. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinolli, Mario Ivo; Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago

    2017-01-01

    Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6), at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7%) were male, and 228 (56.3%) were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis. Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain) when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain). In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain). Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain). Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain). This study has provided novel insights into the effects of sociodemographic

  13. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Mario Ivo Serinolli

    Full Text Available Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6, at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7% were male, and 228 (56.3% were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis.Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain. In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain. Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain. Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain.This study has provided novel insights into the effects of

  14. Situacao dos municipios do estado de Sao Paulo com relacao a compra direta de produtos da agricultura familiar para o Programa Nacional de Alimentacao Escolar (PNAE

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    Betzabeth Slater Villar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCAO: Em 2009, foi aprovada a Lei 11.947, a qual dispõe sobre o atendimento da alimentação escolar e consolida a vinculação da agricultura familiar com o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE, ao estipular que no mínimo 30% do total dos recursos financeiros repassados pelo Governo Federal aos estados e municípios deverão ser utilizados na aquisição de gêneros alimentícios diretamente da agricultura familiar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a situação dos municípios do estado de São Paulo com relação à compra de produtos diretamente da agricultura familiar após a aprovação da Lei 11.947. METODO: O diagnostico foi realizado nos meses de junho a agosto de 2011 por instituições vinculadas à Comissão Estadual Intersetorial da Alimentação Escolar (CEIA. Para o levantamento foi utilizado questionário e realizada entrevista telefônica com os representantes dos 645 municípios. RESULTADOS: Em um total de 613 municípios foi possível obter as seguintes informações: 47% (288 já haviam realizado as compras locais pelo menos uma vez, em todas as suas etapas. Dos 325 municípios que não efetivaram o processo em todas as fases, 57% não haviam publicado a chamada pública; 37% publicaram, mas não assinaram o contrato de aquisição; 2% publicaram, assinaram o contrato, mas não haviam recebido os produtos; e 4% publicaram, receberam os produtos mas ainda não haviam pago os agricultores. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos revelam que aproximadamente 50% dos municípios avaliados estão em situação positiva com relação às compras locais para o PNAE. Entretanto, o número de municípios que não publicou a chamada ou que não assinou o contrato é ainda importante, merecendo atenção dos setores envolvidos.

  15. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  16. Mortalidade por Aids e indicadores sociais no Município de São Paulo, 1994 a 2002 AIDS mortality and socioeconomic indexes in the city of Sao Paulo, 1994-2002

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    Norma Farias

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as correlações entre os coeficientes de mortalidade por Aids e os índices de inclusão/exclusão social, em homens e mulheres de 25 a 49 anos. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em 96 distritos administrativos do Município de São Paulo, no período de 1994 a 2002. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos do programa de aprimoramento das informações de mortalidade do Município e estimativas populacionais dos censos de 1991 e 2000 da Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (Seade e Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento. Os índices foram obtidos do Mapa da Exclusão para a Cidade (1996 e 2000. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Pearson (alfa=0,05. RESULTADOS: Entre os homens, observou-se correlação positiva significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between AIDS mortality rates and social inclusion/exclusion indexes among male and female populations aged between 25 to 49 years. METHODS: The study was carried out in 96 administrative districts of the municipality of São Paulo in the period 1994-2002. Mortality data were collected from the Program for Improving Local Mortality Data and from population estimates based on the 1991 and 2000 census of the State System Data Analysis (SEADE Institute and the Municipal Department of Planning. The indicators were obtained from the city's map of exclusion (1996 and 2000. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation test (at 5% level. RESULTS: A significant positive correlation was seen among men between AIDS mortality and the district life quality index from 1994 to 1998 (p<0.05. Among women, a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 was seen for the whole study period between AIDS mortality and the equity index, which measures the proportion of illiterate women who are family heads. From 2000, it was also observed a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 among women between AIDS mortality and the global

  17. Gestão escolar e avaliação externa: Experiências de escolas da Rede Municipal de São Paulo. School management and external evaluation: Experiences of schools from Sao Paulo Municipal System

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    Machado, Cristiane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The centrality acquired by external evaluation in recent decades did emerge questions about its implications for everyday school life, some of which are intended to be demonstrated in this paper, based on an ongoing master's degree research conducted in four public schools from São Paulo. The aim is to explore and analyze possible ways of appropriation of these assessments’ results by school management teams. Initially, we seek to indentify elements to conceptualize school management assignments and understand the trajectory of external assessment in basic education, and provide information on the methodology used. After that, we present data collected in field interviews and describe experiences, conceptions and reluctance from management teams over external evaluations. We then conclude that, inside the schools, from the management team’s perspective, there is concern and tension between the potentials and limits of external evaluations’ contribution on quality improvement of teaching. A centralidade adquirida pela avaliação externa nas últimas décadas fez emergir questionamentos sobre suas implicações para o cotidiano escolar, algumas das quais se pretende evidenciar neste trabalho que tem origem em pesquisa de mestrado em andamento realizada em quatro escolas Rede Municipal de Ensino de São Paulo. Objetiva-se explorar e analisar as possíveis formas de apropriação dos resultados gerados por essas avaliações pelas equipes gestoras nas escolas. Inicialmente, busca-se pontuar elementos para conceituar as atribuições da gestão escolar e compreender a trajetória da avaliação externa na educação básica e fornecer informações sobre a metodologia utilizada. Em seguida, apresenta os dados coletados nas entrevistas realizadas em campo e descreve experiências, concepções e resistências das equipes gestoras sobre avaliações externas. Conclui que, dentro das escolas, da perspectiva das equipes gestoras, há um

  18. O perfil dos candidatos ao curso técnico de enfermagem de uma escola particular da cidade de São Paulo The technical nurses profile at a private school of nursing in Sao Paulo city

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    Marcos Antonio da Eira Frias

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo levantar o perfil dos candidatos ao curso técnico de enfermagem de uma Escola de Enfermagem Particular da cidade de São Paulo. A população consta de indivíduos adultos jovens; com idade média de 31,09 anos; com renda familiar de 9,65 salários mínimos; solteiro; predominância do sexo feminino; 12,5% deles com formação escolar superior incompleto ou completo; 43,8% tem filhos, cujas idades variam entre 6 e 13 anos. Os candidatos apresentam afinidade para trabalhar com pacientes graves e sem afinidade para assistência pediátrica. Do trabalho em oncologia, o aprendizado pessoal é fator positivo em oposição ao sofrimento pessoal e do paciente, que é considerado aspecto negativo.The result showed the candidate's profile as they are adult; with age mindle of 31,09 years old; familiare income are 9,65 minimun salary; single; predominant female; 12,5% with university course complete or incomplete; 43,8% have a children. The age of a chil dren vary of 6-13 years old. The candidates refer afinity to work with patient of major risk and absence of afinity to pediatric patient. The work in oncology, demonstrated the positive way the personal learning and the negative, the personal and patient suffering.

  19. Uso racional de medicamentos antineoplásicos e ações judiciais no Estado de São Paulo Uso racional de medicamentos antineoplásicos y acciones judiciales en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Rational use of anticancer drugs and patient lawsuits in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Luciane Cruz Lopes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a racionalidade das ações judiciais e pedidos administrativos recebidos pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo segundo evidências científicas de eficácia e segurança. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, transversal, baseado em informações da Secretaria de Saúde sobre os medicamentos antineoplásicos solicitados por via judicial, com maior impacto financeiro para o Sistema Único de Saúde em 2006 e 2007. Os fármacos foram avaliados quanto às evidências clínicas de eficácia e segurança, com base na classificação do Micromedex®, em metanálises e revisões sistemáticas. As indicações foram confrontadas com aquelas aprovadas em agências reguladoras. RESULTADOS: Os medicamentos bevacizumabe, capecitabina, cetuximabe, erlotinibe, rituximabe, imatinibe e temozolomida geraram gastos superiores a R$ 40 milhões para atender 1.220 solicitações, com custo médio de R$ 33,5 mil por paciente. Os estudos selecionados não recomendam parte das indicações dos medicamentos prescritos. Cerca de 17% dos pedidos não tinham evidência para a indicação mencionada no pleito, o que equivale a um gasto inadequado de, no mínimo, R$ 6,8 milhões. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de qualificação técnica para tratar as demandas judiciais e exige capacitação dos profissionais no manejo da literatura científica, na seleção adequada dos fármacos e na escolha da melhor conduta terapêutica para cada condição clínica. Dessa forma será possível garantir o acesso a tecnologias eficazes e seguras, e assim aprimorar o modelo de assistência farmacêutica em oncologia.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la racionalidad de las acciones judiciales y pedidos administrativos recibidos por la Secretaria Estatal de Salud de Sao Paulo según evidencias científicas de eficacia y seguridad. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, transversal basado en informaciones de la Secretaria sobre los medicamentos antineoplásicos solicitados

  20. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Cássia Maria Lobanco

    2009-06-01

    153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por niños y adolescentes, comercializados en el municipio de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil entre los años de 2001 y 2005. Los tenores de nutrientes informados por los rótulos fueron confrontados con los resultados obtenidos por métodos analíticos (fisico-químicos oficiales, considerando la variabilidad de 20% tolerada por la legislación vigente, para aprobar o condenar las muestras. Se calcularon promedios, desvíos estándar e intervalos con 95% de confianza para los nutrientes analizados, así como la distribución de la frecuencia porcentual de muestras condenadas. RESULTADOS: Todos los productos salados analizados presentaron inconformidades relativas al contenido de fibra alimentar, sodio o de grasas saturadas. Los productos dulces presentaron variación de cero a 36% de condenación relativa al tenor de la fibra alimentar. Más de la mitad (52% de los biscochos rellenos fueron condenados con relación a la cantidad de grasas saturadas. Los nutrientes implicados con la obesidad y sus complicaciones para la salud fueron aquellos que presentaron mayores proporciones de inconformidad. La falta de fidedignidad de las informaciones de rótulos en las muestras analizadas viola las disposiciones de la Resolución de la Directoria Colegiada Anvisa 360/03 y los derechos garantizados por la ley de Seguridad Alimentar y Nutricional y por el Código de Defensa del Consumidor. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron altos índices de no conformidad de los datos nutricionales en los rótulos de alimentos destinados al público adolescente e infantil, indicando la urgencia de acciones de fiscalización y de otras medidas de rotulación nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability of information about nutritional facts stated on labels of foods marketed. METHODS: A total of 153 industrialized foods, usually consumed by children and adolescents and marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2001 and 2005

  1. Marketing Contábil nos Escritórios de Contabilidade do Estado de São PauloAccounting Marketing by Accounting Offices in the State of Sao PauloMarketing Contable en los Oficinas de Contabilidad del Estado de São Paulo

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    SILVA, Dirceu da

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo apresenta uma parte dos resultados de uma pesquisa realizada entre o último trimestre de 2004 e 1º. trimestre de 2005, para identificar como 259 escritórios de Contabilidade no Estado de São Paulo usam os instrumentos de Marketing. O trabalho combinou pesquisa empírica para identificar aspectos relevantes da realidade dos escritórios, revisão bibliográfica, e pesquisa de campo, na sua primeira etapa por meio de uma entrevista de profundidade com os sócios de cinco escritórios, e seguida do uso de um questionário com 49 assertivas, respondido pelos sócios de 259 escritórios. A revisão da literatura revelou experiências internacionais no uso do Marketing que podem contribuir para os escritórios melhorarem sua imagem perante os clientes, e para o desenvolvimento de seus negócios Os dados obtidos com os questionários foram tratados pela Estatística Descritiva e analisados com o uso da mediana, pois os dados não se mostraram aderentes à curva normal. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que o uso dos instrumentos de Marketing é intuitivo e embrionário no setor. A pesquisa fornece informações que poderão ajudar os empresários contábeis a adotar as ferramentas de Marketing como uma alternativa de valorizar seus serviços junto ao mercado, e mais um elemento de apoio ao seu negócio.ABSTRACTThis article presents a portion of the result of a research carried through between the last quarter of 2004 and the first quarter of 2005, to identify as 259 accounting services offices in the State of Sao Paulo use or not the Marketing tools. The study executed combined empirical research to identify excellent aspects about the reality of the offices, bibliographical revision, and field research, in its first stage by means of a depth interview with the partners of five offices, and later with the use of a questionnaire with 49 assertive, answered by the partners of the 259 accounting offices. The revision of literature

  2. A Avaliação da Qualidade de Serviços das Rodovias do Estado de São PauloService Quality Assessment of Routes in the State of Sao PauloLa Evaluación de la Calidad de los Servicios en las Autovías del Estado de São Paulo

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    RODRIGUES FILHO, Lino Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste estudo analisa o processo de avaliação da qualidade em serviços. Com base no referencial teórico, um método de análise é proposto para aplicação no setor específico das rodovias do estado de São Paulo. Mediante pesquisa quantitativa com 4800 entrevistas realizadas em trechos de rodovias sob a égide de 12 empresas concessionárias, foram obtidos depoimentos dos motoristas estratificados nas categorias automóveis, ônibus e caminhão. Sete dimensões (fatores de aspectos de prestação de serviços foram hierarquizadas pelos motoristas, segundo a ordem de importância e 22 sub-fatores abarcados pelas mesmas foram avaliados. Foi possível a aferição de um Índice de Qualidade ao nível das concessionárias e das categorias de motoristas. Por meio da técnica estatística de escalonamento multidimensional foi feito um mapeamento com as posições relativas das concessionárias no conjunto dos 22 sub-fatores. Com o método de análise proposto nesse estudo e a pesquisa nas rodovias, foi ilustrada a aplicação de um instrumento de avaliação de qualidade em serviços.ABSTRACTThis study analyzes the process of evaluation of service quality. Based on theoretical reference, a method of analysis is proposed for application on the specific sector of highways of Sao Paulo State. Through a quantitative research with 4800 interviews in specific points of the highways under 12 concessionary companies’ shield, declarations of drivers had been taken and stratification of the interviewees have been made in three categories: car, bus and truck. Seven dimensions (factors of aspects of service offering have been ordered by drivers, according to importance level and 22 sub factors included in these dimensions have been evaluated. It was possible to estimate a Quality Index considering the concessionary companies and the driver categories. Through the application of the statistical technique of multidimensional scaling mapping was built

  3. Determination of the average residence time in an anaerobic digester of Barueri wastewater treatment by using radioactive tracer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Determinacao de tempo de residencia medio - TRM - em um digestor anaerobio da Estacao de Tratamento de Esgotos de Barueri com utilizacao de tracador radioativo

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    Helou, Luiz Carlos; Vitoreti, Cristiane da Silva; Moraes, Fabio Alceu Akiyama de [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), Barueri, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Tratamento de Esgotos; Aoki, Pedro Eiti; Silva, Valdir Cosmos da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Gas production in the Barueri Wastewater Treatment Plant digesters shows lower values than projected. This fact conducted to the hypothesis that there could be dead zones caused by homogenization deficiencies. In order to verify this hypothesis a full scale essay was conducted with Iodine - 131 as tracer. A Mutual Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Sao Paulo Basic Sanitation Company (SABESP) and the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) to conduct these essays. The results showed that the active volume was almost 88% of the nominal capacity. (author)

  4. Alergia ao látex em profissionais de saúde de São Paulo, Brasil Latex allergy in healthcare professionals in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Leticia Nunes Montalvão

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Alergia ao látex é comum em trabalhadores da saúde, resultando em absenteísmo e afastamento das atividades profissionais. Há no Brasil poucos estudos publicados sobre o assunto. Enquanto na população geral a prevalência de alergia ao látex é menor que 2%, nos profissionais de saúde pode chegar a 30%. OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência de alergia ao látex em profissionais de saúde do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado questionário aberto a profissionais que têm contato com luvas de borracha em todos os serviços do hospital. Foi colhido sangue daqueles que referiram sintomas e dosado anticorpo IgE específico por meio do ImmunoCAP. Para análise estatística utilizaram-se porcentagens, tabelas e teste qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Foram distribuídos 2.349 questionários, e respondidos 1.045, dos quais 129 referiram correlação entre uso de látex e sintomas sugestivos de alergia, e 54 permitiram a coleta de sangue para determinação de IgE específica. Neste grupo houve dois casos em que foi demonstrado anticorpo específico, estabelecendo-se prevalência de 3,7% de alergia ao látex. Fatores como gênero, profissão, freqüência de contato com luvas, setor de trabalho e antecedentes de atopia foram relacionados com maior prevalência de alergia ao látex. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de alergia ao látex encontrada foi de 3,7%.BACKGROUND: Latex allergy is common among healthcare workers and leads to absence from work and withdraw from professional activities. There are few studies published in Brazil on this subject. In the general population the prevalence of allergy to latex is less than 2%, whereas in healthcare workers it may reach 30%. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers at the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to healthcare professionals from any sector of the

  5. Caracterização das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva do município de São Paulo Caracteristics of intensive care units in Sao Paulo city - Brazil

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    Miako Kimura

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo constitui-se numa parte inicial de um Projeto Integrado que visa analisar os recursos estruturais das UTIs do Município de São Paulo, incluindo o ambiente físico, recursos humanos, equipamentos e materiais. Os aspectos analisados neste artigo referem-se às características destas Unidades quanto à sua quantidade e distribuição geográfica, número de leitos, entidade mantenedora, tipo de atendimento, de clientela e de tratamento, assim como as médias de ocupação e de permanência. Por amostragem casual estratificada, foram selecionados 40% dos hospitais com UTI de cada uma das regiões integrantes do SUS no Município. A amostra estudada foi de 43 UTIs e o instrumento para coleta de dados foi um questionário respondido pelo enfermeiro responsável pela Unidade. O número de UTIs nos hospitais variou de 1 a 4 , sendo mais frequentes aqueles com urna única Unidade (68,8%. 79,2% das UTIs pertenciam a hospitais particulares e 51,2% localizavam-se na região centro-oeste do Município. Os leitos de terapia intensiva corresponderam a 8,0% do total de leitos hospitalares. Cada Unidade tinha, em média, 10 leitos. Predominaram as UTIs gerais (60,5%, as destinadas somente a pacientes adultos (51,2% e as que atendiam tanto a pacientes clínicos como cirúrgicos ( 95,3%. Na maioria das Unidades, a porcentagem de ocupação mensal dos leitos foi de 80 a 100% e a média de permanência, de 4,5 dias.This study is the first part in a series of the articles reporting results of a project conducted to analyse the structural resources of ICUs in São Paulo city. This article describes the characteristics of those Units, considering the quantity and geographic location, bed number, maintainer entity, type of assistance, type of client, as well the percentage of beds usage and lenght of stay. Forty three ICUs were analysed and a questionnaire answered by the ICU nurse coordinator was used to collect data. The results showed that the number

  6. Seasonality of suicide in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979-2003 Sazonalidade do suicídio na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, 1979-2003

