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Sample records for sao francisco river

  1. Application of INAA to provenance study of ceramics from Baixo Sao Francisco River, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Santos, J.O. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Sergipe (CEFET-SE/UNED Lagarto), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)]. E-mail: josantos@ipen.br; Munita, C.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: camunita@ipen.br; rosimeiritoy@yahoo.com.br; Vergne, C. [Museu de Arqueologia de Xingo (MAX), SE (Brazil)]. E-mail: Max@ufs.br

    2007-07-01

    The study of the physical and chemical characteristics of crafts, in association with historical and archaeological research, has allowed for the reconstruction of ancient community habits. Archaeological studies include several techniques to reconstruct ancient cultures. Since ceramics represent a sophisticated merging of previously separate domains of human knowledge and experience, these objects are studied by means of archaeometric methods. In recent years an interdisciplinary research program was started between Museu Arqueologico de Xingo (MAX) and Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to study the ancient ceramist cultures from Xingo region, located in Sergipe, Brazilian Northeast. Recent studies conducted in the area have showed the existence of an independent ceramist group without relation to the ceramist group well established in the Brazilian Northeast, Tupiguarani and Aratu. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, is a suitable technique for provenance studies. In this work the chemical composition of 103 samples: 30 clays and 73 ceramics from Barracao archaeological site, from Baixo Sao Francisco, were analyzed. This analysis allowed for the definition of compositional groups of ceramics according to the chemical similarities of ceramic paste, which reveals the raw material composition used in the manufacturing process by prehistoric man. The outliers were identified by means robust Mahalanobis distance. The results were interpreted by means of cluster analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. The results obtained in this work, in association with archaeological information, allowed for the identification of the ceramic groups in relation to the ceramist occupations of the Xingo area. This work contributes for the reconstruction of the Baixo Sao Francisco region communities and for the reconstitution of the Brazilian Northeast ceramist population. (author)

  2. Optimization of the daily operation of the plants of Medio Sao Francisco; Otimizacao da operacao diaria das usinas do Medio Sao Francisco

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    Fernandes, Jessica Pillon Torralba; Colnago, Glauber Renato; Correia, Paulo de Barros; Ohishi, Takaaki [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: pillon@fem.unicamp.br, colnago@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br, taka@densis.fee.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for daily operation of Sao Francisco hydroelectric power plants. The study considers eight power plants - Sobradinho (USB), Luiz Gonzaga (ULG), Apolonio Sales (UAS), Paulo Afonso I, II, III, (UPA), Paulo Afonso IV (USQ) e Xingo (UXG)- belongs to Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (CHESF). Its objective is to maximize the power plant efficiency and to minimize the number of startup and shutdowns of generating units (GU), simultaneously. Considering those GU are equal, is determined the number of units to be dispatched and their charge. The optimal dispatch, linear and non-linear programming techniques and genetic algorithms (GA) support this article. (author)

  3. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

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    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  4. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

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    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  5. Identificação dos citoplasmas "S", "T" e "N" via PCR em populações de cebola no Vale do São Francisco Identification of "S", "T" and "N" cytoplasm via PCR in onion populations in the Sao Francisco river Valley, Brazil

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    Carlos Antonio F Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A identificação do tipo de citoplasma em cebola foi facilitada com a publicação de primers de DNA específicos para os tipos "S", "T" e "N". O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar, por meio de marcadores moleculares, o tipo de citoplasma presente na cultivar de cebola BRS São Francisco e numa população experimental em desenvolvimento na Embrapa Semi-Árido, de forma a orientar o desenvolvimento de híbridos de cebola adaptados à região. Na amostra de 19 plantas da 'BRS Alfa São Francisco' observou-se a amplificação de fragmentos de 180 pb, ausência do fragmento de 414 pb com os primers 5'cob e a amplificação do fragmento de 473 pb dos primers OrfA501, indicando que o citoplasma presente nesta população é o citoplasma T. Foi também identificada a presença de citoplasma N na população BRS Alfa São Francisco. Na amostra de 44 plantas da população experimental cascuda-bronzeada observou-se a amplificação de produtos consistentes com os fragmentos de 180 e 414 pb dos primers 5'cob, bem como a amplificação de fragmento de 473 pb dos primers OrfA501, indicando que o citoplasma presente na população é o citoplasma S. Não foi identificada a presença de citoplasma N na população cascuda-bronzeada. Estes resultados indicam a possibilidade do desenvolvimento de híbrido tropical, tendo como base a cultivar BRS Alfa São Francisco, enquanto que, na população cascuda-bronzeada será necessário a introgressão do citoplasma "N" para o desenvolvimento de linhagens mantenedoras.The identification of the onion cytoplasm was obtained by the development of DNA specific primers to "S", "T" and "N" types. The goal of this work was the identification of the cytoplasm type in two different onion populations in the São Francisco river Valley, in order to facilitate the development of onion hybrids from Northeast Brazil. In the sample of 19 plants of the BRS Alfa São Francisco cultivar was observed the amplification of

  6. Thermal modeling and geomorphology of the south border of the Sao Francisco Craton: thermochronology by fission tracks in apatites;Modelagem termica e geomorfologia da borda sul do Craton do Sao Francisco: termocronologia por tracos de fissao em apatita

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    Hackspacher, Peter Christian [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de; Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geologia Regional; Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Brandini [NUCLEARGEO, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2007-12-15

    Recent developments in Fission Track thermochronology associated to mesozoic-cenozoic erosion and tectonic presented trough thematic maps (isotemperature), permit to model the landscape evolution in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton, southeastern Brazil. Paleotemperature, obtained by fission track analysis in apatite, is closely related to geomorphologic interpretations. The area suffered a complex imprint of endogenous and exogenous processes resulting diversified and differentiated relieves. The landscape is strongly controlled by exhumation between Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, uplift with tectonic denudation related to crustal heating at the Upper Cretaceous and reactivation of faults until the Miocene. This scenario is a result of reactivations of different brittle structures that accommodate the deformation in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton. The landscape reflects denudations of up to 3 km with preserved remains of erosive surfaces in the topographical tops and chronocorrelates deposits in the basins of the region. (author)

  7. Chronological study archaeological sites from Caninde do Sao Francisco, Sergipe state, Brazil, by thermo thermoluminescence technique

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    Santos, Jose Osman dos; Munita, Casimiro S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: josantos@ipen.br; Valerio, Mario E. Giroldo [Sergipe Univ., Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: mvalerio@fisica.ufs.br; Vergne, Maria C. de Souza [Sergipe Univ., Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologico de Xingo]. E-mail: cvergne@programa-xingo.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    The ceramic vestiges rescued in the archaeological excavations have been considered important sources of chronological information because they constitute direct fossil of certain cultural periods. The Thermoluminescence Method for dating of inorganic materials has made the determination of ancient ceramics ages possible with adequate precision and accuracy. The intensity of the thermoluminescence emission is proportional to the energy deposited in the crystals, present in the pottery, by means of natural radioisotope material irradiation (U, Th, K and Rb) and cosmic rays. With the objective of determining the chronological profile of archaeological sites from 'Xingo', situated in the Caninde do Sao Francisco city, Sergipe State, Brazilian Northeast, the ages of 4 pottery samples from Justino, Sao Jose, Saco da Onca and Curituba sites were determined in this work. The ceramic collection has great expression because many ceramics are associated to mortuary rites. The acquisition of the site chronology studied in this work is a contribution to studies of ancient communities that lived in the region. The additive dose method was used to determine of the paleodose in the samples, and the TL response of 320 deg C peak as function of the added dose was linear. The annual dose rate was determined by means of the instrumental neutron activation analysis, using the U, Th, K and RB concentration from soil and own sample, which yielded an average annual dose rate of 2.89 {+-} 0.33 mGy.yr{sup -1}. Using of the paleodose and annual dose rate, the ages were determined which remained between 457 - 3716 BP, value which matches with the results obtained by carbon - 14 method in the sample from burned charcoal in Justino site. (author)

  8. Monitoring of water in soil in asparagus irrigated culture in Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, Brazil; Monitoracao da agua no solo em cultura irrigada de aspargo no Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco

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    Antonino, Antonio C. Dantas; Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Dall` Ollio, Attilio; Bernardo, Ana L. Alves [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Audry, Pierre [Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d`Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), 75 - Paris (France). Departement Eaux Continentales

    1996-08-01

    For many years the brazilian government has inactivated the implantation of irrigated areas in the Sao Francisco valley, obtaining high productivity.After the most appropriated areas having been occupied, the irrigation of second choice soils, usually more shallower and more clay is been tried. In one of these areas, the productivity of asparagus is less than the expected. trying to improve productivity by optimization of irrigation, the movement of water on soil and plants is being monitored far the last year and a half. the main results are shown with emphasis on the raining season, the most problematic 5 figs.

  9. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

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    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  10. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Adenocarcinoma do endometrio: retrospectiva de casos dos ultimos cinco anos no Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo

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    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  11. PROGRAMA CHAPÉU DE PALHA: política pública de qualificacáo para trabalhadores rurais na Fruticultura do Vale do Sao Francisco

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    Vicentina Ramires

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public policy qualilication lor rural workers in orcharding 01 the Sao Francisco Valley Abstract: The pole 01 irrigated orcharding in sub-Middle Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, began to show increasing idleness, causing a seasonal unemployment. One of the initiatives of the state government to solve this serious problem was the implementation oflhe Program Chapéu de Palha Fruticultura Irrigada(Straw hat irrigated orchading, which the main purpose is to open up new opportunities for the workers through training courses. This work aims to analyze the effectiveness of such actions, identifying lactors that aflect the actions execution. To the activities monitoring 01 the program, visits were weekly made in all courses, to check the level 01 proximity between the loreseen results and the achieved results by the executing agency, The results show that the program has laced several problems in actions implementation , ranging Irom inappropriate courses' locations, to low-frequency, low material supply for classes, and courses offering that do not meet the workers desire.

  12. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Reassessment of the geologic evolution of selected precambrian terranes in Brazil, based on new SHRIMP U-Pb data, part 1: central-eastern border of Sao Francisco Craton in Bahia state, Brazil; Reavaliacao da evolucao geologica em terrenos pre-cambrianos brasileiros com base em novos dados U-Pb SHRIMP, parte 1: limite centro-oriental do Craton Sao Francisco na Bahia

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    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pimentel, Marcio; Jost, Hardy [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: luizcarlos@aneel.gov.br; Delgado, Inacio Medeiros; Arcanjo, Joao Batista; Melo, Roberto Campello de; Teixeira, Leo R.; Cardoso Filho, Joao Moraes; Pereira, Luiz Henrique Monteiro [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2002-12-15

    This paper discusses new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data for 12 key-exposures of several geological units exposed at the eastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton. The samples represent mostly Archean basement units within the Paleoproterozoic Eastern Bahia Belt (Orogen). Samples were collected along several E-W tran sects trying to more accurately assess the areal distribution of the Archean polycyclic basement of the Sao Francisco Craton and to identify the limits of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic overprint resulting from the development of the Eastern Bahia Orogen. Owing to the polycyclic evolution and/or high grade metamorphic conditions which most of the rock units investigated have undergone, zircon morphology and the U-Pb analytical data exhibit very complex patterns. These are characterized by a combination of inheritance, partial resetting and new zircon growth during high grade metamorphism. As a consequence, very careful and detailed analyses of cathodoluminescence imagery were required to allow distinction between inheritance, newly melt-precipitated zircon and partially reset zircons, as well as between the ages of magmatic and metamorphic events. Except for one unit (sample LH 44), which present crystallization age of ca 3000 Ma - interpreted, therefore, as the eastern extension of the Serrinha Craton - the others are ascribed to two major age groups at ca. 2870-2500 Ma and ca. 2200?-2030 Ma. The former group includes ortho gneisses with crystallization ages between ca. 2870-2500 Ma, which have been mapped and interpreted, in its major extension, as juvenile Paleoproterozoic arc (Itabuna and Salvador-Curaca belts/domains). The new data presented in this study, however, indicate that these ortho gneisses represent a multi-episodic collage of primitive Archean orogenic arcs, which gave rise to the Archean basement of that part of the Sao Francisco Craton. All the investigated zircon populations were extensively recrystallized at ca. 2080-2050 Ma as a result of

  14. SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW ASSESSMENT: THE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER CASE STUDY

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    Yvonilde Dantas Pinto Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, water resource management has been developed using an essentially technical approach. Currently, public opinion on water resource management is formed as a result of growing environmental concerns and social conflicts arising from poorly planned actions. Environmental problems are complex and have multiple dimensions, including social and economic. Therefore, the inclusion of a human dimension in integrated assessment methodologies is required for the introduction of new elements to the water management planning process. Environmental water allocation (EWA is understood as the quantity, quality and distribution of water required for the maintenance of the functions and processes of aquatic ecosystems on which people depend. Within the various holistic assessment methodologies, the Building Block Methodology (BBM was found to be the most suitable, in the Brazilian context, for maintaining and restoring essential elements of the natural flow regime. This article describes the process of social participation in the environmental flow assessment (EFA for the Sao Francisco River, and compares it with some of the lessons learned from EFA in other parts of the world. The process involved multiple stakeholders who have conflicting interests. BBM was used to guide the field interviews, to incorporate the empirical observations by the local population and to guide the methodological procedures of the multidisciplinary team. The results of the study indicate the effectiveness of this holistic approach in organizing the elements to be evaluated. It also facilitated important contributions to the establishment of a dialogue between the actors to achieve a better understanding of the multiple aspects involved in the decisions associated with the EWA.

  15. Energy agriculture in the Vale do Sao Francisco: electric power production from the sugar cane; Agricultura de energia no Vale do Sao Francisco: a cogeracao de energia eletrica a partir da queima do bagaco de cana-de-acucar

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    Fraga Neto, Amintas Ferreira; Pinto, Adeon Cecilio [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Producao], E-mail: adeon.pinto@univasf.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increasing on energy demand has generated some preoccupation for both public and private sectors involved on search and creation of new sources of energy. Within this context, fossil and hydraulic energy sources have encountered barriers to its development. In order to solve this puzzle, a new paradigm emerges based on the use of renewable sources of energy. Among these energy sources it can be mentioned solar plants, wind mills and biomass. The option for determined energy source is related to aspects such as: technological knowledge, tradition on use and availability. In a global view, the renewable resources represent 20% of the overall energy supply. This datum shows the relevance of this topic. This paper aims to expose a theoretic discussion about the adoption of renewable energy sources in the San Francisco Valley. It also offers a diagnosis of the use of such sources in household energy. (author)

  16. Implantation of wind power generation unities at rural communities of remote regions - the case of Vale do Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brazil; Implantacao de unidades de geracao de energia eolica em comunidades rurais regioes remotas - o caso do Vale do Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brasil

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    Henriques Junior, Mauricio F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mauricfr@int.gov.br; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)], e-mail: szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation of implantation of wind power generation unities for the attendance of small rural communities which are typical at remote regions and not attended by the regional concessionaires distribution networks systems. The simulation applies the Homer software, from NREL, and is applied to a typical rural community of isolated regions, composed by low income families, and situated at Rio Sao Francisco valley, Bahia state, Brazil, considering the incidence of strong and constant winds in the region. In this simulation a comparative analysis of an 40 W aeolian system is performed with other systems: a traditional one based on a diesel generation, an hybrid system, and the interconnection to the electric network.

  17. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using {sup 210}Pb as geochronometer

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    Sabaris, T.P.P. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess {sup 210}Pb model was successfully used to assess {sup 210}Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The {sup 210}Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm{sup 2} yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the {sup 222}Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) {sup 210}Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model.

  18. Genotoxic effects of water from São Francisco River, Brazil, in Astyanax paranae.

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    Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; d'Arce, Luciana Paula Grégio

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic monitoring is an important tool for identifying potential compounds in rivers that may damage the environment. Here, we evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of water samples from São Francisco River (Brazil) using the micronuclei (MN) assay in resident species, Astyanax paranae. Four seasonal collections occurred between the years 2009 and 2010, at three locations between two nearby cities in the region. It was clearly observed an increase of MN frequency in fish caught in the river. This result is most likely due to the sewage contamination from the treatment plant, the waste pesticides from crops and the lack of riparian vegetation along the river, especially during the winter when there was a significant increase in the frequencies of MN. These results indicate that compounds in waters from São Francisco River may have genotoxic effects and consequently, cause damage to the environment as well as to human health.

  19. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  20. Reassessment of the geologic evolution of selected precambrian terranes in Brazil, based on SHRIMP U-Pb data, part 2: mineiro and Aracuai orogens and Southern Sao Francisco craton; Reavaliacao da evolucao geologica em terrenos pre-cambrianos brasileiros com base em novos dados U-Pb SHRIMP, parte 2: orogeno Aracuai, cinturao mineiro e craton Sao Francisco Meridional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pimentel, Marcio [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: luizcarlos@aneel.gov.br; Leite, Carlos Augusto; Vieira, Valter Salino; Silva, Marcio Antonio da; Paes, Vinicius Jose de Castro; Cardoso Filho, Joao Moraes [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Noce, Carlos Mauricio; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisa Manuel Teixeira da Costa; Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2002-12-15

    This paper discusses new zircon SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) U-Pb geochronological data for 19 key-exposures of several geological units exposed at the eastern border of the Southern Sao Francisco Craton and at the adjacent Proterozoic Mineiro and Aracuai orogens. Samples were collected along several E-W tran sects, aiming at tracing the precise limit of the Sao Francisco Craton Archean basement, as well as assessing the extension of the successive proterozoic orogenic collages. Due to the complex geologic history and/or high grade metamorphism which most of the rock units investigated have undergone, zircon morphology and the U-Pb analytical data exhibit very complex patterns. These are characterized by a combination of inheritance, partial resetting and new zircon growth during high-grade metamorphism. As a consequence, very careful and detailed analyses of cathodoluminescence imagery were required to allow distinction between inheritance, newly melt-precipitated zircon and partially reset zircons, as well as between the ages of magmatic and metamorphic events. In the southeastern border of the craton 5 units yielded Archean crystallization ages ranging from ca. 3000-2700 Ma, with poorly constrained metamorphic ages ranging from ca. 2850 to 550 Ma. The TTG gneissic complex exposed to the east and south of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, formerly ascribed to the Archean basement, have crystallization ages from ca. 2210 Ma to 2050 Ma, and can now be interpreted as representing pre- to syn-collisional magmatic phases of the Mineiro Belt. Metamorphic ages of ca. 2100 Ma and 560 Ma are also well constrained in zircon populations from these gneisses. The crystallization age of ca 1740 Ma observed for an alkaline granite of the Borrachudos Suite (intrusive into the Archean basement east of the Southern Espinhaco Range) confirmed previous conventional U-Pb data for this Paleoproterozoic rift-related magmatism. One of the major basement inliers within the

  1. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusive and basement rocks in the Jacurici Valley region, Sao Francisco Craton, BA, Brazil; Geocronologia U-Pb em zircao de rochas intrusivas e de embasamento na regiao do Vale do Jacurici, Craton do Sao Francisco, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Jose Sobrinho da; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana Charao; Roos, Siegbert; Peixoto, Vinicius Medina, E-mail: silveira.carlosjose@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@propesq.ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br, E-mail: sig_duda@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vinimpeixoto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geologia Isotopica; Queiroz, Waldemir Jose Alves de, E-mail: waldemirqueiroz@hotmail.com [Companhia de Ferro Ligas da Bahia (FERBASA), Pojuca, BA (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    The Jacurici Complex, located in the NE of the Sao Francisco Craton, is constituted by several Cr-mineralized mafic-ultramafic N-S bodies, possible fragments of a single sill disrupted during deformation. Some works suggest it is intruded on the Serrinha Block while others consider it in the Salvador-Curaca Belt. The basement on this region is informally divided into paragneisses and orthogneisses; the latter is supposed to be younger considering it is less deformed. Petrography revealed that some of the paragneisses are alkali-feldspar granite strongly milonitized. The orthogneisses occur at the north and consist, at least in part, of monzogranites with heterogeneous deformation, locally of low temperature. U-Pb zircon dating were performed for five representative samples. Just three provided good concordia ages. A mafic rock produced a 2102 ± 5 Ma age and it is petrographically similar to the metanorites described in the Jacurici Complex, being interpreted as the record of the first pulses of the mafic magmatism. A monzogranite yielded a 2995 ± 15 Ma age, older than expected, related to the Serrinha Block. The alkali-feldspar granite yielded a 2081 ± 3 Ma age. The Itiuba Syenite and the pegmatites that crosscut the Jacurici Complex have similar ages. Considering the lack of information about the supracrustal sequence that hosts the intrusive alkaline and mafic-ultramafic rocks at the Ipueira and the Medrado areas, it is possible that part of the terrain belongs to the Salvador-Curaca Belt. We suggest that the Jacurici Complex could be intruded after the tectonic amalgamation between the Serrinha Block and the older part of the Salvador-Curaca Belt and, therefore, could be hosted by both terrains. (author)

  2. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  3. Mercury concentrations and loads in a large river system tributary to San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; McKee, L.J.; Black, F.J.; Flegal, A.R.; Conaway, C.H.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    In order to estimate total mercury (HgT) loads entering San Francisco Bay, USA, via the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, unfiltered water samples were collected between January 2002 and January 2006 during high flow events and analyzed for HgT. Unfiltered HgT concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 75 ng/L and showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.8, p < 0.001, n = 78) to suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). During infrequent large floods, HgT concentrations relative to SSC were approximately twice as high as observed during smaller floods. This difference indicates the transport of more Hg-contaminated particles during high discharge events. Daily HgT loads in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River at Mallard Island ranged from below the limit of detection to 35 kg. Annual HgT loads varied from 61 ?? 22 kg (n = 5) in water year (WY) 2002 to 470 ?? 170 kg (n = 25) in WY 2006. The data collected will assist in understanding the long-term recovery of San Francisco Bay from Hg contamination and in implementing the Hg total maximum daily load, the long-term cleanup plan for Hg in the Bay. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  4. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  5. River discharge controls phytoplankton dynamics in the northern San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Alpine, A.E.; Cole, B.E.; Wong, R.L.J.; Arthur, J.F.; Ball, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Phytoplankton dynamics in the upper reach of the northern San Francisco Bay estuary are usually characterized by low biomass dominated by microflagellates or freshwater diatoms in winter, and high biomass dominated by neritic diatoms in summer. During two successive years of very low river discharge (the drought of 1976-77), the summer diatom bloom was absent. This is consistent with the hypothesis that formation of the diatom population maximum is a consequence of the same physical mechanisms that create local maxima of suspended sediments in partially-mixed estuaries: density-selective retention of particles within an estuarine circulation cell. Because the estuary is turbid, calculated phytoplankton growth rates are small in the central deep channel but are relatively large in lateral shallow embayments where light limination is less severe. When river discharge falls within a critical range (100-350 m3 s-1) that positions the suspended particulate maximum adjacent to the productive shallow bays, the population of neritic diatoms increases. However, during periods of high discharge (winter) or during periods of very low discharge (drought), the suspended particulate maximum is less well-defined and is uncoupled (positioned downstream or upstream) from the shallow bays of the upper estuary, and the population of neritic diatoms declines. Hence, the biomass and community composition of phytoplankton in this estuary are controlled by river discharge. ?? 1983.

  6. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity.

  7. Behaviour of the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systems of the mafic-ultramafic layered sequence from Ribeirao dos Motas (Archaean), meridional craton Sao Francisco: evidences of mantle source enrichment and isotopic fractionation; Comportamento dos sistemas Sm-Nd e Rb-Sr da sequencia acamadada mafico-ultramafico Ribeirao dos Motas (Arqueano), craton Sao Francisco Meridional: evidencias de enriquecimento mantelico e fracionamento isotopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio; Carvalho Junior, Irneu Mendes de; Oliveira, Arildo Henrique de [Ouro Preto Univ., (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: mauricio@degeo.ufop.br; Teixeira, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Pimentel, Marcio Martins [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia

    2004-10-15

    The Ribeirao dos Motas layered sequence (SARM) crops out in the southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil. This sequence comprises phaneritic meta ultramafic and metamafic rocks, which, although slightly deformed and metamorphosed, retain primary igneous layers. Porphyritic rocks with idiomorphic pyroxene crystals and heteradcumulate and adcumulate textures are also present. Eighteen isotopic analyses were performed in the SARM, comprising rocks with primary (relict) textures, as well as rocks in amphibolite facies and retro-metamorphosed to green-schist facies. Seven samples yield a Sm/Nd isochron age of 2.79 +- 0.30 Ga (MSWD=1.2 e epsilon {sub Ndt}=+0.48), constraining the accretion time of the SARM rocks. The positive epsilon {sub Ndt} value coupled with the Rb/Sr evidence is consistent with mantle source relatively enriched in Nd and Sr isotopes. Nevertheless, some SARM samples display isotopic fractionation and disturbance, which can be ascribed to the following processes or their combinations: a) mobilization of the incompatible elements due to regional high grade metamorphism; b) isotopic changes during upper amphibolite facies overprint; c) isotopic resetting by low-grade fluids associated to the Claudio Shear zone, which is located nearby the SARM. (author)

  8. Rescaled range analysis of streamflow records in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Marcelo Vitor Oliveira; Celeste, Alcigeimes B.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological time series are sometimes found to have a distinctive behavior known as long-term persistence, in which subsequent values depend on each other even under very large time scales. This implies multiyear consecutive droughts or floods. Typical models used to generate synthetic hydrological scenarios, widely used in the planning and management of water resources, fail to preserve this kind of persistence in the generated data and therefore may have a major impact on projects whose design lives span for long periods of time. This study deals with the evaluation of long-term persistence in streamflow records by means of the rescaled range analysis proposed by British engineer Harold E. Hurst, who first observed the phenomenon in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, Hurst's procedure is enhanced by a strategy based on statistical hypothesis testing. The case study comprises the six main hydroelectric power plants located in the São Francisco River Basin, part of the Brazilian National Grid. Historical time series of inflows to the major reservoirs of the system are investigated and 5/6 sites show significant persistence, with values for the so-called Hurst exponent near or greater than 0.7, i.e., around 40% above the value 0.5 that represents a white noise process, suggesting that decision makers should take long-term persistence into consideration when conducting water resources planning and management studies in the region.

  9. Bio psychosocial follow up of the CHESF (Hydro electric power of Sao Francisco river, PE, Brazil) operators; Acompanhamento biopsicossocial dos operadores CHESF (Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife, PE, Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousseiro Neta, Thargelia Gilda de Miranda; Bezerra, Valdizia Costa; Figueiredo, Miguel Mitre de Amorim [Companhia Hidro-Eletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the project conception viewing the reduction of human failures occurring in the period of 1983-1998, characterizing the necessity of measurements for minimizing the presented failures. With this purpose, some measures were defined and processes implanted, with the following highlights: reviewing the occurrence analysis procedure; Control, Followup and Evaluation of perturbation analysis recommendations; qualification of the operation failure risks; forum of operation performance risks; control, followup and evaluation of the oral communication; bio psychosocial followup of the operator; technical certification.

  10. A Modeling Study of the San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem in High and Low River Flow Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Rao, S. A.; Chai, F.; Dugdale, R. C.; Wilkerson, F. P.; Chao, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2016-02-01

    A coupled physical-biogeochemical model is used to study the nutrient and biomass cycles in the San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem (SFE). With high population density, SFE has important interplay with human population and economics. To assist the ecosystem-based management and ecological risk assessment for the California fisheries and water management, we study the nutrient and biomass cycles in the San Francisco Bay by coupling the Carbon, Silicate, and Nitrogen Ecosystem (CoSiNE) model with an unstructured grid, Semi-Implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM). The model is constrained by USGS water quality observation for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, Napa rivers and the Coyote Creek sewage plant discharge, and tested successfully by the comparisons with USGS water quality observations. This study examines the bay's response to river forcing by simulating two contrasting years, 2011 (a high river flow year) and 2012 (a low river flow year). In addition, an 11-year simulation from 2004 to 2015 is conducted to investigate the long-term cycle of the bay nutrients and biomass.

  11. Nd-Sr isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of the Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: implications for paleoproterozoic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern Sao Francisco craton, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas]. E-mail: wteixeir@usp.br; Avila, Ciro Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia]. E-mail: avila@mn.ufrj.br; Nunes, Luciana Cabral [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: luciana@igc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked to Paleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton, central-eastern Brazil. The Fe pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, and pyroxenite in the latter. The Lajedo granodiorite is located south of the Lenheiros shear zone and cuts the metamafic rocks of the Forro peridotite - pyroxenite and mafic and intermediate rocks of the Nazareno greenstone belt, as evidenced by xenoliths from the latter unit. The modal composition of the Fe granitic gneiss lies within the ranges of monzogranite and syenogranite. It is peraluminous and shows a large variation in K{sub 2}O content, which implies a middle-K calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline tendency. The Lajedo modal composition is consistent with granodioritic and tonalitic compositions. It indicates a predominantly peraluminous composition and calc-alkaline character. The U-Pb zircon crystallization age of the Fe granitic gneiss is 2191 {+-} 9 Ma, whereas the Lajedo granodiorite yields 2208 {+-} 26 Ma. The Nd/Sr characteristics of the Fe and Lajedo plutons are consistent with mixtures of enriched mantle (EMI-type), DMM and crustal components during magma genesis in a plutonic arc setting, while the low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sri ratios point to contribution of mafic rock protoliths during magma genesis. This is also in accordance with the characteristic xenoliths observed within the investigated plutons from the Nazareno and Rio das Mortes greenstone belts. The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite show tectonic characteristics which are comparable to those of nearby coeval plutons: Brito quartz-diorite (2221 +- 2 Ma), Brumado de Cima granodiorite (2219 {+-} 2 Ma), Brumado

  12. Concentration of metals adjacent to Tiete river border avenues; Concentracao de metais em solos adjacentes a Avenida Marginal do Rio Tiete, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia C. e; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Nammoura Neto, Georges M.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work analysed different 5 cm depth fragments soils, with distinct characteristic s, collected at 8 points of the Tiete river marginal avenue at the Sao Paulo metropolitan region. The technique used for the analysis was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Together with samples, metal concentration were measured in three reference materials BEN (IWG-GIT), GS-N (IWG-GIT) and Soil-7 (IAEA) for quality control of the results. These metals were analysed: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), antimony (Sb) e zinc (Zn); the obtained concentrations were compared with intervention limit values stipulated by the Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB). Those values indicate the soil quality for different use

  13. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  14. Seasonal study of concentration of heavy metals in waters from lower São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we determined the concentration of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the water lower São Francisco River basin, to evaluate the influence of urbanization and industrialization on environmental changes in the water resource. All samples were analyzed using the IUPAC adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sampling stations located near the industrial areas were influenced by industrialization because they presented higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu. The other sampled locations showed changes with regard the trace elements probably originating in the soil, like Fe, Zn and Pb. There was a gradual increase in the concentrations of metals, in general, in the period of highest rainfall of the hydrographic network. Overall, except for Zn and Mn, the trace elements exceeded the maximum allowed value established by national legislation (CONAMA. Lower São Francisco River basin has suffered interference from urbanization and industrialization, so awareness programs should be developed so as to control and lessen future problems.

  15. Determination of 2{sup 38U}, 2{sup 26R}a, 2{sup 28R}a E 4{sup 0K} in grapes and wines of Valley of the Sao Francisco; Determinacao de 2{sup 38U}, 2{sup 26R}a, 2{sup 28R}a E 4{sup 0K} em uvas e vinhos da regiao do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia Brandao da

    2007-07-01

    The assessment of the content of nutrients in musts and wine has been the subject of several studies due to its importance for the quality control and even for determining the geographical authenticity of a specific wine brand. Not less important is the assessment of the impact on the final product caused by the presence of contaminants in the soil. It has to be taken also into consideration that the addition of fertilizers, pesticides, and even irrigation water can increase the content of contaminants in the soil. Fertilizers, for example, may contain unwanted elements such as trace metals and radionuclides. These contaminants can affect both the quality and the commercial value of the agricultural products. The most important contaminants, as far as radioactive elements is concerned, are the members of the uranium and thorium natural series, and potassium-40, which is present in ali soils and rocks with an average concentration around 0.012% of the natural potassium. The content of uranium and of its decay products in soils can be modified by the addition of phosphate fertilizers. Although several studies have been performed aiming to assess the impact of the presence of metals and radionuclides in many agricultural products, there is no reference in the literature concerning the presence of natural radionuclides in grapes and wine. Therefore, this study was carried out with the objective of determining the content of some members of the uranium and thorium decay series (namely, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra), besides {sup 40}K, in grapes and wine produced in the Fazenda Milano, in the municipality of Petrolina - Pernambuco, in the Vale do Sao Francisco. Besides, measurements were performed for some trace metals, aiming to verify if any correlation exists between the metal and radionuclide contents. The radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry, using a hyper pure Germanium detector. The results for {sup 226}Ra in samples of pulp and wine ranged from 0

  16. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  17. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel F.; Borrely, Sueli, E-mail: gabrielfonseca@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Nascimento, Thuany M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  18. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is

  19. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  20. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864 (Pisces: Characidae in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Gonçalves

    Full Text Available The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.

  1. A new species of Anacanthoroides and redescription of Apedunculata discoidea (Monogenoidea) parasitizing Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii) from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cassandra Moraes; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-03-28

    Anacanthoroides sanctifrancisci n. sp. from the gills of 'curimatã-pacú', Prochilodus argenteus from the São Francisco River, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Anacanthoroides, monotypic, is represented by Anacanthoroides mizellei. The new species can be distinguished from A. mizellei by the presence of a pair of muscular pseudosuckers in the anterior region of the body, an accessory piece not articulated to the male copulatory organ and the number of rings in the male copulaty complex. Apedunculata discoidea is redescribed and recorded in the gills of P. argenteus. The generic diagnosis of Apedunculata is amended. Both genera are recorded for the first time in the São Francisco River basin.

  2. Topographic Survey Data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Topographic survey data were collected along planned lines from the river water surface to the top of the bank in the study area. Topographic survey data collection...

  3. LOCAL PRODUCTION ARRANGEMENT OF IRRIGATED FRUIT CULTURE IN THE LOWER SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER, PERNAMBUCO/BAHIA: COMMERCIAL FLOWS AND LOCAL DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Leão, Éder Lira de Souza; Moutinho,Lúcia Maria Góes; Campos, Luís Henrique Romani

    2016-01-01

    The lower São Francisco river is an important area comprising municipalities in the states of Pernambuco and Bahia, Brazil. Local economical dynamics enhances Irrigated Fruit Culture and Grape Culture with important production and innovation arrangements. Current article analyzes the commercial flux of fruit culture activities since an important characteristic of the Local Production Arrangement (LPA) comprises the economic, political and institutional relation with territory outsiders. LPA i...