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    Daniel Hideki Bando

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate suicide seasonality in the city of São Paulo within an urban area and tropical zone. METHOD: Suicides were evaluated using the chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA by comparing monthly, quarterly and half-yearly variations, differentiating by gender. Analyses of time series were carried out using the autocorrelation function and periodogram, while the significance level for seasonality was confirmed with the Fisher's test. RESULTS: The suicides of the period between 1979 and 2003 numbered 11,434 cases. Differences were observed in suicides occurring in Spring and Autumn for the total sample (ANOVA: p-value = 0.01, and in the male sample (ANOVA: p-value = 0.02. For the analysis of time series, seasonality was significant only for the period of 7 months in the male sample (p-value = 0.04. DISCUSSION: In this study, no significant seasonal differences were observed in the occurrences of suicides, with the exception of the male sample. The differences observed did not correspond with the pattern described in studies carried out in temperate zones. Some of the climatic particularities of the tropical zone might explain the atypical pattern of seasonality of suicides found in large populations within an urban area and tropical zone.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sazonalidade do suicídio na cidade de São Paulo, uma área urbana em zona tropical. MÉTODO: Os suicídios foram avaliados pelo teste de qui-quadrado e análise de variância (ANOVA, comparando variações mensais, trimestrais e semestrais, diferenciando por gênero. Também foi realizada a análise de séries temporais, utilizando a função de autocorrelação e periodograma, além da confirmação, com o teste de Fisher de significância para sazonalidade. RESULTADOS: Os suicídios do período entre 1979 e 2003 totalizaram 11.434 casos. Foram observadas diferenças apenas nos suicídios ocorridos na primavera e outono na amostra total (ANOVA: p-valor = 0,01, e na

  7. Infliximabe na doença de crohn: experiência clínica de um centro terciário paulista Infliximab in crohn's disease: clinical experience from a single tertiary center of Sao Paulo State

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    Ulysses dos Santos Torres

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Na Doença de Crohn (DC ocorre uma reatividade anormal dos linfócitos T da mucosa intestinal e produção excessiva de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, entre as quais o fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-á. O infliximabe é um anticorpo monoclonal anti-TNF-á indicado no tratamento de pacientes com DC fistulizante ou não responsiva ao tratamento convencional. OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar as indicações clínicas do infliximabe na DC em um serviço referencial paulista, avaliando padrões de resposta e a efetividade do tratamento através do Índice de Atividade da DC (CDAI. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O estudo foi observacional retrospectivo e analisou dados de 21 pacientes com DC em uso de infliximabe atendidos no Hospital de Base de Rio Preto entre janeiro de 2004 e julho de 2008. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de pacientes do sexo feminino (67%, com média de idade de 33 anos. As indicações mais freqüentes foram fístulas perianais (48%. Resposta clínica total à droga ocorreu em 43% dos pacientes, e resposta parcial em 47%; a diferença da média do CDAI entre os grupos antes e após o tratamento foi de 244,61 pontos (pINTRODUCTION: In Crohn's Disease (CD occurs an abnormal reactivity of T lymphocytes of intestinal mucosa and an exceeding production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-á. Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody against TNF-á, indicated for treatment of patients with fistulizing or refractory CD. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical indications of infliximab in CD at a referral center of Sao Paulo State, assessing patterns of response and treatment effectiveness by Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective study; data of 21 patients with CD receiving infliximab therapy at Hospital de Base de Rio Preto between January 2004 and July 2008 were analyzed. RESULTS: Female patients were predominant (67% and mean age was 33

  8. Avaliação de citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata como porta-enxertos para citros em São Paulo Performance of citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Silvia Blumer

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata foram plantadas em 1988, em Itirapina (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura arenosa e conduzidas sem irrigação. O citrandarin Sunki x English (1.628, sem diferir estatisticamente de Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleópatra x English (710, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e do trangpur Cravo x Carrizo (717, induziu a maior produção de frutos nas cinco primeiras colheitas do experimento (1991-1995, sendo que os três primeiros foram os mais produtivos nas três últimas colheitas. Os citranges Troyer e Carrizo foram significativamente inferiores aos citrandarins Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660 e Cleópatra x English (710 em todos os anos, exceto 1994. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintomas de suscetibilidade à tristeza ou ao declínio. Os seedlings dos porta-enxertos diferiram quanto à área lesionada pela inoculação com Phytophthora parasitica. Os citrandarins Cleópatra x Swingle (1.587, Cleópatra x Trifoliata (1.574, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.600, Clementina x Trifoliata (1.615 e o limão Cravo x citrange Carrizo (717 foram significativamente mais resistentes que Cleópatra x Christian (712, Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e Cleópatra x English (710.Valencia sweet orange trees budded onto citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks from the USDA Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, were planted in 1988 on a sandy textured Oxisol in São Paulo State, Brazil, and managed without irrigation. Tristeza and blight diseases are endemic in this area. Trees of Sunki x English (1.628, Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleopatra x English (710, Cleopatra x Swingle (715 and Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange (717, produced the highest cumulative yields in the first five crops (1991-1995. The first three rootstocks induced the highest crops in the last three years. Carrizo and Troyer citranges had the lowest

  9. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil Impactos do pisoteio humano na fauna de um costão rochoso do litoral de São Paulo, no sudeste brasileiro

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    MN. Ferreira

    2009-11-01

    estudado de forma intensa e pode representar uma fonte significativa de impactos para as comunidades da zona entre-marés. Neste projeto, foi aplicado um desenho de blocos randômicos para se avaliar experimentalmente os efeitos de duas intensidades de pisoteio na riqueza, diversidade, densidade, recobrimento e biomassa da fauna de um costão situado na praia do Obuseiro, no município do Guarujá, São Paulo, Brasil. Os blocos foram alocados em dois povoamentos diferentes, dominados respectivamente por Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia e Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia. O pisoteio foi aplicado durante três meses, simulando a temporada de férias no Brasil, e os blocos foram monitorados nos nove meses seguintes. Os resultados indicaram que Chthamalus bisinuatus é vulnerável aos impactos do pisoteio. Os índices de riqueza, diversidade e turnover apresentaram uma tendência ao aumento nas áreas pisoteadas quatro meses após o término do pisoteio. No geral, os resultados concordam com estudos anteriores e sugerem que mesmo baixas intensidades do distúrbio podem causar impacto às comunidades bentônicas. Estratégias de manejo devem envolver o isolamento de áreas sensíveis, a construção de passarelas, a educação dos visitantes e o monitoramento das comunidades impactadas. No Brasil, a realização de maior quantidade de estudos experimentais é necessária para a melhor compreensão dos impactos do pisoteio nas comunidades de costões rochosos.

  10. Trans fatty acid intake among the population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil Consumo de ácidos grasos trans en la población de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Consumo de ácidos graxos trans na população da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Michelle Alessandra de Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acid intake among the general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2003, on a representative sample of 2,298 male and female subjects, including 803 adolescents (12 to 19 years, 713 adults (20 to 59 years and 782 elderly people (60 years or over. Food intake was measured using 24-hour recall. Mean trans fatty acid intake was described according to gender and age group. RESULTS: The mean trans fatty acid intake was 5.0 g/day (SE = 0.1, accounting for 2.4% (SE = 0.1 of total energy and 6.8% (SE = 0.1 of total lipids. The adolescents had the highest mean intake levels (7.4 g/day; 2.9% of energy while the adults and the elderly had similar intake (2.2% of energy for both; 6.4% of lipids and 6.5% of lipids, respectively. The mean trans fatty acid intake among adult and elderly women (approximately 2.5% of energy and 7.0% of lipids was higher than among men in the same age group. The food item with the highest contribution towards trans fatty acids was margarine, accounting for more than 30% of total intake, followed by filled cookies among adolescents and meat among adults and the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The trans fatty acid intake is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Replacement of the trans fatty acids in manufactured food items may be an effective measure for reducing trans fatty acid intake in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Analizar el consumo de ácidos grasos moninsaturados y polinsaturados de configuración trans en la población general. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, 2003, con muestra representativa de 2.298 individuos, siendo 803 adolescentes (12 a 19 años, 713 adultos (20 a 59 años y 782 ancianos (60 años o más, de ambos sexos. El consumo alimentario fue medido por medio del recordatorio alimentario de 24 horas. Los valores promedios de ingestión de

  11. Doenças respiratórias e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, 2008-2009 Enfermedades respiratorias y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2008-2009 Respiratory diseases and associated factors: population-based study in São Paulo, 2008-2009

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    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2012-02-01

    adolescentes de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, de 2008 a 2009. Los participantes fueron seleccionados a partir de muestreo probabilístico, estratificado por sexo y edad y por conglomerados en dos fases. Para análisis ajustado fue realizada regresión múltiple de Poisson. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 7,3% narraron bronquitis aguda, 22,6% rinitis y 15,3% sinusitis. Posterior al análisis ajustado, se asociaron la bronquitis aguda auto-referida: edad de cero a cuatro años (RP=17,86; IC95%:3,65;90,91, cinco a nueve años (RP=37,04; IC95%:8,13;166,67, diez a 14 años (RP=20,83; IC95%: 4,93;90,91, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=3,12; IC95%: 1,70;5,73, color de la piel negra/parda (RP=2,29; IC95%: 1,21;4,35 y vivir en domicilio con uno a tres cuartos (RP=1,85; IC95%:1,17;2,94; a la rinitis auto-referida: edad de diez a 14 años (RP=2,77; IC95%:1,60;4,78, 15 a 19 años (RP=2,58; IC95%:1,52;4,39, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=4,32; IC95%: 2,79;6,70, relatar presencia de asma (RP= 2,30; IC95%:1,30;4,10 y vivir en apartamento (RP=1,70; IC95%:1,06;2,73; a la sinusitis auto-referida: edad de cinco a nueve años (RP=2,44; IC95%: 1,09;5,43, diez a 14 años (RP=2,99; IC95%: 1,36;6,58, 15 a 19 años (RP=3,62; IC95%: 1,68;7,81, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=2,23; IC95%: 1,41;3,52 y presentar obesidad (RP=4,42; IC95%: 1,56;12,50. CONCLUSIONES: Las enfermedades respiratorias prevalecieron mayormente en grupos poblacionales con características definidas, como grupo de edad, enfermedades auto-referidas, tipo de vivienda y obesidad.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of acute bronchitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis among children and adolescents and identify associated factors. METHODS: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study. A household survey was conducted with 1,185 children and adolescents from the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, from 2008 to 2009. The participants were selected by means of probability sampling, stratified by sex and age, and by two-stage cluster

  12. Prevalência de Achados eletrocardiográficos no paciente idoso: estudo envelhecimento e saúde de São Paulo Prevalencia de hallazgos electrocardiográficos en el paciente añoso: estudio envejecimiento y salud de São Paulo Prevalence of electrocardiographic findings in elderly individuals: the Sao Paulo aging & health study

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    Liz A. Kawabata-Yoshihara

    2009-12-01

    .1-1.2 y bloqueo de rama izquierda. MÉTODOS: en estudio de base poblacional, 1.524 participantes (921 mujeres y 603 hombres con edad superior a 65 años habitantes de São Paulo, Brasil fueron sometidos a examen electrocardiográfico en reposo, a medidas antropométricas y de presión arterial, además de la extracción de sangre en ayunas para dosaje de glucemia, colesterol total y fracciones. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia ajustada por edad para ondas alargadas Q/QS fue el 12,1% (hombres, el 17,2%; mujeres, el 9,6%, para fibrilación auricular fue del 2,4% (hombres el 3,9%; mujeres, el 2,0%, y, para bloqueo de rama izquierda fue del 3,1% (hombres, el 3,1%; mujeres, el 3,8%. Para fibrilación auricular (ambos sexos, ondas alargadas Q/QS (hombres y bloqueo de rama izquierda (mujeres se observó un aumento de frecuencia de acuerdo a la franja etaria. Tras los ajustes para edad, sexo, diabetes y dislipidemia, la razón de chances entre las frecuencias de ondas alargadas Q/QS e hipertensión arterial fue 2,4 (intervalo de confianza 95% [IC 95%CI] 1,4 -3,9 siendo de 5,1 (IC 95% 1,8 -14,4 para mujeres y de 1,7 (95%CI, 0,95-3,1] para hombres. CONCLUSIÓN: la comparación de esos datos con otros estudios reveló prevalencia elevada de prolongación de ondas Q/QS en esa población con asociación directa con la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial.BACKGROUND: The determination of the prevalence of electrocardiographic alterations in the older age strata of the Brazilian population represents important information with clinical and epidemiological purpose. OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence rates of atrial fibrillation, enlarged Q/QS waves (Minnesota code 1.1-1.2 and left bundle branch block. METHODS: In a population-based study, 1,524 participants (921 women and 603 men aged > 65 years and living in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to electrocardiographic assessment at rest as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, in addition to fasting blood collection for the

  13. Prevalência e vulnerabilidade à infecção pelo HIV de moradores de rua em São Paulo, SP Prevalencia y vulnerabilidad a la infección por VIH en personas que viven en la calle en Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalence and vulnerability of homeless people to HIV infection in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Alexandre Grangeiro

    2012-08-01

    prevenção.OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y el perfil de vulnerabilidad al VIH en personas que viven en la calle. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con muestra no probabilística de 1.405 personas que viven en la calle y que acuden a albergues de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, de 2006 a 2007. Se realizó prueba anti-VIH y se aplicó cuestionario estructurado. El perfil de vulnerabilidad fue analizado por la frecuencia de uso del preservativo, considerando más vulnerables a los que relataron no haberlo usado nunca o a veces. Se utilizaron regresiones logística y multinomial para estimar las medidas de efecto e intervalos de 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: Hubo predominancia del sexo masculino (85,6%, promedio de 40,9 años, haber cursado educación primaria (72,0% y no tener color blanco (71,5%. La práctica homo/bisexual fue relatada por 15,7% y la pareja ocasional por 62,0%. El número promedio de parejas en un año fue de 5,4 y más de la mitad (55,7% narraron uso de drogas en la vida, de los cuales 25,7% lo hicieron de forma frecuente. En total, 39,6% mencionaron haber tenido una enfermedad sexualmente transmisible y 38,3% contaron el uso de preservativo en todas las relaciones sexuales. La prevalencia de VIH fue de 4,9% (17,4% de los cuales presentaron también serología positiva para sífilis. Poco más de la mitad (55,4% tenía acceso a acciones de prevención. La mayor prevalencia del VIH estuvo asociada a ser más joven (OR 18 a 29 años = 4,0 [IC95% 1,54;10,46], historia de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible (OR = 3,3 [IC95% 1,87;5,73]; práctica homosexual (OR = 3,0 [IC95% 1,28;6,92] y a la presencia de sífilis (OR = 2,4 [IC95% 1,13;4,93]. El grupo de mayor vulnerabilidad fue caracterizado por ser mujer, joven, tener práctica homosexual, número reducido de parejas, pareja fija, uso de drogas y alcohol y no tener acceso a acciones de prevención y apoyo social. CONCLUSIONES: El impacto de la epidemia entre las personas que viven en la calle es elevado

  14. Evaluation of prenatal care at basic health units in the city of Sao Paulo Evaluación de la asistencia prenatal en unidades básicas del municipio de San Pablo Avaliação da assistência pré-natal em unidades básicas do município de São Paulo

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    Regina Célia de Menezes Succi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of prenatal care offered in 12 Basic Health Units (BHU in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, through a review of medical and nurse charts, before and after the municipalization of the public health system. The indicator used considered excellence in care as: starting prenatal care in the first quarter of pregnancy; at least six medical visits; at least two results of blood screening for syphilis and one for HIV; returning to BHU up to 42 days after delivery. This indicator was not present in any care delivered in 2000, and only 7.7% of the care delivered in 2004 obtained it (1.1% to 30% of the care per unit assessed. Although there was an evident improvement in care during the period, the low proportion of excellent prenatal care shows an urgent need to improve this care in the BHU of São Paulo city.El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de la asistencia prenatal ofrecida en doce Unidades Básicas de Salud (UBS del municipio de San Pablo a través de la revisión de los registros médicos y de enfermería antes y después de la municipalización del sistema de salud. Fue utilizado un indicador que consideraba como atención de excelencia aquella con: inicio del acompañamiento prenatal en el primer trimestre de la gestación; con un mínimo de seis consultas; registro de por lo menos dos resultados de exámenes serológicos para sífilis y una prueba para el VIH; retorno a la UBS hasta 42 días después del parto. Ese indicador no fue obtenido en ninguna atención realizada en el 2000 y apenas en 7,7% de las atenciones en el 2004 (1,1% a 30% de las atenciones por unidad evaluada. A pesar de que con evidente mejoría de la atención en el período, la baja proporción de atención prenatal de excelencia, revela una urgente necesidad de mejorar esa asistencia en las UBS en el Municipio de San Pablo.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade da assistência pré-natal oferecida em doze

  15. Planejamento e aspectos ambientais envolvidos na disposição final de lodos das estações de tratamento de água da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Planning and environmental aspects involved in the final disposal of sludge from water treatment plants in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

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    Gladys Fernandes Januário

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A disposição de lodos de estações de tratamento de água (ETAs de forma ambientalmente correta configura-se em mais um desafio a ser enfrentado pelas companhias de saneamento e tem recebido maior atenção no Brasil e na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP nos últimos anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar alternativas existentes de uso e disposição final dos lodos das ETAs da RMSP e, assim sendo, foram pesquisadas várias técnicas de uso e disposição de lodos praticados no Brasil e no mundo e suas condições técnicas e ambientais. Foram avaliadas a quantidade de lodos gerados na RMSP e a existência ou previsão de implantação de sistemas de adensamento e desidratação e, a partir destas informações, foram identificadas alternativas de uso e disposição tecnicamente e ambientalmente exeqüíveis para os lodos das ETAs da RMSP.The disposal of sludge produced by water treatment plants in an environmentally safe manner is one more challenge to be faced by the sanitation companies and has been given more attention in Brazil and in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP. The purpose of this work is to present the existing alternatives for use and final disposal of sludge produced by the Water Treatment Plants (WTP of the MASP. In this respect, several techniques for use and disposal of sludge performed in Brazil and worldwide have been investigated, and their technical and environmental conditions. The amount of sludge generated in the MASP and the existence of or the forecast to establish sludge thickening and dewatering systems have been evaluated and based on this information alternatives have been identified for use and disposal which are technically and environmentally feasible for sludge produced by the WTP in the MASP.

  16. Effects of a Mutation in the HSPE1 Gene Encoding the Mitochondrial Co-chaperonin HSP10 and Its Potential Association with a Neurological and Developmental Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Anne S; Fernandez-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D

    2016-01-01

    We here report molecular investigations of a missense mutation in the HSPE1 gene encoding the HSP10 subunit of the HSP60/ HSP10 chaperonin complex that assists protein folding in the mitochondrial matrix. The mutation was identified in an infant who came to clinical attention due to infantile spa...

  17. Reflexões sobre homofobia e educação em escolas do interior paulista Reflections on homophobia and education in schools in the interior of Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silva Teixeira-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo do tipo survey realizado em 2009 junto a 2.282 estudantes de ambos os sexos cursando as três séries do ensino médio em três cidades do interior do Oeste Paulista (Assis, Presidente Prudente e Ourinhos. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi um questionário autoaplicável e anônimo com 131 questões. Neste artigo, reflete-se sobre o quanto @s participantes da pesquisa reproduzem e reforçam, no espaço escolar, os discursos hegemônicos de controle das sexualidades pautados na tentativa de fazer prevalecer a heterossexualidade como a única forma de inteligibilidade sexual, em detrimento de outras formas de manifestação da sexualidade. Discute-se como a homofobia e os dispositivos de controle social das sexualidades (reproduzem preconceitos e estereotipias, resultantes em vulnerabilidades que os adolescentes não-heterossexuais apresentam, tais como: vitimização homofóbica, isolamentos sociais e afetivos, e ideações e tentativas de suicídio. O estudo mostra que o invariante foram as discriminações, as violências homofóbicas e as injúrias que são perpetradas nos valores e discursos dos adolescentes em situação escolar e familiar, demonstrando a institucionalização da homofobia como prática regulatória da construção social e psicológica de gêneros e identidades sexuais. Destaca-se quão importante é, para a escola, apropriar-se de meios de desconstrução das normativas heterocentradas, visando preservar os direitos e a cidadania de pessoas que não se identificam aos modelos vigentes da heterossexualidade.This is a survey conducted in 2009 with 2,282 students of both sexes enrolled in the three grades of high school in three cities of the west of Sao Paulo state (Assis, Presidente Prudente and Ourinhos. The data collection instrument was a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire with 131 questions. In this article, we reflect on how in schools the research participants reproduce and

  18. Relação entre baixo peso ao nascer e a poluição do ar no Município de São Paulo Relationship between low birthweight and air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Andréa Medeiros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A poluição do ar tem sido investigada como possível determinante do baixo peso ao nascer. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito da poluição do ar sobre o peso ao nascer. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados todos os partos de mães residentes no Município de São Paulo, nos anos de 1998 a 2000. Estimaram-se as prevalências de baixo peso ao nascer conforme características do recém-nascido, da mãe e do parto. Apenas os distritos mais centrais de São Paulo foram incluídos, totalizando uma amostra de 311.735 nascimentos. Para avaliação do efeito da poluição do ar foram excluídos os prematuros, gemelares e analisados somente os nascimentos das áreas mais centrais da cidade. Os elementos poluentes analisados foram ozônio (O3, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, dióxido de nitrogênio (NO2, partículas em suspensão (PM10 e monóxido de carbono (CO. O efeito da exposição materna à poluição do ar no peso ao nascer foi avaliado por meio de regressão linear e logística. RESULTADOS: Do total analisado, 4,6% dos recém-nascidos apresentaram menos de 2.500 g ao nascer. A exposição materna ao CO, PM10 e NO2 durante o primeiro trimestre de gestação mostrou associação estatisticamente significante com a diminuição no peso do recém-nascido. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados reforçam que a exposição materna à poluição do ar no primeiro trimestre de gestação pode contribuir para o menor ganho de peso do feto.OBJECTIVE: Air pollution has been investigated as a potential determinant for low birthweight. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We analyzed all deliveries by mothers living in the municipality of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2000. We estimated the prevalence of low birthweight according to newborn, mother, and delivery characteristics. Only births occurring in the most central districts of the city were analyzed, totaling 311.735 events. For the

  19. Frugivoria por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e reflorestamento misto em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil Frugivory by birds in a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Samira Athiê

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recuperação florestal com base nas interações animal-planta, foram avaliadas as espécies ornitocóricas e o consumo de frutos por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e um reflorestamento misto, em Rio Claro, São Paulo. Através do monitoramento da frutificação e avaliação dos eventos de frugivoria em sessões focais e ad libitum, foram registradas 31 espécies ornitocóricas fornecendo frutos para 38 espécies de aves consumidoras. No reflorestamento misto foram observadas 90,3% (n=28 das espécies ornitocóricas frutificando ao longo de todo ano, enquanto no fragmento florestal, somente 51,6% (n=16 delas foram registradas, com maiores variações temporais na oferta de frutos; 65,2% (n=1027 dos frutos foram consumidos no reflorestamento misto e 34,8% (n=547 no fragmento florestal. Tais resultados podem estar relacionados ao menor tamanho do fragmento de vegetação nativa, o que, proporcionalmente, poderia determinar uma menor riqueza de espécies vegetais no mesmo e/ou ao fato de a dispersão abiótica tender a predominar nos locais fragmentados e perturbados. O reflorestamento misto, embora apresente algumas espécies vegetais exóticas, está sendo ecologicamente mais funcional para a avifauna e, devido à proximidade com o fragmento, parece estar contribuindo para a manutenção das comunidades de aves residentes e visitantes deste último através dos recursos alimentares oferecidos.To support future forest recovery projects based on plant-animal interactions, this work aimed to evaluate the ornithochoric species and fruit consumption by birds in both a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. By monitoring and evaluating fruiting and frugivory events in focal and ad libitum sessions, 31 ornithochoric species were found that provide fruits to 38 species of frugivorous birds. In the mixed reforested area, 90.3% (n

  20. Incidência de insuficiência renal aguda na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital paulista Incidencia de insuficiencia renal crónica aguda en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal de un hospital de Sao Paulo Incidence of acute renal failure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in São Paulo

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    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a incidência de insuficiência renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admissão de pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN de um hospital paulista, e o uso da classificação de RIFLE na alocação destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: Levantamento de prontuários no período de 04 a 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: Das 19 admissões de neonatos por diagnósticos diversos, 10% foram geradas por IRA (RIFLE, sendo os pacientes encaminhados à programas de diálise. CONCLUSÃO: Este levantamento realizado, com um número reduzido de indivíduos, demonstrou que a IRA representou 10% das causas de internação primária em UTIN. Maior tempo de observação seria importante para avaliar a progressão para IRA dos outros diagnósticos. Trabalhos com maior número de indivíduos e maior tempo de observação seriam importantes para se obter a real incidência desta complicação como causa de internação em UTIN.OBJETIVOS: Verificar la incidencia de insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admisión de pacientes en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN de un hospital de Sao Paulo, y el uso de la clasificación de RIFLE en la asignación de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un levantamiento de historias clínicas en el período comprendido ente el 04 al 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: De las 19 admisiones de neonatos por diversos diagnósticos, el 10% fueron generadas por IRA (RIFLE, siendo los pacientes encaminados a los programas de diálisis. CONCLUSIÓN: Este levantamiento realizado, con un número reducido de individuos, demostró que la IRA representó el 10% de las causas de internamiento primario en la UCIN. Sería importante un mayor tiempo de observación para evaluar el progreso de los otros diagnósticos hacia la IRA. Trabajos con mayor número de individuos así como de mayor tiempo de observación serían importantes para obtenerse la incidencia real de esta complicación como causa de internamiento en la UCIN

  1. Internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária no estado de São Paulo Internment for conditions suitable for primary healthcare in Sao Paulo state

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    Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara Rehem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Internações Sensíveis à Atenção Primária se constitui num novo indicador, utilizado em alguns países, para medir indiretamente o funcionamento e a capacidade de resolução da Atenção Primária. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar o panorama das internações sensíveis à atenção primária no Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo ecológico, realizado no período de 2000 a 2007. Os dados foram gerados por município de residência do paciente e agregados por Departamentos Regionais de Saúde. Para obtenção dos mesmos foram utilizados os Sistemas de Informação do Ministério da Saúde e estimativa populacional do IBGE. As internações sensíveis à atenção primária no Estado seguem uma tendência de redução sugerindo relação com a adoção da Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Observa-se redução nas internações por diabetes e chama atenção o aumento de internações por doenças relacionadas ao pré-natal e parto. Considerando a publicação recente da Lista Brasileira de Diagnósticos, os estudos que se utilizem dela podem ser de grande valia para os gestores envolvidos com a atenção primária, podendo funcionar como balizadores de sua qualidade contribuindo para avaliação da implantação das políticas de saúde no Brasil.Internments suitable for Primary Healthcare constitute a new indicator used in some countries to indirectly measure the resolution capability of Primary Healthcare. The scope of this study is to present the panorama of the internments suitable for primary healthcare in Sao Paulo State. An ecological descriptive study was carried out for the period from 2000 to 2007. The data were generated by patient's county of residence and grouped by Regional Health Departments. The Information Systems of the Health Ministry and the population estimates of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE were used to obtain the data of all patients. The internments suitable

  2. Perfil epidemiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, em São Paulo, SP Epidemiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis treated at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa d´Andretta Tanaka

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - A vaginose bacteriana é doença de grande relevância devido à sua alta prevalência e suas complicações obstétricas e ginecológicas. OBJETIVO - Descrever o perfil epidemiológico das pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de São Paulo, segundo variáveis de interesse social, demográfico e clínico. MÉTODOS - Estudo transversal descritivo, baseado nos prontuários de 658 mulheres atendidas de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2004. Foram coletadas as seguintes informações: idade, cor, estado civil, procedência, grau de escolaridade, preferência sexual, número de parceiros e presença de doença sexualmente transmissível associada. RESULTADOS - A prevalência encontrada foi de 29%. Com relação ao perfil da mulher com vaginose bacteriana, observou-se maior ocorrência em jovens entre 10 e 19 anos (40%, negras (37,1%, viúvas (62,5%, com segundo grau incompleto (39,5%, heterossexuais (29,5%, com dois ou mais parceiros sexuais nos últimos 30 dias (50% e nos últimos cinco anos (32,3%. A associação com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, concomitante, foi encontrada em 31,9% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO - A distribuição dos casos segundo faixa etária, raça, número de parceiros sexuais e associação com outras doenças encontradas nas pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana foi semelhante aos dados encontrados na literatura. A ocorrência está dentro dos limites descritos (10 e 36%.BACKGROUND- Bacterial vaginosis is an important disease on account of its high prevalence as well as the obstetrical and gynecological complications. OBJECTIVE- To present an epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis seen at an outpatient clinic in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, described according to socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHODS- A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed by collecting data from the medical records of 658

  3. Perfil de recém-nascidos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca em hospital privado do Município de São Paulo Perfil de los recién nacidos sometidos a cirugía cardiaca en un Hospital privado del municipio de Sao Paulo Profile of newborns who underwent cardiac surgery in a private hospital in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bueno

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal cujo objetivo foi descrever o perfil dos recém-nascidos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca em um hospital privado, referência em cirurgia cardíaca neonatal, no município de São Paulo. Foram analisados prontuários de 30 pacientes internados entre julho de 2001 a dezembro de 2005. Foram incluídos neonatos com idade > 35 semanas, com anomalias cardíacas. Excluíram-se os neonatos com óbito no 1. pós-operatório (OP e com outras malformações sistêmicas. A maioria dos RNs nasceu a termo, com peso > a 2.500g e submetidos à cirurgia na primeira semana de vida. Foram identificados 24 diferentes diagnósticos de cardiopatias e 14 diferentes intervenções cirúrgicas. No 1. PO, todos os neonatos estavam com dispositivos para monitorar os parâmetros vitais ou como via de acesso para tratamento e suporte de vida, mostrando não só a complexidade do tratamento, como a necessidade de planejamento e organização do serviço na implementação da assistência a estes pacientes.El objetivo en este estudio transversal fue caracterizar a los recién nacidos sometidos a cirugía cardiaca en un hospital privado del municipio de Sao Paulo. Los dados fueron obtenidos de las historias clínicas de los recién nacidos sometidos a cirugía entre julio de 2001 y diciembre del 2005. Los recién nacidos con 35 semanas o más de gestación fueron incluidos y excluidos los recién nacidos con óbito en el 1er dia de post-operatorio (PO y con otras malformaciones sistémicas. La mayoría de los RNs nació a término, con peso a 2.500g e sometidos a la cirugía en la primera semana de vida. Fueron identificados 24 diferentes diagnósticos de cardiopatías y 14 diferentes intervenciones quirúrgicas. En el 1er dia de PO, todos los neonatos estaban con dispositivos para monitorear los parámetros vitales o como vía de acceso para el tratamiento y soporte de vida, mostrando no sólo la complejidad del tratamiento, sino también la necesidad de

  4. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Maria Lobanco; Gabriela Milhassi Vedovato; Cristiane Bonaldi Cano; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fidedignidade das informações sobre dados nutricionais declarados em rótulos de alimentos comercializados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por crianças e adolescentes, comercializados no município de São Paulo (SP) entre os anos de 2001 e 2005. Os teores de nutrientes informados pelos rótulos foram confrontados com os resultados obtidos por métodos analíticos (físico-químicos) oficiais, considerando a variabilidade de 20% to...

  5. Trans fatty acid intake among the population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil Consumo de ácidos grasos trans en la población de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Consumo de ácidos graxos trans na população da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Alessandra de Castro; Rodrigo Ribeiro Barros; Milena Baptista Bueno; Chester Luiz Galvão César; Regina Mara Fisberg

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acid intake among the general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2003, on a representative sample of 2,298 male and female subjects, including 803 adolescents (12 to 19 years), 713 adults (20 to 59 years) and 782 elderly people (60 years or over). Food intake was measured using 24-hour recall. Mean trans fatty acid intake was described according to gender and...

  6. BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES DETECTIONS IN SHEEP FROM ARAÇATUBA REGION –SAO PAULO, BRAZIL DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS CONTRA O VÍRUS DA LÍNGUA AZUL EM OVINOS NA REGIÃO DE ARAÇATUBA – SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Bluetongue (BT is an infectious, insect-born viral disease of ruminants. The causative agent of BT is bluetongue virus (BTV that belongs to the family Reoviridae genus Orbivirus. Insect vectors in the genus Culicoides transmit this virus. BT affects domestic and wild ruminants, however small ruminants are considered the most affected specie. The aim of the study was to detect antibodies against BTV in commercial sheep farms, of the Northeastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 1002 sera samples collected from adult sheep (above 1 year-old, comprising a total of 31 farms, were screened for the presence of BTV antibodies, by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID and ELISA-CFS (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay – competitive solid phase, both produced by Pan American Center of FMDV. From a total of 1002 samples, 651 (65% were positive by AGID and 742 (74.1%, were positive by ELISA-CFS. These results suggest that the BTV is widespread among farms, probably causing subclinical infections.

    KEY WORDS: AGID, bluetongue virus, ELISA-CFS, seroepidemiological survey.

    A língua azul é uma doença viral, cujo agente etiológico pertence à família Reoviridae, gênero Orbivirus, transmitida por um vetor (artrópode hematófago, do gênero Culicoides. Os animais acometidos são ruminantes domésticos e selvagens, porém os pequenos ruminantes são os mais afetados. O estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de anticorpos para língua azul em ovinos da região de Araçatuba, por possuir um rebanho expressivo e condições climáticas favoráveis à multiplicação de insetos. Foram analisadas 1.002 amostras de soros ovinos, provenientes de 31 cabanhas, pelas provas de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar (AGID e ELISA (Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay de competição da fase sólida (ELISA CFS, provenientes do Centro Panamericano de Febre Aftosa. Desses soros, 651 (65% foram

  7. A cor da morte: causas de óbito segundo características de raça no Estado de São Paulo, 1999 a 2001 The color of death: causes of death according to race in the State of Sao Paulo, 1999 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Batista

    2004-10-01

    represent vulnerability to sickness, this study attempts to verify whether race or ethnic origin have an effect on mortality patterns. METHODS: The Sao Paulo State death register was examined from 1999 to 2001 in a contingence table of causes according to the 10th ICD and race or skin-color categories (White, Black, Mulatto and others. Chi-square test was used to check the association between skin-color and cause of death; residual analysis was used to elicit statistically significant excessive occurrences when each category of cause of death and skin color was combined; and correspondence analysis was used to examine overall relations among all categories considered. RESULTS: A total of 647,321 valid death registers were analyzed, among which 77.7% were of Whites, 5.4% of Blacks, 14.3% of Mulattoes and 2.6% of others. A significant association between skin color or race and cause of death was found. It may be observed that, although Blacks and Mulattoes present a similar death profile, on the contrary of Whites and others, which could be aggregated into a single category, the former appear in distinct positions on the multidimensional map presented. Except for mal defined causes, which characterize only the deaths of Blacks, the other causes of death within this group are common to both Blacks and Mulattoes, varying however, in intensity and as to the order in which they appear death. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of mortality according to race or color revealed that death has a color. There is a White death, which has, among its causes, sicknesses, which, although variable, are nothing more than sicknesses. There's a Black death, which is not caused by sicknesses but by external causes, complications in labor and delivery, mental disorders and ill- defined causes.

  8. Optimization of the daily operation of the plants of Medio Sao Francisco; Otimizacao da operacao diaria das usinas do Medio Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jessica Pillon Torralba; Colnago, Glauber Renato; Correia, Paulo de Barros; Ohishi, Takaaki [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: pillon@fem.unicamp.br, colnago@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br, taka@densis.fee.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for daily operation of Sao Francisco hydroelectric power plants. The study considers eight power plants - Sobradinho (USB), Luiz Gonzaga (ULG), Apolonio Sales (UAS), Paulo Afonso I, II, III, (UPA), Paulo Afonso IV (USQ) e Xingo (UXG)- belongs to Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (CHESF). Its objective is to maximize the power plant efficiency and to minimize the number of startup and shutdowns of generating units (GU), simultaneously. Considering those GU are equal, is determined the number of units to be dispatched and their charge. The optimal dispatch, linear and non-linear programming techniques and genetic algorithms (GA) support this article. (author)

  9. Caracterização da cultura de crack na cidade de São Paulo: padrão de uso controlado Caracterización de la cultura de crack en la ciudad de Sao Paulo: el padrón del uso controlado Characterization of the crack cocaine culture in the city of São Paulo: a controlled pattern of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a situação do uso de crack na cidade de São Paulo, assim como o perfil sociodemográfico de seu usuário. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo etnográfico com amostra intencional de usuários (n=45 e ex-usuários de crack (n=17. Os participantes foram recrutados pela técnica de amostragem em cadeias e responderam a uma entrevista semi-estruturada, direcionada por questionário, durante os anos de 2004 e 2005. O conjunto de cada questão e suas respectivas respostas originou relatórios específicos que foram interpretados individualmente. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: O perfil predominante do usuário de crack foi ser homem, jovem, solteiro, de baixa classe socioeconômica, baixo nível de escolaridade e sem vínculos empregatícios formais. O padrão de uso mais freqüentemente citado foi o compulsivo, caracterizado pelo uso múltiplo de drogas e desenvolvimento de atividades ilícitas em troca de crack ou dinheiro. Entretanto, identificou-se o uso controlado que consiste no uso não-diário de crack, mediado por fatores individuais, desenvolvidos intuitivamente pelo usuário e semelhantes, em natureza, às estratégias adotadas por ex-usuários para o alcance do estado de abstinência. CONCLUSÕES: A cultura do uso de crack tem sofrido mudanças quanto ao padrão de uso. Embora a maioria dos usuários o faça de forma compulsiva, observou-se a existência do uso controlado, que merece maior detalhamento, principalmente quanto às estratégias adotadas para seu alcance.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la situación del uso de crack en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, así como el perfil sociodemográfico del usuario. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudio cualitativo etnográfico con muestra intencional de usuarios (n=45 y ex-usuarios de crack (n=17. Los participantes fueron reclutados por la técnica de toma de muestra en cadenas y respondieron a una entrevista semi-estructurada, direccionada por cuestionario, durante los anos

  10. Percepção dos enfermeiros sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos em um hospital de São Paulo Percepción de los enfermeros sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje en los programas de capacitación de un hospital de Sao Paulo Perception of nurses on the learning evaluation process in training programs in a São Paulo hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina de Castro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os enfermeiros de um hospital universitário da cidade de São Paulo, objetivando conhecer sua percepção sobre o processo de valiação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos junto a eles. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se um instrumento contendo a questão norteadora: Qual a sua percepção sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos programas de treinamento? Os discursos foram analisados, segundo o referencial de Bardin, na modalidade análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostraram as posições dos enfermeiros em três categorias distintas: 1 dificuldades percebidas no processo de avaliação da aprendizagem em que a disponibilidade de tempo, sentimentos negativos quanto à avaliação e despreocupação com os resultados dos treinamentos são os desafios a serem trabalhados no dia-a-dia; 2 metodologia desenvolvida no processo de avaliação da aprendizagem devendo considerar diferentes ritmos de aprendizado, sua experiência e história de vida e conhecimentos anteriores e 3 a avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem como um indicador preciso das ações passadas e controle da qualidade do ensino adotado no treinamento.Este estudio fue realizado con los enfermeros de un hospital universitario de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, teniendo como objetivo conocer su percepción sobre el proceso de evaluación del aprendizaje en la capacitación desarrollada con ellos. Para la recolección de los datos se utilizó un instrumento que contenía la pregunta norteadora: Cuál es su percepción sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje en los programas de capacitación? Los discursos fueron analizados, según el referencial de Bardin, en la modalidad análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron las posiciones de los enfermeros en tres categorías distintas: 1 dificultades percibidas en el proceso de evaluación del aprendizaje en el que la disponibilidad de tiempo, sentimientos negativos en cuanto a la evaluación y