  4. Pipeline maintenance, evaluation and inspection in water crossing: OSBRA case in Paranaiba River; Inspecao, avaliacao e manutencao de oleoduto em travessia: caso OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo-Brasilia) no Rio Paranaiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Newton Camelo de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Vieira Paulo de Tarso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Attempting to pipeline integrity proceeding of PETROBRAS, the OSBRA (Sao Paulo-Brasilia Pipeline) Management promoted field inspections by divers at Paranaiba River water crossing, located at your right-of-way pipeline. These services were composed by topography, visual inspections and local screened of the pipeline, determining the equipment layout at that water crossing. At Paranaiba River, the pipeline is seated above the river bed. The results indicated high spans in the pipeline structure. Considering this configuration, were made water speed and vibration measurements near the equipment. The activities were executed in order to assist the structural analysis of the pipeline. These studies had concluded to a temporary solution, which consisted in reducing loads and building additional supports. (author)

  5. Water Availability of São Francisco River Basin Based on a Space-Borne Geodetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengke Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has recently experienced one of its worst droughts in the last 80 years, with wide-ranging consequences for water supply restrictions, energy rationing, and agricultural losses. Northeast and Southeast Brazil, which share the São Francisco River basin (SFRB, have experienced serious precipitation reduction since 2011. We used terrestrial water-storage (TWS fields, inverted from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission measurements, to assess and quantify the ongoing drought over the SFRB. We found a water loss rate of 3.30 km3/year over the time-span of April 2002 to March 2015. In addition, the TWS drought index (TWSDI showed the extension of the recent drought that has jeopardized the SFRB since January 2012, and which reached its maximum in July 2015 (the end of TWS time series. In this sense there seems to be a linkage between the TWSDI (wetness/dryness and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, in terms of the wavelet coherence, at the semi-annual and biennial bands, suggesting a relationship between the two. While acknowledging that further investigation is needed, we believe that our findings should contribute to the water management policies by quantifying the impact of this drought event over the SFRB.

  6. Drought assessment using a TRMM-derived standardized precipitation index for the upper São Francisco River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Celso Augusto Guimarães; Brasil Neto, Reginaldo Moura; Passos, Jacqueline Sobral de Araújo; da Silva, Richarde Marques

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the use of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for monitoring spatial and temporal drought variabilities in the Upper São Francisco River basin is investigated. Thus, the spatiotemporal behavior of droughts and cluster regions with similar behaviors is identified. As a result, the joint analysis of clusters, dendrograms, and the spatial distribution of SPI values proved to be a powerful tool in identifying homogeneous regions. The results showed that the northeast region of the basin has the lowest rainfall indices and the southwest region has the highest rainfall depths, and that the region has well-defined dry and rainy seasons from June to August and November to January, respectively. An analysis of the drought and rain conditions showed that the studied region was homogeneous and well-distributed; however, the quantity of extreme and severe drought events in short-, medium- and long-term analysis was higher than that expected in regions with high rainfall depths, particularly in the south/southwest and southeast areas. Thus, an alternative classification is proposed to characterize the drought, which spatially categorizes the drought type (short-, medium-, and long-term) according to the analyzed drought event type (extreme, severe, moderate, and mild).

  7. Avaliação de genótipos de bananeira na região do baixo São Francisco, Sergipe Evaluation of banana genotypes in the low São Francisco river basin, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de 20 genótipos de bananeira nas condições edafoclimáticas da região do Baixo São Francisco-SE. O experimento foi instalado em área experimental da Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, no município de Propriá- SE. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três touceiras úteis por parcela. Foram avaliados caracteres de crescimento e produção no primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os híbridos PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-85 e FHIA-02, devido ao bom desempenho com relação ao peso do cacho e peso médio do fruto, podem ser recomendados para cultivo no Baixo São Francisco. O híbrido FHIA-18 apresentou excelentes características agronômicas, sendo uma alternativa a cultivar Prata-Anã. Os híbridos Ambrósia e Bucaneiro podem ser indicados por apresentarem cachos grandes e sabor semelhante às bananas do subgrupo Cavendish. O híbrido YB42-07 tem potencial para ser lançado como cultivar em áreas de cultivo de banana Maçã.The main objective of this work was evaluated the performance of twenty genotypes of Musa sp., in the environmental conditions of the Low São Francisco River Basin, Propriá, SE, and Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications and three useful plants per parcel. rowth and yield characteristics were analyzed during the first and second production cycles. Hybrids PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-85 and FHIA-02 because of the bigger production and greater weight of the fruit, should be recommended for culture in the region. Hybrid FHIA-18 presented excellent agronomic characteristics, being an alternative to 'Prata Anã'. The hybrids Ambrosia and Buccaneer can be an alternative for Cavendish bananas, by showing great bunches and similar flavor. Hybrid YB42-07 could be an option for areas of 'Silk' banana culture in the region of the Low São Francisco River, having potential to be set up as cultivar.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo; Avaliacao do impacto da atividade agropecuaria na qualidade da agua em areas de captacao superficial nas bacias hidrograficas dos Rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-07-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  9. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco bay-delta-river system in a century of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Knowles, N.; Brown, L.R.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Morgan, T.L.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Stacey, M.T.; van der Wegen, M.; Wagner, R.W.; Jassby, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  10. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-river system in a century of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Cloern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21(st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1 an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2 varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3 inevitability of

  11. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-river system in a century of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D; Morgan, Tara L; Schoellhamer, David H; Stacey, Mark T; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R Wayne; Jassby, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21(st) century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate change and other

  12. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a century of continuing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  13. Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiney Ringenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Pierce's disease of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is a serious problem in some regions of North America, not yet reported in Brazil. In this study, a survey of potential sharpshooter (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae and spittlebug (Hemiptera, Cercopidae vectors of X. fastidiosa was conducted in vineyards at the São Francisco River Valley, a major grape growing region in Brazil. Four vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. were sampled fortnightly from June/2005 to June/2007, using yellow sticky cards, each placed at two different heights (45 cm aboveground and 45 cm above the crop canopy in 10 sampling localities. A total of 4,095 specimens of sharpshooters were collected, nearly all from 3 Proconiini species, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey, 2006 (96.8% of the specimens, Tapajosa fulvopunctata (Signoret, 1854 (3.1%, and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (1 specimen. Hortensia similis (Walker, 1851 (2 specimens was the only Cicadellini species. Only 1 cercopid specimen, belonging to Aeneolamia colon (Germar, 1821, was trapped. Even though they are not considered potential Xylella vectors, 2 Gyponini leafhoppers were collected: Curtara samera DeLong & Freytag, 1972 (11 specimens and Curtara inflata DeLong & Freytag, 1976 (1 specimen. Homalodisca spottii was observed feeding and mating on green branches of grapevines, in addition to egg masses. Because of its prevalence on the crop canopy, occurrence throughout the year (with peaks from February to August, and ability to colonize grapevines, H. spottii could be an important vector if a X. fastidiosa strain pathogenic to grapevines becomes introduced at the São Francisco River Valley.

  14. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  15. U/Pb (SHRIMP), {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd e K/Ar geochronology of granite-greenstone terrains of Gaviao Block: implications for the Proterozoic and Archean evolution of Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil; Geocronologia U/Pb (SHRIMP), {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd e K/Ar dos terrenos granito-greenstone do Bloco do Gaviao: implicacoes para a evolucao arqueana e proterozoica do craton do Sao Francisco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Luiz Rogerio Bastos

    1998-07-01

    The Gaviao Block (GB) in the northern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton-Northeast of Brazil, constitutes one of the oldest Archean fragments of the South American Platform Archean crust. GB underwent several events of juvenile accretion and reworking of continental crust along its evolutionary history, notably between the Archean and the Paleoproterozoic. {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotopic analyses were carried out in two zircons populations from strongly migmatized TTG terranes found in the proximity of Brumado: the first population (7 crystals) is taken as representative of the crystallization period of the TTG terranes at 3300 {+-} 45 Ma; the second (2 crystals) represents the age of the first even of metamorphism/migmatization at 2910 {+-} 10 Ma. {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb analyses in zircons from an outcrop of non-migmatized TTG in the area yielded a 3202 {+-} 15 Ma age (4 crystals), interpreted to be the crystallization period of the gneiss protolith. Sm/Nd analyses on the TTG rocks of the Brumado region yielded T{sub DM} model ages varying between 3.26 and 3.36 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup (t)} between -3.5 and +0.7. These data suggest the occurrence of juvenile accretions to the continental crust during the Archean, with differential involvement of crustal materials. The geochemical data of rare earth elements corresponding to the TTG terranes revealed moderate LRRE contents (La{sub N}=83,5), low HREE contents (La{sub N}=2,5) and a fairly fractionated pattern (La/Yb){sub N}=34, besides lack of negative Eu anomaly, showing that these rocks have similar compositions to those TTG terranes of cratonic continents, as well as some Archean rocks from CSF (e.g. Sete Voltas, Boa Vista). Finally, the youngest ages present in GB rocks (ca. 1.2-0.45 Ga) represent the role played by tectono thermal events, which produced partial or total rejuvenation of the Rb/Sr and K/Ar isotopic systems during the Espinhaco and Brasiliano cycles. In particular, K/Ar ages illustrate the

  16. Hydro-Economic Modeling with Minimum Data Requirements: An Application to the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M.; Maneta, M.; Vosti, S.; Wallender, W.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers have been charged with the efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of water resources of the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), Brazil, and also with the promotion of economic growth and the reduction of poverty within the basin. To date, policymakers lack scientific evidence on the potential consequences for growth, poverty alleviation or environmental sustainability of alternative uses of water resources. To address these key knowledge gaps, we have linked a hydrologic and an economic model of agriculture to investigate how economic decisions affect available water, and vice versa. More specifically, the models are used to predict the effects of the application of Brazilian federal surface water use policies on farmer's net revenues and on the hydrologic system. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MIKE Basin, a semi-distributed hydrology model, is used to calculate water budgets for the SFRB. MIKE Basin calculates discharge at selected nodes by accumulating runoff down the river network; it simulates reservoirs using stage-area-storage and downstream release rule curves. The data used to run the model are discharge to calculate local runoff, precipitation, reference ET, crop

  17. Zooplankton community composition and some limnological aspects of an oxbow lake of the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Edson Vieira Sampaio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some limnological aspects of Lake Massacará (adjoining the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin were studied during two periods of the hydrological cycle. Water transparency was equally low during both the periods. During high water, thermal stratification was recorded, with a clinograde oxygen profile; pH was slightly acid, and conductivity was higher near the bottom. Concentrations of inorganic carbon and ammonia, and rates of primary production were higher than during the low water period. During the latter period, complete mixing occurred, with a clinograde oxygen profile; pH was slightly acid, and conductivity unvarying with depth. Higher concentrations of nitrate were found than during high water. With regard to the zooplankton communities, higher density and species richness of organisms occurred during high water. Copepods and rotifers were most numerous during both periods. The taxa identified consisted of 17 rotifers, four copepods, six cladocerans, five protozoans, and two macroinvertebrates. The most abundant species were Thermocyclops minutus, Keratella cochlearis, K. lenzi, and Trichocerca capucina during high water, and Thermocyclops minutus and Conochilus unicornis during low water.Lagoa Massacará (marginal ao Rio Paraopeba-MG, Bacia do Rio São Francisco foi estudada do ponto de vista de alguns aspectos limnológicos durante dois períodos do ciclo hidrológico (cheia e seca. A transparência da água foi baixa e semelhante nos dois períodos. No período de cheia ocorreu estratificação, perfil de oxigênio clinógrado com camadas inferiores anóxicas, pH ligeiramente ácido, alta condutividade elétrica no fundo, com maiores concentrações de CO2 inorgânico, de íons amônio e taxa de produção primária que na época seca. No período de seca ocorreu desestratificação, perfil de oxigênio clinógrado com camadas inferiores não anóxicas, pH ligeiramente ácido, condutividade elétrica constantes, com maiores

  18. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  19. Cytogenetic analyses of two endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin: Conorhynchus conirostris and Lophiosilurus alexandri (Siluriformes

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    Marilza Barbosa de Almeida Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Siluriformes species endemic to the São Francisco River basin were characterized by conventional and differential cytogenetic analyses involving C-banding, Ag-nucleolar organizer region (NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3 staining, and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. Conorhynchus conirostris presents a higher diploid number (2n = 60 than those detected in Pimelodidae representatives, whereas Lophiosilurus alexandri, with a karyotype of 2n = 54 chromosomes, presents a chromosomal constitution similar to that found in the family Pseudopimelodidae. Plesiomorphic characteristics such as single NORs at terminal positions are found in both species, as revealed by CMA3 and silver nitrate staining, and FISH with a 18S rDNA probe. C-banding evidenced centromeric and telomeric heterochromatic blocks distributed over most of the chromosomes with a conspicuous heterochromatin segment in a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in L. alexandri. Such karyotype data, if compared to the cytogenetic pattern of other Siluriformes species, can be partially related to their degree of endemism, favorable to the occurrence and fixation of chromosomal rearrangements. The present study in representatives from these two Siluriformes families from the São Francisco River contributes to a better understanding of the karyotype evolution in species of this important order of Neotropical fishes.

  20. Diversidade genética de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. no Baixo Rio São Francisco, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. in the low San Francisco river by RAPD markers

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    Georgea da Cruz Santana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterolobium contortisiliquum Vell. Morong (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae é uma espécie muito utilizada em programas de recuperação de matas ciliares no Baixo Rio São Francisco, devido ao seu rápido crescimento inicial. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD, a diversidade genética de oito indivíduos de uma população remanescente dessa espécie, visando contribuir para a definição de estratégias de coleta de sementes. Os indivíduos estão situados em uma área de 100 ha de mata ciliar do Baixo Rio São Francisco. Para a extração do DNA, pelo método CTAB 2%, foram utilizadas folhas tenras dos indivíduos. Testaram-se 20 oligonucleotídios de 10 bases de seqüência arbitrária, cujos produtos foram separados em gel de agarose 0,8%, submetidos à eletroforese horizontal, corados com brometo-de-etídio e visualizados em luz ultravioleta. A similaridade genética entre os indivíduos foi calculada pelo Coeficiente de Similaridade de Jaccard e a construção do dendrograma, realizada utilizando-se o método UPGMA. O valor médio de diversidade genética entre as matrizes foi de 49%, variando de 33 a 85%. Os indivíduos 6 e 7 apresentaram relativa proximidade genética (67%, não sendo indicado o plantio de suas mudas ou semeadura direta para recuperação de área ciliar em locais muito próximos. A partir dos resultados observados, podem-se desenvolver estratégias para a coleta de sementes e produção de mudas, auxiliando, assim, programas de restauração ambiental.Enterolobium contortisiliquum Vell. Morong (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae is very much used in riparian forest restoration programs in the Low San Francisco River because of its fast initial growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate by RAPD molecular markers the genetic diversity of eight individuals of a remaining population of this species, in order to contribute for the definition of strategies for seed production. The

  1. Effects of extended absence of flooding on the fish assemblages of three floodplain lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, Brazil

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    Paulo dos Santos Pompeu

    Full Text Available In the Neotropics, a large proportion of fish communities of large rivers use floodplain as habitats for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. An evaluation was made of the effects of extended dry periods on the species richness, abundance and local extinction of fish species in three marginal lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, southeastern Brazil. The studied lagoons fail to receive river floods during the study period (1994-1996. A gradual reduction in richness and abundance was observed in all lagoons. Migratory fish species had the highest probability to become extinct in the two lagoons that remained with large water volume. Species tolerant to low levels of dissolved oxygen had the lowest probability of local extinction in the lagoon showing an abrupt reduction in water volume. Similar changes to those observed in the current study are likely to occur in the floodplains if dams would be constructed in this segment of the river. Adequate water releases from Três Marias reservoir, located upstream, should be considered as a management tool for producing episodic flooding on the marginal lagoons of the region.

  2. Using river locks to teach hydrodynamic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L; Silva, Enisvaldo C; Rios, Márcio L; Silva, Anderson A P

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the use of a river lock as a non-formal setting for teaching Q2 hydrodynamical concepts is proposed. In particular, we describe the operation of a river lock situated at the Sobradinho dam, on the S\\~ao Francisco River (Brazil). A model to represent and to analyse the dynamics of river lock operation is presented and we derive the dynamical equations for the rising of the water column as an example to understand the Euler equation. Furthermore, with this activity, we enable the integration of content initially introduced in the classroom with practical applications, thereby allowing the association of physical themes to content relevant in disciplines such as history and geography. In addition, experiences of this kind enable teachers to talk about the environmental and social impacts caused by the construction of a dam and, consequently, a crossover of concepts has been made possible, leading to more meaningful learning for the students.

  3. Agricultural Chemical Concentrations and Loads in Rivers Draining the Central Valley, California, to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Before and During an Extended Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drought or near drought conditions have occurred in California since 2012. Although some parts of the State received near normal precipitation in water year 2016, other locations were still below average. Extended drought can impact aquatic organisms in a variety of ways because of decreased flows and elevated water temperature. However, lower precipitation and availability of irrigation water may limit subsequent runoff, resulting in reduced concentrations and loads of certain environmental toxicants, such as pesticides and ammonia, thereby limiting their toxic effects. In this study, funded by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Program, the occurrence of 227 pesticides and degradation products, and nutrients was assessed before and during this current drought in the two largest rivers draining to the San Francisco Bay: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The watersheds of both rivers include substantial agricultural and urban land use. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and ammonia were detected throughout the study (2010 to 2016) and models of daily concentration using the seasonal wave model (rloadest) were formulated to assess the amount of time that concentrations may have exceeded benchmark levels known to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Frequently detected pesticides included the fungicide azoxystrobin, herbicides or their degradation products such as diuron, glyphosate, and metolachlor, and insecticides such as imidacloprid. Compounds that are transported primarily by surface runoff generally showed decreasing concentrations as the drought progressed, especially in the San Joaquin River. Compounds mainly transported by groundwater, as indicated by seasonal concentration profiles, had more stable concentrations in the rivers. Mass loads to the Bay all decreased, as expected, because of the lower river discharge. When compared to aquatic-life benchmarks, modeled concentrations indicated that individual compounds were not contributing to

  4. Adubação fosfatada em tomateiro industrial em solos do Submédio São Francisco Phosphorus fertilisation on processing tomato in soils of the Submédio S. Francisco River Valley

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    Clementino M.B. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se oito experimentos realizados em áreas irrigadas do Submédio São Francisco, entre os anos de 1988 e 1993, com o objetivo de relacionar a resposta do tomateiro industrial (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill à adubação fosfatada em solos com diferentes teores de fósforo disponível determinado pelos métodos Mehlich-1 ou Bray-1. Nos solos com conteúdo de P disponível igual ou inferior a 2 mg.dm-3, os aumentos em produtividade, provocados pela adubação foram, em média, de 190,8%, enquanto no solo com teor de P de 8 mg.dm-3, o aumento foi de apenas 21,7%. Porém, em solos com teor de P igual ou superior a 14 mg dm-3, não foi verificada resposta do tomateiro à adubação fosfatada. Para os dois experimentos onde foi possível ajustar equações quadráticas, as produtividades máximas econômicas de tomate (56,47 e 69,35 t.ha-1 foram obtidas com os níveis de 143 e 182 kg.ha-1 de P2O5, respectivamente.Results of eight field experiments carried out in irrigated areas of the Submédio São Francisco River Valley, Northeast Brazil, from 1988 to 1993, were statistically analysed to evaluate the response of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill to phosphorus fertiliser, in soils with different available phosphorus contents by the methods of Mehlich - 1 or Bray - 1. The analysis showed that in soils where available P content was equal to or lower than 2 mg.dm-3, the mean increment in tomato yield due to P fertilisation was 190.8%, while in soils where the P content was 8 mg/dm³, the increment was only 21.7%. However, in soils with P content equal or higher than 14 mg dm-3, there was no response of the tomato crop to phosphorus fertilisation. In the two experiments where a quadratic response was observed, the maximum economical yields of 56.47 and 69.35 ton. ha-1 of tomatoes were obtained with 143 and 182 kg.ha-1 of P2O5, respectively.

  5. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  6. Fish community structure of Juramento reservoir, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil Estrutura da comunidade de peixes do reservatório de Juramento, bacia do Rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    André R. M. Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many rivers in Brazil as the São Francisco (SFR have been impounded for reservoirs construction purposes. However, there is a lack of knowledge on their fish fauna in many areas, including headwaters. The present study aimed to describe the fish community structure from Juramento reservoir, located on Juramento River, a branch of SFR basin. Six bimonthly samplings were made in four different sites. Gill and cast nets, beach seines and sieves were used to collect fish. Ecological indexes as well as the relationship between fish abundance and some limnological variables were determined. 3288 fish belonging to 33 species (16.5% of the total described for SFR basin were captured, being 75.7% Characiformes, 18.1% Siluriformes, 3% Cyprinodontiformes and 3% Gymnotiformes. Only two non-native species, 'tamboatá' - Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828 and 'trairão' - Hoplias lacerdae Ribeiro, 1908 were found. The highest catches in number occurred in the dry period (March-October and the lowest one in the wet season (November-February. Diversity was higher at Barragem station and richness did not vary between reservoir zones. Five migratory species were found downstream of the dam (four exclusively there, whereas only the 'curimbatá-pioa' - Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes, 1850 occurred in the reservoir. The low observed correlations between fish abundance and the limnological variables utilized suggest that the local fish fauna is not strongly affected by their variation.No Brasil, vários rios, como os da bacia do São Francisco (RSF, são barrados para a formação de reservatórios. Entretanto, o estudo desta ictiofauna, especialmente a dos rios de cabeceira, ainda deixa a desejar. O presente estudo descreveu a estrutura da ictiofauna do reservatório de Juramento, Rio Juramento, bacia do RSF. Foram realizadas seis coletas bimestrais em quatro locais empregando-se redes de emalhar, tarrafas, arrastões e peneiras. Foram determinados

  7. Diet shifts related to body size of the pirambeba Serrasalmus brandtii Lütken, 1875 (Osteichthyes, Serrasalminae in the Cajuru Reservoir, São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

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    A. K. Oliveira

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify shifts in the Serrasalmus brandtii Lütken, 1875 diet related to body size. Specimens were collected from April 1992 to January 1993 at the Cajuru Reservoir, in the Pará River, São Francisco River Basin, by seining the shore with nets of nylon, 1 mm opening, and with gill nets. Stomach contents of 152 individuals measuring 15-192 mm SL were examined. Food items were identified and weighed separately. For qualitative analysis, the frequency of occurrence method was used. The relative importance of each food component was determined based on the alimentary index (IAi. The frequencies of occurrence data were subjected to cluster analysis using the Canberra coefficient of dissimilarity and UPGMA as the cluster method. Distinctive gradual changes in food habits, associated with body size, were identified in this species. The smaller individuals fed predominantly on microcrustaceans and insect larvae. The intermediate size classes ingested insects, fish fins, fish scales, and chunks of fish flesh, in this order of importance. For the larger pirambebas, fish was the most abundant food category identified, followed by insects.

  8. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: fjcastro@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(ELTA/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  9. Comportamento de cultivares de uva sem sementes no submédio São Francisco Behavior of grape seedless varieties in the valley of São Francisco River

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    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de introduzir, avaliar e selecionar variedades de uva sem sementes, adaptadas às condições tropicais semi-áridas e oferecer novas alternativas aos viticultores do Vale do São Francisco, implantou-se, em 1994, uma coleção com dezenove variedades de uvas sem sementes no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina - PE. Foram avaliadas treze variedades ao longo dos anos de 1997 e 1998, correspondendo a cinco ciclos de produção. As variedades utilizadas foram Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha e Loose Perlette, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Campinas'. Foram avaliados aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas e características e composição química dos frutos. Todas as variedades apresentaram cachos com tamanho pequeno. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless destacaram-se em relação ao diâmetro de bagas, apresentando, respectivamente, 17,83 e 18,26 mm, sem a necessidade de aplicação de reguladores de crescimento. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi elevado na maioria das variedades, enquanto a acidez total titulável foi reduzida, resultando em relações SST/ATT satisfatórias. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating and selecting seeddless grape varieties adapted to the semi-arid tropical conditions of the São Francisco River Valley, Northeastern - Brazil. The experiment was carried out in an experimental vineyard which belongs to Embrapa Semi-Árid, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil during five growing seasons in 1997 and 1998. The varieties tested were: Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha and Loose Perlette, grafted

  10. Foliar carbohydrates content and invertase activity in vines at São Francisco River Valley - Brazil Teores foliares de carboidratos e atividade de invertases em videiras no Vale do Rio São Francisco- Brasil

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    Barbara França Dantas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The irrigated agriculture at the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast Brazil, shows an increasing production of grapes for winery. Among the wines produced there the one obtained from Vitis vinifera L., cultivar Syrah, stands out due to its adaptation to the climatic conditions of the region. However, little is known about carbohydrates metabolism of vines cultivated in this region. The objective of this work was to evaluate sugar and starch contents and the invertase activity in vines leaves during two consecutive growing seasons. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Semi-Árido and at Santa Maria Winery, respectively located in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, Pernambuco-Brazil. Leaves were collected weekly from January to December of 2003 and assessed for reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents, as well as for acid (AI and neutral invertases (NI. The results showed that reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents increased during fruit maturation and are influenced by temperature, radiation and insolation variations. The second growing season showed higher reducing sugars and total soluble sugars content and lower starch content in the leaves than the first one. AI activity was higher than NI activity and these also varied according to weather conditions. During berries ripening, leaves showed higher sugar content and invertase activity, suggesting a higher sugar metabolism and transport during this phase.O pólo de agricultura irrigada do Vale do Rio São Francisco apresenta um crescente aumento na produção de uvas para vinificação. Entre os vinhos finos produzidos na região, destaca-se aquele obtido da cultivar Syrah, que se adaptou bem às condições climáticas da região. Pouco se conhece, no entanto, sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos das videiras nessa região. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de açúcares e de amido, bem como a atividade de invertases durante dois ciclos de

  11. Demanda de irrigação da cultura da uva na Bacia do Rio São Francisco Irrigation demand for grape crop in San Francisco River Basin

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    Wallisson da S. Freitas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar o planejamento de projetos agrícolas para o dimensionamento de projetos de irrigação e a gestão de recursos hídricos, estimou-se e se espacializou a demanda de irrigação da videira (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Itália, na bacia do Rio São Francisco. Utilizaram-se séries históricas de dados de 81 estações climáticas distribuídas na bacia. Para cada estação calculou-se os valores, máximos diários e o total anual, da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc, da demanda suplementar da cultura e da demanda suplementar de irrigação (este com eficiência de 70%. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: (a a ETc máxima diária variou, em grande parte da bacia, de 4,5 a 5,7 mm d-1, tendo média anual de 943 mm; (b em média, a demanda anual suplementar da cultura foi 839,5 mm, equivalente a 103,5 mm inferior à ETc; (c o fato do sistema funcionar com 70% de eficiência, em vez de 90%, implica em acréscimo estimado de 18.808.755 m³ de água por ano, somente nas microrregiões de Juazeiro, BA e Petrolina, PE.The irrigation water demand of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Italy was estimated and spatialized in San Francisco River Basin, in order to subsidize the agricultural project planning and water resource management. Historical data series relative to 81 climatic stations distributed throughout the basin were used. The maximum daily values and the annual total values of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, crop evapotranspiration (ETc, supplementary demand of the crop and the supplementary irrigation demand (70% efficiency were calculated for each station. According to the results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a in a large area of the basin, the maximum daily ETc varied from 4.5 to 5.7 mm d-1, with an annual mean of 943 mm; (b the supplementary annual demand of the crop averaged 839.5 mm, corresponding to 103.5 mm less than ETc; and (c the irrigation

  12. 78 FR 34123 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... construction activities for the Middle Fork American River Project. Site materials from the Middle Fork... Jeffrey Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology...

  13. Use of dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes to track photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrification along a 56 mile transect in the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Peek, S.; Young, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    A decline in phytoplankton stocks in the San Francisco Bay and Delta is thought to contribute to the pelagic organism decline observed over the past two decades. One factor controlling phytoplankton growth rate is the availability of nutrients. Although there is an excess of nutrients in the Bay and Delta, the type and relative abundance of nutrients is critical to phytoplankton growth. To evaluate the response of phytoplankton to nutrient sources and to better understand phytoplankton dynamics downstream, we tested the hypothesis that the δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) along with conventional water chemistry analyses will record events such as increased nitrification (related to the Sacramento River Wastewater Treatment Plant ammonium input) and algal blooms, and reflect the balance between photosynthesis and bacterial respiration. Multiple parameters affect [DIC] and its δ13C, including DIC sources, pH, and biological processes. Consumption of CO2 by phytoplankton during photosynthesis and by autotrophic bacteria during nitrification both result in increases in δ13C-DIC. However, photosynthesis and nitrification have very different relationships to chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations. The balance between heterotrophic bacterial respiration and photosynthesis should be reflected in trends in DIC, nutrient, and chlorophyll concentration, and δ13C-DIC. The δ13C of DIC should also be reflected in the δ13C of phytoplankton with approximately a 20 per mil fractionation. Significant deviation in the fractionation factor may indicate local variations in growth rate, nutrient availability, or speciation. Combined, these parameters should provide a gauge of the relative importance of the above mentioned processes. To test this hypothesis, we collected 19 water samples per cruise between July 2012 and July 2013 along a 56 mile transect between Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay near Angel Island during 8 cruises on the USGS RV

  14. Patterns of parasitism by Amblyomma rotundatum (Ixodidae on Rhinella schneideri (Bufonidae in islands of São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We sampled ticks from specimens of the rococo toad Rhinella schneideriby flannel dragging on two Islands located in the São Francisco River near the Três Marias hydroelectric dam, southeastern Brazil. A total of 120 toads was examined, of which 63 (52.5% were parasitized only by Amblyomma rotundatumtotaling 96 larvae, 163 nymphs and 134 females. The burden of parasitism ranged from one to 43 ticks, with a mean intensity of infestation of 6.2±5.5 ticks per host. The tick A. rotundatumexhibited highly aggregated distribution. Peak abundance of larvae and nymphs occurred in the dry season (May to September, whereas peak abundance of females occurred in the wet season (October to April. We collected most ticks near the head and hind limbs of R. schneideri. The finding of two engorged A. rotundatumnymphs in the same resting places of two toads and the absence of this species in the dragged areas suggest a nidicolous behavior at the studied site.

  15. Spatial patterns of rural poverty: an exploratory analysis in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

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    Marcelo de Oliveira Torres

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização e a análise da distribuição espacial da pobreza podem ser úteis na apli-cação de programas voltados para a redução de pobreza já que possibilitam a identificação de áreas onde a incidência é maior e cuja ex-tensão muitas vezes ultrapassa as linhas ter-ritoriais oficiais. Nesse contexto, este artigo usa os mais recentes dados sobre pobreza rural municipal no Brasil para identificar os padrões espaciais de pobreza rural na Bacia do Rio São Francisco (BRSF. Indicadores de autocorrelação espacial I de Moran são gera-dos e usados para a construção de um mapa de clusters de pobreza rural. Os resultados indicam que a pobreza rural é espacialmen-te autocorrelacionada em algumas áreas da BRSF, nas quais municípios mais (menos pobres tendem a se localizar perto de municí-pios mais (menos pobres. Mais importante, talvez, os resultados sugerem a necessidade de se usar metodologias de análise que consi-derem explicitamente a localização como um fator explanatório da pobreza rural na bacia, como, por exemplo, econometria espacial.

  16. Geochemical assessment of metals and dioxin in sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir and the Gila, San Carlos, and San Francisco Rivers, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stan E.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Marot, Marci E.; Fey, David L.; Adams, Monique; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann

    2005-01-01

    In October 2004, we sampled stream-bed sediment, terrace sediment, and sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir to determine the spatial and chronological variation of six potentially toxic metals-Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, and Hg. Water levels in the San Carlos Reservoir were at a 20-year low at an elevation of 2,409 ft (734.3 m). Four cores were taken from the reservoir: one from the San Carlos River arm, one from the Gila River arm, and two from the San Carlos Reservoir just west of the Pinal County line. Radioisotope chronometry (7Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb) conducted on sediment from the reservoir cores provides a good chronological record back to 1959. Chronology prior to that, during the 1950s, is based on our interpretation of the 137Cs anomaly in reservoir cores. During and prior to the 1950s, the reservoir was dry and sediment-accumulation rates were irregular; age control based on radioisotope data was not possible. We recovered sediment at the base of one 4-m-long core that may date back to the late 1930s. The sedimentological record contains two discrete events, one about 1978-83 and one about 1957, where the Cu concentration in reservoir sediment exceeded recommended sediment quality guidelines and should have had an effect on sensitive aquatic and benthic organisms. Concentrations of Zn determined in sediment deposited during the 1957(?) event also exceeded recommended sediment quality guidelines. Concentration data for Cu from the four cores clearly indicate that the source of this material was upstream on the Gila River. Lead isotope data, coupled with the geochemical data from a 2M HCl-1 percent H2O2 leach of selected sediment samples, show two discrete populations of data. One represents the dominant sediment load derived from the Safford Valley, and a second reflects sediment derived from the San Francisco River. The Cu concentration spikes in the reservoir cores have chemical and Pb isotope signatures that indicate that deposits in a porphyry copper deposit

  17. Adubação verde com leguminosas em videira no submédio São Francisco Green manuring grapevine with legumes in the submiddle São Francisco River Valley

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    C. M. B. Faria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os solos do Vale do Submédio São Francisco são, de modo geral, arenosos, com baixa capacidade de retenção de nutrientes e, por se localizarem numa região semi-árida, são muito pobres em matéria orgânica, conseqüentemente, são deficientes em N, tornando-se limitante para produção agrícola. Dessa forma, o uso de leguminosas como adubo verde pode contornar esse problema, porque adiciona C e N ao solo. O trabalho constituiu-se de dois experimentos de leguminosas consorciadas com a cultura da videira (Vitis vinifera irrigada, realizados em um Argissolo Amarelo de textura arenosa, em Petrolina (PE, de junho de 1996 a julho de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação verde nas características químicas do solo e na produtividade e qualidade da uva. O primeiro experimento foi realizado até à quarta safra de uva. Os tratamentos foram representados por duas leguminosas: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, submetidas a dois manejos (subtratamentos: (a ceifada e deixada na superfície do terreno e (b ceifada e incorporada ao solo, havendo ainda uma testemunha sem leguminosa. O segundo experimento, que se iniciou com o quinto ciclo de produção de uva, abrangeu três tratamentos: (1 testemunha; (2 crotalária júncea e (3 feijão-de-porco, combinados com dois subtratamentos: (1 100 % da adubação recomendada pela análise de solo e (2 50 % dessa adubação. Ao todo, houve onze ciclos de leguminosas e nove safras de uva. A produção de biomassa das leguminosas decresceu ao longo do tempo. A adubação verde proporcionou uma melhoria nas características químicas do solo, aumentando os teores da MO e do Ca trocável e o valor da CTC na camada de 0-10 cm de profundidade. Não houve um efeito consistente da adubação verde na produtividade e qualidade da uva.The soils of the Submiddle São Francisco River Valley are generally sandy, with low nutrient retention capacity. Since they are

  18. Decision support for the management of water resources at Sub-middle of the São Francisco river basin in Brazil using integrated hydro-economic modeling and scenarios for land use changes

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    Moraes, M. G. A.; Souza da Silva, G.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-economic models can measure the economic effects of different operating rules, environmental restrictions, ecosystems services, technical constraints and institutional constraints. Furthermore, water allocation can be improved by considering economical criteria's. Likewise, climate and land use change can be analyzed to provide resilience. We developed and applied a hydro-economic optimization model to determine the optimal water allocation of main users in the Lower-middle São Francisco River Basin in Northeast (NE) Brazil. The model uses demand curves for the irrigation projects, small farmers and human supply, rather than fixed requirements for water resources. This study analyzed various constraints and operating alternatives for the installed hydropower dams in economic terms. A seven-year period (2000-2006) with water scarcity in the past has been selected to analyze the water availability and the associated optimal economic water allocation. The used constraints are technical, socioeconomic and environmental. The economically impacts of scenarios like prioritizing human consumption, impacts of the implementation of the São Francisco river transposition, human supply without high distribution losses, environmental hydrographs, forced reservoir level control, forced reduced reservoir capacity, alteration of lower flow restriction were analyzed. The results in this period show that scarcity costs related ecosystem service and environmental constraints are significant, and have major impacts (increase of scarcity cost) for consumptive users like irrigation projects. In addition, institutional constraints such as prioritizing human supply, minimum release limits downstream of the reservoirs and the implementation of the transposition project impact the costs and benefits of the two main economic sectors (irrigation and power generation) in the region of the Lower-middle of the São Francisco river basin. Scarcity costs for irrigation users generally

  19. Genetic variability in Oligosarcus paranensis (Teleostei: Characiformes from the São Francisco river, Ivaí river basin – Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.14179

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    Michele Rocha dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Oligosarcus paranensis was estimated from a population collected in São Francisco river, Prudentópolis county in Paraná State (Brazil using the electrophoresis in starch gel technique. Eleven enzymatic systems were analyzed: Aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT; E. C. 2.6.1, Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; E. C. 1.1.1.1, Esterase (EST; E. C. 3.1.1.1, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; E. C. 5.3.1.9, Glycerol-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH; E. C. 1.1.1, Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; E. C. 1.1.1.42, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E. C. 1.1.1.27, Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; E. C. 1.1.1.37 , Malate dehydrogenase NADP (ME; E. C. 1.1.1.40, Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E. C. 5.4.2.2 and Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORB; E.C. 1.1.1.14. Twenty loci were identified through 15% corn starch gel electrophoresis of which nine (45% were polymorphic. The average expected heterozygosity was estimated as 0.1229 ± 0.1728, and the observed was 0.0586 ± 0.1069, indicating high genetic variability. The average value of FIS = 0.5145 indicates homozygote excess.  