  11. Direct medical costs associated with schizophrenia relapses in health care services in the city of São Paulo Costo directo médico-hospitalario de recaída en esquizofrenia en servicios de salud en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, sureste de Brasil Custo direto médico-hospitalar de recaída em esquizofrenia em serviços de saúde na cidade de São Paulo

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    Claudiane Salles Daltio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess direct medical costs associated with schizophrenia relapses in mental health services. METHODS: The study was conducted in three health facilities in the city of São Paulo: a public state hospital; a Brazilian National Health System (SUS-contracted hospital; and a community mental health center. Medical records of 90 patients with schizophrenia who received care in 2006 were reviewed. Information on inpatient expenditures was collected and used for cost estimates. RESULTS: Mean direct medical cost of schizophrenia relapses per patient was US$ 4,083.50 (R$ 8,167.58 in the public state hospital; US$ 2,302.76 (R$ 4,605.46 in the community mental health center; and US$ 1,198.50 (R$ 2,397.74 in the SUS-affiliated hospital. The main component was daily inpatient room rates (87% - 98%. Medication costs varied depending on the use of typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotic drugs were more often used in the community mental health center. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with schizophrenia relapses support investments in antipsychotic drugs and strategies to reduce disease relapse and the need for mental health inpatient services. Treating patients in a community mental health center was associated with medium costs and added the benefit of not depriving these patients from family life.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo directo médico-hospitalario de la recaída en esquizofrenia, en servicios en salud mental. MÉTODOS: Estudio conducido en tres servicios de salud de la ciudad de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil: un hospital público estatal, un hospital contratado en convenio con el Sistema Único de Salud, y un centro de atención psicosocial. Se analizaron 90 prontuarios de pacientes portadores de esquizofrenia atendidos durante el año de 2006. Los recursos utilizados durante la permanencia de los pacientes en los servicios fueron obtenidos y valorados para cálculos de las estimaciones. RESULTADOS: El costo directo m

  12. Doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e fatores associados em São Paulo, SP, 2008-2009 Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica y factores asociados en Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk factors in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009

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    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e fatores associados à doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional com 1.441 indivíduos de ambos os sexos e com 40 anos de idade ou mais no município de São Paulo, SP, entre 2008 e 2009. As informações foram coletadas por meio de entrevistas domiciliares e os participantes foram selecionados a partir de amostragem probabilística, estratificada por sexo e idade, e por conglomerados em dois estágios (setores censitários e domicílios. Foi realizada regressão múltipla de Poisson na análise ajustada. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 4,2% (IC95% 3,1;5,4 referiram doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Após análise ajustada, identificaram-se os seguintes fatores independentemente associados ao agravo: número de cigarros fumados na vida (> 1.500/nenhum RP = 3,85 (IC95%: 1,87;7,94, cansar-se com facilidade (sim/não RP = 2,61 (IC95% 1,39;4,90, idade (60 a 69 anos/50 a 59 anos RP = 3,27 (IC95% 1,01;11,24, idade (70 anos e mais/50 a 59 anos RP = 4,29 (IC95% 1,30;14,29, problemas de saúde nos últimos 15 dias (sim/não RP = 1,31 (IC95% 1,02;1,77, e atividade física no tempo livre (sim/não RP = 0,57 (IC95% 0,26;0,97. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é elevada e está associada ao uso do tabaco e idade acima de 60 anos. Os problemas de saúde freqüentes e redução da atividade física no tempo livre podem ser considerados conseqüências dessa doença.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia y factores asociados con la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, de base poblacional con 1.441 individuos de ambos sexos y con 40 años de edad o más en el municipio de São Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, entre 3008 y 2009. Las informaciones fueron colectadas por medio de entrevistas domiciliares y los participantes fueron seleccionados a partir de muestreo probabilístico estratificado por sexo y edad, y por

  13. Avaliação da estrutura dos centros de atenção psicossocial do município de São Paulo, SP Evaluación de la estructura de los centros de atención psicosocial del municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Evaluation of psychosocial healthcare services in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Andréia de Fátima Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    "equipamentos-síntese" dos quais os usuários não recebem alta, até serviços que encaminham e dão alta após a estabilização dos sintomas dos usuários, numa tentativa de construção de uma rede de cuidados.OBJETIVO: Describir la estructura física, recursos humanos y modalidades de atención existentes en los centros de atención psicosocial (CAPS. MÉTODOS: Fueron incluidos en el estudio 21 CAPS para atención de adultos, vinculados a la Secretaria Municipal de Salud de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, entre 2007 y 2008. Fueron colectadas informaciones sobre las instalaciones físicas de los servicios, recursos humanos disponibles y procedimientos de cuidado al paciente, utilizando instrumento estandarizado. Fueron realizados análisis descriptivos de los datos y la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para evaluar la asociación entre los tipos de actividades y el origen y localización de los servicios. RESULTADOS: Diez servicios fueron creados como ambulatorios y posteriormente transformados, ocho eran hospitales-día y apenas tres fueron creados como CAPS. Ningún servicio funcionaba diariamente durante 24 horas. Mitad de los servicios funcionaba en inmuebles alquilados, con instalaciones físicas inadecuadas especialmente para atenciones grupales. La composición de los equipos de servicios fue bastante diversa. Las actividades desempeñadas en los CAPS fueron heterogéneas, con mayor valorización de las actividades grupales desarrolladas con usuarios dentro de los CAPS y poca integración a los otros equipos de salud. Los servicios de origen ambulatorio presentaban actividades artesanales y los que habían sido hospitales-día realizaban más actividades de integración psicofísica. El perfil de actividades se relacionó con la distribución regional de los servicios. CONCLUSIONES: La heterogeneidad de los CAPS parece relacionarse con la historia de los programas de salud mental implementados en el municipio desde la década de 1980 y a la diversidad socioeconómica y cultural

  14. Estudo comparativo de cultivares de trigo em latossolo roxo no vale do Paranapanema A comparative study of wheat cultivars on Latossolic B "terra roxa" soils in the state of Sao Paulo

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi executado com o propósito de estudar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares de trigo, na região tritícola do Estado de São Paulo. Foram instaladas cinco experiências em Latossolo Roxo, no Vale do Paranapanema, sendo duas em 1971 e três em 1972. Os cultivares Pel 4178-67, IAC-5, IAS-55, IRN-526-63, Londrina, Pitic-62, Cotiporã, IAS-54, LA-1434 e C-17 foram os que apresentaram maior produtividade por unidade de área; os cultivares Pel 4178-67 e Paraguai-214 mostraram-se resistentes às raças prevalentes de ferrugem do colmo e da folha. Entre os cultivares estudados, BH-1146, IAS-51, IAS-54, IAC-5, IRN-526-63, LA-1434, Pel 1403-64, S-12, S-43, Santa Elena, Pel 13180-65 foram suscetíveis à ferrugem da folha, e IAC-8, BH-1146, S-43, Pel 13295-65, IAC-5, S-12, Cotiporã, Pel 14603-64 e Santa Elena suscetíveis ao acamamento.Selected germoplasms of wheat were tested for yield potential and resistance to rusts and by cultivar trials in the State of São Paulo. Performance was evaluated in several locations in 1971 and 1972 in the wheat area of the State on Latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The cultivars Pel 4178-67, IAC-5, IAS-55, IRN-526-63, Londrina, Pitic-62, Cotiporã, IAS-54 and LA-1434 showed superior performance for yield. The cultivars Pel 4178-67 and Paraguai-214 showed good resistance to leaf and stem rust while the cultivars BH-1146, IAS-51, IAS-54, IAC-5, IRN-526-63, LA-1434, Pel 14603-64, S-12, S-43, Santa Elena and Pel 13180-65 were susceptible to leaf rust. The cultivars IAC-8, BH-1146, S-43, Pel 13295-65, IAC-5, S-12, Cotiporã, Pel 14603-64 and Santa Eelena were susceptible to lay.

  15. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

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    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  16. Smoke-free São Paulo: a campaign evaluation and the case for sustained mass media investment Sao Paulo libre de humo de tabaco: evaluación de una campaña y el caso para una inversión sostenida en medios masivos

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    Jorge Alday

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence from high-income countries suggests that mass media campaigns can increase knowledge of tobacco harms and encourage smoking cessation, there is little evidence of this from developing countries, particularly related to campaigns that seek to increase support for smoke-free places and laws. Two campaigns that ran in São Paulo, Brazil during implementation of a smoke-free law in São Paulo were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in changing attitudes and creating support for the law. The campaigns were evaluated through street-intercept surveys conducted in early July and late August in São Paulo (Ns= 603; 615. Findings reveal that mass communications can generate support for smoke-free laws and underscore the importance of running campaigns that are both well-funded and that use harder-hitting, more graphic messages.Aunque la evidencia de los países de altos ingresos sugiere que las campañas de los medios masivos de comunicación pueden elevar el conocimiento de los daños del tabaco y alentar a dejar de fumar, hay poca evidencia de esto en los países en desarrollo, particularmente en relación con las campañas que tratan de dar más apoyo a los lugares libres de humo de tabaco y a las leyes. Dos campañas que se transmitieron en São Paulo, Brasil durante la ejecución de la ley libre de humo en São Paulo fueron evaluadas para determinar su eficacia en el cambio de actitudes y su contribución al aumento de apoyo a esta la ley. Las campañas fueron evaluadas a través de encuestas realizadas en la calle a principios de julio y finales de agosto en São Paulo (N= 603 615. Los hallazgos revelan que la comunicación masiva puede generar apoyo a las leyes antitabaco y subrayan la importancia de la realización de campañas que estén bien financiadas, así como el uso de mensajes gráficos más fuertes.

  17. Armazenamento de sementes de arroz e milho em diferentes embalagens e localidades paulistas Storage of rice and corn seeds in different containers and localities of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Fernandes Razera

    1986-01-01

    -resistant plastic bag. The seeds were then maintained under non-controlled room temperature conditions in the localities of Campinas and Ubatuba, both in the State of São Paulo, and tested for moisture content at every three month interval for a period of 36 months. The seeds stored at Ubatuba deteriorated faster than those stored at Campinas, mainly when packed in water vapor permeable containers. For example, at Campinas, rice seeds held in cloth bags maintained seed germination higher than 80% up to 15 months, while those at Ubatuba did so only up to 6 months. Packing seeds in 0.25 mm thick plastic films was advantageous, mainly at Ubatuba where the germination of the corn seeds, for example, was null after 15 months when held in the other containers, and 97.5% when held in the plastic films. The packages made with cloth, paper, and 5 x 5 and 5 x 6 woven plastic gave similar results for the preservation of seed germination and vigor. This indicated the great difficulty, or even the impossibility of storing seeds in warm and humid areas, like Ubatuba, unless the storage temperature and/or relative humidity are controlled, or seed moisture is reduced to relatively low levels (10-11% or less and seeds are packed in a moisture-resistant container. The water vapor permeable containers showed to be adequate to mantain seed viability and vigor in regions with more favorable climate.

  18. Desafios da formação em enfermagem no Brasil: proposta curricular da EEUSP para o bacharelado em enfermagem Desafíos para la formación en enfermería en Brasil: propuesta curricular para el bachillerato de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad de São Paulo Challenges in nursing education in Brazil: baccalaureate curricular proposal of the School of Nursing of Sao Paulo University

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    Maria Amélia de Campos Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O atual currículo do curso de graduação em Enfermagem da Escola de Enfermagem da USP está sendo reformulado e sua implantação está prevista para 2009. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar, em linhas gerais, o novo currículo do curso de graduação em Enfermagem da EEUSP. A estrutura proposta está dividida em três ciclos: Básico (1.500 horas, Intermediário (1.500 horas e Complementar (1.000 horas, com carga horária total de 4.000 horas, ministrada em oito semestres letivos. A mudança visa a aumentar a integração entre as disciplinas e os departamentos, a autonomia do estudante e adotar a formação para o Sistema Único de Saúde como orientação geral do currículo. O novo currículo está voltado à formação da enfermeira generalista, com competência técnica, científica e ético-política para prestar cuidados de enfermagem a indivíduos, famílias e grupos sociais.El actual currículo de bachillerato de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad de São Paulo está siendo reformulado y su implantación está prevista para el 2009. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar, en líneas generales, el nuevo currículo de bachillerato en Enfermería. La estructura del nuevo currículo se divide en tres ciclos: Básico (1.500h, Intermedio (1.500h y Complementar (1.000, totalizando 4.000h, las que son suministradas en ocho semestres lectivos. El propósito de la reformulación es promover la integración entre los cursos y departamentos, aumentar la autonomía de los estudiantes y adoptar la formación para el Sistema Único de Salud como orientación general del currículo. El nuevo currículo está dirigido para la formación de la enfermera generalista, con competencias técnicas, científicas y ético-políticas para proveer el cuidado de enfermería a individuos, familias y grupos sociales.The School of Nursing of the University of Sao Paulo is involved in a process to change the Baccalaureate curriculum, and its

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalencia de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en mujeres profesionales del sexo en un municipio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalência de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres profissionais do sexo, em um município do interior paulista, Brasil

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    Maíra Rodrigues Baldin-Dal Pogetto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the profile of sexually transmitted diseases have increased the need for their detection, particularly where there is a concentration of individuals with risk behavior, so that diagnosis and immediate treatment can be translated in the reduction of resulting problems. The objective was to identify the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a medium-sized city in São Paulo state. This population prevalence study was conducted in 2008 on 102 females. The prevalence was 71.6%. When considered separately and in association, the highest values found were: HPV (67.7% and Chlamydia (20.5%. HPV typing showed oncogenic genotypes. The prevalence of syphilis was 4.0% and of trichomoniasis 3.0%. No cases of hepatitis B or gonorrhea were identified. It was concluded that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the studied group was high, since approximately two thirds of the women showed some type of disease under this classification.Cambios en el perfil de las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles han ampliando la necesidad de su seguimiento, especialmente donde existe concentración de personas o grupos con comportamientos de riesgo, para que el diagnóstico y tratamiento inmediato se traduzcan en reducción de los problemas causados. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible entre mujeres profesionales del sexo de un municipio de porte medio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Este estudio de prevalencia poblacional fue realizado en el año de 2008 con 102 profesionales del sexo. La prevalencia general de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible fue 71,6%. Considerados aisladamente y en asociación, los mayores valores encontrados fueron: VPH (67,7% e infección clamidiana (20,5%. El tipaje del VPH evidenció genotipos oncogénicos. La prevalencia de sífilis fue de 4,0% y de tricomoníasis 3,0%. Ningún caso de hepatitis B o gonorrea fue identificado. Se concluye

  20. Effects of a mutation in the HSPE1 gene encoding the mitochondrial co-chaperonin HSP10 and its potential association with a neurological and developmental disorder

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    Anne Sigaard Bie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We here report molecular investigations of a missense mutation in the HSPE1 gene encoding the HSP10 subunit of the HSP60/ HSP10 chaperonin complex that assists protein folding in the mitochondrial matrix. The mutation was identified in an infant who came to clinical attention due to infantile spasms at three months of age. Clinical exome sequencing revealed heterozygosity for a HSPE1 NM_002157.2:c.217C>T de novo mutation causing replacement of leucine with phenylalanine at position 73 of the HSP10 protein. This variation has never been observed in public exome sequencing databases or the literature.To evaluate whether the mutation may be disease-associated we investigated its effects by in vitro and ex vivo studies. Our in vitro studies indicated that the purified mutant protein was functional, yet its thermal stability, spontaneous refolding propensity, and resistance to proteolytic treatment were profoundly impaired. Mass spectrometric analysis of patient fibroblasts revealed barely detectable levels of HSP10-p.Leu73Phe protein resulting in an almost 2-fold decrease of the ratio of HSP10 to HSP60 subunits. Amounts of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SOD2, a protein whose folding is known to strongly depend on the HSP60/HSP10 complex, were decreased to approximately 20% in patient fibroblasts in spite of unchanged SOD2 transcript levels. As a likely consequence, mitochondrial superoxide levels were increased about 2-fold. Although we cannot exclude other causative or contributing factors, our experimental data support the notion that the HSP10-p.Leu73Phe mutation could be the cause or a strong contributing factor for the disorder in the described patient.

  1. Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS ad: nursing insertion and practices in São Paulo City, Brazil Inclusión y prácticas del enfermero en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial para alcohol y drogas (CAPS AD de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil A inserção e as práticas do enfermeiro no contexto dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial em Álcool e Drogas (CAPS AD da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Divane de Vargas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study with a qualitative approach aimed to identify nurses' insertion and practices at Psychosocial Care Centers for alcohol and drugs in São Paulo City, Brazil. Sixteen nurses participated in the study. Data were recorded and were analyzed by dialectic hermeneutics and guided by Brazilian psychiatric reform premises. The results evidenced nurses' difficulties to take part in the care recommended at these services, as their practices are more linked up with the traditional mental health care model. Causes of this phenomenon include nurses' lack of preparation to act in psychoactive substance-related issues and lack of knowledge on specific contents that would favor their insertion into care practice in these scenarios. It is concluded that more attention should be paid to these contents in nursing education, as the legal requirement of nursing presence at these services is insufficient as a strategy to guarantee their actual insertion.Estudio exploratorio de abordaje cualitativo que objetivó identificar la inclusión y las prácticas del enfermero en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial para alcohol y drogas de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Participaron del estudio 16 enfermeros, los datos fueron recolectados por medio de registro autograbado y fueron analizados por la hermenéutica dialéctica orientada por los presupuestos teóricos de la Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileña. Se evidenciaron dificultades del enfermero para ingresar en el campo de la atención preconizada en esos servicios, siendo sus prácticas más orientadas por el modelo tradicional de atención a la salud mental. Se apuntan como causas de ese fenómeno la carencia de preparación del enfermero para actuación en esa área y el poco conocimiento de contenidos específicos que favorecen su inclusión en el campo de las prácticas. Se concluyó que debe ser dada mayor atención a esos contenidos en la formación del enfermero, ya que la exigencia legal del

  2. Fatores motivadores da adoção de práticas ambientais em empresas paulistas processadoras de madeira The motivating factors which led to the adoption of environmental practices by the wood processing companies in the State of Sao Paulo

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    Júlio Samuel Sávio Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as práticas ambientais adotadas por empresas paulistas processadoras de madeira, na etapa de geração e aquisição de matérias-primas, e analisar quais são os principais fatores motivadores da adoção dessas práticas. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo em 5 empresas que produzem produtos de madeira para escrita, celulose e papel, ou embalagens de papelão reciclado. O método de pesquisa adotado foi o estudo de caso e, como instrumentos de coleta de dados, foram utilizadas entrevistas e análises de documentos. Observou-se que as práticas ambientais adotadas pela maioria das empresas estudadas são referentes ao consumo de madeira e água e à poluição do solo, ar e água. Conclui-se que os principais fatores motivadores da adoção de práticas ambientais são a legislação, regulamentação de mercado e fatores relacionados à competitividade dos negócios, como a melhoria da imagem ambiental e a possibilidade de redução de custos.The objective of this study was to identify the environmental practices adopted by the wood processing companies in the State of Sao Paulo in the stage of generating and acquiring raw material, and to analyze the major motivating factors that led to the adoption of these practices. A qualitative study was carried out in 5 companies that produce wooden products for writing, cellulose and paper, or recycled corrugated fiberboard packaging. The research methodology adopted was case studies. Several interviews were conducted and documents were analyzed. It was observed that the environmental practices adopted by the majority of the studied companies refer to the consumption of wood and water, and to the pollution of the soil, air, and water. It was concluded that the major motivating factors for the adoption of environmental practices were: legislation, market regulation, and factors related to business competitiveness, such as the improvement of the environmental

  3. The perception of Sao Paulo state consumers in relation to ship meat: analysis by principal components Percepção de consumidores paulistas em relação à carne ovina: análise fatorial por componentes principais

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    Holmer Savastano Júnior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective was to identify the satisfaction and preferences degree of Sao Paulo state consumers on the quality of ship meat (color, flavor, tenderness, juiciness and fat, nutritional value, food security, availability, place of purchase and satisfaction with the product customers (cuts, packaging, origin, price, availability. For this, we surveyed the application of 93 questionnaires with 33 questions to the consumers of lamb meat. The data were submitted to a Factor Analysis in Principal Components and Distribution of Frequencies. The main items of sampling were: satisfaction with the product; preferences; consumption of meat; available for purchase; standard of meat and profile of the consumer. Indirectly, consumers appeared as weaknesses in the supply chain: low availability of the product, high prices and high level of informal market. The results indicated the possibility of market segmentation in terms of schooling and income, where the meat characteristics as the amount of fat and flavor should be taken into consideration.Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi identificar conceitos ligados a preferências e satisfação de consumidores paulistas em relação à qualidade da carne ovina (cor, sabor, maciez, suculência e gordura, valor nutricional, segurança alimentar, disponibilidade, local de compra e satisfação com o produto adquirido (cortes, embalagens, origem, preço. Para isso, realizou-se levantamento com a aplicação de 93 questionários com 33 perguntas aos consumidores de carne ovina, e os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise fatorial por componentes principais e distribuição de frequências. Os consumidores apontaram como pontos fracos da cadeia de comercialização: baixa disponibilidade do produto e preços elevados. Os resultados indicam a possibilidade de segmentação de mercado em função da escolaridade e renda, em que características como a quantidade de gordura e sabor devem ser consideradas.