  20. ASPECTOS REPRODUTIVOS DE Leporinus piau FOWLER, 1941 (OSTEICHTHYES, ANOSTOMIDAE DA BACIA DO RIO SÃO FRANCISCO, SUBMETIDO À DESOVA INDUZIDA REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF THE LEPORINUS PIAU FOWLER, 1941 (Osteichthyes, Anostomidae FROM THE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER BASIN, SUBMITTED TO INDUCED SPAWNING.

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    Edson Vieira Sampaio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Leporinus piau Fowler, 1941, é importante como peixe forrageiro e na pesca da bacia do São Francisco. Fêmeas dessa espécie foram submetidas à desova induzida, mediante a aplicação de duas doses de extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa-comum (EBHC (0,5 e 5 mg.kg-1 para cada fêmea, com intervalo de 14h. A extrusão dos ovócitos ocorreu de 8 a 8,5 h após a aplicação da segunda dose de EBHC com a temperatura da água entre 25 e 26°C. As fêmeas sinalizaram o momento da desova e mais de 71% responderam positivamente ao tratamento, com a liberação de ovócitos férteis. Os ovos de L. piau são livres, demersais, esféricos, opacos e de coloração cinza ou parda. O índice gonadossomático médio foi de 17,8% para fêmeas maduras. As larvas eclodiram 21 horas após a fertilização dos ovos, com a temperatura da água entre 23 e 24°C.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fecundidade, hipofisação, Leporinus piau, mofometria ovocitária e larval, reprodução, rio São Francisco.

    Leporinus piau Fowler, 1941 is important as forage fish and in the fishing of the São Francisco River basin. Females of this species were induced to spawning by the application of two doses of crude carp pituitary extract (CCPE (0.5 and 5 mg.kg-1 of CCPE, with an interval of 14 h between doses. The water temperature of the tanks was maintained between 25 and 26°C.  The oocytes extrusion occurred from 8 to 8.5 hours after second dose of CCPE. The females signal the timing of spawning and more than 71% responded positively to treatment releasing fertile eggs. Eggs of L. piau are free, demersal, round, opaque and gray-brownish. The gonadosomatic index average was 17.8% for mature females. The larvae hatched 21 h after fertilization of eggs, with water temperature maintained between 23 and 24 °C in the incubators.

    KEY WORDS: Fecundity, hypophysation, Leporinus piau, oocyte and larvae morphometry, São Francisco River, reproduction.

  1. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  2. Weight-of-evidence on environmental impact assessment of metal contaminated sediments in the São Francisco river (Três Marias - Minas Gerais - Brazil: a case study

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    DF. Almeida

    Full Text Available The weight-of-evidence - WOE approach was used to assess the environmental impact of sediments contaminated by metals in the São Francisco river and one of its tributaries, Consciência creek, both affected by anthropic activities, in the region of Três Marias (Minas Gerais/Brazil. The assessment provided support to a risk management decision. The WOE was based on bulk metal analysis, AVS-SEM assays, elutriate tests, ecotoxicity assays, benthic community assessment and a comparison for the reference area. Brazilian legislation and other available literature were used as criteria to evaluate the lines of evidence. All samples, except for the reference area, presented some contamination. However, geochemical testing for bioavailability studies showed that toxicity is unlikely as suggested by the chemical results. Ecotoxicity and benthic structure studies provided further information to support decision making. Metal acid volatile sulfide formation mechanisms were identified, which can eventually attenuate metal toxicity observed. The removal of active sources of contamination (for example, from tailings dumps associated with Monitoring Natural Recovery could be sufficient to eventually lessen the risk of the biota in São Francisco river sediments.

  3. Tracing Sources and Biogeochemical Cycling of Ammonium and Nitrate in the Sacramento River and northern San Francisco Bay using Stable Isotope Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Silva, S. R.; Kraus, T. E.; Parker, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    One of the potential causes of declines in several species of fish in the San Francisco Bay Estuary ecosystem is NH4-inhibition of algal productivity in the Delta and Suisun Bay, which is hypothesized to cause pelagic organism decline via cascading trophic interactions. Hence, there is considerable interest in determining the relative contributions of NH4 from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from other kinds of agricultural, wetlands, and urban land uses to the ecosystem, and evaluating their effects on algal growth. N cycling within the ecosystem, including mineralization of organic N, nitrification, assimilation of NH4 and NO3, and other processes might mask the effects of specific sources and control the concentrations and speciation of N. Hence, there is a need for better understanding of N dynamics as well as sources in this ecosystem. To address these issues, we have employed a multi-isotope approach to investigate N source, fate, and transport in the Sacramento River, Delta, and northern Bay. Approximately 25 samples were collected during each of 3 transects along a 100 mile section of the ecosystem in 2008-2009, and analyzed for nutrients, chlorophyll, various physical parameters, NH4-δ15N, NO3-δ15N and δ18O, DIC-δ13C, DOC-δ13C, water-δ18O and δ2H, and seston-δ15N, δ13C, δ34S, and C:N. These data showed many distinctive downstream changes. In particular, NH4 concentrations increased sharply downstream of the Sacramento WWTP, and remained high for over 20 miles before starting a steady decline at ~20 miles upstream of the confluence. The decline in NH4 is mirrored by an increase in NO3 concentrations, and the changes in isotopic composition confirmed that the dominant N cycling process in this reach of the river was nitrification. NH4-δ15N values near the WWTP are ~ +7 permil, and increased downstream to over +20 permil. NO3-δ15N upstream of the WWTP is ~ +6 permil, and ranges between +3 and +9 permil downstream. The downstream changes

  4. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  5. Sao Paulo pelletron accelerator: fortieth anniversary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Dirceu [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This year the 8MV Sao Paulo Pelletron tandem accelerator completes 40 years . This electrostatic accelerator was installed in the Sao Paulo University in 1972 , and it was the first of this model constructed the National Electrostatic Corporation with several innovations particularly with respect to the new concept of accelerator tube and the charge system. In the talk will be discussed the performance of the accelerator during all these years and the main result scientific results. (author)

  6. Anthropic contribution on pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs: the case of Sao Simao's hydroelectric power plant - GO/MG, Brazil; Contribuicao antropica na poluicao de reservatorios hidreletricos: o caso da Usina Hidreletrica de Sao Simao - GO/MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gizele Araujo Borba da

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs through a case study of the Sao Simao Hydropower. The literature relates the problem of eutrophication with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in excess, resulting in water pollution. Through data for both tributary rivers and the reservoir, it was found that the Sao Simao dam presents a framework for eutrophication. We made an analysis to see which tributary rivers were the main sources of nutrients released into the waters of the reservoir and a survey of possible human activities that are contributing to the intake of nutrients in these tributaries. (author)

  7. Reproduction of the surubim catfish (Pisces, Pimelodidae in the São Francisco River, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil Reprodução do surubim (Pisces, Pimelodidae do Rio São Francisco, Região de Pirapora, Minas Gerais

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    M.F.G. Brito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the surubim, P. coruscans of the São Francisco River, in the Pirapora region was studied from December/98 to November/99. Reproduction occurred between October and January with high frequency of fishes in the advanced ripening/mature and spawned/spent stages along with higher values of the gonadosomatic index. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses indicated that P. coruscans presents total spawning. The reproductive period coincided with highest rainfall and water turbidity values in the region. The smallest male captured had a total length of 63.3cm and the smallest female 92.0cm in total length. The largest male in the maturation stage was recorded to be 97.0cm and the largest female 144.1cm in total length. Surubim were more frequently captured than females, at a proportion of approximately one female to three males. The gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic, stomach repletion, and coelomic fat indexes, as well as the condition factor were related to stages of the reproductive cycle.Estudou-se a biologia reprodutiva do surubim Pseudoplatystoma coruscans do Rio São Francisco, na região de Pirapora, Minas Gerais no período de dezembro/98 a novembro/99. A reprodução ocorreu entre outubro e janeiro, com alta freqüência de peixes em maturação avançada/maduros e desovados/espermiados, e os maiores valores do índice gonadossomático nesse período. Análises macro e microscópicas indicaram que P. coruscans apresenta desova total. A época reprodutiva coincidiu com maior turbidez da água e maior incidência de chuva na região. O menor e maior macho capturado em maturação apresentou 63,3cm e 97,0cm e a menor e maior fêmea neste estádio 92,0cm e 144,1cm de comprimento total, respectivamente. Registraram três machos para cada fêmea e somente as fêmeas apresentaram comprimento acima de 100cm. Os índices biológicos gonadossomático, hepatossomático, repleção estomacal, gordura celômica e fator de condi

  8. ENTENDENDO A DINÂMICA CULTURAL EM XINGÓ NA PERSPECTIVA INTER SÍTIOS: INDÚSTRIAS LÍTICAS E OS LUGARES PERSISTENTES NO BAIXO VALE DO RIO SÃO FRANCISCO, NORDESTE DO BRASIL (Entendiendo la dinámica cultural en Xingó en la perspectiva inter-sitios: industrias líticas y los lugares persistentes en el bajo valle del río São Francisco, Nordeste del Brasil; Understanding cultural dynamics in Xingó from an intersite perspective: lithic industries and persistent places in the São Francisco river low valley, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar parte dos resultados da tese de doutoramento acerca da dinâmica cultural evidenciada em dezesseis sítios arqueológicos localizados na Área 03 de Xingó, baixo vale do rio São Francisco, Brasil. Assim, apresentaremos os dados obtidos da pesquisa empírica da organização tecnológica de conjuntos líticos e como foi possível, por meio desses resultados, inferir sobre questões acerca da distribuição espacial dos sítios arqueológicos e suas possíveis inter-relações de forma a indicar um modelo de uso da paisagem à compreensão do sistema regional de assentamento em terraços do baixo vale do rio São Francisco. ESPAÑOL: Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar parte de los resultados de mi tesis de doctorado sobre la dinámica cultural evidenciada en dieciséis sitios arqueológicos ubicados en el Área 03 de Xingó, bajo valle del río São Francisco, Brasil. Por lo tanto, se presentarán los datos obtenidos de la investigación empírica de la organización tecnológica de conjuntos líticos para inferir, por medio de esos resultados, aspectos sobre la distribución espacial de los sitios arqueológicos y sus posibles interrelaciones, buscando generar un modelo de uso del paisaje para la comprensión del sistema regional de asentamiento en bancales del bajo valle del río São Francisco. ENGLISH: This paper presents part of the results of my doctoral thesis on the cultural dynamics of sixteen archaeological sites situated in Area 03 in Xingó, São Francisco river valley, Brazil. Empirical data are presented that demonstrate the technological organization of the lithic industries at the sites. Then, through these data, it is shown what we can infer about the archaeological sites’ spatial distribution and interrelationship. These inferences are used to indicate a model of landscape use that can be used to understand the regional system of distribution and placement of

  9. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  10. Variação espacial e temporal dos fatores limnológicos em riachos da microbacia do rio São Francisco Verdadeiro Spatial and temporal variation i of limnological factors in streams of the micro-basin of the São Francisco Verdadeiro river

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    Luciano C. de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de caracterizar espacial e temporalmente os riachos da microbacia do rio São Francisco Verdadeiro, Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, em função de fatores limnológicos, foram estabelecidas seis estações de coleta em três riachos (Curvado, Ajuricaba e Arroio Fundo, sendo uma estação na foz e outra na nascente. As coletas de água foram obtidas entre junho de 2005 e maio de 2006, totalizando 72 amostras. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: temperatura, pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez, material em suspensão, fósforo total dissolvido, ortofosfato, nitrogênio total e nitrogênio amoniacal. De acordo com a análise de variância, houve baixa variabilidade entre as estações de coleta, porém a variação temporal demonstrou a influência do ciclo hidrológico. A análise de componentes principais (ACP discriminou o sistema com base nos maiores valores registrados para as variáveis limnológicas, ficando separados os períodos influenciados pelas secas e pelas chuvas. A maior parte das variáveis está associada com o período de chuvas, no entanto há concentrações esporádicas de nutrientes na seca e menores valores de oxigênio dissolvido, demonstrando a dificuldade de diluição nesse período, causada pela diminuição da chuva e, consequentemente, do volume de água dos riachos.In order to characterize spatially and temporarily streams of the São Francisco Verdadeiro river micro-basin in Marechal Cândido Rondon, State of Paraná, Brazil, according to limnological factors, six sampling stations were established in three streams (Curvado, Ajuricaba and Arroio Fundo - one station at the mouth of the river and other at the spring of the streams. Water samples were collected between June 2005 and May 2006, totalizing 72 samples. The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, suspended matter, total dissolved phosphorus

  11. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Ellicot Slough NWR, Salinas River NWR, and...

  12. Advancement of Salinity and Flow Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the utility and approximate cost of expanding the salinity water quality monitoring network along the axis of the San Francisco Estuary from Suisun Bay to Rio Vista on the Sacramento River.

  13. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  14. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  15. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detecção de contaminantes em espécie bioindicadora (Corbicula fluminea - Rio Ribeira de Iguape - SP Dectection of contaminants in a bioindicator species (Corbicula fluminea - Ribeira de Iguape River, Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed heavy metal concentrations in the tissue samples of Corbiculafluminea, by ICP-OES. In the tissues, average levels of 23.99 µg/g of Cu, 144.21 µg/g of Zn, 0.71 µg/g of Cd, 7.10 µg/g of Cr and 2.41 µg/g of Pb were detected ahowing that this last value is high and above the ANVISA reference (2.00 µg/g for fish and other products. The results suggest that natural processes occuring in the Ribeira de Iguape River are not sufficient for purification so that metals remain in the water and can accumulate in the trophic chain.

  17. Water transfer from São Francisco river to semiarid northeast of Brazil: technical data, environmental impacts, survey of opinion about the amount to be transferred Transposição do rio São Francisco para o nordeste semiárido do Brasil: dados técnicos, impactos ambientais e enquete sobre o volume transposto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubismar Stolf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transposition of the São Francisco River is considered one of the greatest engineering works in Brazil of all time since it will cross an extensive agricultural region of continental dimensions, involving environmental impacts, water, soil, irrigation, water payment and other multidisciplinary themes. Taking into account its importance, this subject was incorporated into a discipline of UFSCar (Federal University of São Carlos - Brazil named "Pollution and Environmental Impacts". It was noted strong reaction against the project, even before the presentation. To allow a critical analysis, the first objective was to compile the main technical data and environmental impacts. The second objective was to detect the three most important aspects that cause reaction, concluding for the following reasons: assumption that the volume of water to be transferred was much greater than it actually is proposed in the project; lack of knowledge about similar project already done in Brazil; the idea that the artificial canal to be built was much broader than that proposed by the project. The participants' opinion about "volume to be transferred" was raised quantitatively four times: 2-undergraduate students; 1-graduate; 1-outside community. The average resulted 14 times larger than that proposed in the project, significant according to t-test. It was concluded that the reaction to water transfer project is due in part to the ignorance combined with a preconceived idea that tend to overestimate the magnitude of environmental impacts.A transposição do Rio São Francisco, uma das maiores obras de engenharia do Brasil de todos os tempos, cortará uma extensa região agrícola de dimensões continentais, envolvendo temas de caráter multidisciplinar, como impactos ambientais, água, solo, irrigação, outorga de água e outros. Devido a sua importância, incorporou-se a partir de 2005 o tema a uma disciplina denominada Poluição e Impactos ambientais, UFSCar

  18. Evolução de indicadores do ponto de colheita em manga 'Tommy Atkins' durante o crescimento e a maturação, nas condições do vale do São Francisco, Brasil Evolution of harvest time indicators on 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit during growth and maturation at São Francisco River Valley conditions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a evolução dos principais indicadores do ponto de colheita sugeridos para a manga (Mangifera indica L., durante o crescimento e a maturação de frutos da cultivar Tommy Atkins, nas condições do Vale do São Francisco. Por ocasião da frutificação, foram selecionadas quarenta e oito plantas, distribuídas uniformemente em quatro fileiras de plantio de um pomar comercial. Nessas plantas, foram marcados seiscentos frutos, no estádio de desenvolvimento denominado "ovo" (40 mm de diâmetro, o que foi verificado aos 52 dias após a frutificação (daf. Periodicamente, até o completo amadurecimento na planta, foram coletadas amostras desses frutos, correspondentes à idade, aos 52, 64, 72, 83, 92, 99, 106, 113, 120, 125, 128, 133 e 139 daf. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos (idade dos frutos e quatro repetições constituídas por dez frutos. As mudanças ocorridas na coloração a partir de 99 daf e na firmeza da polpa foram os indicadores que melhor delimitaram o início da maturação das mangas, devendo ser acompanhados por meio de amostragem da área. As mudanças na acidez titulável e nos teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de carotenóides totais da polpa também foram indicativas da evolução da maturação. A polpa da manga madura apresentou o máximo teor de SS e teores de ácido ascórbico e de carotenóides totais inferiores aos dos frutos no início da maturação.The aim of this study was to characterize the evolution of the main harvest time indicators suggested to mango fruit (Mangifera indica L., during growth and maturation, at the São Francisco River Valley conditions. At the fruit set stage, forty-eight plants uniformly distributed on four rows were selected from a commercial orchard. From these plants, six hundred fruits were selected at the development stage known as "egg" (40 mm of diameter, which were verified at 52 days after fruit

  19. Biologia reprodutiva e reprodução induzida de duas espécies de Characidae (Osteichthyes, Characiformes da bacia do São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil Reproductive biology and induced breeding of two Characidae species (Osteichthyes, Characiformes from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Sato

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 são duas importantes espécies de peixes forrageiros da bacia do São Francisco. Espécimes destas duas espécies foram submetidos à indução da desova através de hipofisação, para observação de aspectos reprodutivos e obtenção de subsídios para definição de protocolo de reprodução artificial. Machos e fêmeas receberam dose única de extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa comum (6 mg/kg de peixe. A extrusão de ovócitos foi realizada cerca de 12,8 e 11 h após a aplicação da injeção de hipófise, respectivamente para A. bimaculatus e T. chalceus, com a temperatura da água a 26ºC. Mais de 70% das fêmeas das duas espécies responderam positivamente ao tratamento e as taxas médias de fertilização dos ovos foram acima de 70%. Os ovócitos de A. bimaculatus e T. chalceus são esféricos, opacos, demersais, levemente adesivos, de coloração amarela ou parda, e contendo em média respectivamente 4774 e 2563 ovos por grama de ova. O desenvolvimento embrionário nas duas espécies foi rápido, com duração de menos de um dia, estando a temperatura da água entre 24 e 25ºC.Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 are two important foraging species occurring at the São Francisco River basin. Specimens from both species were submitted to spawning induction through hypophysation, to study some reproductive features and to obtain subsidiary information for the definition of the artificial reproduction protocol. Males and females were treated with a single dose of crude carp pituitary extract (6 mg/kg. In water at 26ºC, the extrusion of the oocytes was made 12,8 and 11 hours after the hypophisis injection, for A. bimaculatus and T. chalceus respectively. More than 70% of the females of both species showed a positive response to the treatment and mean egg fertilization rates were above 70%. The eggs of A

  20. Francisco J. Ayala

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    Con ocasión del Congreso “La idea de evolución. 150 años después de Darwin” entrevistamos al biólogo y profesor español (nacionalizado estadounidense) Francisco J. Ayala. Es especialista en evolución. Discípulo de Theodosius Dobzhansky. Después de ser ordenado sacerdote dominico en 1960, se desplazó a Estados Unidos, donde reside en la actualidad. Investiga e imparte clases de biología en la Universidad de California en Irvine.

  1. Los Angeles og San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1998-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  2. DISTRIBUTION AND COMPOSITION OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY DURING LOW FRESHWATER FLOW CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of organic matter was studied in northern San Francisco Bay monthly through spring and summer 1996 along the salinity gradient from the Sacramento River to Central Bay. Dissolved constituents included monosaccharides (MONO), total carbohydrates (TCHO), dissolved ...

  3. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  4. Indicadores ambientais para o estudo da contribuição da bioengenharia na sucessão ecológica da Mata Ciliar na margem direita do Rio São Francisco - ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE STUDY OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF BIOENGINEERING IN ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF FOREST IN CILIARY MARGIN RIGHT OF SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ferreira Ribeiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O maior problema ambiental que se destaca no rio São Francisco é a erosão, tais conseqüências ambientais são fornecidas entre elas o aumento da turbidez nos corpos hídricos, perda da área produtiva e assoreamento do rio devido à devastação das matas ciliares, o que acarreta a diminuição da biodiversidade na região. No processo de contenção da erosão, é necessário ser feito um estudo da mata ciliar, uma vez que a mesma pode auxiliar na contenção da erosão, preservando a integridade do solo contra os efeitos danosos da erosão. A utilização de indicadores para o estudo da sucessão ecológica de espécies de mata ciliar na margem direita do rio São Francisco oferece uma melhor compreensão e dimensão do problema que atinge a área. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a construção de indicadores ambientais como ferramenta para uma melhor compreensão da contribuição da bioengenharia na sucessão ecológica na margem direita do Rio São Francisco. A identificação de indicadores ambientais para o estudo do sistema “contribuição da bioengenharia na sucessão ecológica da mata ciliar no Baixo São Francisco”, mostrou-se como uma ferramenta de grande importância para uma melhor compreensão do sistema, permitindo práticas de recuperação mais viáveis.

  5. Variabilidade do vento na bacia hidrográfi ca do rio São Francisco durante a ocorrência da ZCAS / Variability of the wind in the hidrographic basin of the São Francisco river during ZCAS occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djane Fonseca da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O rio São Francisco é um dos rios brasileiros mais extensos e sua importância também está no volume de água transportado por ele através da região semi-árida, na sua contribuição histórica e econômica para fi xação das populações ribeirinhas e na criação das cidades hoje plantadas ao longo do vale. O principal mecanismo produtor de chuvas sobre a bacia do rio São Francisco é a Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS. A intensidade e direção do vento são variáveis de grande interesse nos estudos de balanço de água. Portanto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a climatologia do vento e sua variabilidade na bacia do rio São Francisco. Foram utilizados dados mensais de ventos, componentes zonal e meridional, oriundos da Reanálise do NCEP/NCAR no período de 1982-1994, em três faixas de longitude (40ºW, 42,5ºW e 45ºW entre as latitudes de 25ºS e 5ºS. Observou-se que nas longitudes de 42,5ºW e 45ºW, a posição média da ZCAS está em torno de 20º S. Também foi observado que a posição da ZCAS apresenta uma grande variabilidade interanual, pois, de dezembro/1982 a fevereiro/1983 a ZCAS posicionou-se ao sul de 25ºS, enquanto no período de dezembro/1988 a fevereiro/1989 estava em torno de 15ºS. O posicionamento médio meridional da ZCAS em torno de 20º é de fundamental importância para produção de chuva sobre a bacia do rio São Francisco.

  6. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  7. Le nom des Sao : Approche étymologique

    OpenAIRE

    Tourneux, Henry

    2008-01-01

    De nombreuses légendes courent sur l'origine des Sao (peuple mythique des abords du lac Tchad). L'auteur ne prétend pas ici aborder cette question, mais simplement étudier le sens étymologique du nom "sao", en faisant appel à la comparaison entre différentes langues kotoko de la région du bassin du lac Tchad.

  8. Dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons in the Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Weber, Rolf Roland [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A monitoring programme at Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was conducted in terms of dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (DDPAH) in water analysed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The study was done in order to establish a baseline data for this area and verify the petroleum hydrocarbon influence from the oil terminal (DTCS) and other human activities over the channel. The DDPAH concentrations on subsurface waters were low and only one station presented a chronic local contribution. An oil spill occurred in May 1994 and it was followed-up to verify its influence in this area. The obtained data were important to verity the influence of the oil spill along the channel. The oil spill reached the majority of the sampling stations, and the highest mean concentration found was close to the accident point (49.6 {mu}g I{sup -1}). Due to the intense wind driven currents of the Channel area, however, the elevation of the hydrocarbons levels in the surface waters was only temporary. (Author)

  9. Application of gamma radiation for recovery of papers infected by fungi: case study about Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auada, Fernanda Mokdessi; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: fmokdessi@usp.br, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.br, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usf.edu.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade São Francisco (USF), Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The material studied in this work was flooded in the city of Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil on January 2010 during a record flood suffered by the river that pass through the region. The documentary collection belonging to the City Hall underwent emergency drying and recovery treatments including irradiation with gamma rays to the destruction of various cellulosic fungi. Seven record books with many pages in blank and presenting severe fungal and mold infestation were provided by the Public Archive of the State of Sao Paulo, in charge of the damaged official documents, as samples for the present investigation on the effects of gamma radiation in the recovery and preservation of paper supported collections that are victims of biological contamination. This study represents a very rare possibility of working with a real object of actual use, which suffered a real disaster, and not with material prepared in laboratory and subjected to a forged flood situation. (author)

  10. Indicadores ambientais para o estudo da contribuição da bioengenharia na sucessão ecológica da Mata Ciliar na margem direita do Rio São Francisco - ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE STUDY OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF BIOENGINEERING IN ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF FOREST IN CILIARY MARGIN RIGHT OF SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Ferreira Ribeiro; Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda; Renisson Nepomuceno de Araújo Filho

    2010-01-01

    O maior problema ambiental que se destaca no rio São Francisco é a erosão, tais conseqüências ambientais são fornecidas entre elas o aumento da turbidez nos corpos hídricos, perda da área produtiva e assoreamento do rio devido à devastação das matas ciliares, o que acarreta a diminuição da biodiversidade na região. No processo de contenção da erosão, é necessário ser feito um estudo da mata ciliar, uma vez que a mesma pode auxiliar na contenção da erosão, preservando a integridade do solo con...

  11. Sao Paulo jätkab biennaali / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Sao Paulo biennaal sai 50aastaseks. Kuni 29. VII toimunud juubelinäitusest. 2002. a. leiab aset XXV Sao Paulo biennaal "Metropoliikonograafiad", kus esinevad kunstnikud kaheksast maailma suurlinnast.

  12. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  13. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercurycontaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities.

  14. Automation in the Libraries of the City of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty selected Sao Paulo, Brazil, librarians who were interviewed indicated that, in their opinion, the development of library automation in this city is hampered by poor resources and cooperation, lack of professional and technical automation expertise, communication, and other psychological, organizational, and human related factors.…

  15. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  16. Constructing a Public Popular Education in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pia Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    Examines school reform implemented by Paulo Freire and the Workers' Party in Sao Paulo during 1989-92. Focuses on various institutional mechanisms created to support teachers' efforts to learn the skills necessary for realization of reform objectives. Appendices list reform objectives and outline phases and activities in a teacher-directed…

  17. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Genetic population structure of two migratory freshwater fish species (Brycon orthotaenia and Prochilodus argenteus from the São Francisco River in Brazil and its significance for conservation Estructura genética poblacional de dos especies de peces migratorios de agua dulce (Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus en la cuenca del Río San Francisco (Brasil y su importancia para la conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sanches

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous geoetic studies cooducted with migratory fish populatioos from dowostream of the Três Marias dam io the São Fraocisco River Basio (Brazil have documeoted the occurreoce of populatioo structuriog, as reported for Brycon orthotaenia aod Prochilodus argenteus, two commercially importaot species io this basio. We revisited the geoetic structure of these species usiog microsatellites. B. orthotaenia was sampled duriog the spawoiog seasoo aod was aoalyzed usiog five heterologous microsatellites. P. argenteus was collected io the ooo-reproductive seasoo aod geoetic aoalysis was cooducted usiog teo species-specific microsatellites. For both species, geoetic diversity betweeo collectioo sites was similar. Coosideriog B. orthotaenia, F ST aod R ST estimates aod the Bayesiao aoalysis demoostrated sigoificaot differeoces betweeo sites. Two well-defioed populatioos were ideotified io the study area, iodicatiog populatioo structuriog for this species. No sigoificaot differeoces were fouod for P. argenteus. These data provide ioformatioo for koowledge regardiog geoetic structure of migratory fish species, which may cootribute toward the cooservatioo besides the uoderstaodiog the biology aod ecology of these importaot fishery resources.Estudios geoéticos aoteriores realizados coo poblaciooes de peces migratorios de aguas abajo de la represa de las Tres Marías eo la cueoca del río Sao Fraocisco (Brasil hao documeotado casos de estructuracióo geoética, como se ha descrito para Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus, dos especies de importaocia comercial. Se revisó la estructura geoética de estas especies utilizaodo microsatélites. Se obtuvieroo muestras de B. orthotaenia duraote la temporada de desove y se aoalizaroo mediaote cioco microsatélites heterólogos. Muestras de P. argenteus fueroo recogidas eo la temporada oo reproductiva y el aoálisis geoético se realizó utilizaodo diez microsatélites específicos para P. argenteus. Para

  19. 78 FR 18238 - Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... William Hawn, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at D11-PF-Marine... navigable waters around the SFPD's maritime interdiction training exercises. The SFPD Training Safety ] Zone... Hunters Point in San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Police Department's maritime...

  20. Francisco Toledo, artista de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ortiz Castañares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the art of Francisco Toledo (1940 - considered one of the greatest living Mexican artists - has consisted, since its origin, on the recover of the prehispanic culture as an aesthetic and ethical resource, in dialogue with international contemporary culture. A dialectic that is analysed throughout this text, including particularly problematic aspects of his biography, beginning from his identification with the pre Hispanic culture. It is therefore a bird's eye study, which selects certain founding characteristics of the artist and his work.

  1. ENTREVISTA A FRANCISCO MICHAVILA PITARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Equipo Editorial

    2009-01-01

    Francisco Michavila Pitarch, Catedrático de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid y Rector honorario de la Jaume I de Castellón. Ha sido director de la ETSI de Minas de la UPM, secretario general del Consejo de Universidades y rector de la Universitat Jaume I. Actualmente es el Director de la Cátedra UNESCO de Gestión y Política Universitaria. En el año 2007 se le concedió la Gran Cruz de la Orden Civil de Alfonso X el Sabio, distinción que se otorga a personas que hayan contribuido en grad...

  2. Characteristics and Trends of Luxury Commerce in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Costa Da Silva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the consolidation of consumption as prime stage of the production process and the diffusion of new forms of commerce in the city, as foundations for analyzing the urban space reproduction process in the contemporary period. Having as research place the metropolis of Sao Paulo - Brazil, we conducted an analysis and some thoughts on the place of commerce and consumption of luxury goods in the urban space reproduction process, analyzed from the perspective of the exten...

  3. Crime in Sao Paulo's metro system : sexual crimes against women

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccato, Vania; Paz, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates personal safety conditions in the Sao Paulo metro, the largest rapid transit system in Brazil. The study looks at all types of crimes, but devotes special attention to the nature and spatio-temporal dynamics of sexual crimes against women while in transit. The methodology combines Geographical Information System and crime records with data collected using Google Street View and other secondary data into a set of regression models. Findings show that sexual violence is...

  4. Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    The statistical data on gross domestic product and expenditure, land distribution, production of principal agricultural crops, energy production and consumption, imports of petroleum products, cost structure of petroleum products, consumer price index, and financial transactions of the central government of the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome have been presented. The summary accounts of banking institutions, structure of interest rates, composition of exports, import, and terms-of-trade indic...

  5. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Heavy or high-specific gravity minerals make up a small but diagnostic component of sediment that is well suited for determining the provenance and distribution of sediment transported through estuarine and coastal systems worldwide. By this means, we see that surficial sand-sized sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System comes primarily from the Sierra Nevada and associated terranes by way of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and is transported with little dilution through the San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate. Heavy minerals document a slight change from the strictly Sierran-Sacramento mineralogy at the confluence of the two rivers to a composition that includes minor amounts of chert and other Franciscan Complex components west of Carquinez Strait. Between Carquinez Strait and the San Francisco Bar, Sierran sediment is intermingled with Franciscan-modified Sierran sediment. The latter continues out the Gate and turns southward towards beaches of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Sierran sediment also fans out from the San Francisco Bar to merge with a Sierran province on the shelf in the Gulf of the Farallones. Beach-sand sized sediment from the Russian River is transported southward to Point Reyes where it spreads out to define a Franciscan sediment province on the shelf, but does not continue southward to contribute to the sediment in the Golden Gate area.

  6. SEGMENTATION IN TOURISTIC SECTOR: LGBT TOURISTS OF SAO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Sanitá Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the tourism segment LGBT (Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender of Sao Paulo city and gather information about his profile as important support for the tourism sector in defining their marketing strategies. It was carried out an exploratory and statistical data from government and representatives of this public for a description and analysis of data on the composition and profile of this segment, as well as the strategies being used by companies to captivate it and loyalty it. It also composes a Descriptive Study carried out by the Tourism Observatory of São Paulo next to the participants of the Sao Paulo Gay Parade in 2011. As results, it appears that LGBT public presents behavioral particularities as buyers of tourist products, providing during their stay, higher investments than others tourism segments, because it comes as a tourist for a longer period of stay in Sao Paulo, thus leaving more financial resources in the city. It also presents as results, examples of effective use of differentiation strategies by organizations, attraction, service and loyalty in this segment.