  4. Desigualdades no acesso e utilização dos serviços de saúde na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Health care services utilization and access inequalities in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region

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    Umberto Catarino Pessoto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata achados dos estudos de casos realizados em cinco municípios da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP: São Paulo, Guarulhos, Santo André, Osasco e Franco da Rocha. As desigualdades no acesso aos serviços e sua utilização foram descritas a partir de tabulações avançadas da Pesquisa de Condições de Vida-PCV de 1998 do Seade. Analisamos informações a partir das variáveis posse ou não de planos de saúde, quintil de renda e faixa etária. Os atributos estudados foram: utilização dos serviços, tipo de cobertura do plano, procura pelos serviços e tempo médio de espera no atendimento. A comparação com estudos de outras regiões metropolitanas do Brasil, a partir da PNAD 98 do IBGE, permite afirmar que existem disparidades intra-regionais somente detectadas em estudos de menor escala espacial - os municípios. Apesar da RMSP possuir a maior cobertura de planos de saúde no Brasil, nota-se grande heterogeneidade interna. As desigualdades na posse de planos, no acesso, tempo de espera, tipo de cobertura se manifestam claramente na análise segundo quintil de renda e faixa etária. Conforme os resultados, sugerimos o aumento da capacidade de regulação do Estado, permitindo que os princípios da universalidade e eqüidade se estabeleçam no SUS, efetivando o direito à saúde.This paper presents case study findings in five municipalities in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Inequalities in access to health care services and their utilization were described through advanced tabulation data from the 1998 SEADE Life Conditions Survey. The variables analyzed were: owning or not owning private health care insurance, income and age brackets. The health care service attributes studied were: health care services coverage by a health insurance plan, health services demands and average waiting time to receive health care. Compared with other studies, using the 1998 IBGE PNAD, the results allowed us to confirm

  5. Encontro de imaturos de Anopheles cruzii em bromélias de área urbana, litoral de São Paulo Encuentro de inmaduros de Anopheles cruzii en bromelias de área urbana, litoral de Sao Paulo Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast

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    Gisela R A M Marques

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Primeiro relato da ocorrência de larvas de Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii, mosquito essencialmente silvestre, em bromélias de solo em área urbana do município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo. De março de 1998 a julho de 1999 foram capturadas 312 formas imaturas de An. cruzii, sendo 8,6% em bromélias do ambiente urbano, 40,1% em bromélias do periurbano e 51,3% na mata. O número médio de bromélias com An. cruzii foi de 4,0% dentre o total de pesquisadas, com valores próximos de positividade para ambiente periurbano e mata. A presença de An. cruzii no ambiente urbano provavelmente é resultante da sua ocorrência prévia na mata, aliada à elevada presença desse criadouro na área urbana, de fonte alimentar e abrigos disponíveis. Alerta-se para a possibilidade de transferência de infecções entre esses ambientes.Primer relato de la presencia de larvas de Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii, mosquito esencialmente silvestre, en bromelias de suelo en área urbana del municipio de Ilhabela, litoral norte del estado de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil. De marzo de 1998 a julio de 1999 fueron capturadas 312 formas inmaduras de An. cruzii, siendo 8,6% en bromelias del ambiente urbano, 40,1% en bromelias del periurbano, y 51,3% en la selva. El número prmedio de bromelias con An. cruzii fue de 4,0% del total de evaluadas, con valores próximos de positividad para ambiente periurbano y selva. La presencia de An. cruzii en el ambiente urbano probablemente es resultante de su ocurrencia previa en la selva, aliado a la elevada presencia de criaderos en el área urbana, de fuente de alimentación y abrigos disponibles. Se alerta la posibilidad de transferencia de infecciones entre esos ambiente.The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July

  6. Contribuição ao estudo da organização agroindustrial: o caso da indústria de frango de corte no Estado de São Paulo Contribution to the study of agroindustrial organization: the case of chicken meat industry in the State of Sao Paulo

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    P.V. Marques

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se indicadores de concentração no mercado de abate de frango de corte inspecionado no Estado de São Paulo desde 1978 até 1989. Os índices de concentração de Hirschman-Herfíndahl (H e os índices de concentração de Gini (G mostraram tendência estatística de se elevarem com o passar do tempo. O índice de concentração dos quatro maiores frigoríficos (C4 não apresentou tendência estatística para se elevar, enquanto que o índice de concentração das oito e das dezesseis maiores empresas (C8 e C16, respectivamente mostraram tendência para se elevar a partir de 1980. Concluiu-se que a concentração do mercado de abate e processamento de frangos manteve-se mais ou menos estável com leve tendência a aumentar dos oito menores frigoríficos para baixo. Para todo o período analisado, o preço relativo no varejo e os ganhos do produtor diminuíram.Indexes of market concentration were calculated using data from inspected slaughterhouses in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1978 to 1989. The Hirschman-Herfíndahl (H and the Gini (G indexes showed statistical tendency to increase. The four firms concentration index of the four greatest slaughterhouses (C4 showed no statistical tendency to increase while the concentration indexes of the eight greatest (C8 and of the sixteen greatest (C16 showed statistical tendency to increase from 1980 on. It can be concluded that the market concentration among the chicken slaughterhouses was more or less stable with small tendency to increase from the eigth smallest slaughterhouses below. For the analyzed time period, the retail's relative price and the producer's gain decreased.

  7. Megabacteriosis Occurrence in Budgerigars, Canaries and Lovebirds in Ribeirao Preto region - Sao Paulo State - Brazil Ocorrência de Megabacteriose em Periquitos Autralianos, Canários e Agapornis na Região de Ribeirão Preto- Estado de São Paulo - Brasil

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    K Werther

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of an megabacterium-like organism at small birds from the Northeast area of São Paulo State - Brazil. The results presented herein were obtained from 64 necropsy along four years (1994-1997. Sixty four birds (4 budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, 12 lovebirds Agapornis spp and 48 canaries Serinus canaria were studied. At 56% of the examined birds showed at the proventricular mucus smear a presence of rod-shaped (similar to a toothpick organisms, Gram positive and acidophilic in Giemsa staining, called megabacteria. Different kind of culture media was testes to replicated these organism in vitro. Also the dimension (large and width of the fresh microorganism from the proventricular mucus and from the first culture was compared. The macroscopic alterations observed at the necropsies was also listed.Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de um agente etiológico, denominado na Europa, Australia e EUA como "megabactéria", observado em estômago de pequenas aves (canários belgas, agapornis e periquitos australianos, provenientes da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo/SP. As necropsias de 64 aves silvestres (4 periquitos australianos, 12 agapornis e 48 canários, realizadas no perído de 1994 a 1997, foram analisadas, constatando-se em 56% dos casos a presença de estruturas filiformes, acidofílicas sob coloração Giemsa, gram positivas, existentes no muco do proventrículo, descritas na literatura como "megabactérias". Foram testados diversos tipos de meios de cultura para reprodução in vitro deste microrganismo. Foram ainda comparadas as dimensões (comprimento e largura dessa bactéria obtida apartir do esfregaço fresco de muco proventricular e da "megabactéria" proveniente de cultivo in vitro. Também foram listados os principais achados macroscópicos do animais portadores desta bactéria.

  8. Epidemiological analysis of mandibular fractures treated in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Kelly Marinho

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of mandibular fractures should be aimed at restoring the occlusion and mastication function, with surgery being the most indicated treatment, using reduction and internal fixation with the use of a plates and screws system based on the experience of the authors. Knowledge of surgical techniques and methods of reduction and fixation of fractures, and periodic monitoring allow these patients to receive the appropriate treatment.

  9. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  10. Demanda referida e auxílio recebido por idosos com declínio cognitivo no município de São Paulo Demands reported and help received among elderly people with cognitive decline at Sao Paulo municipality

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    Simone de Freitas Duarte Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil vem acompanhado pelo aumento das doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, dentre elas as demências, que produzem grande impacto entre os indivíduos acometidos e seus familiares. Este estudo é parte do Estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. A amostra foi composta pelos idosos que obtiveram 12 ou menos pontos no MEEM (Mini Exame do Estado Mental e 6 ou mais no Questionário de Pfeffer para Atividades Funcionais (QPAF. A combinação desses instrumentos indica maior especificidade para a medida de declínio cognitivo mais grave, sugerindo a presença de demência ou outros transtornos associados. Os objetivos deste estudo são apresentar os resultados do SABE no que se refere ao desempenho de atividades de vida diária e aos arranjos domiciliares dos idosos com declínio cognitivo no Município de São Paulo e verificar de que forma esses arranjos contribuem para suprir as demandas assistenciais desses idosos com dependência. A limitação funcional ocorre principalmente em relação às atividades instrumentais de vida diária (AIVD. A maioria reside em arranjos domiciliares com presença de filhos, mas há uma parcela considerável que mora só. A ajuda oferecida pela maioria dos arranjos domiciliares chega muitas vezes a 100% em AIVD, porém nas atividades básicas de vida diária (ABVD só entre os casais esse índice é alcançado mostrando que a demanda assistencial tem sido atendida em sua maioria, permitindo a análise de que no idoso com declínio cognitivo, a evidência mais acentuada da limitação apresentada é um fator que desencadeia maior oferta de ajuda.The aging of the Brazilian population is concomitant along with increases in chronic non-transmittable diseases. Among these diseases are dementias, which have a great impact on individuals affected by cognitive decline and their families. This study forms part of the "SABE Study" (Health, Wellbeing

  11. Representação social da violência: estudo exploratório com estudantes de uma universidade do interior do estado de São Paulo The social representations of violence: an exploratory study of undergraduate students from a university in the countryside of Sao Paulo state

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    Adriana Leonidas Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo das Representações Sociais é um importante recurso metodológico de conhecimento dos fenômenos do cotidiano. Seu objetivo é abstrair sentido do mundo e introduzir nele ordem e percepções. O tema violência é uma reflexão antiga no Brasil, e necessita a todo tempo ser problematizado. O espaço acadêmico é um meio propulsor de se construir representações mais autênticas, desmistificando aquelas que não favorecem o desenvolvimento humano. Esse estudo teve como objetivo levantar as representações sociais da violência entre universitários de uma universidade do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Foram realizadas vinte entrevistas com estudantes das áreas exatas, humanas e biológicas, analisadas qualitativamente com auxílio do software Alceste. Os resultados apontaram duas classes de representação da violência: Perspectiva social e política e Perspectiva Familiar. Os estudantes que têm suas representações fundamentadas em aspectos da esfera social parecem estruturá-las percebendo o quanto o indivíduo é afetado pela dinâmica social e política, percebendo a violência como fruto do desamparo do Estado, dos prejuízos do sistema capitalista que geram desigualdades sociais. Na perspectiva Familiar os estudantes perceberam mais as manifestações da violência física e psicológica, as quais remetiam a elementos como falta de amor, desestruturação familiar, violência doméstica. Estudantes das três áreas incluem o fator social como produtor da violência. Conclui-se que as representações sociais dos estudantes sugerem uma apropriação do saber científico, havendo proximidade de raciocínio entre os estudantes da mesma área.The study of social representations is an important methodological resource in gathering daily phenomena knowledge. It aims at abstracting sense from the world and introducing order and perceptions. The violence theme is an old one in Brazil, and it demands to be studied. Academia is a

  12. Concepções de gênero entre homens e mulheres de baixa renda e escolaridade acerca da violência contra a mulher, São Paulo, Brasil Gender conceptions related to violence against women among men and women of low income and low educational level, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Márcia Thereza Couto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda como homens e mulheres de baixa renda e escolaridade, da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, pensam suas relações afetivo-familiares e os diferentes contextos de violência que vivenciam. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, utilizando grupos focais, com vistas a subsidiar estudo mais global acerca de violência contra a mulher e saúde. Foram realizados quatro grupos focais (dois com mulheres e dois com homens, na faixa etária de 25 a 35 anos, abordando as representações, livres e instigadas por ditos populares, de: homem e mulher ideais; as relações afetivo- sexuais e familiares; os concretamente vividos; e a violência doméstica. Usa-se a análise temática. Os resultados apontam para cisões entre atributos físicos e condutas morais na mulher ideal referida pelos homens, já aquela referida pelas mulheres define uma autonomia controlada. Os homens tiveram dificuldades em definir o homem ideal, já para as mulheres o ideal é o homem-família. Quanto à violência, é em princípio sempre condenável. É tolerável e instintiva para homens; e fatalidade ou destino, pela natureza masculina, para mulheres, tornando-se evento natural e trivial dos cotidianos de ambos. O referencial de gênero permite compreensão da violência como ocorrência comum, mas de sentidos diferentes entre gêneros.This article discusses how men and women of low income and educational level, living in São Paulo City, think their affective and familiar relationships and the different violent contexts they live in. It consists of a qualitative study, based on focus groups and subsiding a more global study on violence against women and health. It has been conducted four groups (two with men and two with women, aging 25 to 35 years broaching, free and instigated by popular sayings, conceptions on: the ideal man and woman, concretely experienced sexual affective and familiar relationships and on domestic violence. Thematic analysis was used. The results

  13. Consumo de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar entre adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo Consumption of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages among adolescents from public schools in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo

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    Marina Bueno do Carmo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as práticas alimentares de adolescentes quanto à ingestão energética, distribuição de macronutrientes na dieta e porções consumidas de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar. METODOLOGIA: Foi avaliada uma amostra de adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por um Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar. Para a comparação do consumo com a recomendação de ingestão de energia e de macronutrientes, utilizaram-se as Dietary Reference Intakes. A análise do consumo de doces baseou-se nas recomendações do guia alimentar norte-americano. Dados de consumo de refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar foram avaliados em comparação com outros estudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 390 adolescentes. Apenas 6,2% destes apresentaram consumo energético em conformidade com o intervalo preconizado e 83,8% revelaram ingestão energética acima dos valores propostos. Expressiva parcela apresentou consumo de carboidratos e proteínas de acordo com o recomendado, mas foi verificado consumo alto de lipídios em 36,7% da amostra. Comprovou-se um consumo médio de 3,8 porções diárias de doces, sendo que 78,2% dos entrevistados ultrapassaram a recomendação máxima. O consumo médio diário alcançou aproximadamente 230ml e 550ml de refrigerante e bebidas com adição de açúcar, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Devido à alarmante inadequação das práticas alimentares observadas entre os adolescentes, devem ser adotadas estratégias educativas que enfatizem a redução do consumo de açúcares e os benefícios da adoção de uma dieta equilibrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary patterns of adolescents in relation to energy intake, distribution of macronutrients in diet and consumption of portions of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages. METHODOLOGY: A sample of adolescents enrolled in public schools in Piracicaba

  14. Estado nutricional, clínico e padrão alimentar de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids em assistência ambulatorial no município de São Paulo Nutritional and clinical status, and dietary patterns of people living with HIV/AIDS in ambulatory care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Erika Ferrari Rafael Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Atualmente, a abordagem nutricional desempenha papel essencial no tratamento de pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids, particularmente no caso de alterações metabólicas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral (TARV que podem estar associadas ao maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o estado nutricional, clínico e a qualidade da dieta de pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo transversal envolvendo pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids em atendimento na rede de serviços especializados no município de São Paulo. Os usuários desta rede, em uso ou não de TARV, foram recrutados no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2006, durante consultas de rotina. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos, antropométricos e dietéticos. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada segundo escores de padrão de consumo predominantemente "não protetor" e "protetor" para DCV. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi constituída por 238 pacientes em TARV e 76 sem TARV. A média dos níveis de colesterol total, triglicérides e glicemia foram maiores no grupo TARV (p INTRODUCTION: Nutrition currently plays a key role in the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA, especially in the case of metabolic alterations due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, which could be related to cardiovascular diseases (CD. OBJECTIVE: to describe the nutritional and clinical status, and the quality of diet of PLHA. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study involving a network of ambulatory care facilities for PLHA in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients, in use of HAART or not, were selected from December 2004 to may 2006, through routine clinic visits. We collected: socio-demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric measures and dietary data. Diet quality was evaluated according to a "protecting" or "non-protecting" pattern of consumption scores for CD. RESULTS: The sample had 238 patients on

  15. Caracterização da comunidade de plantas aquáticas de dezoito reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo Characterization of the aquatic plant communities of 18 reservoirs of five watersheds in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    D. Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar e comparar a composição florística de 18 reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de fevereiro a setembro de 2002, com o auxílio de um barco. Percorreu-se a margem dos reservatórios das bacias hidrográficas dos rios Paraíba, Paraná, Paranapanema, Grande e Tietê, à velocidade de 30 km h-1. A cada 20 minutos, estabeleceu-se um ponto de amostragem, determinando-se sua posição por meio de GPS. Em cada ponto, em área de 1.000 m², identificaram-se as espécies ocorrentes e respectivas densidades, em porcentagem da área amostrada. Foram identificadas 39 espécies, distribuídas em 21 famílias, destacando-se as flutuantes Salvinia auriculata, Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea e Pistia stratiotes e as emersas Polygonum lapathifolium, Brachiaria arrecta,Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus sp. e Typha latifolia, considerando as quatro espécies com maior freqüência em cada bacia. O maior índice de similaridade (0,71 ocorreu entre as bacias dos rios Paranapanema e Grande, e o menor (0,49, entre as bacias dos rios Paraíba e Tietê.The objective of this work was to evaluate and compare the aquatic plant composition of 18 reservoirs in five watershed basins in SP-Brazil. The survey was carried out on a boat from February to September 2002, comprising the watersheds basins of the rivers Paraíba, Paraná, Paranapanema, Grande and Tietê. On average, every 20 minutes a sampling point was determined by means of a portable GPS, and the species were identified based on high density, average density and low density. A total of 39 species was identified, distributed in 21 families. The prominent species were the floating Salvinia auriculata, Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and the immersed Polygonum lapathifolium, Brachiaria arrecta, Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus sp. and Typha latifolia