  7. Geomorphology; Geochronology; São Francisco river; Northeast of Brazil. / Geological and geomorphological characterization of the State Park of Ibitipoca, MG (Brazil: ground for the understanding of its geopatrimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Carla Moreira Bento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The State Park of Ibitipoca (PEI is a state conservation unit most visited in the state of Minas Gerais,according to data from State Forest Institute (IEF, 2012 and these statistics reflect the great scenic beautyof its geopatrimony, such as caves, waterfalls, river beaches, stone bridge, etc. The objective of this studyis to make the local geological and morphological characterization so that one can understand the existinggeopatrimony there. One hopes that the information made available here may be, in the future, adaptedand passed on to the park visitors, promoting not only the contemplation, but also the understanding ofgeopatrimony, under the perspective of valuing this aspect of nature.

  8. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  9. Constraints on the sedimentation history of San Francisco Bay from 14C and 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGeen, A.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Luoma, S.N.; Fuller, C.C.; Baskaran, M.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.

    1999-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization around San Francisco Bay as well as mining and agriculture in the watersheds of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers have profoundly modified sedimentation patterns throughout the estuary. We provide some constraints on the onset of these erosional disturbances with 10Be data for three sediment cores: two from Richardson Bay, a small embayment near the mouth of San Francisco Bay, and one from San Pablo Bay, mid-way between the river delta and the mouth. Comparison of pre-disturbance sediment accumulation determined from three 14C-dated mollusk shells in one Richardson Bay core with more recent conditions determined from the distribution of 210Pb and 234Th [Fuller, C.C., van Geen, A., Baskaran, M, Anima, R.J., 1999. Sediment chronology in San Francisco Bay, California, defined by 210Pb, 234Th, 239,240Pu.] shows that the accumulation rate increased by an order of magnitude at this particular site. All three cores from San Francisco Bay show subsurface maxima in 10Be concentrations ranging in magnitude from 170 to 520 x 106 atoms/g. The transient nature of the increased 10Be input suggests that deforestation and agricultural develop- ment caused basin-wide erosion of surface soils enriched in 10Be. probably before the turn of the century.

  10. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. 77 FR 15799 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132... identity that can be reasonably traced between the basket and the Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa..., San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415) 338...

  12. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132, telephone (415.... Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably... Boland Fentress, San Francisco State University, Academic Affairs-ADM 447, San Francisco, CA 94132...

  13. Comparative analysis of long-term chlorophyll data with generalized additive model - San Francisco Bay and St. Lucie Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health of estuarine ecosystems is often influenced by hydraulic and nutrient loading from upstream watersheds. We examined four decades of monitoring data of nutrient export into the Indian River Lagoon and San Francisco Bay, both of which have received considerable attentio...

  14. Assimilation Studies Off Cape Sao Vicente (southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, J.; Monteiro, M.

    In April 2001 the Portuguese Navy conducted a naval exercise (Swordfish 2001) in the area off Cape Sao Vicente, in the southwest tip of Portugal. The operational environ- mental assessment (OEA) component of this exercise, conducted by Instituto Hidro- grafico, intended to provide forecasts of the oceanographic conditions to the naval forces. A program of observations, which included CTD casts to maximum depth of 2500m and AXBTs casts to maximum depth 1000m, was conducted in the area be- tween 35zN and 39zN and from 7zW to 12.5zW. Forecasts of the oceanographic con- ditions were produced using the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) with as- similation of the hydrographic data. The period covered by the exercise was character- ized by predominant southerly winds, forcing upwelling conditions along the western Portuguese coast. These conditions promote the development of a large cold upwelling filament that extended a few hundreds of kilometers southwards Cape Sao Vicente. In this communication we present several results obtained for the period between 18 to 28 April 2001, marked by an event of two days of inversion of the upwelling favor- able. The numerical runs were obtained using two nested domains, one covering the global area of observations and the second one covering the shelf and slope area off Cape Sao Vicente. Double-sigma coordinates were used in both domains, with a total of 20 sigma levels. The surface forcing used the wind fields generated by ALADIN- Portugal, a limited area model (12.7-km grid resolution) nested on a global model (ARPEGE).

  15. April 1906 San Francisco, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  16. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  17. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  18. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  19. Surviving the Present: San Francisco Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tom

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the services of the San Francisco Public Library with respect to the effects of Proposition 13 and inflation, and describes the roles of the Main Library, the Business Branch, the Chinatown Branch, and the Communications Center. (CHC)

  20. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-12-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  1. Clinical engineering & equipment policy for Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive equipment policy was established for the health system of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Research, development and regulation issues were integrated with all phases of the equipment life cycle, including: planning, procurement, acceptance testing, commissioning, maintenance, repair, refitting, and decommissioning. This policy was implemented by a multidisciplinary group, which advised and coordinated planning and procurement, created a technology management and maintenance network composed of clinical engineering teams and reference centers, and worked closely with manufacturers, universities and research institutes to improve the quality and increase the variety of domestic medical products in order to substitute for imported devices.

  2. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  3. Medical genetics services in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, Decio

    2004-01-01

    The city of Sao Paulo is located in the center of a metropolitan area with nearly 18 million inhabitants and 300,000 births/year. The currently existing medical genetics services are unable to meet the demand, due to their insufficient physical and personnel infrastructure. Institutions and experts in medical genetics could give short training and refresher courses to health professionals to enable them to work in the public health network. The city has a reasonably well developed health care network, represented by the Single Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS) and by the Family Health Program (Programa de Saude da Familia - PSF). The financial resources for such actions originate in the budget of the managing agencies of such systems. The limitations of genetic services provided to the population of the city could be overcome in a short period of time by developing programs within the public health care network. The city has institutions, professionals and financial resources to make this project feasible. To that end, the competent authorities of the Sao Paulo State and City Secretariats of Health should take managerial responsibility for the genetic services in the city. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. GiSAO.db: a database for ageing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillari Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related gene expression patterns of Homo sapiens as well as of model organisms such as Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of ageing. For an effective analysis and interpretation of expression profiles it is necessary to store and manage huge amounts of data in an organized way, so that these data can be accessed and processed easily. Description GiSAO.db (Genes involved in senescence, apoptosis and oxidative stress database is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving ageing-related experimental data. Expression data of genes and miRNAs, annotation data like gene identifiers and GO terms, orthologs data and data of follow-up experiments are stored in the database. A user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. KEGG pathways were incorporated and links to external databases augment the information in GiSAO.db. Search functions facilitate retrieval of data which can also be exported for further processing. Conclusions We have developed a centralized database that is very well suited for the management of data for ageing research. The database can be accessed at https://gisao.genome.tugraz.at and all the stored data can be viewed with a guest account.

  5. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  6. Results of Occupational Monitoring Program in Technologic Navy Center in Sao Paulo; Resultados do programa de monitoracao ocupacional do Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Clarice F.A.; Bitelli, Ricardo D.; Oliveira, Rodemir, E-mail: clarice.acosta@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: bitelli@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rodemir@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The CTMSP, Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, is a nuclear research Center located in the State of Sao Paulo. CTMSP headquarters is placed at the Campus of the University of Sao Paulo. Most of CTMSP nuclear facilities are at the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located 120 km northwest from the Capital city of Sao Paulo. CTMSP has two major nuclear programs. One is the development of a PWR reactor for naval propulsion, and the other is associated with the front end fuel cycle technology comprising enrichment, conversion and reconversion. These activities require an extensive area monitoring program. This paper presents the results of this program covering the years of 2003 to 2011. The results include surface monitoring, dose rates and uranium concentrations in the air. (author)

  7. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  8. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  9. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the...

  10. 77 FR 37603 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  11. 76 FR 14051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice... of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American human remains and... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA...

  12. 77 FR 59648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University... contains Augustine Pattern components along with ethnohistoric and historic era materials. In 1997, human... between the archeological record and historic material culture as early as 500 B.C. Ethnographic records...

  13. A Cooperative Project for Electrical Engineering Education at UNESP--Sao Paulo State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Janio Itiro; Torres, Germano Lambert; Origa de Oliveira, Luiz C.; Loyolla, Waldomiro

    UNESP--Sao Paulo State University--is a successful experiment at the Multicampus University in Brazil, maintaining intense and diversified education activities in the most developed state of the Federation, the Sao Paulo State. The multicampus structure that consists of 15 university campuses and two advanced ones, distributed throughout the State…

  14. Francisco Miranda, Director de Colciencias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2006-09-01

    De su desempeño en Sussex (universidad distinguida mundialmente por sus estudios sobre desarrollo tecnológico, transferencia de tecnología y administración de proyectos se recibieron siempre los mejores informes, que lo colocaron en el alto nivel de los latinoamericanos ilustres que han pasado larga o brevemente por dicho claustro, como Máximo Halty-Carrere del Uruguay, Francisco Sagasti del Perú o Fernando Chaparro de Colombia. Con ese bagaje regresó al país donde fue designado como Director Administrativo del Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigación Médica (CIDEIM de Cali, cargo que ocupó de 1992 a 2002; y al terminar ese decenio fue nombrado por la Junta Directiva como Director Ejecutivo, cargo que ocupó hasta su designación en COLCIENCIAS. En Cali ha ocupado también distinguidas posiciones, tales como Miembro del Consejo Directivo de la Fundación Planeta Valle y del Consejo de Internacionalización de la Universidad Javeriana en esa ciudad...

  15. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figuty, L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Setor de Arqueologia; Baffa, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2006-03-15

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05{+-}0.07) Gy and (9.50{+-}0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  16. Rehabilitation of Sao Sebastiao-Cubatao oil pipeline: integrated planning and action - key for project success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado J.M. [GDK S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The execution of the OSBAT 24{sup o}il pipeline rehabilitation project, comprising the substitution of a 30 km section of the 37 years old pipeline has become a real benchmark in the history of this kind of job. The pipeline is inserted in one of the most sensitive environmental areas of the Sao Paulo State - the last Environmental Protection Area of the Mata Atlantica . The growth of human presence in its surroundings during the last three decades, has caused the right-of-way to be totally confined by luxury housing developments, streets, highways and resorts, as well as by the local communities and their activities, schools, and commerce. The pipeline runs through the Serra do Mar unstable mountain range slopes, with sequences of very steep hills and ravines followed by swamps and rivers. The success of such a challenging project - assembling the new line in a narrow ROW with all its restrictions, where the old line was still in operation, and complying with the tight work schedule required by PETROBRAS, was only possible due to a carefully managed combination of: accurate planning, best engineering methods and equipment and experienced workforce, deeply integrated in a massive effort towards safety, environmental care and social responsibility. (author)

  17. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa, which border the San Francisco Bay. The area also... proceed along the San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Cruz County shoreline (across the Quadrangles of San... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Francisco Bay. 9.157...

  18. El universo literario de Francisco Umbral

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    El universo literario de Francisco Umbral Mi meta es probar la originalidad de la relación de Francisco Umbral con su propia obra a la cual dedicó la mayor parte de su vida, llevando al mismo tiempo una carrera de periodista, esencialmente columnista de prensa, desde los años sesenta y de escritor, difícil de clasificar, fuera de los géneros tradicionales, pero con una tendencia marcada hacia el memorialismo personal. Desde siempre, Umbral ha compaginado una colaboración con órganos d...

  19. La danza macabra de Francisco Amighetti

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo-Salazar, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    En este ensayo se realizará un análisis del grabado El Borracho Abrazado de la Muerte, realizado en 1947 por el artista costarricense Francisco Amighetti Ruiz (1907-1998). La obra forma parte de los 31 grabados que ilustran el libro Francisco en Harlem, escrito por el propio artista, publicado en 1947. Este texto narra parte de las aventuras del autor en Harlem, Nueva York, en 1943. La imagen del grabado muestra a un hombre abrazado a un esqueleto, los dos caminan por una acera donde hay un b...

  20. 78 FR 34895 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards.... The PATCOM is empowered to forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be...

  1. [The demographic characteristics of slaves in Sao Paulo, 1777-1829].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, F V

    1992-01-01

    "The introduction and development of sugar and coffee production in Sao Paulo [Brazil] led to deep changes in its populational structure. The large number of slaves who entered the province, mainly adult men, destroyed the population's relative balance, both in terms of sex and age structures. The study, based on manuscripts known as ¿Macos de Populacao' which belong to the Arquivo do Estado de Sao Paulo, covers twenty-five different communities in Sao Paulo, in the years 1777, 1804 and 1829. The demographic characteristics of the slaves and their relation with economic variables were analysed.... Special attention was given to the slaves' marriage and their reproductive capacity." (EXCERPT)

  2. LOWER SAN FRANCISCO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, James C.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Lower San Francisco study area consists of about 40 sq mi, in a strip between 1 and 6 mi wide, along a 20-30 mi stretch of the San Francisco River in Arizona and New Mexico. The study area and contiguous roadless areas were examined for mineral potential and found to have an area of probable mineral-resource potential for base- or precious-metal deposits in middle to upper Tertiary volcanic rocks. The entire area has a largely unassessable potential for base-metal deposits related to igneous intrusives of Laramide age, like those in the nearby Morenci mining district, Arizona. The contiguous roadless area has an area of probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum or copper deposits related to intrusive igneous rocks in the core of a dacitic volcano of Oligocene age. An area in the west part of the study area has a probable geothermal-resource potential.

  3. Environmental contaminant investigation of water quality, sediment and biota of the upper Gila River Basin, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water, sediment, lizard, and avian samples and fish (whole body and fillet) were collected in 1990 form several locations along the Gila and San Francisco Rivers in...

  4. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  5. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2012. Ano base 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  6. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  7. Water usage in bio ethanol production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de M.; Gomes, Rodolfo D.M.; Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F.; Mosqueira-Salazar, Klever Joao; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2012-07-01

    The chapter approaches the water availability, water use legislation, charges and taxes in the state of Sao Paulo, legislation regarding water disposal, potential for reducing water consumption, demand water streams, reusing water streams, and closing water circuits.

  8. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  9. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  10. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  11. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  12. In vitro electromagnetically stimulated SAOS-2 osteoblasts inside porous hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, Lorenzo; Saino, Enrica; Sbarra, Maria Sonia; Visai, Livia; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Magenes, Giovanni; Benazzo, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    One of the key challenges in reconstructive bone surgery is to provide living constructs that possess the ability to integrate in the surrounding tissue. Bone graft substitutes, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and biomaterials have been widely used to heal critical-size long bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, congenital deformity, and tissue degeneration. In particular, porous hydroxyapatite is widely used in reconstructive bone surgery owing to its biocompatibility. In addition, the in vitro modification of hydroxyapatite with osteogenic signals enhances the tissue regeneration in vivo, suggesting that the biomaterial modification could play an important role in tissue engineering. In this study we have followed a biomimetic strategy where electromagnetically stimulated SAOS-2 human osteoblasts proliferated and built their extracellular matrix inside a porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. The electromagnetic stimulus had the following parameters: intensity of the magnetic field equal to 2 mT, amplitude of the induced electric tension equal to 5 mV, frequency of 75 Hz, and pulse duration of 1.3 ms. In comparison with control conditions, the electromagnetic stimulus increased the cell proliferation and the surface coating with bone proteins (decorin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, type-I collagen, and type-III collagen). The physical stimulus aimed at obtaining a better modification of the biomaterial internal surface in terms of cell colonization and coating with bone matrix. PMID:19827111

  13. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  14. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Talita; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Yamaguishi, Renata Bazante, E-mail: taoliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, Luciana Carvalho Bezerra de; Castro, Paula Maria Genova de; Monteiro Junior, Adalberto Jose; Maruyama, Lidia Sumile, E-mail: lcbm@usp.br [Instituto de Pesca, (IP/SAA-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de Sao Paulo

    2013-07-01

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  15. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  16. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Taricco, Mario Augusto; Plese, José Píndaro P; Flores, Camila; Teixeira, Saulo A; Luzio, José

    2014-03-01

    The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time) organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  17. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  18. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1998. Ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997.

  19. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil; Estudo de localizacao de termoeletricas no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas; Ramos, Dorel Soares; Vieira, Silas [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliane@pea.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used.

  20. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  1. Morphological evolution in the San Francisco Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    San Francisco Bight, located near the coast of San Francisco, USA, is an extremely dynamic tidal inlet environmental subject to large waves and strong currents. Wave heights coming from the Pacific Ocean commonly exceed 5 m during winter storms. During peak flow tidal currents approach 3 m/s at the Golden Gate, a 1 km wide entrance that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. Flow structure in this region varies markedly spatially and temporally due to the complex interaction by wind, waves and tidal currents. A multibeam sonar survey was recently completed that mapped in high resolution, for the first time, the bottom morphology in the region of the ebb tidal delta. This data set includes a giant sand wave field covering an area of approximately 4 square kilometers. The new survey enables the calculation of seabed change that has occurred in the past 50 years, since the last comprehensive survey of the area was completed. This comparison indicates an average erosion of 60 centimeters which equates to a total volume change of approximately 9.3 x 107 m3. Morphologic change also indicates that flood channels have filled and that the entire ebb delta is contracting radially.

  2. Interannual variability in dissolved inorganic nutrients in northern San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.H.; Smith, R.E.; Hager, S.W.; Harmon, D.D.; Herndon, R.E.; Schemel, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Nearly two decades of seasonal dissolved inorganic nutrient-salinity distributions in northern San Francisco Bay estuary (1960-1980) illustrate interannual variations in effects of river flow (a nutrient source) and phytoplankton productivity (a nutrient sink). During winter, nutrient sources dominate the nutrient-salinity distribution patterns (nutrients are at or exceed conservative mixing concentrations). During summer, however, the sources and sinks are in close competition. In summers of wet years, the effects of increased river flow often dominate the nutrient distributions (nutrients are at or less than conservative mixing concentrations), whereas in summers of dry years, phytoplankton productivity dominates (the very dry years 1976-1977 were an exception for reasons not yet clearly known). Such source/sink effects also vary with chemical species. During summer the control of phytoplankton on nutrient distributions is apparently strongest for ammonium, less so for nitrate and silica, and is the least for phosphate. Furthermore, the strength of the silica sink (diatom productivity) is at a maximum at intermediate river flows. This relation, which is in agreement with other studies based on phytoplankton abundance and enumeration, is significant to the extent that diatoms are an important food source for herbivores. The balance or lack of balance between nutrient sources and sinks varies from one estuary to another just as it can from one year to another within the same estuary. At one extreme, in some estuaries river flow dominates the estuarine dissolved inorganic nutrient distributions throughout most of the year. At the other extreme, phytoplankton productivity dominates. In northern San Francisco Bay, for example, the phytoplankton nutrient sink is not as strong as in less turbid estuaries. In this estuary, however, river effects, which produce or are associated with near-conservative nutrient distributions, are strong even at flows less than mean

  3. Record-high specific conductance and water temperature in San Francisco Bay during water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Paul; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Livsey, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    The San Francisco estuary is commonly defined to include San Francisco Bay (bay) and the adjacent Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (delta). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a high-frequency (15-minute sampling interval) water-quality monitoring network in San Francisco Bay since the late 1980s (Buchanan and others, 2014). This network includes 19 stations at which sustained measurements have been made in the bay; currently, 8 stations are in operation (fig. 1). All eight stations are equipped with specific conductance (which can be related to salinity) and water-temperature sensors. Water quality in the bay constantly changes as ocean tides force seawater in and out of the bay, and river inflows—the most significant coming from the delta—vary on time scales ranging from those associated with storms to multiyear droughts. This monitoring network was designed to observe and characterize some of these changes in the bay across space and over time. The data demonstrate a high degree of variability in both specific conductance and temperature at time scales from tidal to annual and also reveal longer-term changes that are likely to influence overall environmental health in the bay.In water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), as in the preceding water year (Downing-Kunz and others, 2015), the high-frequency measurements revealed record-high values of specific conductance and water temperature at several stations during a period of reduced freshwater inflow from the delta and other tributaries because of persistent, severe drought conditions in California. This report briefly summarizes observations for WY 2015 and compares them to previous years that had different levels of freshwater inflow.

  4. Towards the Development of the National Ocean Service San Francisco Bay Operational Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machuan Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Ocean Service (NOS, Center for Operational Products and Services installed a Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS in San Francisco Bay during 1998 to provide water surface elevation, currents at PORTS prediction depth as well as near-surface temperature and salinity. To complement the PORTS, a new nowcast/forecast system (consistent with NOS procedures has been constructed. This new nowcast/forecast system is based on the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM using a computational domain, which extends from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and Antioch on the San Joaquin River through Suisun and San Pablo Bays and Upper and Lower San Francisco Bay out onto the continental shelf. This paper presents the FVCOM setup, testing, and validation for tidal and hindcast scenarios. In addition, the San Francisco Bay Operational Forecast System (SFBOFS setup within the NOS Coastal Ocean Model Framework (COMF is discussed. The SFBOFS performance during a semi-operational nowcast/forecast test period is presented and the production webpage is also briefly introduced. FVCOM, the core of SFBOFS, has been found to run robustly during the test period. Amplitudes and epochs of the M2 S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, and Q1 constituents from the model tide-only simulation scenario are very close to the observed values at all stations. NOS skill assessment and RMS errors of all variables indicate that most statistical parameters pass the assessment criteria, and the model predictions are in agreement with measurements for both hindcast and semi-operational nowcast/forecast scenarios.

  5. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the... regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast Guard Sector San Francisco. The...

  6. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the... direction. The PATCOM is empowered to forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be...

  7. 77 FR 28771 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During... forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast...

  8. 78 FR 20792 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During... forbid entry into and control the regulated area. The PATCOM shall be designated by the Commander, Coast...

  9. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay..., CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013.... 1221 et seq.). CALTRANS will sponsor the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone on November 1, 2012...

  10. 78 FR 21403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... NAGPRA Program, c/o Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San... conjunction with the construction of the New Don Pedro Reservoir. Site materials from the New Don Pedro...-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California. The objects are consistent with the material...

  11. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  12. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  13. Liquefaction potential mapping for San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavazanjian, E.; Echezuria, H.; Roth, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of saturated deposits of cohesionless soil in downtown San Francisco to experience initial liquefaction due to seismically induced pore pressure is evaluated. Initial liquefaction, or the zero effective stress state, is used as the index of liquefaction potential because it provides the best available index for damage due to seismically induced pore pressures. Liquefaction potential is evaluated by comparing the conditional probability of liquefaction, or liquefaction susceptibility, to the expected intensity of seismic loading, or liquefaction opportunity. The probabilistic evaluation is made using a liquefaction hazard model developed by Chameau. Assuming the water table to be at the ground surface, results indicate that while no liquefaction is expected anywhere for an intensity with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.05, only the most resistant deposits will survive an event with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.02. For an event with an annual probability of exceedance of 0.01, initial liquefaction is expected to occur within all saturated, cohesionless soil deposits in the downtown San Francisco area. It must be emphasized that in dense soil deposits the consequences of initial liquefaction may be minimal because of their limited shear strain potential.

  14. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AZO DYES TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRISTAIS RIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    To verify if compounds within the discharge of a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a ...

  15. AZO DYES ARE MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY DETECTED IN THE CRISTAIS RIVER WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if compounds from a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a Drinking Water T...

  16. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  17. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  18. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  19. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  20. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  1. Reengineering Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Laboratories at Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Antonio C.; Consonni, Denise

    Brazilian engineering schools are under a strict program to reengineer their courses with the financial support of the federal agencies. At the electronic engineering department at the University of Sao Paulo, this process started by modifying the Basic Electricity and Electronic Laboratories. This paper describes the new structure of these labs…

  2. Paulo Freire as Secretary of Education in the Municipality of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in Sao Paulo, 1989-92, under the leadership of Paulo Freire. Explores theoretical and policy controversies surrounding the diminishing role of the state in Latin America, the impact of social movements on educational policymaking, and the limits and possibilities of democratic-socialist perspectives in…

  3. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  4. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  5. Vanglaülestõus vallandas Sao Paulos kaose / Erik Henno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henno, Erik

    2006-01-01

    11. mail vallandus Sao Paulo vanglates konflikt, mis laienes üle osariigi ning mille käigus süüdati kümneid busse, rünnati politseiautosid ja pangakontoreid, pantvangi võeti ligi 200 inimest. Kaubanduskeskused ja koolid jäid suletuks, ühistransport oli halvatud. Kaart: Vägivallalaine Brasiilias. Lisa: Maffia

  6. Productivity and cost analysis of feller buncher at Sao Hill Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore designed to analyze the productivity and costs of using feller bunchers for timber harvesting at Sao Hill Forest Plantations. Productivity studies were performed during clear felling operations. Continuous time study technique using snap-back timing method was used for data collection on productive ...

  7. Productivity and cost analysis of grapple skidder at Sao Hill Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore this study was conducted to analyze the productivity and cost of grapple skidder at Sao hill forest plantation. Time and motion studies were used for data collection. Time elements of grapple skidder operations that were recorded included: travel empty time, grappling time, travel loaded time and unloading time.

  8. 78 FR 54487 - YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing Operations Group, YP Subsidiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing... Zero Chaos, San Francisco, California; YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing... Assistance on February 13, 2013, applicable to workers of YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division...

  9. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  10. How Many Transgender Men Are There in San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin; Fisher Raymond, H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the number of transgender men (transmen) adults living in San Francisco. We integrated two population size estimation methods into a community-based health survey of transmen (n = 122) in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2014-2015: the service multiplier and wisdom of the crowds. The median estimate was 806 transmen adults in San Francisco (0.11% of adults) and 4027 in the Bay Area. Considering potential biases, we believe our estimates are conservative. Knowing the denominator of persons at risk for health conditions is necessary for public health planning, surveillance, and impact evaluation.

  11. Trace Elemental Analyses of Suspended Sediments in the San Francisco Estuary and its Tidal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud-Roam, F. P.; Ingram, B. L.; Yang, W.; Collins, J.

    2004-12-01

    This research evaluates the trace elemental compositions of inorganic sediments in the San Francisco Bay estuary marshes over space and time. These sediments create and maintain the tidal marshes that surround the Sand Francisco Bay, yet a thorough analysis of the sources of these sediments remains understudied. Determining the sources of sediments is of interest because current mitigation and restoration projects around the Bay must consider whether the sediment supply will be sufficient for projects, or if opening diked wetlands to tidal flow will result in salt water intrusion further up-estuary (into the Delta). Results of trace element analyses of suspended sediments that pass through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) are compared with those of local watershed tributaries. Differences in bedrock lithology can be seen in the varying trace elemental concentrations; for example, K, Nd, Sm, Rb and Sr concentrations are significantly lower in the Sacramento river sediments than those of the San Joaquin river and can be used to differentiate further the Delta input. Results from marsh surface samples throughout the North Bay and preliminary results from 4 1-m long sediment cores collected along a transect of the Novato creek marsh (NCM) reflect local versus Delta sediment source patterns. The suspended sediment samples from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and from local creeks reflect the end members of the sediment supply for local marshes. The marsh surface samples represent the most recent period (last few years or so) and reflect the extent of Delta influence into the estuary. Finally, the cores collected from the Novato creek marsh provide details on the gradient of dominant source supply (i.e., are the sediments well inland predominantly from the local watershed and how far does that influence extend downstream), as well as a history of how the sediment supply conditions have changed, comparing pre-Gold Rush and agriculture era (before about

  12. What Determines Water Temperature Dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, J.; van der Wegen, M.; Martyr-Koller, R. C.; Lucas, L. V.

    2017-11-01

    Water temperature is an important factor determining estuarine species habitat conditions. Water temperature is mainly governed by advection (e.g., from rivers) and atmospheric exchange processes varying strongly over time (day-night, seasonally) and the spatial domain. On a long time scale, climate change will impact water temperature in estuarine systems due to changes in river flow regimes, air temperature, and sea level rise. To determine which factors govern estuarine water temperature and its sensitivity to changes in its forcing, we developed a process-based numerical model (Delft3D Flexible Mesh) and applied it to a well-monitored estuarine system (the San Francisco Estuary) for validation. The process-based approach allows for detailed process description and a physics-based analysis of governing processes. The model was calibrated for water year 2011 and incorporated 3-D hydrodynamics, salinity intrusion, water temperature dynamics, and atmospheric coupling. Results show significant skill in reproducing temperature observations on daily, seasonal, and yearly time scales. In North San Francisco Bay, thermal stratification is present, enhanced by salinity stratification. The temperature of the upstream, fresh water Delta area is captured well in 2-D mode, although locally—on a small scale—vertical processes (e.g., stratification) may be important. The impact of upstream river temperature and discharge and atmospheric forcing on water temperatures differs throughout the Delta, possibly depending on dispersion and residence times. Our modeling effort provides a sound basis for future modeling studies including climate change impact on water temperature and associated ecological modeling, e.g., clam and fish habitat and phytoplankton dynamics.

  13. Francisco de Borja y la corte

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Millán, José

    2013-01-01

    Català: Francesc de Borja va participar activament en el sistema cortesà dels Àustria espanyols, tant abans com després de l’ingrés a la Companyia. La seva actuació s’emmarca en la facció ebolista, dominant durant la regència de Joana d’Àustria, i explicaria, per exemple, la persecució a què Borja fou sotmès el 1559 per l’inquisidor Fernando de Valdés, membre de la facció albista. Paraules clau: Cort; Francesc de Borja; Inquisició; Partit albista; Partit ebolista. Castellano: Francisco...

  14. South America South of the Amazon River--A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Monthly Wind Directions for Various Levels at Floriano............4-181 Figure 4-170. Mean Monthly Wind Directions for Various Levels at Petrolina ...2970 7. PETROLINA 1233 18. PEDRA AZUL 1906 6. REMANSO 1348 19. JANUARIA 1440 9. BARRA 1339 20. SAO FRANCISCO 1493 10. BARREIRAS 2493 21. ARACUAI 866 1L...5 40 5 45 # . MONTES CARLOS # 55 15 35 10 25 MORRO DO CHAPEU 20 10 20 5 .5 5 ..1 60 0 ATLANTIC PETROLINA 25 # 30 # 30 5 OCEAN QUIXERAMOBIM 75 # 40 5

  15. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  16. Energy balance of the state of Sao Paulo - 2015: calendar year 2014; Balanco energetico do estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The State Energy Report 2015 prepared by the Secretariat of Energy, is the publication of the State Government that shows the supply and demand of energy used by the state economy, with the corresponding participation of the sectors involved. The energy policy of the State of Sao Paulo's strategic objective of expanding the energy supply from the load centers, energy security and expanding the share of renewable sources in the matrix. In order to achieve these objectives it is essential that count on complete and reliable information on the supply and demand of energy. This information is needed not only to the Secretary of Energy, in the formulation and implementation of state programs, but the municipalities and regions of the state so that they can formulate and present their demands as clearly as possible. It is therefore the production of strategic information to the counties together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services. The publication is essential reading for all who work with energy planning studies, feasibility of innovative technologies, search for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The evolution of the energy matrix of the State of Sao Paulo is one of the Balance sheet highlights, showing a greater share of biomass and natural gas since the mid- 90s . This issue also reports on CO{sub 2} emissions in the state, historical data vintages of the Sao Paulo sugarcane sector and a breakdown of electricity and derived from oil and gas. Thus, the State Energy Balance 2015 becomes an important tool aimed at implementation of public policies relevant to the infrastructure sector. (author)

  17. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area; Demanda do radiofarmaco fluor 18-FDG nas regioes metropolitanas do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Renato C.; Zouain, Desiree M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Planejamento e Inovacao Tecnologica]. E-mail: renato.sato@uol.com.br; dmzouain@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  18. Estimates of suspended sediment entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L.J.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data collected at Mallard Island as a means of determining suspended-sediment load entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. Optical backscatter (OBS) data were collected every 15 min during water years (WYs) 1995-2003 and converted to SSC. Daily fluvial advective sediment load was estimated by combining estimated Delta outflow with daily averaged SSC. On days when no data were available, SSC was estimated using linear interpolation. A model was developed to estimate the landward dispersive load using velocity and SSC data collected during WYs 1994 and 1996. The advective and dispersive loads were summed to estimate the total load. Annual suspended-sediment load at Mallard Island averaged 1.2??0.4 Mt (million metric tonnes). Given that the average water discharge for the 1995-2003 period was greater than the long -term average discharge, it seems likely that the average suspended-sediment load may be less than 1.2??0.4 Mt. Average landward dispersive load was 0.24 Mt/yr, 20% of the total. On average during the wet season, 88% of the annual suspended-sediment load was discharged through the Delta and 43% occurred during the wettest 30-day period. The January 1997 flood transported 1.2 Mt of suspended sediment or about 11% of the total 9-year load (10.9 Mt). Previous estimates of sediment load at Mallard Island are about a factor of 3 greater because they lacked data downstream from riverine gages and sediment load has decreased. Decreasing suspended-sediment loads may increase erosion in the Bay, help to cause remobilization of buried contaminants, and reduce the supply of sediment for restoration projects. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic about the use of electric power in Sao Paulo University; Diagnostico sobre o uso da energia eletrica na Universidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lineu B. dos; Galvao, Luiz C.R.; Saidel, Marco A.; Udaeta, Miguel E.M.; Kanayama, Paulo H. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the Energy Conservation Program in the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, named CONSERVUSP. The objectives of the program are to promote the use of energy efficiently within the University; to offer more energetic services without increasing the energy consumption and to promote the creation of research areas that would be able to graduate professionals aware of the importance of the rational use of energy. It will be also created a data bank with information on how energy is being used presently. This will permit the definition of the potentialities for energy conservation in the future. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Wind power system for Sao Gabriel, Irece region, Bahia-Brazil; Sistema eolico de Sao Gabriel, regiao de Irece-Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Carlos D' Alexandria [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosbruni@cefetba.br; Camelier, Luiz Alberto A. [Companhia de Engenharia Rural da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: lcamelier@ig.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An electric power plant supplied by a wind-generator is the solution for supply drink water on a small community on Sao Gabriel, Irece - Bahia -Brazil. On behalf of the feasibility a wind power system is described in detail concerning it's technical specifications, it's operation, constraints and it's energy demand. Furthermore wind power system supply is described in detail. Simulations is shows how the system is designed to guarantee a reliability in pumping of drinking water powered by wind power system and it's expansion in the future. (author)

  1. Backscatter C [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  2. Folds--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is...

  3. San Francisco-Pacifica Coast Landslide Susceptibility 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Francisco-Pacifica Coast grid map was extracted from the California Geological Survey Map Sheet 58 that covers the entire state of California and originally...

  4. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Ecological regions of interest as identified in the San Francisco Coastal Region Sediment Management Plan.NPS identifies several special management areas within the...

  5. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  6. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  7. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  8. Backscatter D [7125]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  9. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  10. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  11. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B Eule; M K Sullivan; S A Schroeder; K S Hudmon

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine...