  16. Promoção automática nos anos 1950: a experiência pioneira do Grupo Experimental da Lapa (São Paulo Automatic promotion in the 1950s: the pioneering experiment of the Experimental School of Lapa (Sao Paulo

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    Lygia S. Viégas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa apresentar o projeto pioneiro de abolição da reprovação na rede estadual paulista, elaborado no final da década de 1950 e implantado no início de 1960, em caráter experimental, no Grupo Experimental da Lapa, escola que funcionava como unidade oficial de pesquisas da Secretaria da Educação. Apesar de inaugural, tal experiência raramente comparece em publicações sobre o tema, havendo poucos registros a seu respeito. Para tanto, o artigo esboça, a princípio, um breve contexto histórico do debate em torno da então chamada promoção automática, que se inicia no Brasil em 1918, no contexto da Primeira República, e ganha força, sobretudo, na década de 1950, no período desenvolvimentista. Em seguida, o texto aborda elementos constitutivos do projeto realizado no Grupo Experimental da Lapa, justificando a pertinência e a atualidade da promoção automática, bem como delineia sua formatação, em especial no que diz respeito à organização das classes, ao currículo, à avaliação e ao papel docente. Posto isso, são revelados trechos de depoimentos dados por educadores envolvidos na construção do referido projeto, os quais revelam suas potencialidades e contradições. Também são apresentados documentos raros sobre o tema publicados no contexto dessa experiência pioneira. Ao final, são tecidas considerações sobre a experiência em questão, a qual, apesar de pouco divulgada, possui enorme importância histórica. Espera-se, com este artigo, contribuir para a construção da escola pública de qualidade, principalmente considerando a crescente implantação da política de ciclos nas redes públicas educacionais brasileiras.This article presents the pioneering project of abolishing failure in the state public schools in São Paulo state, developed in the late 1950 and implemented at the beginning of 1960 on an experimental basis at the Experimental School of Lapa, a school that worked as the

  17. Depression prevalence in Intensive Care Unit nursing workers: a study at hospitals in a northwestern city of São Paulo State Prevalencia de depresión en trabajadores de enfermería de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: estudio en hospitales de una ciudad del noroeste del Estado de Sao Paulo Prevalência de depressão em trabalhadores de enfermagem de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: estudo em hospitais de uma cidade do noroeste do Estado São Paulo

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    Divane de Vargas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression in nursing staff working in Intensive Care Units of hospitals from a city in Northwestern São Paulo State - Brazil, examining its association with participants' socio-demographic characteristics. The Beck Depression Inventory was applied to a sample of 67 nursing workers from three general hospitals, showing an 28.4% prevalence of depression. The analysis based on the multiple model showed a significant association between depression and marital status (OR=1.52, night work (OR=1.46 and double shifts (OR=2.11. Also, there were significant percentages of workers who reported discouragement, sadness and hopelessness. In conclusion, the prevalence of depression is significant and more attention should be paid to this problem workers at these units face. Further studies are needed in the attempt to broaden knowledge on the subject, which can support strategies to guarantee attention to ICU nursing workers' physical and mental health needs.Este estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de depresión, en trabajadores de enfermería de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI de hospitales de una ciudad del Noroeste del estado de Sao Paulo, analizando su asociación con las características sociodemográficas de los participantes. Se aplicó el Inventario de Depresión de Beck a una muestra de 67 trabajadores de enfermería de tres hospitales generales; se observó una prevalencia de 28,4% de depresión. El análisis por el modelo múltiple demostró asociación significativa entre depresión y estado civil (OR=1,52, trabajo nocturno (OR=1,46 y doble jornada (OR=2,11, fueron significativos también los porcentajes de trabajadores que relataron desanimo, tristeza y desesperanza. Se concluye que es significativa la prevalencia de depresión y que se debe dar mayor atención a ese problema enfrentado por los trabajadores de esas unidades. Se sugiere la realización de otros estudios

  18. Inter-Unit Doctoral Program in Nursing of the University of São Paulo: characterization of Graduates and Theses Defended in a Decade Programa inter-unidades de doctorado en enfermería de la Universidad de Sao Paulo: caracterización de los egresados y tesis defendidas en una década Programa interunidades de doutoramento em enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo: caracterização dos egressos e teses defendidas em uma década

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    Livia Maria Garbin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study aimed to characterize the graduates of the Inter-unit Doctoral Program in Nursing of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo, who defended their theses in the period 1998-2008, in relation to the location they developed their Masters and their pre and post-doctoral employment, also to investigate the theses defended in relation to the thematic areas and methodological approaches used. Data were collected from the Fenix-USP System and the Lattes Curriculum System. Of the 190 graduates, 178 had curriculums available online. Of those, 58.4% performed teaching and research activities when they entered the doctoral program, which were activities mainly developed at Federal Universities (34.8%. This predominance was maintained after the conclusion of the doctoral studies. The thematic areas most studied were Women’s Health (20.5% and Adults/Elderly Health (13.2%. Regarding the methodological approach, 68.4% used qualitative methods. The data evidenced the contributions of this Program to research.Se trata de un estudio descriptivo con el objetivo de caracterizar a los egresados del Programa Inter-unidades de Doctorado en Enfermería de la Escuela de Enfermería de la Universidad de Sao Paulo y Escuela de Enfermería de Ribeirao Preto, con tesis defendidas entre 1998 y 2008, en relación al local de realización de la maestría, vínculo de empleo anterior y posterior al doctorado e investigar las tesis en relación a las áreas temáticas y abordajes metodológicos utilizados. Los datos fueron recolectados en el Sistema Fenix-USP y Currículo Lattes de 190 egresados, de los cuales 178 tenían currículo disponible on-line. De estos, 58,4% realizaban actividades de docencia e investigación en el momento del ingreso en el doctorado, actividades estas desarrolladas principalmente en Universidades Federales (34,8%; predominancia que se mantuvo después del término del doctorado. Las áreas temáticas m

  19. Instrumentos de Avaliação de Desempenho e Risco no Mercado Acionário Brasileiro: um estudo de anomalias de mercado na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPAInstruments for the Evaluation Analysis of Performance and Risk in the Brazilian Stock Market: a study of the market anomalies at (BOVESPA Sao PauloInstrumentos de Evaluación del Desempeño y Riesgo en el Mercado de Acciones Brasileño: un estudio de anomalías de mercado en la Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA

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    OLIVIERI, Francisco José

    2004-09-01

    , selected (representative in the decision-making by the investors, this study aimed at developing the questionings arising from the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT model, based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM of the pricing in portfolios, which relations among its components are translated by Beta. This study applies to the evolution of the evaluation theories, risk measurement and formation of assets’ prices (expected pay-back which, in recent studies, have shown that, many times, the behavior of the investors does not confirm the divulged efficiency of the markets. The study was based on certain areas of the theory of investments, highlighting the risk approach as a factor for decision-making, in addition to the Asset Pricing Models of portfolios evaluation. This study was based on a documental and data research with the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange, institutions that manage investment funds and the Brazilian Central Bank (from 1997 to 2001 to test the several theories on market efficiency and, finally, the analysis of the information obtained from data modeling, searching to identify the consistency of the results, in view of the different models studied, relating them to the concepts of market weaknesses. As a result, it was possible to define the Security Market Line for the Brazilian market, based on the assets pricing models, beta coefficients and APT factors.RESUMENA partir de la formulación de las hipótesis de los Mercados Eficientes y del descubrimiento de las relaciones entre los activos negociados en el mercado bursátil y un determinado modelo de conducta racional, elegido (representativo en la toma de decisiones de los inversionistas, este estudio buscó desarrollar a partir del modelo CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model, de precificación en portfolios, cuyas relaciones entre componentes se traducen por el Beta, los cuestionamientos que advienen con el modelo APT (Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Se dedica entonces a la evolución de las teorías de la evaluaci

  20. O processo de implementação do diagnóstico de enfermagem no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo El proceso de implementar el diagnóstico de enfermería en el Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de Sao Paulo The nursing diagnosis implementation process at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo

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    Antônio Fernandes Costa Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Há mais de duas décadas, o Departamento de Enfermagem (DE do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo (HU-USP implementou o modelo assistencial, denominado Sistema de Assistência de Enfermagem (SAE, que integra três fases: o Histórico, a Evolução e a Prescrição de Enfermagem e que vem sendo desenvolvido pelos enfermeiros do DE como um instrumento norteador da assistência, do ensino e da pesquisa. Tendo em vista a informatização do SAE, os enfermeiros iniciaram discussões acerca da necessidade de mudanças que agilizassem o processo de trabalho com a proposição da implementação do Diagnóstico de Enfermagem, como mais uma etapa do SAE, e com a revisão das condutas/intervenções de enfermagem. Para tanto, tornou-se imprescindível a adoção de um sistema padronizado de linguagem do processo assistencial a fim de que se pudesse realizar a captura, agrupamento e classificação dos dados para análise e transformação em informações. O presente estudo tem como objetivo compartilhar com outros enfermeiros essa experiência no processo de implementação do Diagnóstico de Enfermagem como segunda etapa do SAE.Hace más de dos décadas, el Departamento de Enfermería (DE del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de São Paulo (HU-USP implementó el modelo asistencial, denominado Sistema de Asistencia de Enfermería (SAE, que integra tres fases: el Histórico, la Evolución y la Prescripción de Enfermería y que viene siendo desarrollado por los enfermeros del DE como un instrumento orientador de la asistencia, de la enseñanza y de la investigación. Buscando informarse sobre el SAE, los enfermeros iniciaron discusiones acerca de la necesidad de cambios que agilicen el proceso de trabajo con la proposición de la implementación del Diagnóstico de Enfermería, como una etapa más del SAE, y con la revisión de las conductas/intervenciones de enfermería. Para tal efecto, se tornó imprescindible la adopción de

  1. [The arrival of the plague in São Paulo in 1899].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    In October 1899, the bubonic plague arrived in Brazil through the port of Santos. A city of intensive port activity, Santos was the gateway for a plague epidemic that devastated several cities in Brazil in the early 20th century and prompted joint action by several states to fight it. More importantly, given the difficulties and delays in importing anti-plague serum from Europe, it led to the creation of the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo (in 1899) and the Municipal Serotherapeutic Institute in Rio de Janeiro (in 1900), which developed and standardized anti-plague serum and vaccines according to the particular conditions of the country. Until then, public health efforts had been isolated and had not reached the whole country. Oswaldo Cruz, newly arrived after three years of specialization at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, worked with scientists Adolfo Lutz and Vital Brazil on identifying the plague in Santos. This article analyzes the arrival of the bubonic plague epidemic in the state of Sao Paulo and the public health measures taken to combat the disease and provide patient care in the early part of the 20th century. The primary sources for this analysis were the São Paulo newspapers, especially O Estado de Sao Paulo, and reports from the Ministry of Justice and the President of the State of Sao Paulo.

  2. The establishment of bonds between professional and patient in TB treatment: the performance of primary health care services in a city in the interior of São Paulo Vínculo entre profesional y enfermo en el tratamiento de la tuberculosis: desempeño de la atención básica en un municipio del estado de Sao Paulo Vínculo profissional/doente no tratamento da tuberculose: desempenho da atenção básica em município do interior paulista

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    Maria Amélia Zanon Ponce

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of health care services implementing TB control actions in relation to the establishment of bonds between health professionals and patients in São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil from the perspective of patients, health professionals, and managers. A total of 108 patients, 37 health professionals and 15 managers were interviewed through a questionnaire containing 10 indicators of bond-establishment based on the instruments of the Primary Care Assessment Tool, adapted to evaluate tuberculosis control in Brazil. The three groups of actors considered the establishment of bonds satisfactory, though opinions of patients and managers differed in almost all indicators. This fact indicates that the view of managers is still predominantly focused on bureaucratic and administrative aspects, which shows the need for managers to integrate more management and care actions.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el desempeño de los servicios de salud que realizan acciones de control de la TB relacionado al vínculo entre el profesional y el enfermo, en el municipio de Sao José del Rio Preto, en Sao Paulo, en la percepción de enfermos, profesionales de la salud y gestores. Fueron entrevistados 108 enfermos, 37 profesionales y 15 gestores utilizando un cuestionario elaborado con 10 indicadores para la dimensión vínculo construidos con base en el Primary Care Asesment Tool, adaptado para evaluar de la atención a la tuberculosis en Brasil. El vínculo fue evaluado como satisfactorio por los tres actores, entre tanto hubo variabilidad entre las opiniones de los enfermos y los gestores en casi todos los indicadores, lo que permite inferir que la visión de los gestores todavía está orientada predominantemente por los aspectos burocrático/administrativos, necesitando que estos integren más las acciones gerenciales y asistenciales.O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desempenho dos serviços de saúde que realizam ações de

  3. Ausências previstas e não previstas da equipe de enfermagem das unidades de internação do HU-USP Ausencias previstas y no previstas del equipo de enfermería en las unidades de internamiento del HU-USP-Brasil Expected and unexpected absences of the nursing team at the inpatient units of a university hospital at the University of Sao Paulo-Brazil

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    Fernanda Maria Togeiro Fugulin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, exploratório-descritivo, teve por objetivo identificar o percentual de ausências previstas e não previstas da equipe de enfermagem das Unidades de Internação do HU-USP. Os dados referentes às ausências não previstas foram levantados das escalas mensais, do ano 2000, dos funcionários da equipe de enfermagem dessas Unidades. Os percentuais de ausências previstas referentes às folgas semanais remuneradas, feriados e férias corresponderam, respectivamente, à 19%, 3,9% e 8,9%. O levantamento do percentual de ausências não previstas mostrou uma variação entre os índices encontrados em cada Unidade, indicando a possibilidade de estar ocorrendo sobrecarga de trabalho em algumas Unidades de Internação.El objetivo de este estudio exploratorio-decriptivo fue identificar el porcentaje de ausencias previstas y no previstas del equipo de enfermería de las Unidades de Internamiento del HU-USP. Los datos referentes a las ausencias no previstas fueron recolectados de las rotaciones mensuales, del año 2000, de los funcionarios del equipo de enfermería de estas Unidades. Los porcentajes de ausencias previstas referentes a huelgas semanales remuneradas, feriados y vacaciones correspondieron, respectivamente, al 19%, 3,9% y 8,9%. El porcentaje de ausencias no previstas mostró una variación entre los índices encontrados en cada Unidad, indicando la posibilidad de la ocurrencia de una sobrecarga de trabajo en algunas Unidades de Internamiento.The objective of this exploratory-descriptive study was to identify expected and unexpected absences of the nursing team at the inpatient units of the University Hospital at the University of Sao Paulo. Data regarding unexpected absences of the nursing staff employees of these inpatient units were assessed on a monthly basis for the year 2000. The percentage of the expected absences regarding remunerated weekly time off, holidays and vacations corresponded to 19%, 3.9% and 8.9%, respectively

  4. Air Pollution in São Paulo and Santiago de Chile: Sources and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Castanho, A.; Oyolla, P.; Gramsch, E.; Martinez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious issue for millions in Latin America. São Paulo, Santiago de Chile, México City and many other large urban conglomerates. Fast industrialization, large population growth, emissions from the transportation sectors and many other issues are the cause for the air pollution in these mega cities. São Paulo, with 17 million people, 5.5 million vehicles and strong industry suffers from severe particulate matter and ozone exposure. Santiago de Chile with very unfavorable dispersion characteristics also has problems with PM10 and ozone. Health effects in these areas are a public health concern. In Sao Paulo alone, about 30,000 excess deaths are attributable to air pollution issues. There are also critical institutional issues in the São Paulo metropolitan area, which has 39 municipalities, as well as three other metropolitan areas within a 100-km radius. In Santiago de Chile, a dry climate makes ressuspended soil dust an important PM10 component, and vehicle emissions produces high concentration of secondary organic aerosols. Old diesel buses make black carbon concentrations very high in Santiago. We carried out extensive aerosol source apportionment studies for several years, using PIXE as trace element analysis technique and multivariate statistical analysis to separate and quantify aerosol sources in Santiago and Sao Paulo. We will present results from 5 years studies in both Santiago and Sao Paulo. Vehicles and soil dust dominates the picture, with a strong sulfate component in Santiago de Chile.

  5. Avaliação da qualidade da atenção básica utilizando a doença respiratória da infância como traçador, em um distrito sanitário do município de São Paulo Primary health care quality evaluation using respiratory diseases as tracer in a health district in the city Sao Paulo

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    Oswaldo Yoshimi Tanaka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a qualidade dos serviços de atenção básica utilizando a doença respiratória da infância como traçador. MÉTODOS: a abordagem avaliativa se baseia no referencial de Donabedian acoplado à metodologia da condição traçadora de Kessner. A amostra é composta de 768 crianças de zero a cinco anos de idade, com queixas respiratórias, atendidas em sete Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Distrito Sanitário de Brasilândia, município de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. As fontes de dados foram prontuários e entrevistas com mães ou responsáveis. RESULTADOS o exame médico mais acurado da criança mostrou-se significativamente associado com a evolução favorável dos quadros atendidos. O acolhimento demonstrado pelos profissionais influiu na avaliação dos usuários acerca da qualidade do atendimento, observando-se uma atitude de preservação da figura do médico. O nível de escolaridade da mãe não apresentou diferença significativa em relação à melhora apresentada. CONCLUSÕES: a metodologia de tratadores mostrou-se adequada para a identificação e análise crítica das principais questões envolvendo a avaliação da resolubilidade de serviços de saúde. As doenças respiratórias na infância são uma condição traçadora importante para avaliação da qualidade na atenção básica.OBJECTIVES: to assess quality of the primary care using respiratory diseases as a tracer. METHODS: the evaluative approach is based on Donabedian's referencial connected to Kessner's tracers methodology. The sample is formed by 768 children from 0 to 5 years old, presenting respiratory symptoms, attended at seven basic health units from the Sanitary District of Brasilândia, in the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Medical registrations and interviews with mothers or responsibles were the information sources. RESULTS: more accurate child medical examination evidences significant association with favorable evolution

  6. Entrepreneurship in Nursing: overview of companies in the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Andréia de Carvalho; Dal Ben, Luiza Watanabe; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify and characterize nursing companies managed by entrepreneur nurses registered at the Commercial Registry of São Paulo by 2011. It's a descriptive, exploratory study, whose data collection, made throughout January 2012, was carried out on the Commercial Registry of Sao Paulo website. This non-governmental body has the function of registering the opening of companies and supervising their trade situation. This study allowed us to identify that the entrepreneur nurse is a growing reality through the identification of 196 companies opened by these professionals. Afterwards, it was analyzed their time of functioning, the main economic activity of the company, capital value, percentage of nurse partners and the distribution of companies by region of Sao Paulo State.

  7. Application of gamma radiation for recovery of papers infected by fungi: case study about Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auada, Fernanda Mokdessi; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: fmokdessi@usp.br, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.br, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usf.edu.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade São Francisco (USF), Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The material studied in this work was flooded in the city of Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil on January 2010 during a record flood suffered by the river that pass through the region. The documentary collection belonging to the City Hall underwent emergency drying and recovery treatments including irradiation with gamma rays to the destruction of various cellulosic fungi. Seven record books with many pages in blank and presenting severe fungal and mold infestation were provided by the Public Archive of the State of Sao Paulo, in charge of the damaged official documents, as samples for the present investigation on the effects of gamma radiation in the recovery and preservation of paper supported collections that are victims of biological contamination. This study represents a very rare possibility of working with a real object of actual use, which suffered a real disaster, and not with material prepared in laboratory and subjected to a forged flood situation. (author)

  8. Prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in the urban area neighboring a petrochemical complex and a control area in Sao Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de tireoidite de Hashimoto na população vicinal ao Pólo Petroquímico de Capuava (área Polo e área controle (São Bernardo Campo na região metropolitana da grande São Paulo, Brasil

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    Rosalinda Y. A. Camargo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in 2 urban areas of metropolitan São Paulo (Brazil: Polo Area neighboring a large petrochemical complex and São Bernardo Campo Area (control area. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects were randomly included from the adult population (20 to 70 years of age of both genders (women 80%, men 20% who voluntarily agreed to participate. From the Polo Area, in the vicinity of a large petrochemical industrial complex, 409 subjects were included; from the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area 420 individuals were included. All subjects were clinically examined, and a detailed record of past thyroid illness and medications was obtained. Ultrasonographic studies were performed using a portable GE Medical Systems apparatus. Blood samples were obtained for free T4, serum TSH, and serum anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. Urine specimens were collected in Monovette syringes for assaying iodine content. Salt samples were collected at households, and the iodine content was measured. RESULTS: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was diagnosed both echographically (marked hypoechogenicity and immunologically (presence of autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase. In the Polo Area, 15.6% of the examined population had chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and in the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area, 19.5% of the population had evidence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (P > 0.057, not significant. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 4.9% in the Polo Area and 8.3% in the São Bernardo Campo Area (P = 0.0461 significant. Taking the 2 populations together, 6.6% had hypothyroidism (about one third of these patients were on L-T4 treatment. The mean thyroid volume was 11.2 mL. Domestic salt had a normal concentration of iodine (35.5 + 6.61 mg/kg. Urinary excretion of iodine was above 300 µg Iodine/L in 58.5% of the total population. CONCLUSION: The high iodine intake (above 300 µg Iodine/L of urine that

  9. Radiometer evaluation of X-rays equipment in the region of Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil;Avaliacao radiometrica de raios-X na regiao de Aracatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Kanezawa, Jorge S. [Centro de Ensino e Tecnologia de Aracatuba (CETEA), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts of radiation protection to guide the health care professionals who use equipment emitting ionizing radiation on the correct handling of the beams of radiation. Radiometric evaluations were conducted in 1665 in X-ray equipment, installed in dental surgeries and clinics, hospitals and radiology services, during the years 1996 to 2003 in the region of Aracatuba. Tests of radiometry are presented as a technical report where the parameters are quantified physical and radiological verifying its compliance with the established by legislation. The distribution of reports by type of unit shows that the vast majority of equipment is of periapical dental x-rays (72%), 25% of equipment is medical equipment for radiology and 3% is dental equipment panoramic model (orthodontic documentation). Among the physical parameters analyzed, the length of the browser was showing more variance compared to the required by law, this fact may also contribute to gaps in the rate of the radiation dose and the size of field in the skin of the patient, the that can easily be resolved simply to replace the piece at the outlet of the head. During the completion of visits to services, it also noted a gap in the training of professionals who operate this equipment emitting radiation, warning of the need for specific training in the area. (author)

  10. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1997. Base year 1996; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1997. Ano base 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1996; energy consumption by sector 1983/1996; socio-economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1984/1996.

  11. Distribution of natural gas: introduction of the interruptible segment in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Distribuicao de gas natural canalizado: introducao do segmento interruptivel em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is the better knowledge and evaluation of the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation and one can guess that the inexistence of contracts for this service resembles only lack of conjunctural opportunities for this job applications. These difficulties appear both in the supply and distribution branches of the gas business, which prefer flat contracts. The final conclusion is interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  12. Determination of essential elements in formulas commercialized at the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em formulas infantis comercializadas em Sao Paulo-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Vinicius Dias; Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper intends to determine the concentration of elements, presents in the infant formulas, by using the Neutron Activation Analysis for verification if the quantity is not exceeding the toxicity limit, and if the concentration of each element is correct as presented on the label of each packaging

  13. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1PDM09 hemagglutinin gene circulating in São Paulo State , Brazil: 2016 anticipated influenza season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Corrêa de Oliveira Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016. In addition, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season.

  14. Seguimento do enfermeiro graduado na Escola de Enfermagem da USP: sua inserção em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Following up of the nurses graduated at the school of nursing of the University of Sao Paulo: their insertion in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hatsuye Kitahara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de identificar as atividades desenvolvidas após a formatura pelos enfermeiros graduados na Escola de Enfermagem da SP (EEUSP e caracterizar a inserção destes enfermeiros em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTIs no que se refere a ter sido ou não sua primeira área de atuação, à experiência anterior de trabalho em UTI, ao treinamento inicial específico e às dificuldades enfrentadas para assumir as atividades nessas Unidades. A população foi composta pelos egressos da EEUSP nos anos de 1991 a 1995. Uma listagem dos alunos formados no período, com os respectivos endereços e telefones, foi obtida junto à Seção de Graduação. Foi utilizado um questionário para a coleta de dados. Dentre os 235 questionários enviados, 117 (49,8% retornaram com resposta. Quanto as atividades após a formatura, 90,5% informaram estar exercendo a profissão; o hospital ,foi o local de trabalho mais indicado, totalizando 76,2% das respostas. Em todos os anos do período estudado, um contingente significativo de enfermeiros foi absorvido nas UTls. Dos 117 respondentes, 55 (47,0% informaram que trabalham ou trabalharam em UTI, sendo que para 54,5% deles, este foi o primeiro emprego. A maioria (52,8% não tinha experiência de trabalho anterior em UTI. Apesar de 64,1% dos enfermeiros terem recebido treinamento inicial específico, foram mencionadas dificuldades para assumir as atividades na UTI, dentre as quais destacaram-se: a falta de destreza manual e de conhecimento teórico (45,4%, o manuseio de equipamentos (25,8% e o relacionamento com as equipes de enfermagem. e multiprofissional (8,2%.The purposes of this research was to identify the activities developed by the nurses after undergraduation course at the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo and to characterize their insertion in Intensive Care Units (ICUs, in relation to have been or not their first area of job, their previous experience in ICU

  15. Bioluminescent Mycena species from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Capelari, Marina; Stevani, Cassius

    2007-01-01

    Six species of bioluminescent agarics are described and illustrated from a single site in primary Atlantic Forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These include two new taxa of Mycena, viz. M. asterina and M. lucentipes. Luminescence in Mycena fera, M. singeri and M. discobasis is reported for the first time. In addition an undeterminable luminescent Mycena species is described and additional specimens of Gerronema viridilucens are documented. An accounting of known bioluminescent species of Mycena and a discussion of why they luminesce are presented.

  16. Políticas e leis sobre drogas ilícitas no Brasil e a perspectiva de familiares e pessoas próximas a usuários de drogas: estudo na Cidade de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil Políticas y leyes sobre drogas ilícitas en brasil y la perspectiva de familiares y personas cercanas al usuario de drogas - estudio en la Ciudad de Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brasil Laws and policies on illicit drugs in Brazil and the perspective of drug users' family members and acquaintances: a study in the City of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira sobre drogas evoluiu de um sistema proibicionista para um sistema menos repressor no que diz respeito aos usuários de drogas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar a percepção dos familiares e pessoas próximas a usuários de drogas da cidade de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, sobre as leis e políticas relacionadas às drogas no país. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário estruturado e a amostra foi constituída por 100 familiares ou pessoas próximas a usuários de drogas, recrutados em um serviço público de saúde. Quanto à relação dos respondentes com o usuário de drogas, 31% eram amigos, 23% irmãos, 15% filhos e 7% cônjuges. Setenta e oito por cento dos usuários eram homens, com idade média de 26 anos. Os resultados obtidos na pesquisa confirmam a influência direta das leis e políticas nacionais nas atitudes e comportamentos dos indivíduos. Indicam a falta de confiança na polícia e retratam a percepção de que, apesar das mudanças recentes, em benefício da reabilitação dos usuários, as leis sobre drogas não respeitam os seus direitos humanos.La legislación brasileña sobre drogas ha evolucionado de un sistema prohibicionista para un sistema menos represor, en lo que se relaciona a los usuarios de drogas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar la percepción de los familiares y personas cercanas a usuarios de drogas de la ciudad de Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brasil, sobre las leyes y políticas relacionadas a las drogas en el país. Los datos fueron recoleccionados a través de un cuestionario estructurado y la muestra fue constituida por 100 sujetos reclutados en un servicio de salud. En lo que se refiere al tipo de relación de los entrevistados con los usuarios de drogas, 31% eran amigos, 23% hermanos, 15% hijos y 7% cónyuges. 78% de los usuarios eran hombres, con edad promedio de 26 años. Los resultados obtenidos en la investigación confirman la

  17. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  18. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  19. São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Théry

    2010-01-01

    O centro histórico de São Paulo, visto do terraço Itália. A redoma verde é a da Sé. Le centre historique de São Paulo, vu du terraço Itália. Le dôme vert est celui de la cathédrale. ©Hervé Théry 2007.

  20. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  1. Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...

  2. Investigating Environmental Determinants of Diet, Physical Activity, and Overweight among Adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime,Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-01-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate a...

  3. Assessment of nurses' knowledge about magnetic resonance imaging in a university hospital in Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcos Souza; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Salvador, Maria Elisabete; da Silva Canteras, Lígia Mara; Carmagnani, Maria Isabel Sampaio; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this descriptive study were to determine the academic profile of nurses in a university hospital, assess their level of knowledge about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verify whether this knowledge was acquired during their undergraduate or graduate education. Ninety randomly selected nurses working in inpatient wards and outpatient units of a university hospital participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire completed by the participants between August and October 2009. Most nurses were females who have received specialized education. The participants had a limited knowledge about MRI, which was restricted to the procedures to prepare patients for MRI examination and MRI contraindications. Most of the nurses acquired information about MRI during the professional practice. The majority of nurses showed interest to know more about the MRI examination, especially regarding the exam environment, conditions and contraindications, in order to prevent accidents. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Monteiro (Camila); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); Goldbaum, M. (Moisés); De Azevedo Barros, M.B. (Marilisa Berti); Gianini, R.J. (Reinaldo José); Cesar, C.L.G. (Chester Luiz Galvão); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this

  6. Isomucor (Mucoromycotina): a new genus from a Cerrado reserve in state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, José Ivanildo; Pires-Zottarelli, Carmen Lidia Amorim; Dos Santos, Jailson Francisco; Costa, Janaina Pinheiro; Harakava, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    During a survey of mucoralean fungi from a Cerrado reserve (Brazilian savanna) some isolates of a Mucor-like fungus were isolated from soil plates. Characterization based on morphological, physiological and molecular data from translation elongation factor (EF-1α), 28S (D1/D2) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequences was made. The isolates produce lateral branches bearing multispored sporangiola in addition to the multispored sporangia and a uniformly septate mycelium as the main differentiating characteristics. To our surprise this fungus possesses two EF-1α genes 1.4 and 1.5 kb long. Evidence from the analyzed datasets supports the delimitation of a new genus and the inclusion of Mucor fuscus based on 28S and ITS rDNA data.

  7. Investigating the provenance of iron artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema by hierarchical cluster analysis of EDS microanalyses of slag inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani-Calcina, Elmer Antonio; Landgraf, Fernando Jose Gomes; Azevedo, Cesar Roberto de Farias, E-mail: c.azevedo@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departmento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    Microstructural characterization techniques, including EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis) microanalyses, were used to investigate the slag inclusions in the microstructure of ferrous artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema (first steel plant of Brazil, XIX century), the D. Pedro II Bridge (located in Bahia, assembled in XIX century and produced in Scotland) and the archaeological sites of Sao Miguel de Missoes (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, production site of iron artifacts, the XVIII century) and Afonso Sardinha (Sao Paulo, Brazil production site of iron artifacts, XVI century). The microanalyses results of the main micro constituents of the microstructure of the slag inclusions were investigated by hierarchical cluster analysis and the dendrogram with the microanalyses results of the wüstite phase (using as critical variables the contents of MnO, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2}) allowed the identification of four clusters, which successfully represented the samples of the four investigated sites (Ipanema, Sardinha, Missoes and Bahia). Finally, the comparatively low volumetric fraction of slag inclusions in the samples of Ipanema (∼1%) suggested the existence of technological expertise at the iron making processing in the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema. (author)

  8. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by University of São Paulo

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 03/07/2013, we will have a conference to students from the University of São Paulo (USP), part of the Post Graduation Program in Interdisciplinary Science Education. This program comprises the following areas: Teaching of Physics, Teaching of Chemistry and Teaching of Biology. The event will be enriched by a Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Detector at CERN/Switzerland. The attendees to the virtual tour are enrolled on the course "Complements of Electromagnetism", from the Teaching of Physics area. A total of 21 students are expected, most of them are high school teachers in public and private schools in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2013/SaoPaulo2013.html

  9. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  10. Le nom des Sao : Approche étymologique

    OpenAIRE

    Tourneux, Henry

    2008-01-01

    De nombreuses légendes courent sur l'origine des Sao (peuple mythique des abords du lac Tchad). L'auteur ne prétend pas ici aborder cette question, mais simplement étudier le sens étymologique du nom "sao", en faisant appel à la comparaison entre différentes langues kotoko de la région du bassin du lac Tchad.

  11. Regiões homogêneas e tamanho de amostra para atributos do clima no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Homogeneous regions and sample size for attributes of the climate in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram demarcar regiões homogêneas e estimar o número de anos de avaliações para as variáveis insolação, radiação solar global e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para o Estado de São Paulo. Utilizaram-se dados da média mensal de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa de 18 locais do Estado de São Paulo. A homogeneidade das variâncias entre os meses do ano para os 18 locais (variabilidade temporal e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os locais em cada mês (variabilidade espacial foram testadas pelo teste de homogeneidade de Bartlett. Estimou-se o tamanho de amostra para cada local durante o ano. Como resultados há variabilidade temporal e espacial para as estimativas de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para os 18 municípios avaliados. Além disso, a variabilidade do tamanho de amostra para a insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa depende do local e da época do ano no Estado de São Paulo.The purpose of this study was to separate homogeneous regions and to estimate the numbers of years necessary to evaluate the variables: sunshine, global solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation in Sao Paulo State. Monthly data of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for 18 places in Sao Paulo State were used in the analysis. The homogeneity of the variances among the months for the 18 places (seasonal variability and the homogeneity of variances among places in each month (spatial variability were tested by the test of homogeneity of Bartlett. In addition, the sample size for each place was calculated during the year. The results show the existence of seasonal and spatial variability in the estimates of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for the 18 cities evaluated in Sao Paulo State. Moreover, the variability of the sample size for sunshine

  12. Rehabilitation of Sao Sebastiao-Cubatao oil pipeline: integrated planning and action - key for project success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado J.M. [GDK S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The execution of the OSBAT 24{sup o}il pipeline rehabilitation project, comprising the substitution of a 30 km section of the 37 years old pipeline has become a real benchmark in the history of this kind of job. The pipeline is inserted in one of the most sensitive environmental areas of the Sao Paulo State - the last Environmental Protection Area of the Mata Atlantica . The growth of human presence in its surroundings during the last three decades, has caused the right-of-way to be totally confined by luxury housing developments, streets, highways and resorts, as well as by the local communities and their activities, schools, and commerce. The pipeline runs through the Serra do Mar unstable mountain range slopes, with sequences of very steep hills and ravines followed by swamps and rivers. The success of such a challenging project - assembling the new line in a narrow ROW with all its restrictions, where the old line was still in operation, and complying with the tight work schedule required by PETROBRAS, was only possible due to a carefully managed combination of: accurate planning, best engineering methods and equipment and experienced workforce, deeply integrated in a massive effort towards safety, environmental care and social responsibility. (author)

  13. Avaliação da qualidade da atenção básica em 37 municípios do centro-oeste paulista: características da organização da assistência Evaluation of the quality of primary care health services in 37 municipalities in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil: organizational dimensions of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Rose L. Castanheira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, existe uma rede extensiva de serviços de Atenção Básica (AB com perfil organizacional heterogêneo e pouco conhecido. Este estudo objetiva caracterizar a organização dos serviços de AB em 37 municípios do Centro-oeste paulista, como primeira etapa de um projeto de avaliação da qualidade desses serviços. Trata-se de um estudo transversal conduzido mediante questionário estruturado, autorrespondido pelos gerentes e equipes locais, com questões que abordam características institucionais e de organização e gerência do trabalho. Esses questionários foram enviados para 131 UBS, distribuídas em 37 municípios. Obteve-se resposta de 113 unidades (87% localizadas em 32 municípios (86,4%. Do total de unidades, 57 (50% são UBS tradicionais, 26 (22,8%, Unidades de Saúde da Família, e 31, (27,2% organizadas segundo formas mistas. A maioria dos serviços (62%, 70/113 não trabalha com área de abrangência delimitada de modo planejado. Os serviços se polarizam entre aqueles que realizam entre 70 e 100% de consultas médicas agendadas (37,6%, 41/109, e aqueles que realizam entre 70 e 100% de não agendadas (39,4%, 43/109. Não possuem conselhos locais organizados 65 unidades (63,7%, 65/102. Os dados coletados permitem discutir as características dos principais programas, procedimentos e ações realizados pelos serviços. Os perfis organizacionais predominantes apontam a presença de deficiências de estrutura e processo em relação às diretrizes do SUS. O desenvolvimento de instrumentos de autoavaliação permite que as equipes se apropriem, de forma crítica, de seu trabalho, e possam elaborar novos arranjos tecnológicos para melhoria da qualidade.The State of São Paulo, Brazil, has a broad network of primary health care services (PHCS whose organizational profile is heterogeneous and not well known. This study analyzes the organization of PHCS in 37 municipalities located in the central-west region of S

  14. Ambiental volatile organic compounds in the megacity of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the composition of the main urban air organic compounds in the megacity of Sao Paulo, analysis of samples collected during the winter of 2003 downtown was carried out. The samplings were performed on the roof of a building in the commercial center of São Paulo. Hydrocarbons and carbonyls compounds were collected on August 4, 5 and 6. Comparing to previous data, the concentration of hydrocarbons presented no decrease in the concentration, except for the aldehydes, which decreased when compared to previous data. Among the HCs species analyzed, the highest concentrations observed were those of toluene (7.5 ± 3.4 ppbv, n-decane (3.2 ± 2.0 ppbv, benzene (2.7 ± 1.4 ppbv and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (2.2 ± 1.5 ppbv.

  15. São Paulo: exercícios de esquecimento do passado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Zanirato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este texto se pretende refletir sobre o tratamento dispensado ao patrimônio cultural em São Paulo, o que implica considerar, por um lado, o tombamento como uma medida de proteção pública e de valorização do bem cultural, e, por outro, as decisões que levam a revogar a proteção deferida e que contribuem para a descaracterização do bem, seu abandono e, não raras vezes, sua demolição.This text aims to reflect about the treatment of cultural heritage in Sao Paulo, which involves considering, firstly, the registration as a measure of public protection and enhancement of the cultural heritage and, secondly, decisions that lead to revoke a deferred protection and contribute to distortion of the cultural heritage, their abandonment and often, their demolition.