  12. Faults--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  13. Earthquake Damage in San Francisco, CA, April 18, 1906

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  14. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  15. Consequências cardiovasculares na SAOS Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Lorenzi Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma condição clínica muito comum é SAOS, que está associada a várias doenças cardiovasculares, incluindo hipertensão arterial sistêmica, fibrilação atrial e aterosclerose. A associação entre SAOS e doença cardiovascular não é somente uma consequência da sobreposição de fatores de risco, incluindo obesidade, sedentarismo, ser do sexo masculino e ter idade maior. Existem evidências crescentes de que SAOS contribui de forma independente para o aparecimento e a progressão de várias doenças cardiovasculares. Os mecanismos pelos quais SAOS pode afetar o sistema cardiovascular são múltiplos e incluem a ativação do sistema nervoso simpático, inflamação sistêmica, resistência a insulina e geração de estresse oxidativo. Existem evidências que o tratamento de SAOS com CPAP pode reduzir a pressão arterial, sinais precoces de aterosclerose, risco de recorrência de fibrilação atrial e mortalidade, principalmente por acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio, em pacientes com SAOS grave.Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common condition associated with various cardiovascular diseases, including systemic arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis. The association between OSAS and cardiovascular disease has been related to the overlapping of risk factors, including obesity, having a sedentary lifestyle, being male, and being older. However, there is mounting evidence that OSAS can also independently contribute to the development and progression of various cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which OSAS can affect the cardiovascular system are multiple, including the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. There is also evidence that the treatment of OSAS with CPAP can reduce arterial blood pressure, early signs of atherosclerosis, the risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence, and mortality (principally

  16. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, 17011-160 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 5422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felice, G.D. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Lage, M.C.S.M. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Quimica, Campus da Ininga, Ininga, 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Guidon, N. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Baffa, O. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: baffa@usp.br

    2008-02-15

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho's limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 {+-} 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245-14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guerin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes/ Earth and Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, ]. This region is challenging the classical theories about the peopling of America. In agreement with such theories the first human groups would have arrived in America, through Behring, only about 20,000 years ago. The site Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada is a rock-shelter situated at the cliff that is the frontier between the Pre-Cambrian Sao Francisco plain and the Devonian-Permian highlands of the Maranhao-Piaui basin. It was excavated from 1978 till 1988 and presented a very consistent stratigraphy, with thousand of lithic implements and hearths [F. Parenti, Le gisement quaternaire de la Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil), Stratigraphie, chronologie, evolution culturelle, Editions Recherches sur les civilisations, Paris, 2002, ; F. Parenti, Le Gisement Quaternaire de la Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil) dans le Contexte de la Prehistoire Americaine Fouilles, Stratigraphie, Chronologie, Evolution Culturelle, Ph.D. diss, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 1993, 411p, ; F. Parenti, M. Fontugne, N. Guidon, C. Guerin, M. Faure, Chronostratigraphie des gisements archeologiques et paleontologiques de Sao Raimundo Nonato (Piaui, Bresil): contribution a la connaissance du peuplement pleistocene de l'Amerique, Supplement de la Revue d

  17. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  18. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  19. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Project Locations, San Francisco CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  20. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Map Service, San Francisco CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  1. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  2. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  3. Drivers of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems: Discoveries from four decades of study in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    Poised at the interface of rivers, ocean, atmosphere and dense human settlement, estuaries are driven by a large array of natural and anthropogenic forces. San Francisco Bay exemplifies the fast-paced change occurring in many of the world's estuaries, bays and inland seas in response to these diverse forces. We use observations from this particularly well-studied estuary to illustrate responses to six drivers that are common agents of change where land and sea meet: water consumption and diversion; human modification of sediment supply; introduction of non-native species; sewage input; environmental policy; and climate shifts. In San Francisco Bay, responses to these drivers include, respectively, shifts in the timing and extent of freshwater inflow and salinity intrusion; decreasing turbidity; restructuring of plankton communities; nutrient enrichment; elimination of hypoxia and reduced metal contamination of biota; and food web changes that decrease resistance of the estuary to nutrient pollution. Detection of these changes and discovery of their causes through environmental monitoring have been essential for establishing and measuring outcomes of environmental policies that aim to maintain high water quality and sustain services provided by estuarine-coastal ecosystems. The wide range of variability time scales and the multiplicity of interacting drivers place heavy demands on estuarine monitoring programs. But the San Francisco Bay case study illustrates why the imperative for monitoring has never been greater.

  4. La experiencia del partido dos trabalhadores en la alcadía de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio KOWARICK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, Lucio Kowarick y André Singer analizan la gestión del Partido dos Trabalhadores en la Alcaldía de Sao Paulo encabezada por Luiza Erundina. Con esta evaluación pretenden conocer la acción del PT a través de uno de sus principales elementos de construcción del PT, el gobierno de las ciudades, que complementa a los otros dos, la vinculación con los movimientos sindicales y populares y la acción parlamentaria.ABSTRACT: In this article, Lucio Kowarick and Andre Singer analyses the government of Sao Paulo by Partido dos Trabalhadores, with Luiza Erundina. With this evaluation, they try to know the action of PT through one of the main elements of contruction of PT, the government of cities. The other are links with trade unions and popular movements and parliamentarian action.

  5. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland [Miami Univ., RSMAS/NAC, Miami, FL (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 {sup m}u{sup g}. L{sup -1}, characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  6. Legal protection of the Guarani aquifer in Ribeirao Preto (Sao Paulo State, Brasil); Tutela juridica do Aquifero Guarani em Ribeirao Preto (Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso Goulart, M.; Cavalheiro Navajas Sampaio Campos, H.; Nepomuceno, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer is one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world and represents a strategic reserve for the four countries of South America where it occurs: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The municipality of Ribeirao Preto, located in the north-east region of Sao Paulo, with a population of over 600,000 inhabitants, is supplied entirely by water from this aquifer. Hydrogeological studies reveal the existence of a large cone of drawdown in the centre of the city due to the intensive and indiscriminate use of water pumped out by wells for decades. In rural areas, where many of the rocky outcrops of the aquifer occur and which affords direct recharge by rain water, the risk of contamination by pesticides is of some concern. Over the years the Public Ministry of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto has provided guidelines for actions and initiatives in environmental protection, especially with regard to the Guarani aquifer. These actions and initiatives are based mainly on the principle of the supremacy of public interest over private interest and the principle of caution. On the basis of these premises the prosecutor works with the government and the private sector to monitor and readmitted environmental liabilities that threaten the aquifer (landfills, diffuse contamination etc.) and to maintain due discipline within the activities that take place within the recharge zone (agriculture, industry and urbanization) including those of regulation and territorial planning. (Author)

  7. Dos edificios administrativos, en San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Arquitectos

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crown Zellerbach has been built on a large triangular plaza, at the outskirts of San Francisco. This is one of the most recent tall buildings in the city. The Wells Fargo Bank is also situated on this plaza. It is of special interest, both as regards its shape and functional organisation. It has a ground floor, where most of the mercantile activities take place, and a basement, containing a Council room; the strong rooms, with 2,500 private boxes as well as the bank's own safe; washing rooms; mechanical equipment rooms; a rest room; a bar for the employees and independent stairs. The building has a circular planform, 21.5 m in diameter and 354 m2 in area. The structure is metallic, the vertical supports are along the periphery, spaced every 1.626 m. The enclosing curtain walls are glass and anodized aluminium. The roof has radially distributed metal beams, interconnected by prefabricated concrete units, covered with copper sheeting. This bank, shaped like a hunting lodge, and finished with delicate care, contrasts sharply with the powerful volume of the Crown Zellerbach, and of other nearby buildings, and adds distinction to the plaza.Sobre una gran plaza triangular del extrarradio de San Francisco se alzan: el Crown Zellerbach, uno de sus más recientes rascacielos, y un bello pabellón independiente, el Wells Fargo Bank. El resto de la plaza es de dominio público. La originalidad, en forma y organización del segundo, ha hecho que le dediquemos la mayor atención: consta de una planta baja, en la que se desarrollan, prácticamente, todas las actividades mercantiles, y un piso inferior, en donde se distribuyen: un Salón de Consejos, el departamento de cajas de seguridad, con 2.500 unidades, y las cajas del Banco, los aseos, equipos mecánicos, etc., una sala de descanso y bar para los empleados, con escalera de acceso independiente. Tiene planta circular, de 21,5 m de diámetro y 354 m2 de superficie. La estructura es metálica, con

  8. THE CASE FOR THE CONTRIBUTION OF CRISTAIS RIVER NITRO-AMINOBENZENE DYES TO THE MUTAGENICITY OF AMBIENT SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to verify if dyestuffs within an effluent of a textile industry was contributing to the systematic mutagenicity detected in the Cristais River, within the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, mutagenic samples of the industrial effluent, crude water, and treated silt of the...

  9. Aspectos genéticos da SAOS Genetic aspects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane C. Mesquita Petruco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A fisiopatologia da SAOS é resultante da interação entre fatores genéticos e ambientais. Os mais importantes fatores de risco são obesidade e idade. Outros fatores relevantes são anormalidades craniofaciais, hipotireoidismo, menopausa e uso de álcool e de sedativos. A hereditariedade tem sido relacionada a SAOS pela a associação de SAOS a níveis de HLA, obesidade, síndromes genéticas, etnias, sonolência excessiva, alteração do controle ventilatório, expressão de mediadores inflamatórios, entre outros. Este capítulo aborda a variabilidade genética e fenotípica da doença, demonstrando sua relevância no entendimento da fisiopatologia e na avaliação clínica de SAOS.The physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The principal risk factors are obesity and age. Other relevant risk factors are craniofacial abnormalities, hypothyroidism and menopause, as well as the use of alcohol and sedatives. By virtue of its association with factors such as HLA levels, obesity, genetic syndromes, ethnicity, excessive sleepiness, alterations in ventilatory control and expression of inflammatory mediators, OSAS has been related to heritability. This chapter addresses the genetic and phenotypic variability of the disease, showing its relevance in the understanding of the physiopathology and clinical evaluation of OSAS.

  10. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, V.M.; Faga, M.T.W. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br

    2007-07-15

    In the decision-making process for the construction and expansion of natural gas infrastructure, different factors must be considered to prioritize areas with high market potential for the given service. The aim of this paper is to propose a systemic model that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the distribution network, taking the advance of natural gas in the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) as a specific case study. (author)

  11. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  12. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  13. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S., E-mail: ticianelli@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg{sup -1} and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  14. NA BACIA DO RIO SÃO FRANCISCO, EM MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rezende Gomide

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: to compare and to apply indices that quantify diversity, equability and similarity in the studied area; to identify possible diversity gradients, and to apply multivariate analysis to create dendrograms of similarity. The studied area was composed of 20 native forest fragments sited in riparian permanent preservation areas along the basin of São Francisco River, in Minas Gerais. The diversity presented a large variation according to all indices: Shannon: 2,176 to 4,389; Simpson: 0,019 to 0,206; Mixture quotient: 0,029 to 0,166, Equability 0,625 to 0,875. The floristic similarity among fragments using the Jaccard and Simpson quotients formed 5 and 4 floristic groups, respectively, with a cut level of 25%.

  15. [The five wills of Francisco Xavier Balmis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, José; Duro Torrijos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of the testamentary records of Francisco Xavier de Balmis (1753-1819), director of the Royal Philanthropic Expedition of the Vaccine, constitutes a new source material with which to study his biographical profile.Balmis wrote a total of five wills covering the period from 1803-1818 and coinciding with crucial moments in his life.The analysis of these documents has led to interesting observations that confirm Balmis’s personal insecurity before facing the Expedition, his vulnerability when he was stripped of his possessions for joining the royalist cause against Napoleon, the reassurance he felt when his honors and property were restored, or his fortitude in facing the final moments of his life. The documents also reveal that Balmis used his career as a military surgeon as a tool to achieve social prestige, and belie the assumptions of an obscure end. The inventory of his goods confirms his comfortable economic situation and his ability to manage it. The notarial sources are confirmed by this case of Balmis, an official of the Crown, as an appropriate source for the study of urban oligarchies of the Spanish Ancien Régime.

  16. Retracing the Text: Francisco Brines' Poemas excluidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Nantell

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available In 198S Francisco Brines published Poemas excluidos [Excluded Poems] . In this work he included, ironically and paradoxically (considering the title, various poems that had been excluded from his previously published collections of poetry. This essay investigates the critical activity of reconstructing the text within the included-excluded intertextual context of Brines' poetic production. In particular, as will be shown, Poemas excluidos demonstrates the play of texts and play of meaning that constitute the complex object the literary critic seeks to describe. One aspect of the play of texts evident in this work is that the poem is a symbiont not only of other poems of the collection but also of earlier and later poems of Brines' other collections. From this symbiosis arises the interplay of texts and the indeterminacy of meaning of Poemas excluidos . Textual reconstruction yields yet another important result. As critics attempt to untangle the tangle of texts, they become more and more caught up in the snarl of texts, and the play of meaning of the object scrutinized. Critical commentary, then, itself becomes yet one more thread in the intricate intertextual web of Poemas excluidos .

  17. Spatial distribution of annelids in the intertidal zone in Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Rizzo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial distribution of annelids in the intertidal zone of two beaches (Engenho d´Água and São Francisco in São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil, from August 1995 through July 1996. This region is commonly affected by oil spills and sewage waste. The substratum of the two beaches is composed of a mixture of sand and rock fragments. We established three levels (100 m2 in the intertidal zone of each study site: lower, intermediate, and upper. In general, species richness increased from upper towards lower levels. The distribution of species at Engenho d´Água was more homogeneous than at São Francisco. Only some individual spatial patterns were recognised at São Francisco. The most abundant polychaete species at Engenho d´Água (Nematonereis hebes, Timarete filigera, and Scyphoproctus djiboutiensis occurred in the intermediate and lower levels. The upper level of São Francisco was characterised by a peak of opportunists, with a large number of individuals but few dominant species (Capitella sp., Scolelepis squamata, Laeonereis acuta, and the oligochaete Tubifex sp.

  18. The São Francisco inter-basin water transfer in Brazil: Tribulations of a megaproject through constraints and controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Roman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complex social, political and economic dynamics that led the Brazilian government to launch one of the biggest hydraulic infrastructure projects in the country’s history: the transposição do São Francisco (transfer of the waters of the São Francisco River, a large-scale diversion scheme to transfer water from the São Francisco River Basin to semiarid areas of the Northeastern Region.1 This massive interbasin water transfer, first idealised in the nineteenth century, was turned into reality under Lula’s presidency, at a time when the Brazilian economy was booming and a left-leaning neo-developmentalist coalition had seized power. Such a controversial project has fuelled criticism from a wide social and political spectrum. Between 2005 and 2007, when the conflict was at its highest, large parts of society mobilised against the project, which makes the transposição one of the most remarkable socioenvironmental conflicts in the history of Brazil. The project was given the green light at a moment when water governance was undergoing a process of institutional reorganisation officially aiming at the implementation of more democratic procedures and of integrated governance principles. So, it can be viewed as an anachronism of the 'hydraulic mission' with its supply-side technocratic engineering solutions. But it can also be considered as a legitimate and necessary piece of water development, in an emerging country with acute regional water imbalances, that is to benefit a historically underprivileged region (the Northeast. Beyond such simplistic views, we will try to disentangle the complex nexus of political and economic interests and of conflicting discourses related to the extremely diverse set of actors that have played a role in the project, and thereby try to understand why, after more than a century of debate, the transposição has finally become a (still heatedly debated reality.

  19. Scenario of distributed energetic resources in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; O cenario dos recursos energeticos distribuidos no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the viability of the use of distributed resources for power production inside the state of Sao Paulo, taking into account its different forms, advantages and drawbacks. To accomplish the assessment and using de integrated energy resources planning, the full cost accounting for energy resources was applied to each administrative region of the state, which allowed a greater focus without jeopardizing the final results. The analysis were performed considering the usage of the most prospective energy sources such as wind, solar, natural gas, hydro and biomass generation; the results show that when the different aspects of each type of distributed generation are taken into account the renewable forms of energy generation are likely to be more competitive, when compared to traditional forms of generation. (author)

  20. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  1. Towards a real-time forecasting system for the San Francisco bay/estuary and rive delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Chao, Y.; Farrara, J. D.; Chai, F.; Dugdale, R. C.; Wilkerson, F. P.; Zhang, Y. J.; Ateljevich, E.

    2016-02-01

    An unstructured grid model based on SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) is being developed to address complex resource management questions in the San Francisco Bay/Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Bay-Delta). The air-sea fluxes are provided by a high-resolution (3-km) mesoscale atmospheric model (COAMPS). The river discharge data are used as the lateral boundary condition upstream. The coastal ocean boundary condition is derived from a structured grid California coastal ocean model based on ROMS. Results from a 10-year (2004-2015) hindcast will be presented focusing on variability on multiple time scales from tides, weather, annual to interannual. The recent warming during 2014 in response to the Pacific and California coastal warming will be described. Adding a sediment transport model as well as a biogeochemical/ecosystem model will be discussed.

  2. Café Takksemi - og aðrir tankar úr San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city.......Travel essay about literature and the image of San Francisco seen through different areas of the city....

  3. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  4. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  5. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  6. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  7. Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valvur, Heino

    2006-01-01

    veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  9. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA during a fireworks display in support of the Epic... Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks display is meant for entertainment purposes. This safety zone is... Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks launch site will be located in position 37...

  10. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  11. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  12. Immunization with Streptococcus suis bacterin plus recombinant Sao protein in sows conveys passive immunity to their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Kai-Jen; Cheng, Li-Ting; Lee, Jai-Wei; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chung, Wen-Bin; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2017-01-07

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes arthritis, meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death in pigs and is also an zoonotic agent for humans. The present study demonstrated that immunization with recombinant Sao-L (surface antigen one-L, rSao-L) protein from a strain of S. suis serotype 2 in pigs was able to increase cross-serotype protection against S. suis serotype 1 and 2 challenge. Since weaning piglets are more susceptible to S. suis infections due to the stresses associated with weaning, prepartum immunization in sows may convey passive immunity to piglets and provide protection. Pregnant sows were immunized with a vaccine containing inactivated S. suis serotype 2 plus rSao as the antigens. Blood samples were collected from their piglets after birth for analysis of antigen-specific antibody titers and levels of various cytokines. Results demonstrated that the titers of S. suis and rSao-specific antibodies were significantly (p immunizing pregnant sows with the vaccine containing inactivated S. suis bacterin plus rSao as the antigens is able to enhance passive immunity against heterologous and homologous S. suis challenge in their piglets.

  13. Francisco Pino: el poeta de los agujeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Francisco Pino (1910-2002, en sus dos vertientes, experimental y no-experimental, posee una coherencia absoluta en cuanto a su concepción creacionista, que considera el poema como «manifestación de existencia». En este contexto aparecen en los años setenta sus libros de agujeros troquelados, que son su característica más relevante y constituyen una muestra de osadía artística y rebeldía vital. Estos libros de agujeros, minúsculas maquetas del uni-verso, poseen un sentido metafísico-religioso: Pino representa en ellos el vacío y el silencio consustancial a la poesía como música inaudible y espacio invisible, y nos ofrece los planos de una arquitectura poética que comunica con el infinito por medio de la ventana troquelada. Hay una búsqueda de la palabra poética total en toda su obra, desde sus primeros versos, en los que ya aparecen intuiciones reveladoras de sus hallazgos posteriores. Aunque, para Pino, la poesía es búsqueda constante, persecución de una presa inalcanzable. En esa persecución, hallará los caligramas, los libros troquelados y los poemas visua-les realizados en todo tipo de soportes desechables, pues Pino afirmó siempre su deseo de permanecer en la órbita de lo efímero, ajeno al anhelo de eterni-dad y ajeno también a las convenciones de la Historia del Arte, aunque su postura condenara a su obra al ostracismo o la expusiera a la irrisión. En la ilustración de uno de sus últimos libros, el titulado Tejas: lugar de Dios. Obertura, un pájaro se deshace en el poema. Sin trino ni mensaje posible, el poeta recoge la pluma del pájaro y con ella escribe. Así pues, la poesía surge tras la destrucción del poeta, como consecuencia de su disolución en el texto, una inmolación feliz e inexplicable, que inunda de luz cegadora el poema, iluminándole, sin llegar a desvelar su misterio.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna on surf-zone of São Francisco do Itabapoana beaches, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marcelo Paes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna and the environmental variables influences on its distribution were studied at the surf-zone of three beaches of São Francisco do Itabapoana, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From August/1999 to August/2000, three beach seine hauls were made monthly, and environmental variables were recorded. A total number of 4,562 fishes (74,155g were sampled at the three beaches, where estuarine-dependent species prevailed (44%, followed by marine (31%, estuarine (19% and freshwater species (3%. Species richness, number of individuals and wet weight were significantly higher at Gargaú, followed by Manguinhos and Barra do Itabapoana, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted influences of the rivers flushing, salinity and plant abundance on the diurnal ichthyofauna distribution and dynamics of São Francisco do Itabapoana surf-zone.

  15. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley; Tecnica do inseto esteril: nova tecnologia para combater a mosca-das-frutas, Ceratitis capitata, no Submedio do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo [Embrapa Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio Souza do [Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo [Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Sampaio, Raimundo [Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the SIT depend on the success of the sterile males in competition with wild males for copulating of females. According to FAO / IAEA / USDA (2003 ), so that the SIT is technically feasible in controlling Moscamed, it must occur in field conditions, at least 20 % of matings between sterile males and wild females tsl. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of SIT is releasing a nine to one hundred times the population of sterile males compared to the wild population in this field, it increases the likelihood of wild females are copulated by sterile males. Understanding the behaviors and strategies used by the wild and sterile males approach the females for copulating has great relevance to the SIT programs, since determining the acceptance and response of wild females. The strategy in copulating fruit-flies consists of: a) clustering of males at the bottom of foliage of host or non-host plants; b) issuance of the sex pheromone; c) call through the beating of the wings; d) arrival of the female, which is the male face to face; e) both touch with antennas; f) males jump about the females and initiate copulating, and the female may or may not accept the male g) end copulation.

  16. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  17. Los clasicos políticos, por Francisco Javier Conde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Carranza

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de Estudios Políticos de Madrid inició, ya desde 1949 y bajo la dirección de den Francisco Javier Conde, la publicación de la colección Clásicos políticos, en la que se incluyen obras de autores griegos y latinos.

  18. Francisco Martinez de Castrillo: An Early Spanish Author.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Jaime

    Francisco Martinez de Castrillo was a pioneer Spanish dental author who wrote and published Coloquio Breve y Compendioso Sobre la Materia de la Dentadura y Maravillosa Obra de la Boca, the first book published ever in the Spanish language. However, his life and work is largely unknown to the history of the dental profession. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  19. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  20. Francisco Ferrer: lieux de mémoire en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François AGUINAGA

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available La répartition en France des rues qui portent le nom de Francisco Ferrer et la date de leur création donne une image de la répartition des bastions du mouvement ouvrier au début du XXe siècle.

  1. The poetics of Francisco Pino, rare avis in Spanish poetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Hub.

    Francisco Pino (1910-2002) can be considered as a "rara avis" in Spanish poetry. Having published dozens of books rather anonymously, and generally with small private presses, he began publishing through more renowned publishing companies in 1978. His various new editions, anthologies and editions

  2. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  3. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D.J.H.; Mexia, A.M.M.; Mumford, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010–2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance’s sensitivity on Terceira Island. PMID:28082349

  4. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  5. Descriptive analysis of narrative photojournalism in two digital newspapers: Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín López Del Ramo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the paucity of studies in this field, this paper seeks to develop an analysis of new products in the digital news media’s narrative photojournalism, its components and substantive aspects, focusing on digital newspapers Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian. The sample consists of 35 pieces with a total of 899 photographs, of which 351 (39.1% correspond to Folha de Sao Paulo and 548 (60.9% to The Guardian. Drawing on a content analysis methodology, a self-designed record is used with indicators that are seldom referred to in studies on photography, such as structural design, functionality or integration of multimedia content. The results indicate that these products have different formats and configurations, possess a clear structure, are of a medium-high length, and contain simple functionality. A good hierarchical organization, variety, large size and high-quality images provide a strong visual impact. The textual elements complement and clarify the logical meaning of the story. The inclusion of audiovisual content and links is discreet but well contextualized. All this represents a significant aesthetic-communicative advance as compared to the conventional treatment of photography in the digital press.

  6. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  7. Methodology for selecting alternatives on fall division of hydro-graphic basins considering social and environmental aspects: two case studies of its application; Metodologia para selecao de alternativas de divisao de queda de bacias hidrograficas considerando aspectos socio-ambientais: dois casos-teste de sua aplicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Silvia Helena; Lacorte, Ana C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Farah, Pedro M.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1995-12-31

    This work presents the analysis and the methodological improvements concerning the development of a methodology for selecting alternatives for hydro-graphic basin fall division. The study has been carried out in terms of the application of test cases on the space between Sobradinho-Itaparica, Sao Francisco river and medium Tocantins river, Northeast Brazil 7 refs., 1 tab.

  8. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  9. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  10. Ecosystem variability along the estuarine salinity gradient: Examples from long-term study of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.; Schraga, Tara; Kress, Erica S.; Martin, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    The salinity gradient of estuaries plays a unique and fundamental role in structuring spatial patterns of physical properties, biota, and biogeochemical processes. We use variability along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay to illustrate some lessons about the diversity of spatial structures in estuaries and their variability over time. Spatial patterns of dissolved constituents (e.g., silicate) can be linear or nonlinear, depending on the relative importance of river-ocean mixing and internal sinks (diatom uptake). Particles have different spatial patterns because they accumulate in estuarine turbidity maxima formed by the combination of sinking and estuarine circulation. Some constituents have weak or no mean spatial structure along the salinity gradient, reflecting spatially distributed sources along the estuary (nitrate) or atmospheric exchanges that buffer spatial variability of ecosystem metabolism (dissolved oxygen). The density difference between freshwater and seawater establishes stratification in estuaries stronger than the thermal stratification of lakes and oceans. Stratification is strongest around the center of the salinity gradient and when river discharge is high. Spatial distributions of motile organisms are shaped by species-specific adaptations to different salinity ranges (shrimp) and by behavioral responses to environmental variability (northern anchovy). Estuarine spatial patterns change over time scales of events (intrusions of upwelled ocean water), seasons (river inflow), years (annual weather anomalies), and between eras separated by ecosystem disturbances (a species introduction). Each of these lessons is a piece in the puzzle of how estuarine ecosystems are structured and how they differ from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  11. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Vitrificacao de residuos solidos galvanicos: solucao para a zona leste de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO{sub -}CaO-Na{sub O}, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  13. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  15. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M.M.; Grimoni, J.A.B.; Burani, G.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A.M.A.; Barbosa, E.J.S.; Hamzo, S.T.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Prist, R.; Sonnewend, J.E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  16. Perspectives for distributed generation of electricity in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso; Perspectivas da geracao distribuida de eletricidade nos estados de Sao Paulo, Bahia e Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Leite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses the concept of distributed generation of electricity and the current support policies for such kind of generation in the country. Their diffusion perspectives in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso are discussed. The more promising technologies and new policies for them are pointed out. (author)

  17. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  18. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Barnard, Patrick L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco Bay coastal system are related so that sand-sized sediment transport pathways can be inferred. The main vector for sediment transport as defined by the XRD analysis is from San Francisco Bay to the outer coast, where the sand then accumulates on the ebb tidal delta and also moves alongshore. This mineralogical link defines a critical pathway because large volumes of sediment have been removed from the Bay over the last century via channel dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining, with comparable volumes of erosion from the ebb tidal delta over the same period, in addition to high rates of shoreline retreat along the adjacent, open-coast beaches. Therefore, while previously only a temporal relationship was established, the transport pathway defined by mineralogical and geochemical tracers support the link between anthropogenic activities in the Bay and widespread erosion outside the Bay. The XRD results also establish the regional and local importance of sediment derived from cliff erosion, as well as both proximal and distal fluvial sources. This research is an important contribution to a broader provenance study aimed at identifying the driving forces for widespread geomorphic change in a heavily urbanized coastal-estuarine system.

  19. Time scales of change in the San Francisco Bay benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, F.H.; Thompson, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results from multi-year investigations in the San Francisco Bay estuary show that large abundance fluctuations within benthic macroinvertebrate populations reflect both (1) within-year periodicity of reproduction, recruitment, and mortality that is not necessarily coincident with seasonal changes of the environment (e.g., the annual temperature cycle), and (2) aperiodic density changes (often larger than within-year fluctuations) following random perturbations of the environment. Density peaks of the small, short-lived estuarine invertebrates that comprise the vast majority of individuals in the bay's relatively homogeneous benthic community normally occur between spring and autumn depending on the species, in large part a reflection of reproductive periodicity. However, because mild winters permit reproductive activity in some of the common species throughout much of the year, other factors are important to within-year density fluctuations in the community. Seasonally predictable changes in freshwater inflow, wind and tidal mixing, microalgal biomass, and sediment erosion/deposition patterns all contribute to observed seasonal changes in abundance. For example, the commonly observed decline in abundance during winter reflects both short-lived species that die after reproducing and the stress of winter conditions (e.g., inundation by less saline, sediment-laden water and the decline in both planktonic and benthic algal biomass - a direct source of food for the shallow-water benthos). On the other hand, data from several studies suggest that observed 'recruitment' and 'mortality' may in fact be the migration of juveniles and adults to and from study sites. For example, the common amphipod Ampelisca abdita apparently moves from shallow to deep water, or from up-estuary to down-estuary locations, coincident with periods of high river runoff in winter. Growth of individuals within the few studied species populations is also highly seasonal, and appears to be coincident

  20. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  1. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  2. Correlations between Pb isotopes and volatile elements in melt inclusions from Sao Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, M. A.; Rose-Koga, E. F.; Koga, K. T.; Vlastelic, I.; Shimizu, N.; Whitehouse, M.

    2009-12-01

    Sao Miguel is the biggest eastern-most island of the Azores archipelago in the northern Atlantic and is known to have a very peculiar isotopic systematics including Sr, Nd and Pb. We studied 4 lavas of Sao Miguel, one is from the 1563 historical lava flow Queimado peak eruption, one is from Picos Volcanic zone and the two others are Pliocene ankaramites from the Nordest. The olivine phenocrysts of these samples have been documented for helium isotopes and show very radiogenic 3He/4He ratios (<6Ra). We analyzed 9 primitive olivine-hosted melt inclusions for both Pb isotopes and volatile element concentrations (H2O, CO2, F, S, and Cl). The Pb isotope ratios were measured by a multicollection SIMS 1280 (NMNH Stockholm, Sweden) and volatiles by a monocollection SIMS 1280 (WHOI, USA). The repeated 207Pb/206Pb measurements of the GOR132 glass standard (20 ppm Pb) yielded a 0.15% relative variation (1 sigma of the distribution). All the melt inclusions have 207Pb/206Pb (0.782 to 0.797) and 208Pb/206Pb (1.969 to 2.041) lower than MORB value (DMM: 0.857, 2.053), i.e., more radiogenic compositions. We found positive linear correlations between 207Pb/206Pb and CO2, F, S, and Cl. The correlations further improve when Pb isotope ratios are plotted against F/P2O5, and Cl/K2O. The Sao Miguel source is characterized by a mixing between a low 207Pb/206Pb and low 208Pb/206Pb in the Nordest coming from a long time residence of high (U+Th)/Pb recycled material, and a component with higher ratios, more similar to other islands from the central group. The low 3He/4He ratio measured on Nordest samples also suggests a high (U+Th)/3He in its source, which may be due to degassing presumably during an early stage of the recycling. The low 207Pb/206Pb with low volatiles samples could also be explain this early degassing. Samples with the highest 207Pb/206Pb are richer in volatile suggesting the presence of a volatile rich lithology beneath the Azores central group, which was also proposed by

  3. Interaction of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells with stainless steel coated by silicalite-1 films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirka, Ivan; Vandrovcová, Marta; Plšek, Jan; Bouša, Milan; Brabec, Libor; Dragounová, Helena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 76, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 775-781 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02681S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : silicalite-1 film * biocompatibility * human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry

  4. Strain accumulation in bituminous binders under repeated creep-recovery loading predicted from small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Olli-Ville; Winter, H. Henning

    2017-11-01

    The creep-recovery (CR) test starts out with a period of shearing at constant stress (creep) and is followed by a period of zero-shear stress where some of the accumulated shear strain gets reversed. Linear viscoelasticity (LVE) allows one to predict the strain response to repeated creep-recovery (RCR) loading from measured small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) data. Only the relaxation and retardation time spectra of a material need to be known and these can be determined from SAOS data. In an application of the Boltzmann superposition principle (BSP), the strain response to RCR loading can be obtained as a linear superposition of the strain response to many single creep-recovery tests. SAOS and RCR data were collected for several unmodified and modified bituminous binders, and the measured and predicted RCR responses were compared. Generally good agreement was found between the measured and predicted strain accumulation under RCR loading. However, in the case of modified binders, the strain accumulation was slightly overestimated (≤20% relative error) due to the insufficient SAOS information at long relaxation times. Our analysis also demonstrates that the evolution in the strain response under RCR loading, caused by incomplete recovery, can be reasonably well predicted by the presented methodology. It was also shown that the outlined modeling framework can be used, as a first approximation, to estimate the rutting resistance of bituminous binders by predicting the values of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test parameters.

  5. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  6. Feasibility study for the implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source facility in Sao Paulo

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda-Neto, J D T

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source is proposed here, using the forthcoming 30 MeV electron CW-Microtron under construction in Sao Paulo. A method to estimate photoneutron fluxes, based on thin target bremsstrahlung approximation, has been developed. The versatility and possible broad range of applications associated with such a facility are addressed.

  7. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  8. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  9. Alterações cognitivas na SAOS Cognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo de Bruin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterações da cognição e do desempenho estão bem estabelecidas em pacientes com SAOS, causando um impacto significativo sobre a qualidade de vida e o risco de acidentes nesses indivíduos. Tais alterações são mais profundas nos quadros mais graves de SAOS, o que explica a aparente discrepância na frequência e gravidade desse prejuízo entre estudos com pacientes de clínicas de sono e estudos de base populacional. Vários aspectos podem estar comprometidos, incluindo o processamento cognitivo, a atenção sustentada, as funções executivas e a memória. Entretanto, os mecanismos causais desses déficits não estão inteiramente elucidados, e existem controvérsias, particularmente em relação à contribuição relativa da hipóxia intermitente e da interrupção do sono presentes na SAOS. O impacto da sonolência diurna sobre o desempenho desses pacientes nos diversos testes cognitivos também ainda deve ser determinado, assim como o possível efeito de comorbidades frequentes, incluindo o diabete melito, a hipertensão arterial sistêmica, a doença cardiovascular e a obesidade. Existem evidências convincentes de que o tratamento com CPAP produz uma significativa melhora do desempenho e da cognição, sobretudo nos portadores de SAOS moderada e grave, embora sejam necessários mais estudos acerca do seu impacto a longo prazo.Cognitive and performance impairment is well established in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, having a significant impact on the quality of life and the risk of accidents in these individuals. The severity of the impairment correlates with that of the OSAS, which explains the apparent discrepancy between studies using patients from sleep clinics and population-based studies in terms of the reported frequency and severity of such impairment. Cognitive processing, sustained attention, executive functioning, and memory have all been reported to be impaired in OSAS. However, the causal

  10. Nuclear technology in secondary school in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites, Daniela B.; Gordon, Ana Maria P.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dbenites@ipen.br, e-mail: amgordon@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and

  11. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  12. Classification System and Information Services in the Library of SAO RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedova, G. S.

    The classification system used at SAO RAS is described. It includes both special determinants from UDC (Universal Decimal Classification) and newer tables with astronomical terms from the Library-Bibliographical Classification (LBC). The classification tables are continually modified, and new astronomical terms are introduced. At the present time the information services of the scientists is fulfilled with the help of the Abstract Journal Astronomy, Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts, catalogues and card indexes of the library. Based on our classification system and The Astronomy Thesaurus completed by R.M. Shobbrook and R.R. Shobbrook the development of a database for the library has been started, which allows prompt service of the observatory's staff members.

  13. [Risk factors associated with overweight among adolescents from western Sao Paulo state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rômulo Aráujo; Conterato, Igor; Messias, Kelly Patrícia; Christofaro, Diego Giuliano Destro; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between being overweight and family risk factors in adolescents from Western Sao Paulo state. This cross-sectional study involved 1779 adolescents of both genders and with ages ranging between 11 and 17 years. The participants' body mass index was calculated, and the family risk factors were analyzed through a questionnaire. Excessive weight was associated with the male gender (CR = 1.55 [1.22-1.97]), studying in a private school (CR = 2.14 [1.56-2.94]) and mother's higher education (CR = 0.52 [0.33-0.83]). There is a need to implement initiatives to fight obesity in the school environment and reach the whole family structure, taking gender-related specificities into consideration.

  14. Coulthard, M. 1991. Linguagem e sexo. Sao Paulo: EditoraAtica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Buchweitz Garcez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discutir o sexo dos anjos podenio ser urn empreendimento tic intitil como sempre pareceu. Dessa forma, perguntar por que falamos de "Homens" quando nos referimos a toda a humanidade incluindo as mulheres ou perguntar por que afinal Deus 6 "ele", e nao "ela" ou "aquilo", significa refletir sobre as conseqiiencias para a sociedade da escolha (intencional? do genero masculino como o genero näo marcado. Significa, tambem, refletir sobre as linguagens faladas por homens e mulheres, se elas silo diferentes entre si e quais sic, as diferencas; e, uma vez constatadas as diferencas, refletir sobre como elas se manifestam, de onde vem e quais sao seas conseqUencias. Esse 6 objetivo de Malcolm Coulthard em Linguagem e Sexo: mostrar as diferencas lingufsticas relacionadas ao sexo do falante.

  15. Investigation of wind characteristics and wind energy assessment in Sao Joao do Cariri (SJC) - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Laerte; Filho, Celso

    2010-09-15

    In this study wind characterization and wind energy assessment of the Sao Joao do Cariri (SJC) in Paraiba state situated in Brazilian northeast. The average wind speed and temperature for 25 and 50 m were found 4,74m/s, 24,46C and 5,31m/s 24,25C with wind speed predominate direction of SSE (165 degrees). Weibull shape, scale ,Weibull fit wind speed and Power wind density found 2,54, 5,4m/s, 4,76m/s and 103W/m2 for 25m wind height measurements and 2,59, 6,0m/s, 5,36m/s and 145W/m2 for 50m wind height measurements.

  16. Impacts of an underwater high voltage DC power cable on fish migration movements in the San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, M. T.; Kavet, R.; Klimley, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasingly strong interest on a global scale in offshore renewable energy production and transportation. However, there is concern that the electromagnetic fields (EMF) produced by these underwater cables may alter the behavior and physiology of marine species. Despite this concern, few studies have investigated these effects in free-living species. In 2009, a 85 km long high-voltage DC (HVDC) power cable was placed within the San Francisco Bay, running parallel, then perpendicular to, the migration route of anadromous species moving from the inland river system to the oceans. In this study, we assess the impacts of this HVDC cable on the migration behaviors of EMF-sensitive fish, including juvenile salmonids (Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and adult green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris. Acoustic telemetry techniques were used to track fish migration movements through the San Francisco Bay both before and after the cable was activated; individuals implanted with acoustic transmitters were detected on cross-channel hydrophone arrays at key locations in the system. Magnetic fields were surveyed and mapped at these locations using a transverse gradiometer, and models of the cable's magnetic field were developed that closely matched the empirically measured values. Here, we present our analyses on the relationships between migration-related behavioral metrics (e.g., percent of successful migrations, duration of migration, time spent near vs. far from cable location, etc.) and environmental parameters, such as cable activation and load level, local magnetic field levels, depth, and currents.

  17. Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Santos, Levi F., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Pb-210 (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 y), a natural radionuclide from U-238 serie can be found in the atmosphere, as a product of {sup 222}Rn decay that emanates from the ground, where its atoms become rapidly fixed to aerosols and return to the earth as dry fallout or are washed out in the rain. This natural radionuclide has been widely used as an atmospheric tracer, to determine the aerosol residence time as well as chronometers in the environment. Pb-210 was measured during a period of two years, 2011 to 2013, in samples of rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) campus (23 deg 33’59.24” S - 46 deg 44’15.63” O at 760 m above sea level) which is located in the city of Sao Paulo, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pb-210 concentration was measured in a total of 123 rainy events by beta gross counting in a low background gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. The results obtained were correlated to seasons and rainfall. The concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in rainfall varied from the minimum detectable activity, 4.9 mBq L{sup -1} to 1408± 43 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations were obtained in the months of winter and the lowest in summer. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb, varied from 4.03 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1} to 46.4 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1}presenting a strong correlation with the amount of precipitation and hence showing seasonal trends. (author)

  18. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that {sup 7}Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of {sup 7}Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of {sup 7}Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of {sup 7}Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  19. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  20. La imagen del arzobispo y cardenal Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Cruz Alcañiz, Cándido

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Buitrón (1722-1804 as an historic personage generates a projection in a continuous image. The author presents and analyses the portraits from his period as Archbishop of Mexico (1766-1772 and those from his period as Archbishop of Toledo (1772-1800, all testimonies of his social activities.

    Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Buitrón (1722-1804 como personaje histórico genera una proyección advertida en una imagen continuada. Damos a conocer y analizamos los retratos de su etapa como arzobispo de México (1766-1772 y como arzobispo de Toledo (1772-1800, testimonios de su actividad social.

  1. Sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Helen; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey; California State University, Monterey Bay; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. View eastward, through the Golden Gate into central San Francisco Bay. Depth of sea floor color coded: red (less than 10 m deep) to purple (more than 100 m deep). Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Sand waves in this view average 6 m in height and 80 m from crest to crest. Golden Gate Bridge is about 2 km long. Vertical exaggeration is approximately 4x for sea floor, 2x for land.

  2. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917 was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received little scholarly attention in the past thirty years. In six chapters that analyze major artworks and themes in Oller’s oeuvre, this book recasts the artist as a key figure in nineteenth century art and sheds new light on his contribution to a uniquely Caribbean aesthetic.

  3. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  4. Community Structure of Chironomidae (Midges) in Two Brazilian Rivers in Relation to Contrasting Land Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, K. C.; Matthaei, C.; Vettorazzi, C. A.; Trivinho-Strixino, S.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated whether the conversion of riparian land use from indigenous forest to pasture is associated with changes in midge community composition in two South Brasilian rivers. Our study was conducted in the main rivers (Sao Jose dos Dourados 6th order; Aguapei 7th order) of two catchments in Sao Paulo State. Both catchments are dominated by agricultural ecosystems but retain substantial patches of native riparian forest in certain areas. Replicated artificial substrates (baskets filled with clay rocks) were exposed in forested and pasture reaches in both rivers. Both land uses had to be present for at least 500m along both river banks, and the riparian forest had to be at least 50m wide. In each river, six baskets per reach type were sampled after a colonization period of 44 days, and all Chironomidae in these samples were sorted and identified to genus level (a total of 3399 individuals belonging to 28 different taxa). As expected, land use affected midge communities. Total midge density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forested reaches. By contrast, midge taxon richness was higher at the forested reaches. These results show the importance of native riparian forests for preserving aquatic biodiversity in Brasilian rivers.

  5. The phytoplankton component of seston in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, S.M.; Cloern, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (as carbon) was estimated from chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) and a mean value for the ratio of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll a in San Francisco Bay. The ratio was determined as the slope of a Model II regression of POC' against (Chla), where POC' is total particulate organic carbon minus sediment-associated non-phytoplankton carbon. Samples from 30 fixed sites in the channel and lateral shoals of San Francisco Bay were collected once or twice a month from April to November 1980, and at irregular intervals in South Bay during 1984 and 1985. For all data the calculated mean value of phytoplankton C:Chla was 51 (95% confidence interval = 47-54). No significant differences were found in the C:Chla ratio between shallow and deep sites (where light availability differs) or between northern and southern San Francisco Bay (where phytoplankton community composition differs). Using the mean C:Chla ratio of 51, we calculated that phytoplankton biomass constitutes about one third of seston carbon under most circumstances, but this fraction ranges from about 95% during phytoplankton blooms to less than 20% during spring periods of low phytoplankton biomass and high suspended sediment concentration. ?? 1987.

  6. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  7. Water quality measurements in San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1969–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraga, Tara; Cloern, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a place-based research program in San Francisco Bay (USA) that began in 1969 and continues, providing one of the longest records of water-quality measurements in a North American estuary. Constituents include salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate, and phosphate. We describe the sampling program, analytical methods, structure of the data record, and how to access all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. We provide a summary of how these data have been used by USGS and other researchers to deepen understanding of how estuaries are structured and function differently from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  8. Description of a new species of Pareiorhina (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T

    2016-05-03

    In the present paper we describe a new species of Pareiorhina from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the dorsal surface of caudal peduncle strongly concave, 30 vertebrae, bicuspid teeth, a conspicuous cylindrical shaped papilla between the oral valve and premaxilla, smaller odontodes along the snout margin, a small orbital diameter, a higher head width, a shorter interorbital width, a shorter predorsal length, a shorter cleithral width, and a shorter caudal peduncle depth. The new species is known from four small streams of the rio São Francisco basin: one tributary of the rio Maranhão, one tributary of the rio Paraopeba and two tributaries of the Rio das Velhas. This species is found in fast-flowing streams associated with rocks and sand in the bottom of the rivers.

  9. Water quality measurements in San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1969-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraga, Tara S; Cloern, James E

    2017-08-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a place-based research program in San Francisco Bay (USA) that began in 1969 and continues, providing one of the longest records of water-quality measurements in a North American estuary. Constituents include salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate, and phosphate. We describe the sampling program, analytical methods, structure of the data record, and how to access all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. We provide a summary of how these data have been used by USGS and other researchers to deepen understanding of how estuaries are structured and function differently from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  10. Riders on the storm: selective tidal movements facilitate the spawning migration of threatened delta smelt in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W.A.; Burau, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    Migration strategies in estuarine fishes typically include behavioral adaptations for reducing energetic costs and mortality during travel to optimize reproductive success. The influence of tidal currents and water turbidity on individual movement behavior were investigated during the spawning migration of the threatened delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, in the northern San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. Water current velocities and turbidity levels were measured concurrently with delta smelt occurrence at sites in the lower Sacramento River and San Joaquin River as turbidity increased due to first-flush winter rainstorms in January and December 2010. The presence/absence of fish at the shoal-channel interface and near the shoreline was quantified hourly over complete tidal cycles. Delta smelt were caught consistently at the shoal-channel interface during flood tides and near the shoreline during ebb tides in the turbid Sacramento River, but were rare in the clearer San Joaquin River. The apparent selective tidal movements by delta smelt would facilitate either maintaining position or moving upriver on flood tides, and minimizing advection down-estuary on ebb tides. These movements also may reflect responses to lateral gradients in water turbidity created by temporal lags in tidal velocities between the near-shore and mid-channel habitats. This migration strategy can minimize the energy spent swimming against strong river and tidal currents, as well as predation risks by remaining in turbid water. Selection pressure on individuals to remain in turbid water may underlie population-level observations suggesting that turbidity is a key habitat feature and cue initiating the delta smelt spawning migration.

  11. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  12. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  13. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  14. Elaboration, publication and implementation of a technical regulation of radiological protection at the State of Sao Paulo; Elaboracao, publicacao e implementacao de uma norma tecnica de protecao radiologica no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Furnari, Laura [Associacao Brasileira de Fisicos em Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Technological improvements of new equipment and some new topics of the international recommendations from ICRP 60 (1990) are considered in a meeting of radiation protection experts and representatives of professionals involved with the use of ionizing radiation in health care services. As a result a new regulation is proposed to the Sao Paulo State Health Department (Brazil). The importance of performing a quality assurance program is emphasized 2 refs., 2 tab.

  15. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  16. Thermoelectric power plant of Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, Planning; Planejamento da central termoeletrica da COSIPA - Companhia Siderurgica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo Sergio; Costa, Luiz Orlando; Silva, Clovis Aprigio da; Paiva Borges, Elmar de; Martinez, Francisco Gomes [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

    1990-02-01

    This paper shows the operational philosophy, control and supervision of the Thermoelectric power plant of the Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, in operations of fuel distribution, steam generation, electric power generation and air flow. 8 tabs.

  17. Species determination within Staphylococcus genus by extended PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of saoC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Michal; Polakowska, Klaudia; Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Sitarska, Agnieszka; Nytko, Kinga; Kosecka, Maja; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2015-01-01

    Genetic methods based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are widely used for microbial species determination. In this study, we present the application of saoC gene as an effective tool for species determination and within-species diversity analysis for Staphylococcus genus. The unique sequence diversity of saoC allows us to apply four restriction enzymes to obtain RFLP patterns, which appear highly distinctive even among closely related species as well as atypical isolates of environmental origin. Such patterns were successfully obtained for 26 species belonging to Staphylococcus genus. What is more, tracing polymorphisms detected by different restriction enzymes allowed for basic phylogeny analysis for Staphylococcus aureus, which is potentially applicable for other staphylococcal species. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Notch signaling is antagonized by SAO-1, a novel GYF-domain protein that interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase SEL-10 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Valerie A; Guiney, Evan L; Goldberg, Lindsey Y; Haduong, Josephine H; Kwartler, Callie S; Scangos, Katherine W; Goutte, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Notch signaling pathways can be regulated through a variety of cellular mechanisms, and genetically compromised systems provide useful platforms from which to search for the responsible modulators. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene aph-1 encodes a component of γ-secretase, which is essential for Notch signaling events throughout development. By looking for suppressors of the incompletely penetrant aph-1(zu147) mutation, we identify a new gene, sao-1 (suppressor of aph-one), that negatively regulates aph-1(zu147) activity in the early embryo. The sao-1 gene encodes a novel protein that contains a GYF protein-protein interaction domain and interacts specifically with SEL-10, an Fbw7 component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. We demonstrate that the embryonic lethality of aph-1(zu147) mutants can be suppressed by removing sao-1 activity or by mutations that disrupt the SAO-1-SEL-10 protein interaction. Decreased sao-1 activity also influences Notch signaling events when they are compromised at different molecular steps of the pathway, such as at the level of the Notch receptor GLP-1 or the downstream transcription factor LAG-1. Combined analysis of the SAO-1-SEL-10 protein interaction and comparisons of sao-1 and sel-10 genetic interactions suggest a possible role for SAO-1 as an accessory protein that participates with SEL-10 in downregulation of Notch signaling. This work provides the first mutant analysis of a GYF-domain protein in either C. elegans or Drosophila and introduces a new type of Fbw7-interacting protein that acts in a subset of Fbw7 functions.

  19. Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Alarcon, Walter Demetrio Gonzalez; Echer, Ezequiel; Lago, Alisson dal; Lucas, Aline de [National Institute for Space Research - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Guarnieri, Fernando Luis [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: delucas@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: levieira@univap.br, E-mail: guarnieri@univap.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: kmuna00@gipac.shinshu-u.ac.jp [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this work we present an analysis on the correction efficiency of atmospheric effects on cosmic ray Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data. We use a Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays time series to show the main periodicities present in the corrected and uncorrected data for the atmospheric effects. This kind of correction is very important when intends to study cosmic rays variations of extra-terrestrial origin. (author)

  20. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  1. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05 with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99 after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance, use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use

  2. RUNX2 regulates the effects of TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis in SaOs-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfa, Ghali; Christophe, Chauveau; Philippe, Lencel; Romain, Salomez; Khaled, Hani; Pierre, Hardouin; Odile, Broux; Jean-Christophe, Devedjian

    2010-04-01

    The runt-related transcriptional factor RUNX2 is an essential mediator of the osteoblast phenotype and plays a pivotal role in the process of osteoblast differentiation. The involvement of RUNX2 includes the regulation of genes that are important in committing cells to the osteoblast lineage. Increasing evidences are consistent with a requirement of RUNX2 for stringent control of osteoblast proliferation and recent data even suggested that RUNX2 might act as a proapoptotic factor. Among the cytokines described as modulators of osteoblast functions, TNFalpha affects both apoptosis and the differentiation rate from mesenchymal precursor cells of osteoblast. Thus we evaluated on the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 stably transfected with a RUNX2 dominant negative construct (DeltaRUNX2) the effects of serum and TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we showed that SaOs-2 clones expressing high levels of DeltaRUNX2 presented a higher proliferation rate than clones transfected with an empty vector. This increase in cell growth was accompanied by a rise in cyclins A1, B1 and E1 expression and a decrease in the cyclin inhibitor p21. Moreover we observed that the expression of the RUNX2 transgene protected the SaOs-2 cells from the antiproliferative and the apoptotic effects induced by TNFalpha. This was accompanied by the inhibition of Bax and activation of Bcl2 expression. Experiments done on SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with siRNA confirmed that RUNX2 represents a critical link between cell fate, proliferation and growth control. This study also suggested that RUNX2 might control osteoblastic growth depending on the differentiation stage of the cells by regulating expression of elements involved in hormones and cytokines sensitivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Desenvolvendo Capacidades Estatais: Conflitos e Articulação de Interesses no Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing State capacity: conflict and articulation of interests in the project of Integration of the São Francisco River. The work analyzes the institutional arrangements that organize the arenas of formulation and implementation of development policies in Brazil, both from the point of view of democracy and its ability to achieve the proposed objectives. From the case study of the integration project of the São Francisco River that became a priority in Brazil from Lula’s Government, the survey shows that despite the technical and political difficulties for the implementation of this project, not yet fully overcome, he brought institutional innovations. New management and monitoring instruments (committees, situation rooms etc. have reduced administrative barriers or bottlenecks, we noted a possible new standard of relationship between State and societal actors which, without excluding traditional forms, is guided also by greater sharing of decisions. The dialogue, debate and consensus built among several state and societal actors made possible to improve the project that is no longer just for transposition but turned into integration and revitalization project of the watershed.

  4. Oil painting on tinplate by Francisco José Resende

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Veiga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se concentre sur l'étude des techniques d'exécution, des matériaux et de l'état de conservation de trois peintures à l'huile sur fer-blanc (acier couvert d'étain du peintre portugais Francisco José Resende (1825 – 1893. Bien que le choix de peindre sur un support métallique n'était pas commun au XIXème siècle, cet auteur a exécuté au long de sa vie différentes œuvres sur ce substrat. Dans ces recherches, apparaissent les résultats comparatifs de la technique d'exécution de Francisco Resende et des matériaux présents dans les couches picturales et dans le support des trois œuvres faisant l'objet de l'étude. Bien qu'elles aient été exécutées à des dates similaires, on remarque des problèmes de conservation distincts - notamment les détachements, les cloques et la corrosion -, qui sont décrits et liés aux matériaux constituants des peintures.This article focuses on the study of execution techniques, material composition and condition of three oil paintings on tinplate – a thin sheet of steel coated with tin - by the Portuguese painter Francisco José Resende (1825-1893. Although the choice to paint on a metallic support was not very common in the nineteenth century, the painter executed several works on this support. The comparative results focus on Francisco Resende’s technique of execution, the materials used in the paint layers and on the support of the three works which are being studied. Although executed in the same period, they show different conservation problems - namely delamination and blistering of the paint layers, and also corrosion of the support.

  5. Francisco Antonio Zea y sus actividades científicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available La vida de don Francisco Antonio Zea, estudiada y valorizada en estos últimos tiempos por biógrafos de calidad, falta aún conocerse en varios aspectos que poco a poco van aclarando los archivos nacionales y extranjeros, y uno de ellos es el científico, en el que Zea pudo ser una lumbrera por su capacidad y "vocación decidida" para las ciencias naturales, al igual que su maestro y protector el sabio José Celestino Mutis.

  6. Francisco de Vitoria and the root of the criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The penal enlightenment was forged as the culmination of a process of bankruptcy paradigms. This is much due to the forward positions that were built before its claims, especially those of natural law rationalists who were based on legal thought of the modern age. In this context, the criminal ideas of Francisco de Vitoria gain considerable importance for understanding the matrix of the criminal law of these days, because they are linked to the enlightenment. Such ideas break the paradigm of the middle ages and replaced in theocentrism by anthropocentrism in the criminal field.

  7. Criollismo de otra experimentación: Francisco Madariaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Haydée Páez

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe de qué modo la repetición implica la singularidad. Contra la generalidad de lo particular, se apuntala la universalidad de lo singular, decía Deleuze. Si la repetición atañe a un fenómeno interno a la escritura de Francisco Madariaga, a su poesía, también el acto mismo de irrupción dentro del lado de los no muy leídos de la poesía argentina, repite desplazados, ciertos efectos de los faros prendidos a finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo siguiente

  8. Criollismo de otra experimentación: Francisco Madariaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Haydée Páez

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe de qué modo la repetición implica la singularidad. Contra la generalidad de lo particular, se apuntala la universalidad de lo singular, decía Deleuze. Si la repetición atañe a un fenómeno interno a la escritura de Francisco Madariaga, a su poesía, también el acto mismo de irrupción dentro del lado de los no muy leídos de la poesía argentina, repite desplazados, ciertos efectos de los faros prendidos a finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo siguiente

  9. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The cities of San Francisco and the East Bay are highlighted in this computer-generated perspective viewed from west of the Golden Gate. San Francisco occupies the peninsula jutting into the picture from the right. Golden Gate Park is the long rectangle near its left end and the Presidiois the green area at its tip, from which Golden Gate Bridge crosses to Marin. Treasure Island is the bright spot above San Francisco and Alcatraz Island is the small smudge below and to the left. Across the bay from San Francisco lie Berkeley (left) and Oakland (right). Mount Diablo, a landmark visible for many miles, rises in the distance at the upper right.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an on-line mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission

  10. El indio animal en dos novelas de Francisco Leal Quevedo

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Arismendi, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo examina la construcción de una imagen del indio, asimilado con la animalidad, en dos novelas juveniles de Francisco Leal Quevedo: El mordisco de la media noche (2010) y Los hijos del viento: una aventura nukak (2012), la primera ambientada en la Guajira y la segunda en la selva amazónica. Se propone que el influjo de un discurso antropológico referido a las cosmovisiones ecologistas habría dado lugar, por mediación del gesto mimético propio de la ficción, a la imagen del indi...

  11. [Effects of total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on proliferation and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang-qiang; Yin, Chang-chang; Zhou, Hu-yan; He, Ding-wen; Liang, Guang-sheng; Liu, Yu-liang; Yin, Ming

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on proliferation and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells and its mechanism. The effect of the total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on the proliferation of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells was detected by CCK assay, and the morphological changes of cells treated with total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum were observed using contrast microscope. Flow cytomerty was performed to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells, and the gene expression levels of Caspase-3, BCL-2, BAX were detected by RT-PCR. The total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum suppressed the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Under a microscope observation of cell morphology, the volume became smaller ,the number of internal particles was increased. Cell apoptosis rate was positively related to the drug concentration. After treated for 48 hours, Caspase-3 and BAX expression were up-regulated, BCL-2 and BCL-2/BAX were decreased. The total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum can inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 by inducing cell apoptosis,the mechanism of which might be related with reducing BCL-2/BAX and activating Caspase-3.

  12. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city; Estudo sobre a composicao elementar nas amostras de liquen epifitico utilizado como bioindicador da poluicao aerea na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-07-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites

  13. The Unimpressible Race. A Century of Educational Struggle by the Chinese in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Victor

    This book traces the history of the Chinese experience in America, particularly in the San Francisco area, from the California Gold Rush era of the 1850s to the construction of a new all-Chinese school in San Francisco's Chinatown district in the 1950s. The first five chapters of the book detail the withholding of school privileges from both…

  14. Tuberculosis in Mexican-born persons in San Francisco: reactivation, acquired infection and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, R M; Ponce de Leon, A; Hopewell, P C; Alarcon, R G; Moss, A R; Paz, E A; Schecter, G F; Small, P M

    1997-12-01

    San Francisco, California. To determine the relative contributions of infection acquired in San Francisco and reactivation of tuberculous infection acquired elsewhere in Mexican-born persons who developed tuberculosis in San Francisco, and to determine the frequency of transmission leading to secondary cases of tuberculosis in other persons. The study population consisted of all Mexican-born tuberculosis patients reported in San Francisco from 1991 through June 1995. All patients had positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and DNA fingerprinting of isolates using IS6110 with more than two bands. Patients were classified as infected in San Francisco or infected elsewhere based on pre-defined criteria that included a second DNA fingerprinting technique (polymorphic guanine-cytosine-rich sequence), chart reviews, and selected patient interviews. Of the 43 Mexican-born patients studied, nine (21%) met the definition of infection acquired in San Francisco and 34 (79%) met the definition of reactivation of infection acquired elsewhere. Only one of the 43 cases resulted in two secondary cases in US-born persons. One-fifth of the Mexican-born patients who developed tuberculosis in San Francisco acquired their tuberculous infection in San Francisco; transmission from Mexican-born persons leading to tuberculosis in other persons is uncommon.

  15. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.405 Off San Francisco: Main ship channel...

  16. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  17. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  18. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure.

  19. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  20. [Clinical relationships and ethical problems in primary care, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Pavone Zoboli, Elma Lourdes

    2010-08-01

    to identify ethical problems in primary care according to nurses' and doctors' perceptions. to know ethical issues of patient-professional relationships in primary care. Synthesis to integrate and reinterpret primary results of qualitative studies. Primary healthcare centers, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS AND/OR CONTEXT: Incidental sample of 34 nurses and 36 medical doctors working in primary healthcare centers selected by convenience. Individual, semi-structured interviews to identity situations considered as sources of ethical problems. The sample is socially representative of primary care health centers and professionals. Data collection assured discourse saturation. Hermeneutic-dialectical discourse analysis was used to study the results. Patient-professional relationships and team work were the main sources of ethical problems. The most important problems were patient information, privacy, confidentiality, interpersonal relationship, linkage and patient autonomy. These issues reflect the recent changes in clinical relation ships and show the peculiarities of primary care with its continuous care which lasts a long time. Healthcare involves multiprofessional team work in the midst of the patient claims for autonomy. Good care of patients needs requires a relationship based on communication and cooperation, and includes feelings and values, with communication skills. Ethical problems in primary care are common situations. For quality and humane primary care the relationship should consist of dialogue, trust and cooperation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  2. Cash Transfers and Mayoral Elections: The Case of Sao Paulo's Renda Mínima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sanches Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recently published studies analyze the effects of national conditional cash transfer (CCT programs, such as the Brazilian Bolsa Família and the Mexican Oportunidades, on presidential elections. Most of them show that these programs boost incumbents' electoral support among the poor. This research note is the first scholarly attempt to investigate this phenomenon at a lower-level unit of a federal state, by assessing the impact of a municipal cash transfer program on a mayoral election. Specifically, it investigates whether Renda Mínima, the cash transfer program of the city of Sao Paulo, affected beneficiaries' electoral behavior in favor of the incumbent candidate in the 2004 mayoral election. This note analyzes survey data from CEBRAP/IBOPE and shows that cash transfers did, indeed, affect beneficiaries' behavior in the predicted direction, but only in cases where they did not benefit from any other CCT program, such as the federal Bolsa Família or the São Paulo state Renda Cidadã. These results suggest that the pro-incumbent effect of CCT programs may be diluted by similar programs launched by governments at other tiers of a federation, even if they are led by the same party.

  3. Measurement of the Radial Velocity of Vega and SAO 104807 by high resolution spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, F.; Ordoñez, J.; Suarez, W.; Quijano, A.

    2017-07-01

    The radial velocity is the component of the velocity with which a celestial object approaches (blueshift) or go away (redshift) of the observer. The precise measurement of the redshift allowed to Humason and Hubble discover the expansion of the Universe. In 1998 two research teams simultaneously discovered that this expansion is accelerated, for that reason the hypothesis of the dark energy has been raised to explain the existing repulsion. The present work shows the measurement of the radial velocity of Vega and SAO104807 by high resolution spectrometry. Using the instruments of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Nariño, located in the south of Colombia, was measured the displacement that the spectral lines of both celestial objects suffer due to the Doppler effect. The results obtained were quite close to those recorded in databases such as SIMBAD, according to the used equipment. The instruments used were: Celestron CGE Pro 1400 Telescope, Shelyak LHIRES III High Resolution Spectrometer and SBIG ST-8300 CCD Camera. The characteristics of the spectrometer are: Diffraction grating: 2400 lines/mm, Spectral dispersion (H alpha): 0:012 nm/pixel, Radial velocity resolution: 5 km/s.

  4. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  5. Radiocarbon geochronology of the sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (Southern Brazilian upper margin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M.; Burone, Leticia; Nagai, Renata H.; Silveira, Ilson C.A.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Soutelino, Rafael G.; Ponsoni, Leandro; Klein, Daniel A., E-mail: mahiques@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this work was to generate an inventory of the data on radiocarbon dating obtained from sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (southern Brazilian upper margin) and to analyze the data in terms of Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and sedimentation rates. A total of 238 radiocarbon dating from materials collected using different sampling procedures was considered for this work. The sedimentation rates varied from less than 2 to 68 cm.kyr{sup -1}. The highest sedimentation rate values were found in a low-energy (ria type) coastal system as well as in the upwelling zones of Santa Catarina and Cabo Frio. The lowest rates were found on the outer shelf and upper slopes. Our results confirm the strong dependency of the shelf currents, with an emphasis to the terrigenous input from the Rio de La Plata outflow which is transported via the Brazilian coastal current, as well as of the coupled Brazil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current (BC-IWBC) dynamics on the sedimentary processes. At least three indicators of the paleo sea level were found at 12200 yr BP (conventional radiocarbon age) (103 meters below sea level - mbsl), 8300-8800 cal yr BP (13 mbsl) and 7700-8100 cal yr BP (6 mbsl). (author)

  6. [Relationship between low birthweight and air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Andréa; Gouveia, Nelson

    2005-12-01

    Air pollution has been investigated as a potential determinant for low birthweight. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of air pollution on birthweight. We analyzed all deliveries by mothers living in the municipality of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2000. We estimated the prevalence of low birthweight according to newborn, mother, and delivery characteristics. Only births occurring in the most central districts of the city were analyzed, totaling 311.735 events. For the evaluation of the effects of air pollution, we excluded preterm and multiple deliveries. Pollutants analyzed were ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particles (PM10), and carbon monoxide (CO). The effect of maternal exposure to air pollution on birthweight was evaluated using linear and logistic regression. A total of 4.6% of newborns weighed less than 2,500 g at birth. Maternal exposure to CO, PM10, and NO2 during the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased birthweight. Our results reinforce the notion that maternal exposure to air pollution during the first trimester of pregnancy may contribute to lesser weight gain in the fetus.

  7. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  8. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  9. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research Symposium: February 4-6, 2004, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Tierney; Deborah J. (Tech. coords.) Chavez

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research (SARR) Symposium was held February 4-6, 2004 in San Francisco, California at the Presidio of San Francisco, a component of Golden Gate National Recreation Area and at San Francisco State University. The theme was: Linking People to the Outdoors: Connections for Healthy Lands, People and Communities.

  11. 76 FR 19519 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Downtown San Francisco Ferry Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Francisco Ferry Terminal Expansion Project in the City and County of San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Federal... Transportation Authority (WETA) are planning to prepare an EIS for the proposed expansion and improvements to the... Expansion Project is to support and expand ferry service on San Francisco Bay, as established by WETA in its...

  12. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  13. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  14. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP, administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nanoparticles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing

  15. Projected Bioclimatic Change for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A.; Taylor, M.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Weiss, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    Past and future climate data for the San Francisco Bay Area were classified using the Rivas-Martinez (R-M) system to group long-term annual climate averages into categories with biotic significance based on thermotypic and ombrotypic regimes. Bioclimate maps were generated at 270 meter resolution for ten San Francisco Bay Area counties for six 30-year periods from 1911 to 2100 which include the historical 1) 1911-1940, 2) 1941-1970, 3) 1971-2000, and future 4) 2011-2040, 5) 2041-2070, and 6) 2071-2100. Historic averages were generated from PRISM climate data. Future climate projections were generated from two IPCC-based future scenarios (A2 and B1) and two coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and the Parallel Climate Model). Strong congruence was found among the boundaries for historic bioclimates and current vegetation types. However, future scenarios had varying patterns of losses and gains in bioclimate classes and these tracked mesoclimate gradients. Comparisons between projected bioclimatic categories and modeled future climatic water deficit show strong correspondence except in zones of deep alluvial deposits. Maps show areas of bioclimatic stability, e.g. areas that did not change under any future projection, versus areas with significant bioclimatic shifts in all future scenarios. These analyses and maps will be useful for assessing natural resource vulnerability to climate change and natural resource conservation-based climate adaptation decisions.

  16. Lessons from monitoring water quality in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Labiosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the defining landscape feature of the place we call ‘The Bay Area,’ but most of us only experience the Bay as we view it from an airplane window or drive across one of its bridges. These views from afar suggest that the Bay is static and sterile, but this impression is deceptive. If you are one of the many thousands of students who have experienced the Bay through a school excursion with the Marine Science Institute or other educational programs, you observed its rich plankton soup under a microscope, sorted clams and worms and crustaceans from mud samples, and identified the gobies, sole, halibut, bat rays, sharks, sardines, and smelt caught with trawls. San Francisco Bay is much more than a landscape feature. It is a dynamic ecosystem, continually changing and teeming with life. The Bay once supported the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of the United States, but commercial fishing for shellfish, shrimp, sturgeon, shad, salmon, and striped bass ended many decades ago because of habitat loss, pollution, invasive species and over harvest.

  17. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  18. Injection risk behavior among women syringe exchangers in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Paula J; Sears, Clare; Guydish, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Women who inject drugs in cities where syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are well established may have different risks for HIV infection. In 1997, we interviewed 149 female syringe exchangers in San Francisco, CA, a city with high rates of injection drug use that is home to one of the largest and oldest SEPs in the United States. In this report, we describe their sociodemographics, health, and risk behavior, and we examine factors associated with recent syringe sharing. Fifty percent of respondents were women of color and the median age was 38 years. Most (86%) injected heroin and nearly half were currently homeless or had recently been incarcerated. One-third of all women reported needle sharing in the prior month. This was higher than the rate of needle sharing reported by a mixed gender sample of San Francisco exchangers in 1993, although it resembled the rate reported by a mixed gender sample in 1992. In a multivariate analysis, syringe sharing was associated with age, housing status, and sexual partnerships. Syringe sharers were more likely to be young, homeless, or have a sexual partner who was also an injection drug user. While wide access to sterile syringes is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDU), syringe exchange alone cannot eradicate risky injection by female IDU. Additional efforts to reduce risky injection practices should focus on younger and homeless female IDU, as well as address selective risk taking between sexual partners.