  16. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (danae of this estuary.

  17. São Paulo, uma metrópole desigual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana P. Taschner

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Las contradicciones en el desarrollo urbano post-industrial, sobre todo en las metrópolis del llamado Tercer Mundo en una economía globalizada, acentúan viejas desigualdades sociales y abren las puertas para nuevas espacializaciones, tanto entre los estratos ricos como entre los pobres. El presente trabajo presenta una primera visión de la segregación socioespacial. La estructura intraurbana del municipio de São Paulo concentra sus estratos más ricos en los anillos más centrales, dejando que la pobreza domine la periferia. Es el retrato de una metrópolis excluyente, sin urbanidad, un tejido urbano donde se perciben enclaves de riqueza y de pobreza, en el medio de una malla indistinta, tejido fragmentadoThe contradictions in post-industrial urban development, mainly regarding the so-called third world metropolis in a globalized economy, enhance old social disparities and welcome new "spacial structures", both in rich and poor fractions. The present paper shows an initial view of the socio-spacial segregation. The intra-urban structure of the city of Sao Paulo concentrates the wealthy in central rings, thus making the periphery the domain of the poor. It is the picture of a divided metropolis, with no civility, an urban patchwork quilt where rich and poor enclaves are placed on an indistinct frame

  18. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia da manjuba, Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911, no estuário de São Vicente, SP (Osteichthyes, Engraulidae Biology of the "manjuba" Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911 from the São Vicente estuary, São Paulo, Brazil (Odeichthyes, Engraulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Martins Paiva Filho

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available As many as 3408 specimens from 16 samples were collected in São Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil, from June 1979 to July 1980. The occurrence, growth, length-weight relationship and condition factor of the species are analysed. This estuarine region is one of the areas where the species grows, moving from it when the maturation process begins.

  19. Mamíferos não-voadores do campus "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brasil Non-volant mammals of campus "Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gheler-Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The remaining portion of the Atlantic Forest within the State of Sao Paulo is highly fragmented and most of the remainders are wrapped up in an essentially agricultural mosaic. This study aims at the local surveying of non-volant mammals, including their distribution and relative abundance within the human-altered environments of campus "Luiz de Queiroz", University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, an urbanized area bordered by two highways and the Piracicaba River. The landscape of the study area is characterized by a mosaic of small forest fragments surrounded by pastures, agriculture, and planted forests. Small mammals were captured from February to October, 2001, with an effort of 7056 day-traps, sampling the most representative environments of the campus: planted Eucalyptus (L'Héritier and Pinus (Shaw forests, native forest fragment, meadow, rubber tree (Hevea sp. plantation, agriculture and pasture area. Occurrence of medium and large frame mammals was recorded daily (morning and afternoon from November of 2000 to October of 2001 along a trail set up to merge the studied environments. Sixteen species of non-volant mammals were recorded, ten of medium or big body-size, and six of small body-size. Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and coati (Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most abundant species.

  20. Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    The statistical data on gross domestic product and expenditure, land distribution, production of principal agricultural crops, energy production and consumption, imports of petroleum products, cost structure of petroleum products, consumer price index, and financial transactions of the central government of the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome have been presented. The summary accounts of banking institutions, structure of interest rates, composition of exports, import, and terms-of-trade indic...

  1. japonês na cidade de Registro, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rog\\u00E9rio Bessa Gon\\u00E7alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the methods of construction employed by Japanese immigrants, who settled the city of Registro, in the region of the Ribeira valley of Iguape, located in the State of Sao Paulo, in the year of 1918. This settlement received incentives from the State Government of Sao Paulo, in order to promote the colonization of the Ribeira valley of Iguape, as well as to boost local economical development, by means of expanding the agricultural production of coffee to this region. The characteristics of this group of immigrants were notably different from others, due to fact that they arrived in Brazil already as landholders, sponsored financially and logistically by a Japanese private company, which was responsible for the management of this enterprise. These immigrants could count on a complex infrastructure, which aided them in their mission to advance the development of this region. Even though the particularities of this group of immigrants gave them a certain amount of freedom to recreate their own culture in Brazilian land, the reality of this new environment, its new physical, economical and social contingencies forced them to reinterpret their cultural traditions and customs. In order to understand this adaptation process, a study of the construction methods employed by this group of immigrants in their buildings was undertaken, based on their knowledge of traditional Japanese architecture. This study rendered possible the analysis of a long process of cultural syncretism between oriental culture and the vernacular architecture of the inhabitants of the Ribeira valley of Iguape.

  2. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (pacne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-pacne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  3. O impacto da globalização em São Paulo e a precarização das condições de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina da Silva Leme

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa os processos que vêm transformando, recentemente, São Paulo do ponto de vista econômico e social. Ao abordar o impacto da reorganização do sistema produtivo na localização das atividades industriais e de comercio e serviços, procura avançar no entendimento dos determinantes atuais da estruturação do espaço urbano. Para isso retoma as principais etapas de constituição de São Paulo como metrópole no decorrer do século XX. Discute os impasses atuais da modernização econômica e a precarização das condições de vidaThis work analyses the processes that have recently transformed Sao Paulo from an economic and social point of view. When approaching the impact of reorganising the productive system in the location of activities, it seeks to enhance the understanding of the present determinants in the urban space structuring. For this, it retakes the main constitution phases of Sao Paulo as a metropolis during the XX century. It discusses the present stalemates of the economic modernisation and the deterioration of living conditions

  4. Assimilation Studies Off Cape Sao Vicente (southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, J.; Monteiro, M.

    In April 2001 the Portuguese Navy conducted a naval exercise (Swordfish 2001) in the area off Cape Sao Vicente, in the southwest tip of Portugal. The operational environ- mental assessment (OEA) component of this exercise, conducted by Instituto Hidro- grafico, intended to provide forecasts of the oceanographic conditions to the naval forces. A program of observations, which included CTD casts to maximum depth of 2500m and AXBTs casts to maximum depth 1000m, was conducted in the area be- tween 35zN and 39zN and from 7zW to 12.5zW. Forecasts of the oceanographic con- ditions were produced using the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) with as- similation of the hydrographic data. The period covered by the exercise was character- ized by predominant southerly winds, forcing upwelling conditions along the western Portuguese coast. These conditions promote the development of a large cold upwelling filament that extended a few hundreds of kilometers southwards Cape Sao Vicente. In this communication we present several results obtained for the period between 18 to 28 April 2001, marked by an event of two days of inversion of the upwelling favor- able. The numerical runs were obtained using two nested domains, one covering the global area of observations and the second one covering the shelf and slope area off Cape Sao Vicente. Double-sigma coordinates were used in both domains, with a total of 20 sigma levels. The surface forcing used the wind fields generated by ALADIN- Portugal, a limited area model (12.7-km grid resolution) nested on a global model (ARPEGE).

  5. Gains attained by the program of quality assurance implemented in the dental radiology services from Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Beneficios alcancados pelo programa de garantia da qualidade implementado nos servicos de radiologia odontologica do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro A. [Cetre do Brasil S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Tauhata, Luiz [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Infantosi, Antonio F.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica

    2000-07-01

    According to data published by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) it was observed that in Dental Radiology more than 80% of the exams reveal entrance skin doses higher than 5,0 mGy, that approximately 85% of the dentists sub-develop the films and 40% of the equipment have low performance regarding collimation, filtration and other problems. This is a critical situation for the population regarding life quality and requires prompt attention. The methodology was based on the orientation of the professionals to safely and with the available resources, to obtain the best image for diagnostic and its interpretation. The main results indicate a 56% reduction in the entrance skin dose and 48% reduction in the exposition time. The elaborated process proved to solve most of the chronic problems of dental radiology. (author)

  6. Urbanistic and architectural integration of thermal solar energy in condominiums. A case study of Alphaville, Sao Paulo; Integracao arquitetonica e urbanistica da energia solar termica em condominios fechados. Estudo de caso de Alphaville, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Bernadette Vechia de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida Faria Amaral; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira

    2008-07-01

    In spite of the high Brazilian levels of solar irradiation and the constructive pattern of Alphaville region, which possess a large concentration of high incoming households, use of solar water heating is still not regulated in neither of its comprising municipalities. Nowadays, the search for savings, diffusion of related technologies and raising environmental awareness have led to voluntary up taking of such systems. However, regulation of solar collectors still lacks integration with certification of sustainable building practices, which does not relate to architectonic factors, in particular to main urbanistic features present in each given installation site. Potential for solar heating in the fully regulated gated areas is estimated to add up to 6,000 MWh/year. Authors suggest that such potential be put to sustainable use in a setting in which solar energy and architecture and urbanism are jointly addressed to; and debate on state and federal regulations and certification of buildings as a whole, in order to neatly integrate active solar systems to the plumbing, so avoiding adverse impacts on water consumption and usage of built spaces, that could lead (through the urbanistic and climatic interfaces) to medium and long term environmental consequences on the availability of solar energy itself. (author)

  7. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  8. The gas pipeline Bolivia-Brazil and the natural gas market expansion in Sao Paulo state; Le gazoduc Bolivie-Bresil et l'expansion du marche du gaz naturel dans l'etat de Sao-Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pileggi, Valneo; Finavaro, Carlos Alberto; Itagaki, Armando Riuti [Comgas (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper will present the main interesting points of COMGAS Investments to increase the distribution and sales of the Natural Gas purchased from Bolivia. It will also present the technical and economic aspects of PETROBRAS - COMGAS Natural Gas Furnish Contract, the sale strategy adopted to achieve the objectives and the schedules coming from this contract. (authors)

  9. The process of implantation of the 'Programa Luz para Todos' in Ubatuba, Sao Paulo; O processo de implantacao do Programa Luz para Todos em Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Yoshino, Shinji [Furnas Centrais Eletricas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], Emails: fselles@uol.com.br, shinji.yoshino@uol.com.br; Ribeiro, Tina Bimestre Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE-USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: tina@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The municipality of Ubatuba is covered by a rain forest Mata Atlantica preserved in most of the territory. There are many communities that demand electricity in this area, including traditional communities like culture named 'caicara' and the remnants of slaves from Brazil colony named 'quilombos'. They are all very poor and are involved by the interest of environmental agencies. The process of rural electrification in Ubatuba, through the 'Programa Luz para Todos' found difficult to overcome issues of regularization of habitations particularly environmental issues. This work shows that solutions were found through negotiation between the parts, intermediated by an officer known as 'Agente Luz para Todos'. It shows also that without the participation of this agent would have been very difficult exceed some of the barriers. (author)

  10. Economical and technical feasibility of the conventional energy source substitution by biogas in rural settlement of Sao Paulo; Viabilidade tecnica e economica da substituicao de fontes convencionais de energia por biogas em assentamento rural do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperancini, Maura S.T.; Bueno, Osmar de C.; Pimentel, Andrea E.B.; Simon, Elias J. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial]. E-mail: maura@fca.unesp.br; Colen, Fernando [Faculdades Sudoeste Paulista, Avare, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the economic feasibility of two biodigestion systems using animal excrements in a rural settlement, in Itabera - SP, Brazil, in the year of 2005. One of them was constructed to supply biogas for five residences. The other one was constructed to supply biogas for production activities. The generated benefits related to the supply of electric and thermal energy were evaluated, using biogas for five residences and for production activities, in comparison to the annual costs of the biodigestion system construction and operation. The results showed economic feasibility of the biogas production in both cases. It was generated economic benefits of US$ 1,766.84 and US$ 4,338.54 per year for the residential biodigestion system and production activities biodigestion system, respectively, as well as US$ 706.20 per year for biofertilizer production. The costs were estimated in US$ 582.18 per year in each biodigestion system. The pay-back was evaluated in 2.5 years for the residential case and 11 months for the production case, respectively. These results can be used to formulate public policies directed to biomass exploitation to produce low cost energy focused on familiar agriculture. (author)

  11. Study of social responsibility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute of Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP); Estudo da responsabilidade social do Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares de Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia

    2014-07-01

    Over the years, the socio-environmental concept has grown through programs, conferences and several activities that have been held in Brazil and worldwide. Sustainability and social responsibility are now an integral part of everyday life of organizations The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which is the focus of this research, is committed to the improvement of Brazilian quality of life. Based on IPEN's mission, and due to the lack of tools for assessing socio-environmental actions, this research aims to propose an assessment tool for social responsibility, which may also be a methodological resource committed to the improvement of the Institute. Through indicators and dimensions, a methodology to assess social responsibility and identify both strengths and weaknesses was designed. The methodology was administered to IPEN, and the results demonstrated positive aspects regarding actions towards the internal publics and negative aspects towards the external publics that require improvement. The results obtained were satisfactory. Nevertheless, as the subject of this study is a broad theme, further studies are suggested. IPEN's board may use the results of this research as a tool to help them identify feasible socio-environmental actions to be implemented in the institute. (author)

  12. Microstructural, compositional and mechanical properties of the archaeological indigenous ceramics of Caninhas, Sao Paulo,Brazil; Analise microestrutural, composicional e propriedades mecanicas das ceramicas indigenas do sitio arqueologico Caninhas, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P., E-mail: japaum@alunos.eel.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J.L. [Faculdades Integradas Teresa D' Avila (FATEA), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Rede Salesianas. Dept. de Desenho Industrial; Bornal, W.G.; Queiroz, C.M. [Fundacao Cultural de Jacarehy, Jacarei, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Arqueologia do Vale do Paraiba

    2009-07-01

    Archaeological ceramics contain infinity of data about social and cultural indigenous site Caninhas/SP. The ceramics present a gradient of color (ochre to dark gray), when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variability caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous peoples. It was analyzed the composition phases by X-rays diffraction (XRD) and mapping by EDS, identifying the illite, quartz and lutecite phases (ochre region) and illite, quartz, hydrated alumina and lutecite phases (dark gray region). The results of EDS confirmed the stages identified by X-rays diffraction and suggesting the presence of roots and scrap of ceramics sintered in the composition of indigenous ceramics, when compared by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Vickers hardness identified as fragile and heterogeneous are archaeological ceramics, reaching approximately 203 HV in the grains of silica and 16 HV in the ceramic matrix. (author)

  13. Functional trophic categorization of macroinvertebrate communities of two reservoirs in the Midwestern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil/Categorizacao funcional trofica das comunidades de macroinvertebrados de dois reservatorios na regiao Centro-Oeste do Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Pauleto, Gustavo Mayer; Talamoni, Jandira Liria Biscalquini; Ruiz, Sonia Silveira

    2009-01-01

    The use of the concept of guild can be useful for the functional trophic categorization of communities, because there is no requirement identification of organisms in the level of species and not to...

  14. Impacto ambiental por desmatamento e soterramento na Mata Atlântica: um estudo de caso no entorno da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Arnaldo Valentini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to provide a discussion of the impact caused by illegal logging of trees in remaining forest land in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP, as well as the consequences of illegal landfills in a native forest area. For this purpose, data were obtained from the Engineering Center of the Institute of Criminology of the State of Sao Paulo, and implications of the deforestation of native forests were discussed. The results show the total area devastated and the number of felled specimens in each case, as a result of the urban population´s need to expand through illegal land appropriation. Several factors may contribute to environmental change, including the lack of public policies aimed at monitoring the natural environment. One of the main consequences of these impacts may be the alteration of local biodiversity, with possible future modifications of the landscape.

  15. GiSAO.db: a database for ageing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillari Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related gene expression patterns of Homo sapiens as well as of model organisms such as Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of ageing. For an effective analysis and interpretation of expression profiles it is necessary to store and manage huge amounts of data in an organized way, so that these data can be accessed and processed easily. Description GiSAO.db (Genes involved in senescence, apoptosis and oxidative stress database is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving ageing-related experimental data. Expression data of genes and miRNAs, annotation data like gene identifiers and GO terms, orthologs data and data of follow-up experiments are stored in the database. A user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. KEGG pathways were incorporated and links to external databases augment the information in GiSAO.db. Search functions facilitate retrieval of data which can also be exported for further processing. Conclusions We have developed a centralized database that is very well suited for the management of data for ageing research. The database can be accessed at https://gisao.genome.tugraz.at and all the stored data can be viewed with a guest account.

  16. Fauna de Culicidae da Serra da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brasil Culicidae fauna of Serra da Cantareira, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Montes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a fauna de culicídeos nos ambientes de mata, ecótono e peridomicílio quanto ao número de espécies e de indivíduos, estimativas de diversidade, riqueza, heterogeneidade e similaridade. Determinou-se ainda as espécies dominantes e as relações entre dominância específica e fatores climáticos. MÉTODOS: Foram conduzidas no Parque Ecológico da Cantareira coletas quinzenais com armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC-CO2, dispostas em cinco ambientes ecologicamente diferentes, de fevereiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2002. As análises foram feitas utilizando o índice de Diversidade de Margalef e o de Menhinick. Para similaridade, foi utilizado o índice de Sorensen e, para dominância de espécies, o índice de Berger-Parker. A heterogeneidade foi estimada pelos índices de Simpson e de Shannon. A relação entre dominância específica e fatores climáticos foi estimada por correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados 2.219 culicídeos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 21 espécies. O ambiente mata apresentou maior riqueza (Mg=3,64 de espécies e o peridomicílio maior dominância (d=0,85. A temperatura mostrou a correlação mais elevada (Rs=0,747; pOBJECTIVE: To compare the Culicidae fauna in forest, ecotone and anthropic environments and to analyze their composition according to the number of species and individuals, species richness, diversity, heterogeneity and similarities and to determine species dominance and the relationship between species dominance and climatic factors. METHODS: CO2 -baited CDC light traps were used for mosquito collection twice a month in the Serra da Cantareira State Park from February 2001 to January 2002. CO2 - baited CDC light traps were placed in five different environments. The analyses were carried out using Margalef and Menhinick's diversity indexes. Similarity was calculated using the Sorensen index and species dominance was indicated by the Berger-Parker index. Mosquito heterogeneity was estimated using Simpson and Shannon indexes. The correlation between species dominance and climatic factors was estimated by Spearman's coefficient. RESULTS: There were collected 2,219 Culicidae mosquitoes of 11 genera and 21 species. The forest environment showed the highest species richness (Mg=3.64 and the anthropic environment presented the most dominant species (d=0.85. Temperature showed the greatest positive correlation (Rs=0.747; p<0.0001 when analyzing the relationship between climatic factors and number of individuals caught in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: As the Serra da Cantareira State Park is a forest patch inserted in an urban environment, this may have changed the ecological relationships in the Culicidae breeding sites. The absence of Kerteszia subgenus and Culex quinquefasciatus species, in addiction to the presence of Sabethini Tribe specimens and Cx. (Mel. vaxus species indicate that the Serra da Cantareira State Park is a forest section with sylvan features but show some anthropic interference.

  17. Monitoração de propaganda e publicidade de medicamentos: âmbito de São Paulo Monitoring the medicine advertising in Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ducati Luchessi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS tem por objetivo o controle político de acesso, de qualidade/segurança e de uso racional, no que se refere a medicamentos. Este último item salienta a relevante questão do uso incorreto de medicamentos induzido por promoções que visam exclusivamente a lucros. O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados de um projeto cujo objetivo foi acompanhar e analisar, do ponto de vista legal e farmacológico, as informações veiculadas por diferentes meios de comunicação através da propaganda, auxiliando a ANVISA na monitoração de propaganda e publicidade de medicamentos de venda livre ou com receita médica, bem como, dando suporte às medidas corretivas pertinentes, visando a garantir a segurança sanitária de produtos, serviços e, principalmente, da população. O projeto abrangeu cinco regiões b