  19. Novel Technique for Assessing Ammonium Utilization by Phytoplankton in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Kraus, T. E. C.; Silva, S. R.; Richter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of NH4+ in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (SFE) have been shown to inhibit the growth of phytoplankton, which are an important food source to zooplankton at the base of the pelagic food web. Here we present results from a study which used a stable isotope mixing model to quantify the proportion of nitrogen assimilated as NH4+ by phytoplankton in situ in a portion of the Sacramento River where NH4+ concentration is elevated downstream of the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SRWTP). To determine the δ15N value of phytoplankton, a novel method was developed to isolate phytoplankton from bulk particulate organic matter using flow cytometry prior to isotopic analysis. Modifications were made to an elemental analyzer to allow measurement of the δ15N values of samples containing as little as 0.5 µg N with an analytical precision of 0.2‰ (determined from replicate analysis of standards). During fall and spring field campaigns, two parcels of Sacramento River water (one with wastewater effluent and one without) were tracked and sampled in a Lagrangian sampling scheme over ~80 hours of travel downstream of the SRWTP. Water samples were analyzed for nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations as well δ15N-NO3 and δ15N-NH4+. In addition, approximately ten million phytoplankton cells were sorted from each sample for analysis of δ15N-phytoplankton. In parcels of Sacramento River water without wastewater effluent, NH4+ concentrations remained low and trends in δ15N-phytoplankton followed trends in δ15N-NO3-. In contrast, in the parcels containing SRWTP effluent phytoplankton uptake of N as NH4+ gradually increased from 15% immediately downstream of the SRWTP to as high as 90% after 80 hours of downstream transit. Previous mesocosm incubation experiments have demonstrated depressed growth rates and a rapid switch from NO3- to NH4+ uptake downstream of the SRWTP, suggesting that the apparent gradual increase in the proportion of N

  20. Development, implementation, and validation of a modeling system for the San Francisco Bay and Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Zhang, Hongchun; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Ateljevich, Eli; Chai, Fei; Davis, Curtiss O.; Dugdale, Richard; Wilkerson, Frances

    2017-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical modeling system for the San Francisco Bay is presented. The system is based on an unstructured grid numerical model known as Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM). The lateral boundary condition is provided by a regional coastal ocean model. The surface forcing is provided by a regional atmospheric model. The SCHISM results from a decadal hindcast run are compared with available tide gauge data, as well as a collection of temperature and salinity profiles. An examination of the observed climatological annual mean salinities at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) stations shows the highest salinities to be in the open ocean and the lowest well north (upstream) of the Central Bay, a pattern that does not change substantially with season. The corresponding mean SCHISM salinities reproduced the observed variations with location quite well, though with a fresh bias. The lowest values within the Bay occur during spring and the highest values during autumn, mirroring the seasonal variations in river discharge. The corresponding observed mean temperatures within the Bay were 2 to 3° C cooler in the Central Bay than to either the north or south. This observed pattern of a cooler Central Bay was not particularly well reproduced in the SCHISM results, which also showed a cold bias. Examination of the seasonal means revealed that the cool Central Bay pattern is found only during summer in the SCHISM results. The persistent cold and fresh biases in the model control run were nearly eliminated in a sensitivity run with modifications to the surface heat flux and river discharge. The surface atmospheric forcing and the heat flux at the western boundary are found to be the two major terms in a SCHISM-based heat budget analysis of the mean seasonal temperature cycle for the Central Bay. In the Central Bay salt budget, freshwater discharged by rivers into upstream portions of the Bay to the north balanced by the

  1. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em robalo (Centropomus sp.) e pescada (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumidos na cidade de Sao Paulo por analise por ativacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, Karen C.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: karen.fabiano@usp.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1.

  2. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Asiatic Soc. o/Bengal., 55:322-343.1886. C F Oldham. The Saraswati and the lost river of the Indian desertJ. R. Asiatic. Soc., 34:49-76. 1893. S C Sharma. The description of rivers in the Rigveda, The Geographical. Observer, 10:79-85. 1974.

  3. A new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa; Wang, Rueen-Fang; Ateljevich, Eli; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-14

    Climate change, sea-level rise, and human development have contributed to the changing geomorphology of the San Francisco Bay - Delta (Bay-Delta) Estuary system. The need to predict scenarios of change led to the development of a new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Bay – Delta that can be used by modelers attempting to understand potential future changes to the estuary system. This report details the three phases of the creation of this DEM. The first phase took a bathymetric-only DEM created in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), refined it with additional data, and identified areas that would benefit from new surveys. The second phase began a USGS collaboration with the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) that updated a 2012 DWR seamless bathymetric/topographic DEM of the Bay-Delta with input from the USGS and modifications to fit the specific needs of USGS modelers. The third phase took the work from phase 2 and expanded the coverage area in the north to include the Yolo Bypass up to the Fremont Weir, the Sacramento River up to Knights Landing, and the American River up to the Nimbus Dam, and added back in the elevations for interior islands. The constant evolution of the Bay-Delta will require continuous updates to the DEM of the Delta, and there still are areas with older data that would benefit from modern surveys. As a result, DWR plans to continue updating the DEM.

  4. Bathymetric Survey Data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic survey data were collected from May 22 through June 10, 2015, using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) coupled with an RTK-GNSS rover. The...

  5. Zn adsorption in soils of different morphogenesis from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Raul Henrique; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Mineral de Plantas]. E-mail: rsartori@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The zinc (Zn) adsorption by nine different morphogenetic soil from to Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were studied. Superficial samples of soils: Ferralsol, Feralsol, Vertisol, Acrisol, Cambisol, two Arenosol, Phaeozem and Gleysol were used. It was study the influence of soil characteristics on the parameters of adsorption of zinc, described by the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich, as well as the free energies of the adsorption reaction. Soil samples (0.5 g) were put in plastic bottle and suspended in 10 mL of solution 0.01 mol L{sup -1} of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} containing zinc in concentrations of 0.05; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 and 1.0 mmol L{sup -1}, as zinc nitrate and labeled with 1.11 kBq mL{sup -1} of {sup 65}Zn radionuclide. The pots were shaken during 24 hours. The Zn adsorption was calculated by counting the radioactivity in the solution, after centrifugation. The equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were efficient to describe the parameters of adsorption of Zn. The results showed that the different soils can be separated in three groups in agreement with the maximum adsorption of Zn: <500 mg kg{sup -1} (Ferralsol, Vertisol, Arenosol-1 and Arenosol-2); 500 to 1000 mg kg{sup -1} 20 (Ferralsol, Cambisol and Phaeozem) and > 1000 mg kg{sup -1} (Acrisol and Gleysol). The negative values of the free energy change ({partial_derivative}G) of the reaction of zinc adsorption indicated the spontaneity of the reaction in all studied concentrations and the metal binding affinity of soil, which decreased with the increase of the concentration of Zn in the solution. The adsorption values and free energy change value from the reaction were related to the chemical and physical soil characteristics. (author)

  6. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil

    2016-05-01

    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pesticide exposure and cancer among rural workers from Bariri, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sá Stoppelli, Illona Maria; Crestana, Sílvio

    2005-07-01

    This article reports an environmental health study on risk identification. It discusses risk factors linked to rural work and pesticide contact in a restricted geographic area and shows the necessity of improving rural workers' health in the central part of Sao Paulo State. The municipality of Bariri, which is the case studied in this research, typifies this agriculturally based region. The study focuses on environmental problems engendered by modern agriculture that may have human-health repercussions such as cancer, as indicated by hard statistical association on an extended cause-effect time scale. For specific cases, the research used a database containing records of Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in the city of Jau and a highly respected regional reference unit for over 85 years as one of the best in the Brazilian public health system for treating cancer. Statistics for age and gender were analyzed; relative risk was calculated for a group of cases registered from 2000 to 2002, as well as for a randomly selected control group from the same hospital. A map indicating the residences of cases (68) and non-cases (60) was made by geoprocessing techniques. For the period of time and the group studied, the authors concluded that the cancers of the skin and digestive system were the most prevalent. Bariri presented 24 cases representing all cancer types for each group of 10,000 citizens. The study indicated an almost two times higher probability of cancer development among rural workers, with a calculated relative risk between those exposed (agriculture workers) and the non-exposed (other occupations) of 1.6. No patterns of geographical distribution of cancer in that time period were recorded among rural workers of Bariri. However, the higher number of positive occurrences in the southwestern outskirts of the city indicated an area that must be prioritized in distributing environmental health information and conducting preventive education campaigns.

  8. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  9. Fiber intake, constipation, and overweight among adolescents living in Sao Paulo City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Erica Bloes; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gama, Cíntia Mendes; Lopez, Fabio Ancona; Taddei, José Augusto C; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the dietary fiber intake of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city and any association between low dietary fiber intake with constipation and overweight. In total, 716 adolescents were included within the study, of whom 314 attended private school and 402 attended public school. Evaluation of fiber intake was based on a 24-h daily intake record and a frequency questionnaire. Data concerning bowel movements and height and weight measurements were also taken. Fiber consumption, below that recommended ("age + 5"), was found in 61.8% and 41.4% (P = 0.000) of girls attending private and public schools, respectively, and in 44.1% and 25.6% of boys (P = 0.001). Adolescents who did not eat beans on more than 4 d/wk presented a higher risk of fiber intake below that recommended (age + 5; P < 0.05), with odds ratios ranging from 10.4 to 14.2 according gender and private or public schooling. Dietary fiber intake below that recommended was associated with a greater risk (P < 0.05) toward overweight in students attending public schooling (odds ratios 2.84 and 2.95 for males and females, respectively). Low dietary fiber intake was not associated with constipation. Intake of beans more than four times per week is associated with the appropriate level of fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake below the recommendation was not associated with constipation but was associated with being overweight among those students attending public schooling.

  10. Methodology for correlations between doses and detectability in standard mammographic images: application in Sao Paulo state; Metodologia para correlacao entre doses e detectabilidade em imagens mamograficas padroes: aplicacao no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Tania Aparecida Correia

    2005-07-01

    Measurements using mammography units were performed in loco in 50 health establishments, randomly sampled from an equipment list of the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saude (Health Establishments Brazilian Catalog). For the measurements six phantoms were utilized to establish different quality criteria and to evaluate doses in different breast thicknesses. Two different methods of measuring average glandular doses (AGD) were applied, and measurements of entrance surface doses (ESD) were also realized, in order to obtain mean values to Sao Paulo State. A study relating distribution and properties of different mammography trademarks with doses was performed. The sensitometry of processors allowed a quantification of the film-processing contrast index, A{sub g}, establishing a state mean value. The phantom images allowed the evaluation of detection limits of structures as microcalcifications, fibers, and masses, and state mean values were established for: spatial resolution (on surface and glandular breast position); image contrast; and detection expert ability from phantom images in two situations: before knowing the image targets and after viewing of a target map. Then, the results were compared to target detections in laboratory environment. Based on dose results, A{sub g}, image contrast, maximum contrast, and detection ratio, a relationship between them was determined. The results show that, in Sao Paulo State, mean glandular doses were lower than reference levels considering the Wu method, and close to or above reference levels for ail phantoms considering the Dance method. The ESD was always close to or above reference levels. The A{sub g} presented a mean value of (10,42 {+-} 0,20) for Sao Paulo State, and the image contrast was lower than the required limits established by the phantom manufacturers. The high contrast resolution showed that mammography units presented the expected values of line pair per mm in the State. The detectability evaluation

  11. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  12. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  13. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Levantamento das condicoes de funcionamento de servicos de radiodiagnostico medico - programa de vigilancia das radiacoes ionizantes no Estado de Sao Paulo - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Moraes, Anna Cristina Andrade de [Escola de Governo e Administracao Publica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fundacao do Desenvolvimento Administrativo (FUNDAP)

    1996-12-31

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an `inspection form` of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. The plight of gay visibility: intolerance in San Francisco, 1970-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    During the 1970s, San Francisco was often characterized as the "Gay Mecca" of the United States. While it's true that San Francisco was more supportive of the gay community during this period, this depiction often dismisses the problematic side of the increasing visibility of homosexuals. As with the increasing visibility of any minority group who is struggling to find its place in a community, the homosexual population in San Francisco soon found itself the target of anti-gay harassment and violence. This article hopes to elaborate on the published reports of intolerance that were chronicled by the gay community's own press.

  15. Entrevista con Francisco Pérez de los Cobos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Pérez Collados

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Pérez de los Cobos es magistrado del Tribunal Constitucional, catedrático de Derecho del Trabajo y autor de una importante obra académica en el campo del Derecho, así como de una selecta y cuidada obra literaria en el ámbito de la poesía infantil, los aforismos y el cuento.Hablamos con él de lectura, teniendo en cuenta que las lecturas que él hace de nuestras leyes tienen una relevancia que nos afecta a todos.Y ocurre que después de leer sus reflexiones sobre la importancia de la lectura, así como sobre los narradores y los poetas que ha cultivado a lo largo de toda su vida, nos queda un sentimiento que quiero explicitar: el de la felicidad que ofrece la inteligencia cuando se rodea de sensibilidad.

  16. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Teresa Gowan, Hobos, Hustlers and Backsliders: Homeless in San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aldeia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Gowan apresenta‑nos uma obra atípica no contexto da produção de conhecimento científico sobre o fenómeno dos sem‑abrigo nos Estados Unidos da América (EUA. Recorrendo a um trabalho etnográfico notável, desenvolvido ao longo da segunda metade da década de 1990 em São Francisco, a autora enquadra o seu estudo no contexto sócio-histórico e geográfico mais vasto, articulando a análise do terreno com as teorias acerca do fenómeno e com os registos das perspectivas das próprias pessoas que ...

  18. Francisco de Goya: tres cuadros, tres épocas

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    Arnáiz, José Manuel

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The author publishes three works in his opinion belonging to three periods of Goya's activity: The first one The Death of San Francisco Javier is the definitive version based on the "bozetto" now in the Zaragoza Museum which derives from a drawing and canvass by the italian painter Bertucci. The second is The Portrait of Child Pedro Jordan de Urríes, heir of the Marquesado de Ayerbe, as first boom of one of the most aristocratic and rich families of Zaragoza. The third work is a sketch for The Tribunal of the Inquisición now in the Academy of San Fernando with remarkable differences, which raises again the problem of the series of small panels in the Munich Museum. The author includes interesting letters addressed by Matheron to Valentin Carderera asking information about Goya, and reproduce the original text of Goya's letter to Zapater dated of 15th. April 1777, until now homeless.No disponible

  19. A sociedade internacional em Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Emílio Vauthier Borges de Macedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa a noção de sociedade internacional em Francisco Suárez. Porque a vontade constitui elemento essencial do seu conceito de Direito, alguns autores criticaram Suárez por ver nele o precursor do positivismo voluntarista dos teóricos de Direito Internacional do século XIX. Mas isso é um equívoco. A sociedade internacional suareziana é mais do que a mera vontade dos Estados, pois se baseia num conceito bastante transcendente: a Caridade. Assim, procura refutar-se uma concepção difundida, mas imerecida do teólogo espanhol. O artigo empregou o método de abordagem indutivo, e as suas fontes primárias foram as obras de Suárez, e as secundárias as dos seus comentaristas.

  20. A molecular epidemiological assessment of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Adrian; Creasman, Jennifer; Hopewell, Philip C; Gonzalez, Leah C; Wong, Maida; Jasmer, Robert M; Daley, Charles L

    2004-01-01

    The epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is not well understood. We studied all cases of extrapulmonary TB reported in San Francisco during 1991-2000 to determine risk factors for extrapulmonary TB and the proportion caused by recent infection. Isolates were analyzed by IS6110-based restriction fragment-length polymorphisms analysis. There were 480 cases of extrapulmonary TB, of which 363 (76%) were culture positive; isolates were genotyped for 301 cases (83%). Multivariate analysis identified young age, female sex, and HIV infection as independent risk factors for nonrespiratory TB (excluding pulmonary, pleural, and disseminated TB). Pleural TB was less common in HIV-seropositive persons and women than were nonrespiratory forms of extrapulmonary TB. Pleural TB is different from other forms of extrapulmonary TB and is associated with the highest clustering rate (35% of cases) of all forms of TB. This high rate of clustering occurs because pleural TB is often an early manifestation of recent infection.

  1. El realismo "full hd" de Juan Francisco Ferré

    OpenAIRE

    Florenchie, Amélie

    2013-01-01

    A partir de las teorías sobre el simulacro del filósofo francés Jean Baudrillard, así como del análisis del posmodernismo como resultado de la lógica cultural del capitalismo tardío de Fredric Jameson, y de los postulados más recientes de Eloy Fernández Porta sobre la evolución de la cultura hacia el paradigma estético del afterpop, nos proponemos estudiar en este artículo las características del “realismo de alta definición” definido por Juan Francisco Ferré a propósito de su penúltima novel...

  2. Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Adelsbach, T.; Brown, C.; Hunt, J.; Kuwabara, J.; Neale, J.; Ohlendorf, H.; Schwarzbach, S.; Spies, R.; Taberski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been associated with biological effects elsewhere, so there is a potential for them to cause biological effects in the Estuary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information about biological effects on the Estuary's plankton, benthos, fish, birds, and mammals, gathered since the early 1990s, focusing on key accomplishments. These studies have been conducted at all levels of biological organization (sub-cellular through communities), but have included only a small fraction of the organisms and contaminants of concern in the region. The studies summarized provide a body of evidence that some contaminants are causing biological impacts in some biological resources in the Estuary. However, no general patterns of effects were apparent in space and time, and no single contaminant was consistently related to effects among the biota considered. These conclusions reflect the difficulty in demonstrating biological effects due specifically to contamination because there is a wide range of sensitivity to contaminants among the Estuary's many organisms. Additionally, the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination in the Estuary is highly variable, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment-type. Federal and State regulatory agencies desire to develop biological criteria to protect the Estuary's biological resources. Future studies of biological effects in San Francisco Estuary should focus on the development of meaningful indicators of biological effects, and on key organism and contaminants of concern in long-term, multifaceted studies that include laboratory and field experiments to determine cause and effect to adequately inform management and regulatory decisions. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Al margen de las Obras de Francisco de la Torre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Abadín Barro, Soledad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de la Torre's Works, published by Quevedo in 1631, enclose a second part, described in later years as an «appendix», with translations that did not belong in the original project prepared by the author some decades before. The summary of the 1588 license for printing describes the work's content as «lyric and adonic verse, and bucolic», without mentioning the translations. The new date throws into question the participation of Almeida and Brocense in the preparation and transmission of the manuscript that came to Quevedo. Therefore, the volume of 1631 cannot be considered as an example of salmantin group's collective poetical essay. Related chronological considerations also throw new light on the relationship between the author and Fernando de Herrera.Las Obras de Francisco de la Torre, publicadas por Quevedo en 1631, incluyen una segunda parte, que más tarde se llamaría «apéndice», con traducciones ajenas al proyecto inicial preparado por el propio autor décadas antes. El sumario de la licencia de impresión de 1588 describe el contenido de la obra aprobada como «los versos líricos y adónicos y la bucólica», sin mencionar las traducciones. La nueva fecha lleva a cuestionar el protagonismo de Almeida y el Brócense en la preparación y transmisión del manuscrito que más tarde llegaría a Quevedo. El volumen de 1631, por lo tanto, no puede considerarse como un exponente de un ejercicio poético colectivo del círculo salmantino. Los datos cronológicos también permiten replantear la relación del autor con Fernando de Herrera.

  4. Francisco Giralte y el sepulcro del obispo Gutierre de Carvajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasallo Toranzo, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high valuation placed on the tomb of Bishop Gutierre de Carvajal, sculpted by Francisco de Giralte, resulted in a lawsuit for which the most important artists from Toledo, Alcalá and Madrid were called to testify. Their testimonies, made during the crucial moment when Berruguete died and the court arrived at Madrid are very useful for understanding the artistic appreciation of a work. Thus, relevant artists of the period –Pompeyo Leoni, Nicolás Vergara el Viejo, Jácome Trezo or Juan Bautista de Toledo– attested to the perfect technique, the beauty of the carving, the multiplicity of personages represented next to the dead Bishop, and the wish to achieve their portrait likenesses.La alta tasación alcanzada por el sepulcro del obispo Gutierre de Carvajal, obra de Francisco Giralte, motivó un pleito al que fueron llamados los principales artistas de Toledo, Alcalá y Madrid. Sus testimonios, realizados en el crucial momento en que se produjo la muerte de Berruguete y llegó la corte a Madrid, son muy útiles para conocer la estimación artística de una obra, de la que personajes como Pompeyo Leoni, Nicolás de Vergara el Viejo, Jácome Trezo o Juan Bautista de Toledo ponderaron la perfección técnica, la belleza de su talla, la multiplicación de personajes representados junto al finado y la voluntad retratística presente en todos ellos.

  5. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Comparison between Cytotoxicity Induced by Two Resin Based Sealers (2Seal and AH Plus) in Saos-2 and MG-63 Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Maryam; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Gharouee, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity induced by two resin-based sealers, 2Seal and AH Plus, in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2. Using sterile discs of both sealers in complete media, 24- and 72-h extracts were prepared. The extracts were exchanged with Saos-2 or MG-63 cell culture media at 75% confluence, and after 24 h incubation, cell viability tests were performed for each extract and cell line using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Corresponding incubated media were used as negative control groups. For both extracts and sealers, cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines. For Saos-2, there was no statistical difference in toxicity between the sealers for either extract (p > 0.05). For MG-63, the 2Seal 24-h extract and the AH Plus 72-h extract had greater cytotoxicity than the other extracts (p extraction time from 24 to 72 h. The AH Plus and 2Seal 24-h extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cell line, while in the Saos-2 cell line there were no detectable differences. This may reflect higher sensitivity of the MG-63 cell line compared to Saos-2 toward cytotoxicity induced by these two sealers, or different kinetics of toxicant release from the sealers. PMID:24551778

  7. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  8. Urban policies and citizenship. Some mechanisms for the production of urban space in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocco

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reasons for the present conditions in the city of Sao Paolo, attempts at managing the place, preparation of the master plan, problems with establishment of particular mechanisms for creating urban space and reasons for success or failure of particular endeavours. An important aspect in solving physical problems of future development is prevention of social and physical segregation. Urban policies are presented with three types of measures. In conclusion, two examples of policy implementation are shown.

  9. Validation of 10-year SAO OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product using ozonesonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanyu; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Yang, Kai; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Cai, Zhaonan; Allaart, Marc; Ancellet, Gérard; Calpini, Bertrand; Coetzee, Gerrie J. R.; Cuevas-Agulló, Emilio; Cupeiro, Manuel; De Backer, Hugo; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hall, Tristan J.; Johnson, Bryan; Joseph, Everette; Kivi, Rigel; Kois, Bogumil; Komala, Ninong; König-Langlo, Gert; Laneve, Giovanni; Leblanc, Thierry; Marchand, Marion; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Morris, Gary; Newchurch, Michael J.; Ogino, Shin-Ya; Ohkawara, Nozomu; Piters, Ankie J. M.; Posny, Françoise; Querel, Richard; Scheele, Rinus; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Schnell, Russell C.; Schrems, Otto; Selkirk, Henry; Shiotani, Masato; Skrivánková, Pavla; Stübi, René; Taha, Ghassan; Tarasick, David W.; Thompson, Anne M.; Thouret, Valérie; Tully, Matthew B.; Van Malderen, Roeland; Vömel, Holger; von der Gathen, Peter; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Yela, Margarita

    2017-07-01

    We validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product from October 2004 through December 2014 retrieved by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) algorithm against ozonesonde observations. We also evaluate the effects of OMI row anomaly (RA) on the retrieval by dividing the dataset into before and after the occurrence of serious OMI RA, i.e., pre-RA (2004-2008) and post-RA (2009-2014). The retrieval shows good agreement with ozonesondes in the tropics and midlatitudes and for pressure ˜ 50 hPa after applying OMI averaging kernels to ozonesonde data. The MBs of the stratospheric ozone column (SOC, the ozone column from the tropopause pressure to the ozonesonde burst pressure) are within 2 % with SDs of ˜ 50 hPa. The SOC MBs increase up to 3 % with SDs as great as 6 % and the TOC SDs increase up to 30 %. The comparison generally degrades at larger solar zenith angles (SZA) due to weaker signals and additional sources of error, leading to worse performance at high latitudes and during the midlatitude winter. Agreement also degrades with increasing cloudiness for pressure > ˜ 100 hPa and varies with cross-track position, especially with large MBs and SDs at extreme off-nadir positions. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the post-RA comparison is considerably worse with larger SDs reaching 2 % in the stratosphere and 8 % in the troposphere and up to 6 % in TOC. There are systematic differences that vary with latitude compared to the pre-RA comparison. The retrieval comparison demonstrates good long-term stability during the pre-RA period but exhibits a statistically significant trend of 0.14-0.7 % year-1 for pressure < ˜ 80 hPa, 0.7 DU year-1 in SOC, and -0. 33 DU year-1 in TOC during the post-RA period. The spatiotemporal variation of retrieval performance suggests the need to improve OMI's radiometric calibration especially during the post-RA period to maintain the long-term stability and reduce the latitude/season/SZA and cross

  10. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  11. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: anamariainforme@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  12. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  13. Possibility of groundwater as an alternative for citric culture recovery in Sao Vicente District, Araruama, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; Possibilidade de agua subterranea como alternativa na recuperacao da citricultura no Distrito de Sao Vicente, Municipio de Araruama, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Leonidas Castro [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Results and perspectives of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding Survey in Eastern Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, run by DEGEO/IA/UFRRJ (Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Agronomy Institute, Geology Dept.) for the Municipal Prefecture of Araruama in Sao Vicente District, RJ, where underground is needed to support irrigation projects, mainly of citrus, are presented. Geophysical data interpretation resulted in a 900 m long geoelectrical cross section illustrating that groundwater subsurface conditions in the surveyed area comprise: the 1400-1800 ohm.m resistivimetric regions associated to the granitic-gneissic embasement`s fracturing/faulting zones; the 215 ohm.m resistivimetric region associated to the embasement`s type C weathering horizon; and all others resistivimetric regions, below the water table, ranging from 27-227 phm.m, associated to an averaging 35 m thick and course sedimentary package overlaying the crystalline. Finally it is possible to conclude that groundwater in Sao Vicente, District of Araruama, RJ, must not be considered a possibility. It must be considered a reality, and surely the only alternative for restoration and expansion of the citriculture in this rural area of Rio de Janeiro State. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  15. Francisco de Valderrama, verdadero autor de las mazas del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Márquez, Antonio Joaquín

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author reveals the true creator of the maces of Seville Town Hall, Francisco de Valderrama, a rediscovered silversmith about whom new biographical data is offered. Also included is a detailed study of these civic maces (traditionally attributed erroneously to Francisco de Alfaro, key works of Sevillian Mannerism.

    En este artículo se da a conocer el verdadero autor de las mazas del ayuntamiento de Sevilla, Francisco de Valderrama, orfebre redescubierto del que además aportamos nuevos datos biográficos. Asimismo, hacemos un estudio pormenorizado de estas mazas capitulares, obra clave de la plástica manierista sevillana y que tradicionalmente había sido atribuida erróneamente a Francisco de Alfaro.

  16. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  17. San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1978. The report begins with a general...

  18. Physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters, 1969-1976 (NODC Accession 8400194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One magnetic tape containing the physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters was forwarded to NODC by Mr. Richard Smith of the U.S Geological Survey...

  19. [Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) executive summary was written to guide management on Don Edwards San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15...

  20. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - San Francisco Bay, Central Coast [ds159

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - San Francisco Bay, Central and South Coasts [ds159] shapefile contains four years of in-stream salmonid habitat data at the reach level. The...

  1. Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay through Additional Wastewater Sidestream Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. The report begins with highlights from the...

  3. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The report begins with highlights from the...

  4. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. The report begins with highlights from the...

  5. Annual Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1984. The report begins with highlights from the...

  6. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1982. The report begins with highlights from the...

  7. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2009-10 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Restoring vegetation adjacent to the tidal...

  8. San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey: 2012 Survey Results and Trend Analysis (1981-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides results of the 2012 San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey and presents an analysis of trends in waterfowl counts from 1981-2012. The...

  9. Final Critical Habitat for the San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Francisco Peaks groundsel (Senecio franciscanus) occur based on the description...

  10. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2008-09 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Vegetation management is often straightforward:...

  11. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Points, SF Bay CA, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  12. Public perceptions of the ban on tobacco sales in San Francisco pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Lisa A; Corelli, Robin L; Roth, Andrew P; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2013-11-01

    In October, 2008, legislation was implemented in the city and county of San Francisco, California, prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. To characterise public awareness and perceptions of the ban on tobacco sales in San Francisco community pharmacies. A brief, anonymous survey was used to assess public awareness and perceptions of a ban on tobacco sales approximately 1 year after implementation. Individuals were approached by researchers outside of chain pharmacies in San Francisco. Smokers and non-smokers were included, and participants did not have to be patrons of the pharmacy. Of 198 participants, 56% were in favor of the ban, 27% opposed it and 17% were undecided. A greater proportion of current tobacco users (81%) than former/never users (48%) were aware of the ban (pshopping behaviour at retail pharmacies. In the city and county of San Francisco, public support exists for prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies.

  13. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  14. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  15. Breeding Season Study of the California Clapper Rail in San Francisco Bay, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this study were to further investigate the suitability of brackish marshes in south San Francisco Bay to support breeding rails and to examine how the...

  16. Summary of California Clapper Rail winter populations in the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Clapper rail (Rallus lonqirostris obsoletus) is a seldom seen resident in some of the remaining tidal salt marshes in San Francisco Bay. The...

  17. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  18. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, and Ellicott Slough NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  19. Final Environmental Statement : Acquisition of lands for the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Government proposes to acquire approximately 23,000 acres of land in the South San Francisco Bay region, Alameda, San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, to...

  20. Dioxin toxin equivalents, PCBs, and PBDEs in eggs of avian wildlife of San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay (Bay) is considered an impaired waterbody under section 303 (d) of the Clean Water Act due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 2, 3, 7,...

  1. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Refuge Master Plan : 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan guides the longrange development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats,...

  2. Bridging the San Francisco System: 21st Century Strategic Partnerships for the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    and Singapore , was established with the purpose of regional cooperation in economic, social, cultural, technical, educational and other fields...COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL BRIDGING THE SAN FRANCISCO SYSTEM : 21st CENTURY STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE ASIAN-PACIFIC By...the disproportionate security and economic burdens of key bilateral alliances that grew to embody the “San Francisco System .” The United States

  3. EL CONVENTO DE SAN FRANCISCO DE MÉXICO. UN ESTUDIO DE SALUD PÚBLICA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Salas Cuesta

    1996-01-01

    ... de San Francisco de Mexico, año de 1797. La lectura que se puede realizar de éste, pór las mas diversas disciplinas, nos permite tener una amplia concepción de la situacion que guardaba la sociedad novohispana a través de un caso especifico, como es el Convento Grande de San Francisco de México. Palabras clave: ayuntamiento, cabildo, enfermedad, Fra...

  4. EL CONVENTO DE SAN FRANCISCO DE MÉXICO. UN ESTUDIO DE SALUD PÚBLICA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Salas Cuesta; María Elena Salas Cuesta

    1996-01-01

    ... de San Francisco de Mexico, año de 1797. La lectura que se puede realizar de éste, pór las mas diversas disciplinas, nos permite tener una amplia concepción de la situacion que guardaba la sociedad novohispana a través de un caso especifico, como es el Convento Grande de San Francisco de México. Palabras clave: ayuntamiento, cabildo, enfermedad, Frail...

  5. El convento de San Francisco de México: un estudio de salud pública

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas Cuesta, Marcela

    1996-01-01

    ... de San Francisco de Mexico, año de 1797. La lectura que se puede realizar de éste, pór las mas diversas disciplinas, nos permite tener una amplia concepción de la situacion que guardaba la sociedad novohispana a través de un caso especifico, como es el Convento Grande de San Francisco de México. Palabras clave: ayuntamiento, cabildo, enfermedad, Fra...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii isolates: multilocus RFLP-PCR genotyping from human patients in Sao Paulo State, Brazil identified distinct genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia Brandão; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Qu, Daofeng; Su, Chunlei; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii samples collected from 62 patients with toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. DNA samples were isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluids of 25 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS, two patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 12 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, six newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis and 17 pregnant women with acute infection. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was based in clinical, radiological and laboratory features. Genotyping was performed using multilocus PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Among the 62 clinical samples, 20 (32%) were successfully genotyped at eight or more genetic loci and were grouped to three distinct genotypes. Eighteen samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #65 and the other two samples were identified as ToxoDB Genotypes #6 and #71, respectively (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Patients presenting Genotypes #6 and #71 had severe and atypical cerebral toxoplasmosis, characterized by diffuse encephalitis without extensive brain lesions. These results indicate that T. gondii Genotype #65 may have a high frequency in causing human toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This unusual finding highlights the need to investigate the possible association of parasite genotypes with human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas, the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR, and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%. Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17 with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%, potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35% had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%; other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P<0.05.

  8. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  9. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  10. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  11. Síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (Saos e sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE: influência sobre os riscos e eventos de queda em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Afonso Burgos

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos países vêm experimentando o processo de envelhecimento populacional e a consequente elevação das doenças associadas a ele, como dificuldade de manter o equilíbrio, perdas na qualidade do sono e síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (Saos. OBJETIVOS:Investigar a correlação entre a Saos e sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE com os riscos e eventos de quedas em indivíduos idosos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS:Estudo descritivo, comparativo, de corte transversal com amostra de 75 indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, gêneros masculino e feminino. Foram utilizados o mini-exame do estado mental; escalas de depressão geriátrica simplificada; de sonolência de epworth; de avaliação do equilíbrio de tinneti; índice de massa corporal (IMC; registros estabilométricos das oscilações posturais ântero-posterior (AP e médio-lateral (ML. RESULTADOS: Maior prevalência de Saos no gênero masculino. Não foi encontrada correlação com significância estatística (Pearson, p ≤ 0,01 entre as variáveis IMC e estabilometria. Não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa (ANOVA, p ≤ 0,05 entre IMC (subgrupos normal, sobrepeso, graus I, II, III, e IV e estabilometria; entre os graus de severidade de Saos e estabilometria; entre dados estabilométricos de subgrupos de IMC e mesmo grau de severidade de Saos; entre dados estabilométricos de subgrupos de IMC e diferentes graus de Saos; entre os diferentes graus de Saos (GC, G1, (GC e G2, subgrupos de IMC e registros estabilométricos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados resultados que corroborassem a hipótese de proporcionalidade entre graus de severidade de Saos, IMC e registro estabilométrico.

  12. Sp1/Sp3 and DNA-methylation contribute to basal transcriptional activation of human podoplanin in MG63 versus Saos-2 osteoblastic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Christina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin is a membrane mucin that, among a series of tissues, is expressed on late osteoblasts and osteocytes. Since recent findings have focussed on podoplanin's potential role as a tumour progression factor, we aimed at identifying regulatory elements conferring PDPN promoter activity. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism controlling basal PDPN transcription in human osteoblast-like MG63 versus Saos-2 cells. Results We cloned and sequenced 2056 nucleotides from the 5'-flanking region of the PDPN gene and a computational search revealed that the TATA and CAAT box-lacking promoter possesses features of a growth-related gene, such as a GC-rich 5' region and the presence of multiple putative Sp1, AP-4 and NF-1 sites. Reporter gene assays demonstrated a functional promoter in MG63 cells exhibiting 30-fold more activity than in Saos-2 cells. In vitro DNase I footprinting revealed eight protected regions flanked by DNaseI hypersensitive sites within the region bp -728 to -39 present in MG63, but not in Saos-2 cells. Among these regions, mutation and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA identified four Sp1/Sp3 binding sites and two binding sites for yet unknown transcription factors. Deletion studies demonstrated the functional importance of two Sp1/Sp3 sites for PDPN promoter activity. Overexpression of Sp1 and Sp3 independently increased the stimulatory effect of the promoter and podoplanin mRNA levels in MG63 and Saos-2 cells. In SL2 cells, Sp3 functioned as a repressor, while Sp1 and Sp3 acted positively synergistic. Weak PDPN promoter activity of Saos-2 cells correlated with low Sp1/Sp3 nuclear levels, which was confirmed by Sp1/Sp3 chromatin immunoprecipitations in vivo. Moreover, methylation-sensitive Southern blot analyses and bisulfite sequencing detected strong methylation of CpG sites upstream of bp -464 in MG63 cells, but hypomethylation of these sites in Saos-2 cells. Concomitantly

  13. Monitoring the Northern San Francisco Bay Water Quality with Landsat-8. Nicholas B. Tufillaroa , and Curtiss O. Davisa. aOregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA, nbt@coas.oregonstate.edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. O.; Tufillaro, N.

    2016-02-01

    Landsat-8's high spatial resolution ( 30 nm nominal), improved signal-to-noise (12bit digitizer) and expanded band set open up new applications for coastal and in-land waters. We use a recent ocean color processor for Landsat-8 created by Vanhellemont and Ruddick (RSE, 2015)to examine changes in the Northern San Francisco Bay, in particular looking for possiblechanges due to the on-going California drought. For instance, a temporary drought barrier to prevent salt water intrusion was placed during May of 2015 at West False River in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Using the new Landsat-8 ocean color products, we illustrate how to monitor changes in macro algae and plants (Sago pondweed (native), Curly pondweed (non-native)) in regions directly effected,such as the Franks Track region. Product maps using panchromatic enhancement ( 15 m resolution) andscene based atmospheric correction allow a detailed synoptic look every 16 days during theSpring, Summer, and Fall of 2015. This work is part of a larger NASA funded project aimed atimproving the modeling and predictive capabilities of the biogeochemical state for the San Francisco Bay(Davis, PI: Impacts of Population Growth on the San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem, 2014-2017).

  14. Validation of 10-year SAO OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ product using ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ product from October 2004 through December 2014 retrieved by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO algorithm against ozonesonde observations. We also evaluate the effects of OMI row anomaly (RA on the retrieval by dividing the dataset into before and after the occurrence of serious OMI RA, i.e., pre-RA (2004–2008 and post-RA (2009–2014. The retrieval shows good agreement with ozonesondes in the tropics and midlatitudes and for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa in the high latitudes. It demonstrates clear improvement over the a priori down to the lower troposphere in the tropics and down to an average of ∼ 550 (300 hPa at middle (high latitudes. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the profile mean biases (MBs are less than 6 %, and the standard deviations (SDs range from 5 to 10 % for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa to less than 18 % (27 % in the tropics (midlatitudes for pressure  > ∼ 50 hPa after applying OMI averaging kernels to ozonesonde data. The MBs of the stratospheric ozone column (SOC, the ozone column from the tropopause pressure to the ozonesonde burst pressure are within 2 % with SDs of  < 5 % and the MBs of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC are within 6 % with SDs of 15 %. In the high latitudes, the profile MBs are within 10 % with SDs of 5–15 % for pressure  < ∼ 50 hPa but increase to 30 % with SDs as great as 40 % for pressure  > ∼ 50 hPa. The SOC MBs increase up to 3 % with SDs as great as 6 % and the TOC SDs increase up to 30 %. The comparison generally degrades at larger solar zenith angles (SZA due to weaker signals and additional sources of error, leading to worse performance at high latitudes and during the midlatitude winter. Agreement also degrades with increasing cloudiness for pressure  > ∼ 100 hPa and varies with cross-track position, especially with large MBs

  15. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... and natural scientists and Chinese hydropower companies (to name a few). The paper maps different actors’ framing of the issue to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of hydropower policymaking in China, as well as map the local consequences of global policymaking about large hydropower...

  16. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  17. La potestad tributaria en Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Amezúa Amezúa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Suárez es el teólogo más relevante de la escuela española de derecho natural o Escuela de Salamanca en sentido amplio. Según piensa, el derecho de imponer tributos justos reside en exclusiva en la autoridad suprema, sin necesitar el consentimiento de las Cortes. El Estado tiene ese poder de establecer leyes tributarias para asegurar la paz, el orden y el buen gobierno de la comunidad. Es el poder más importante entre todas las facultades propias de la soberanía, pero debe respetar las exigencias de un impuesto justo: además de la autoridad legítima, una causa justa y distribución proporcional. En este artículo, desarrollaremos la doctrina de Suárez, su interpretación acerca de la duda probable sobre la injusticia del impuesto, y su aceptación de los impuestos sobre el consumo. Todos estos razonamientos iban dirigidos a fortalecer al gobernante, que debe actuar dentro de un marco ético respetuoso con el bien común.

  18. The San Francisco MSM Epidemic: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy L. Rapatski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate various scenarios for ending the San Francisco MSM (men having sex with men HIV/AIDS epidemic (1978–1984. We use our previously developed model and explore changes due to prevention strategies such as testing, treatment and reduction of the number of contacts. Here we consider a “what-if” scenario, by comparing different treatment strategies, to determine which factor has the greatest impact on reducing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The factor determining the future of the epidemic is the reproduction number R0; if R0 < 1, the epidemic is stopped. We show that treatment significantly reduces the total number of infected people. We also investigate the effect a reduction in the number of contacts after seven years, when the HIV/AIDS threat became known, would have had in the population. Both reduction of contacts and treatment alone, however, would not have been enough to bring R0 below one; but when combined, we show that the effective R0 becomes less than one, and therefore the epidemic would have been eradicated.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  20. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  1. Application of an unstructured 3D finite volume numerical model to flows and salinity dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr-Koller, R. C.; Kernkamp, H. W. J.; van Dam, A.; van der Wegen, M.; Lucas, L. V.; Knowles, N.; Jaffe, B.; Fregoso, T. A.

    2017-06-01

    A linked modeling approach has been undertaken to understand the impacts of climate and infrastructure on aquatic ecology and water quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. The Delft3D Flexible Mesh modeling suite is used in this effort for its 3D hydrodynamics, salinity, temperature and sediment dynamics, phytoplankton and water-quality coupling infrastructure, and linkage to a habitat suitability model. The hydrodynamic model component of the suite is D-Flow FM, a new 3D unstructured finite-volume model based on the Delft3D model. In this paper, D-Flow FM is applied to the San Francisco Bay-Delta to investigate tidal, seasonal and annual dynamics of water levels, river flows and salinity under historical environmental and infrastructural conditions. The model is driven by historical winds, tides, ocean salinity, and river flows, and includes federal, state, and local freshwater withdrawals, and regional gate and barrier operations. The model is calibrated over a 9-month period, and subsequently validated for water levels, flows, and 3D salinity dynamics over a 2 year period. Model performance was quantified using several model assessment metrics and visualized through target diagrams. These metrics indicate that the model accurately estimated water levels, flows, and salinity over wide-ranging tidal and fluvial conditions, and the model can be used to investigate detailed circulation and salinity patterns throughout the Bay-Delta. The hydrodynamics produced through this effort will be used to drive affiliated sediment, phytoplankton, and contaminant hindcast efforts and habitat suitability assessments for fish and bivalves. The modeling framework applied here will serve as a baseline to ultimately shed light on potential ecosystem change over the current century.

  2. Application of an unstructured 3D finite volume numerical model to flows and salinity dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr-Koller, R.C.; Kernkamp, H.W.J.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Mick van der Wegen,; Lucas, Lisa; Knowles, N.; Jaffe, B.; Fregoso, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    A linked modeling approach has been undertaken to understand the impacts of climate and infrastructure on aquatic ecology and water quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. The Delft3D Flexible Mesh modeling suite is used in this effort for its 3D hydrodynamics, salinity, temperature and sediment dynamics, phytoplankton and water-quality coupling infrastructure, and linkage to a habitat suitability model. The hydrodynamic model component of the suite is D-Flow FM, a new 3D unstructured finite-volume model based on the Delft3D model. In this paper, D-Flow FM is applied to the San Francisco Bay-Delta to investigate tidal, seasonal and annual dynamics of water levels, river flows and salinity under historical environmental and infrastructural conditions. The model is driven by historical winds, tides, ocean salinity, and river flows, and includes federal, state, and local freshwater withdrawals, and regional gate and barrier operations. The model is calibrated over a 9-month period, and subsequently validated for water levels, flows, and 3D salinity dynamics over a 2 year period.Model performance was quantified using several model assessment metrics and visualized through target diagrams. These metrics indicate that the model accurately estimated water levels, flows, and salinity over wide-ranging tidal and fluvial conditions, and the model can be used to investigate detailed circulation and salinity patterns throughout the Bay-Delta. The hydrodynamics produced through this effort will be used to drive affiliated sediment, phytoplankton, and contaminant hindcast efforts and habitat suitability assessments for fish and bivalves. The modeling framework applied here will serve as a baseline to ultimately shed light on potential ecosystem change over the current century.

  3. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  4. U-Pb geochronology by La-CIP-MS and petrography of Sao Carlos massif - stanniferous province of Rondonia; Geocronologia U-Pb por La-ICP-MS e petrografia do macico Sao Carlos - Provincia Estanifera de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debowski, Beatriz P.; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Nogueira, Camila; Almeida, Bruna Saar de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    U-Pb dating by ICP-MS-LA were performed in four samples of the Massif Sao Carlos massif, representative of the younger Granites of Rondonia belonging to the stanniferous province of the same State. Dated samples are granites of pink in colour and coarse-grained to porphyry with main mineralogy consisting of feldspar pertitic to mesopertitic, quartz, plagioclase in lower proportion, biotite and amphibole in some cases. Ages obtained were 986 ± 14 Ma, 974 ± 10 Ma, ± 8 Ma 992.7 and 996 ± 8 Ma and represent the age of crystallization of the Massif. Such ages are concordant with others reported on the bibliography ratifying the inclusion of the massif in the younger Granites of Rondonia, which are directly associated with the most significant mineralization of cassiterite in the State.

  5. Cogeneration of electric power in the sugar and alcohol sectors: registration of the power plants in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Cogeracao de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro: cadastro das usinas em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Gustavo Goncalves [Federacao das Industrias do Estado de Sao Paulo (FIESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Helemilton Rios; Silva, Edison da [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the major difficult for the planning of co-generation industry of electricity from the sugar cane bagasse is the determination of their true potential. This question comes up, especially in the lack of information about the sugar and ethanol facilities, therefore for the study of potential, we can not just focus on the issue of the cane grinding, but also in technology, the configuration of the power plant and its capacity to export energy. This paper presents a proposal to minimize this difficulty, detailing a solution dedicated to the development of a database for the registration and monitoring of these plants, part of a series of actions regarding in the Understanding Protocol for the promotion of co-generation of bagasse, signed between FIESP and the Government of the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  6. Georeferenced energy information system integrated of energetic matrix of Sao Paulo state from 2005 to 2035; Sistema de informacoes energeticas georreferenciadas integrado a matriz energetica do estado de Sao Paulo: 2005-2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, Joao Malta [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A georeferenced information system energy or simply SIEG, is designed to integrate into the energy matrix of Sao Paulo from 2005 to 2035. Being an innovative request made by the Department of Sanitation and Energy of the state, this system would have the purpose to collect and aggregate information and data from several themes, relating this content in a geographic location spatialized. The main focus of the system is the analysis of the energy sector as a whole, from generation to final consumption, through all phases such as transmission and distribution. The energy data would also be crossed with various themes of support, contributing to the development of numerous reviews and generating sound conclusions. Issues such as environment, socio-economics, infrastructure, interconnected sectors, geographical conditions and other information could be entered, viewed and linked to the system. The SIEG is also a facilitator for planning and managing the energy sector with forecast models in possible future situations. (author)

  7. Study of the optical properties of aerosols in the Sao Paulo State by LIDAR Raman technique; Estudo das propriedades opticas dos aerossois no Estado de Sao Paulo com a tecnica de LIDAR Raman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata Facundes da

    2010-07-01

    The investigation reported in this dissertation has been divided in two parts. The first part was made to carry out an independent calibration of a Raman LIDAR system for water vapor in the CLA installed using a methodology that was developed at Howard University, based on a careful analysis of the efficiency of the optical system components aimed at determining the efficiency and displaying the spectral response of the system. After this study, which led to a better understanding of the eld of instrumental system, the second part, presents a preliminary study of the optical properties of aerosols in the troposphere by evaluating parameters such as, for example, the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, SR and LR, using a mobile Raman LIDAR system developed by Raymetrics LIDAR Systems, during campaigns conducted in some research institutes in the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  8. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  9. The impacts of a more distributed of revenue in the residence consumption of electric power in the state of Sao Paulo, BR; Os impactos de uma maior distribuicao de renda no consumo residencial de eletricidade do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Conrado Augustus de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: conrado@fem.unicamp.br; Bajay, Sergio V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    To identify how much high taxes of growth of the GNP reflected in improvements of social pointers, in the case, increase of the comfort caused for the addition of the electricity consumption, is a task of great difficulty. In this way, the work uses of two methodologies to project the residential consumption in the state of Sao Paulo: 1) high scene, based mainly on high taxes of growth of the GDP e; 2) bigger electric equipment penetration in the residential sector, as repercussion of one better income distribution. As main result the work enters the impact of the reduction of the participation in 50% of classroom D/E in the total number of domiciles of the State. (author)

  10. Public policies for energy substitution in bus: the case of city of Sao Paulo; Politicas publicas para a substituicao energetica em onibus: o caso da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gregorio da Cruz; Zisman, Sandra Francis [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has been on a leading position on fossil fuel substitution in light vehicles. In 2008 and 2009, ethanol contributed with more than 50% of the light vehicle fuel's consumption. A new energetic substitution program was launched in Sao Paulo, and it can be the turning point for the fossil fuel's substitution in the segment of collective transport. This program allows the development of new fuel and engine technologies, and creates opportunities for their deployment on the collective transport market. The economic consequence is a restructuring process that affects the already established markets. There are still big uncertainties about the program's execution, and also about what will be the winning solutions of this, already started, technological race. (author)

  11. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  12. {alpha}-{alpha} interaction reexamined in the context of the Sao Paulo potential: possible applications in astrophysics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasques, L.R.; Chamon, L.C.; Botero, D.F.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DFN/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Alves, L.F.M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Rossi Junior, E.S. [Centro Universitario FIEO(UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We have analyzed a large set of {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering data for bombarding energies ranging from 0.6 to 29.5 MeV. The complete lack of open reaction channels at these somehow low energies results in a vanishing imaginary part for the optical interaction. This characteristic makes the {alpha}-{alpha} reaction particularly interesting as the corresponding elastic scattering cross sections and phase shifts become very sensitive to the real part of the interaction. The data were analyzed within the context of the velocity-dependent Sao Paulo potential, which is a successful theoretical model for the description of heavy-ion reactions from sub-barrier to intermediate energies. We have shown that, even in this low energy region, the velocity dependence of the Sao Paulo potential model is a necessary ingredient for describing the data. Despite the reasonable description obtained with the Sao Paulo potential, the analyses indicate the necessity of an additional weak dependence of the interaction on the angular momentum. These important characteristics open the possibility for studying reactions with astrophysical interested. In particular, predictions of the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction will be presented. The understanding of the reaction rate for the {alpha}-capture process by a {sup 12}C nucleus is a crucial ingredient for predicting the stellar helium burning and the subsequent fate of stars as this reaction determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen towards the end of the Red Giants phase. It is well known that low mass stars evolve to White Dwarfs and this ratio determines the final abundance composition in White Dwarf matter and sets the trigger conditions for type Ia supernova explosions. The carbon-oxygen ratio also dictates the subsequent sequence of burning processes during the final stages of stellar evolution for massive stars. Thus, it has a key role in the determination of the abundance composition in

  13. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  14. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  15. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  16. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  17. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  18. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  19. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  20. Investigating the provenance of iron artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema by hierarchical cluster analysis of EDS microanalyses of slag inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani-Calcina, Elmer Antonio; Landgraf, Fernando Jose Gomes; Azevedo, Cesar Roberto de Farias, E-mail: c.azevedo@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departmento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    Microstructural characterization techniques, including EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis) microanalyses, were used to investigate the slag inclusions in the microstructure of ferrous artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema (first steel plant of Brazil, XIX century), the D. Pedro II Bridge (located in Bahia, assembled in XIX century and produced in Scotland) and the archaeological sites of Sao Miguel de Missoes (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, production site of iron artifacts, the XVIII century) and Afonso Sardinha (Sao Paulo, Brazil production site of iron artifacts, XVI century). The microanalyses results of the main micro constituents of the microstructure of the slag inclusions were investigated by hierarchical cluster analysis and the dendrogram with the microanalyses results of the wüstite phase (using as critical variables the contents of MnO, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2}) allowed the identification of four clusters, which successfully represented the samples of the four investigated sites (Ipanema, Sardinha, Missoes and Bahia). Finally, the comparatively low volumetric fraction of slag inclusions in the samples of Ipanema (∼1%) suggested the existence of technological expertise at the iron making processing in the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema. (author)

  1. A Sr-Nd isotopic study of sand-sized sediment provenance and transport for the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Hein, James R.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A diverse suite of geochemical tracers, including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios, the rare earth elements (REEs), and select trace elements were used to determine sand-sized sediment provenance and transport pathways within the San Francisco Bay coastal system. This study complements a large interdisciplinary effort (Barnard et al., 2012) that seeks to better understand recent geomorphic change in a highly urbanized and dynamic estuarine-coastal setting. Sand-sized sediment provenance in this geologically complex system is important to estuarine resource managers and was assessed by examining the geographic distribution of this suite of geochemical tracers from the primary sources (fluvial and rock) throughout the bay, adjacent coast, and beaches. Due to their intrinsic geochemical nature, 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios provide the most resolved picture of where sediment in this system is likely sourced and how it moves through this estuarine system into the Pacific Ocean. For example, Nd isotopes confirm that the predominant source of sand-sized sediment to Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Central Bay is the Sierra Nevada Batholith via the Sacramento River, with lesser contributions from the Napa and San Joaquin Rivers. Isotopic ratios also reveal hot-spots of local sediment accumulation, such as the basalt and chert deposits around the Golden Gate Bridge and the high magnetite deposits of Ocean Beach. Sand-sized sediment that exits San Francisco Bay accumulates on the ebb-tidal delta and is in part conveyed southward by long-shore currents. Broadly, the geochemical tracers reveal a complex story of multiple sediment sources, dynamic intra-bay sediment mixing and reworking, and eventual dilution and transport by energetic marine processes. Combined geochemical results provide information on sediment movement into and through San Francisco Bay and further our understanding of how sustained anthropogenic activities which limit sediment inputs to the system (e

  2. Convocando os hermeneutas da república iletrada: o prêmio Francisco Alves - Gathering the hermenauts of illiterate’s republic: the prize Francisco Alves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto da Silva Monarcha, Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de estudos e pesquisas centrados no Prêmio Francisco Alves, instituído pela Academia Brasileira de Letras sob a denominação de O melhor meio de disseminar o ensino primário no Brasil. A pesquisa básica localizou, recuperou e analisou inúmeros artigos e notas publicados na Revista da Academia Brasileira de Letras e, posteriormente, monografias premiadas de intelectuais expressivos: Marques Pinheiro, Jorge Augusto Büchler, Pedro Deodato de Moraes, Achilles Lisboa, Manoel Bomfim e Sud Mennucci. Conclui-se que, durante a sua vigência, o Prêmio Francisco Alves funcionou como convocatória quinquenal dos intelectuais dispostos a pensar e dar a conhecer as possibilidades de outro futuro para o Brasil, pela via da instrução popular disseminada.  Palavras-chave: prêmio Francisco Alves, Academia Brasileira de Letras, escola elementar, instrução popular.GATHERING THE HERMENAUTS OF ILLITERATE’S REPUBLIC: THE PRIZE FRANCISCO ALVESAbstractThis article presents results of studies and researches focused in the Prize Francisco Alves, instituted by Academia Brasileira de Letras under the name The best way to disseminate primary education in Brazil, besides it addresses the origin and trajectory of the prize. The basic research found, recovered, and analyzed several articles and notes published in Revista da Academia Brasileira de Letras and, posteriorly, different prizewinning monographs, of several expressive intellectuals: Marques Pinheiro, Jorge Augusto Büchler, Pedro Deodato de Moraes, Achilles Lisboa, Manoel Bomfim, and Sud Mennucci. It concludes that, during its terms, the prize Francisco Alves worked as a quinquennial call for the intellectuals willing to think and know the possibilities of another future for Brazil, via dissemination of popular instruction.Key-words: Prize Francisco Alves, Brazilian Academy of Letters, elementary school, popular instruction.CONVOCANDO A LOS HERMENÉUTICOS DE LA REP

  3. Atlas digital: uma contribuicao para o sistema de informacoes do municipio de Sao Joao de Meriti – RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Araujo Mathias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Um Atlas Digital é um atlas que pode ser acessado atraves de um computador, sendo possivel a utilizacao de uma variada gama de temas, formatos e escalas. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um prototipo de Atlas Digital como colaboracao ao Sistema de Informacao Municipal – SIM, para o municipio de Sao João de Meriti, RJ. O SIM tem como meta os servicos municipais, sendo as suas informacoes fundamentais para a melhoria da gestao das prefeituras. A pesquisa foi direcionada para o tema da habitabilidade, que consiste num conjunto de condicoes voltadas para a criacao de um habitat saudavel, conseguinte foram trabalhados os subtemas: infraestrutura de abastecimento de agua, esgoto, coleta de lixo, saude e educacao.

  4. [Journal of the Nursing School of the University of Sao Paulo -- 36 years looking after the quality of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Angelo, Margareth; Castilho, Valéria; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo; Trzeniak, Piotr

    2004-03-01

    REEUSP has been a trimestrial journal since 1998, which publishes 11 to 13 articles per issue on different nursing subareas; most of them on teaching, health technology, adult health (in its different specialties), mental and psychiatric health. The article and research emphasis keeps on the hospital. For being linked to a teaching unit, it presents quality on its publishing; many times produced from thesis and dissertations. It faces the challenge of stimulating the publishing of authors from other institutions; for not becoming endogenous. On the last 10 years, it received and published articles from 18 Brazilian states and several country cities from Sao Paulo State. Its graphic design was also remodeled for 2003, allowing higher clearness and easiness for reading. It accepts exchange with other journals and it is indexed on many basis. It was gotten a C international classification by CAPES.

  5. Introduction and expansion of human American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Rodas, Lilian A Colebrusco; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Oliveira, Agda Maria; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the spread of human American visceral leishmaniasis and identify the key municipalities for developing surveillance and control activities. The area of the study was composed of the 316 municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo belonging to the five health districts in which human American visceral leishmaniasis occurs, using data on autochthonous cases and deaths according to the reporting year and municipality in which the death occurred. The incidence, mortality and case fatality rates for each municipality and for the entire area were calculated. An empirical Bayes estimator was used to calculate the local Bayesian incidence and rates of mortality per municipality, and Kriging was used to visualize the spatial distribution of temperature and rainfall. A total of 73 municipalities with transmission of the disease were identified. Human American visceral leishmaniasis was first detected in areas with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, but it also spread in cooler and wetter areas. The expansion of human American visceral leishmaniasis occurred along a main axis of dissemination, from Northwest to Southeast, following the Marechal Rondon highway and the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline, and along a secondary axis that was derived from the main axis, which runs both North and South, following the highway network. Rates of incidence according to health district exhibit a peak, followed by a fall, except the Sao Jose do Rio Preto region. Higher concentrations of municipalities with high incidence and mortality rates were observed in the Araçatuba, Presidente Prudente and Marília health districts. This study indicates possible determinants of the spread of disease, including the Marechal Rondon highway and the construction of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline. Climatic factors seemed to play no role in the spread. The use of spatial analysis techniques allowed the municipalities where cases and deaths are possibly underreported to be identified, which

  6. Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use in Homeless Youth: A Preliminary Comparison of San Francisco and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernika G. Quimby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18–24 years-old in San Francisco (N = 31 and Chicago (N = 56. Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed.

  7. Edificio para ambulatorio San Francisco – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid, John Lyon

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The 50,470 m2 the total area of the hospital is distributed as follows: 18,900 m2 for the 22 main clinics and for the additional clinics; 2,770 m2 for complementary activities; and the remaining 28,800 m2 for a parking lot with space for 700 cars. The building occupies a site that slopes strongly towards the north across which runs the pedestrian access from one of the circumference roads to the main façade; the access road for the vehicles leads to the back facade, where the natural slope of the ground has been taken advantage of to build the 5 storey parking building. The two main functions —the clinics and the parking house— are conveniently separated though connected with each other by means of corridors and lifts. The interior design of the clinics is very flexible so as to allow for further enlargements. The patients' waiting rooms are provided with a glazed façade and have a beautiful view over the San Francisco Bay and its surroundings. The construction is entirely of concrete and its structure is calculated ín such a manner as to allow for two additional storeys.Cuenta con una superficie total construida de 50.470 m2, repartidos de la siguiente forma: 18.900 se destinan a la distribución de 22 clínicas principales y otras secundarias; 2.770 a locales de actividades complementarias; y el resto, 28.800 m2, a aparcamiento con capacidad para 700 plazas. El edificio ocupa una parcela fuertemente inclinada hacia el norte, inclinación que permite el acceso peatonal a la clínica, por la fachada principal, desde una de las avenidas perimetrales; y el vehicular, por la fachada posterior, en donde, aprovechando el desnivel del terreno, se han organizado las cinco plantas del aparcamiento. Las dos funciones principales —clínicas y aparcamiento— se hallan convenientemente separadas, estableciéndose el enlace entre los distintos niveles mediante ascensores que relacionan las clínicas, el centro médico, los aparcamientos

  8. Phytoplankton community ecology: Principles applied in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Dufford, R.

    2005-01-01

    In his seminal 1961 paper 'The paradox of the plankton' Am Nat 95:137-147, G. E. Hutchinson asked why many species of phytoplankton can coexist while competing for a small number of limiting resources in an unstructured habitat. Hutchinson anticipated the resolution of his paradox, recognizing that communities are organized by processes beyond resource competition including species interactions, habitat variability and dispersal. Since 1961 we have made fundamental discoveries that have revolutionized our conceptual understanding of pelagic ecology, including (1) habitat heterogeneity at all scales relevant to plankton population dynamics, (2) community shifts in response to global climate cycles, (3) fast and selective predation as a powerful top-down force to shape phytoplankton communities, (4) turbulent mixing as a physical process that selects species on the basis of their size and form, (5) mixotrophy that allows some algal species to tap organic nutrient pools and function at multiple trophic levels, (6) taxon-specific life cycles including alternating vegetative and resting stages, and (7) the pelagic as an open system where communities are continually reshaped by species immigration. Here we synthesize these discoveries to show how they validate and amplify Hutchinson's hypothesis that phytoplankton communities are assembled by many processes. Our synthesis is built around observations of phytoplankton species composition from a decade of study in San Francisco Bay, used as a case study to illustrate the contemporary principles of phytoplankton community ecology. We apply these principles to address 2 central questions: (1) What processes assemble phytoplankton communities? (2) How does phytoplankton community composition influence ecosystem functions such as production in pelagic and benthic food webs?

  9. A summary of the San Francisco tidal wetlands restoration series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The four topical articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series summarized and synthesized much of what is known about tidal wetlands and tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Despite a substantial amount of available information, major uncertainties remain. A major uncertainty with regard to fishes is the net benefit of restored tidal wetlands relative to other habitats for native fishes in different regions of the Estuary given the presence of numerous invasive alien species. With regard to organic carbon, a major uncertainty is the net benefit of land use change given uncertainty about the quantity and quality of different forms of organic carbon resulting from different land uses. A major challenge is determining the flux of organic carbon from open systems like tidal wetlands. Converting present land uses to tidal wetlands will almost certainly result in increased methylation of mercury at the local scale with associated accumulation of mercury within local food webs. However, it is unclear if such local accumulation is of concern for fish, wildlife or humans at the local scale or if cumulative effects at the regional scale will emerge. Based on available information it is expected that restored tidal wetlands will remain stable once constructed; however, there is uncertainty associated with the available data regarding the balance of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, and sediment erosion. There is also uncertainty regarding the cumulative effect of many tidal restoration projects on sediment supply. The conclusions of the articles highlight the need to adopt a regional and multidisciplinary approach to tidal wetland restoration in the Estuary. The Science Program of the CALFED effort provides an appropriate venue for addressing these issues.

  10. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  11. Evaluation of efficiency of equipment used in the conservation of fruits and vegetables in the terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo - CEAGESP; Avaliacao da eficiencia no uso dos equipamentos de refrigeracao utilizados na conservacao de frutas e hortalicas no entreposto terminal de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP-Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Josue; Ferreira, Marcos David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI); Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Gutierrez, Anita de Souza Dias [CEAGESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Qualidade em Horticultura

    2004-07-01

    The shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be directly related to store temperature. At determined temperature and humidity a better conservation of the product can be achieve. The cold chain delays the aging, having its conservation guaranteed until the consumer. It was carried through in the Terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo- CEAGESP, a research for evaluation of the condition of the cold chambers used. The cold storage equipment evaluation was measured using the follow parameters: temperature, humidity, isolation, type of equipment used, etc. It was analyzed, chambers used for cold storage, using thermal load calculation. Apple and pears were the most stored commodities in CEAGESP, 50 % and bananas the second one (31,4%). Based in the average volume of commercialization, it was observed that 57% of the motors were over dimensioned. (author)

  12. Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercury-contaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Franci...

  13. Port and Waterways Safety Assessment Workshop Report: San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    North and South Bays • Delta – powerboat races at Rio Vista, Mandeville Island, Discovery Bay • Crab season – vessels take up the entire waterway...channels • Rio Vista Bridge – one-way traffic; 250 feet wide • Old Sacramento River – very narrow, but some tug and barge traffic to repair levees...are a few intermediate vessels in Vallejo and Alameda that can provide smaller-lift operations if needed) Trends: • None identified Existing

  14. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  15. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  16. Chronic Sublethal Effects of San Francisco Bay Sediments on Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata; Interpretative Guidance for a Growth End Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    experimentally. Once nereid eggs begin developing in the coelom , secretion of a separate tropic hormone initiates vitellogenesis (Baskin 1976). In N...Material Management in San Francisco Bay .............................. 2 Overview of Sediment Toxicity Test Development in the United States...Material in San Francisco Bay ......................... 3 Table 2. Milestones in Scientific Development of Sediment Toxicity Tests

  17. U.S. EPA and San Francisco Department of the Environment Spotlight Super Bowl Efforts to Feed the Hungry

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, February 3, U.S. EPA Regional Administrator Jared Blumenfeld will be joined by San Francisco Department of the Environment Director Debbie Raphael, Food Runners Director Mary Risley, and HealthRIGHT 360 CEO Vitka Eisen to dis

  18. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN-2009-ZA00 Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San... water quality conditions affecting aquatic resources in the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin... Estuary that would be constructive, including enforcement, research, revisions to water quality standards...

  19. Cannabis policies and user practices: market separation, price, potency, and accessibility in Amsterdam and San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinarman, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores user perceptions and practices in contrasting legal-policy milieux-Amsterdam (de facto decriminalization) and San Francisco (de jure criminalization) on four policy issues: sources of cannabis and separation of markets for it and other drugs; user perceptions of effects of price on consumption; effects of potency on consumption; and perceived risk of arrest and accessibility of cannabis. Questions on these issues were added to surveys on career use patterns amongst representative samples of experienced cannabis users using comparable methods. Most San Francisco respondents obtained cannabis through friends who knew dealers, whereas most Amsterdam respondents obtained it from regulated shops. Only one in seven Amsterdam respondents but half the San Francisco respondents could obtain other drugs from their cannabis sources. Majorities under both systems had never found cannabis "too expensive." Amsterdam respondents preferred milder cannabis whilst San Francisco respondents preferred stronger; majorities in both cities reported self-titrating with potent cannabis. Risk and fear of arrest were higher in San Francisco, but most in both cities perceived arrest as unlikely. Estimated search times were somewhat longer in San Francisco, but a majority reported being able to access it within half a day. There is substantial separation of markets in the Dutch system. Policies designed to increase cannabis prices appear unlikely to impact consumption. Decriminalization was associated with a preference for milder cannabis, but under both policy regimes most respondents self-titrated when using more potent strains. Criminalization was associated with somewhat higher risk and fear of arrest and somewhat longer search times, but these did not appear to significantly impede access for most respondents.

  20. Trends in the sediment yield of the Sacramento River, California, 1957 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Schoellhamer

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activities within a watershed, such as agriculture, urbanization, and dam building, may affect the sediment yield from the watershed. Because the equilibrium geomorphic form of an estuary is dependent in part on the sediment supply from the watershed, anthropogenic activities within the watershed have the potential to affect estuary geomorphology. The Sacramento River drains the northern half of California’s Central Valley and is the primary source of sediment to San Francisco Bay. In this paper, it is shown that the delivery of suspended-sediment from the Sacramento River to San Francisco Bay has decreased by about one-half during the period 1957 to 2001. Many factors may be contributing to the trend in sediment yield, including the depletion of erodible sediment from hydraulic mining in the late 1800s, trapping of sediment in reservoirs, riverbank protection, altered land-uses (such as agriculture, grazing, urbanization, and logging, and levees. This finding has implications for planned tidal wetland restoration activities around San Francisco Bay, where an adequate sediment supply will be needed to build subsided areas to elevations typical of tidal wetlands as well as to keep pace with projected sea-level rise. In a broader context, the study underscores the need to address anthropogenic impacts on watershed sediment yield when considering actions such as restoration within downstream depositional areas.