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Sample records for santo state brazil

  1. Mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Patricia Lofego Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To study mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we reviewed death certificates (DC from 2000-2010 and medical records of deceased patients with investigation of alcoholism and hepatitis B or C. From a total of 218,410 DC, 3,554 deaths from liver cirrhosis were retrieved. The annual mortality rate was 19.8/100,000 for men and 4.31/100,000 for women, without significant changes after correction for ICD-R98 and R99 and without a significant increase in the annual percentage change. In 49% of death certificates, the aetiology of cirrhosis was defined: of these alcoholism in 81.5% of cases and viral hepatitis in 15.7%. Aetiology was confirmed in 262 reviewed records, including alcoholism (40.5%; hepatitis B or C (26.7%; other (3.8%; and cryptogenic (10.6%. The mean annual potential years of life lost were 5,946 years and 1,739 years for men and women respectively. The mortality rate from cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State is intermediate in relationship to worldwide data; alcoholism and hepatitis B or C were the main aetiologies; probably alcoholism is overestimated and hepatitis B and C viruses are underestimated as causes of cirrhosis registered on death certificates.

  2. Air pollution and respiratory diseases in the Municipality of Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Castro,Hermano Albuquerque de; Hacon,Sandra; Argento,Roberta; Junger,Washington Leite; Mello,Carla F. de; Castiglioni Júnior,Nilson; Costa,José Gustavo da

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil, increasing air pollution in urban areas has led to a rise in respiratory diseases among children and the elderly and has also been the main cause of hospital admissions. This study aims to evaluate the air pollution levels in Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, in comparison to Brazilian legislation and recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, analyzing the spatial distribution of asthma cases treated at local outpatient services. A descriptive epidemiologic...

  3. Factors related to severe dengue during an epidemic in Vitoria, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, 2011

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    Creuza Rachel Vicente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prognosis of dengue depends on early diagnosis and treatment, which can help prevent severe forms whose characteristics were evaluated here. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving dengue cases in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, in 2011. Results Two health regions registered 56.3% of 371 cases of severe dengue. Of these cases, 21.3% presented with dengue hemorrhagic fever. There were associations between dengue hemorrhagic fever with younger ages and a longer time before receiving care. Conclusions There was a greater involvement of dengue hemorrhagic fever in young people. Delay in care, poor urban quality and high endemicity were identified as possible risk factors for dengue severity.

  4. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  5. Impact of climate changes on the Santos Harbor, São Paulo State (Brazil

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    Paolo Alfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santos Harbor Area (SHA in Sao Paulo Coastline (Brazil is the most important marine cargo transfer terminal in the Southern Hemisphere. A long term relative tidal level variability assessment shows a consistent response to relative sea level rise. A wave data base Wave Watch III was compared with a long term wave data-base generated by the ERA40-ECMWF (2003, both local validated. The current bed level of SHA Outer Channel is -15.00 m (Chart Datum or, in abbreviation, CD, maintained by dredging. According to the cargo throughput forecast, in 2025, the Access Channel will have to be deepened to level of -17.00 m. The feasibility of that choice is discussed from a technical, economical and conceptual navigation point of view in that context. A data set found from a scale model of the whole area of Santos Bay, Estuary and nearby beaches, showed the impact of maritime climate changes upon the coastal area. In the previous researches developed by the authors, it was demonstrated that the wave climate, the tides and tidal currents affect harbor and coastal structures maintenance, beaches stability, tidal inlet, sediment transport, saline intrusion and wetlands. Considering the increasing of the sea hazards and the high values of the infrastructures in that coastline, it is necessary to mitigate the risks. Hence, based on the results obtained by the authors, are highlighted guidelines strategies suggested for Access Channels dimensions, wharves free-board, jetties dimensions, dredging rates, rigid and flexible littoral defenses and land protection against flooding (including wetlands.

  6. Tuberculosis and AIDS Co-Morbidity in Children: Linkage of Databases from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Dietze, Reynaldo; Maciel, Ethel L.; Prado, Thiago N.; Caus, Antonio L.; Silva, Murilo M.; Golub, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of AIDS among children diagnosed with active tuberculosis (TB) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, by linking TB and AIDS surveillance databases using Reclink software and SPSS. Among 411 pediatric TB cases from 2000 to 2006, 27 (7%) were co-infected with AIDS. Most children were unable to provide a sputum specimen; co-infected patients were more likely to be smear negative for acid-fast bacilli (83% vs 46%; p = 0.07) and culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (44% vs 19%; p < 0.001). In all, 57% of co-infected patients did not react to tuberculin skin test compared with 17% of TB patients (p < 0.001). This report emphasizes the significance of AIDS in pediatric TB cases and highlights the importance of evaluating surveillance databases for gaining a better understanding of the burden of co-infection. PMID:20876684

  7. Outbreak of type C botulism in chickens in Pancas city, Espírito Santo state, Brazil
    Surto de botulismo tipo C em frangos na cidade de Pancas, Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires; Felipe Masiero Salvarani; Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior; Gustavo Xavier Wassita de Souza; Fernanda Celano de Minas Santos; Rogério Pinheiro Caldas; Ronnie Antunes de Assis; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato; Guilherme Guerra Alves

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to describe an outbreak of botulism in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus), in Pancas City, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The birds were derived from a subsistence property with approximately 150 domestic fowls. The owner reported finding some birds lying on the floor and others exhibiting limited mobility. Ten animals in agony were euthanized, necropsied and had their blood serum collected. About 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs, 144 (96%) animals of the creation had ...

  8. [Hierarchical modeling of determinants associated with hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Espírito Santo State, Brazil].

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    Pazó, Rosalva Grobério; Frauches, Diana de Oliveira; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Cade, Nágela Valadão

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between health services organization and hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables in municipalities (counties) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. In an ecological study, data were collected from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) on the following variables: hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions, city size, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and health services organization. Rates were analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance. Models were adjusted for the total population and age group. The explanatory variables were ordered hierarchically. Hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions were associated with illiteracy rate (RR: 1.08-1.17), proportion of beds in the SUS (RR: 1.09-1.12), urbanization (RR: 1.02-1.03), proportion of blacks (RR: 0.97-0.98), and health insurance coverage (RR: 0.97-0.98). Some determinants of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions involve patterns of health services use and lie outside the scope of primary care.

  9. Hepatitis virus and hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazil: a report from the State of Espírito Santo

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    Patrícia Lofêgo Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Few studies have examined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Brazil, and the incidence and risk factors for this type of malignancy vary greatly geographically. In this paper, we report several risk factors associated with HCC diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitória, ES, Brazil. Methods We reviewed 274 cases of HCC (January 1993 to December 2011 in which hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV virus infection and chronic alcoholism were investigated. A diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was confirmed by histology or by the presence of a characteristic pattern on imaging. Results HCC with associated liver cirrhosis was noted in 85.4% of cases. The mean ages of men and women were 56.6 years and 57.5 years, respectively. The male-to-female ratio was 5.8:1. Associated risk factors included the following: HBV, 37.6% (alone, 23.4%; associated with chronic alcoholism, 14.2%; HCV, 22.6% (alone, 13.5%; associated with chronic alcoholism, 9.1%, chronic alcoholism, 17.1%, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, 2.6% and cryptogenic, 19.3%. The male-to-female ratio was higher in cases associated with HBV or chronic alcoholism compared with HCV-associated or cryptogenic cases. In 40 cases without associated cirrhosis, the male-to-female ratio and mean age were lower than those in cirrhosis-associated cases. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the main risk factor associated with HCC in the State of Espírito Santo is HBV. Chronic alcoholism is an important etiological factor, alone or in association with HBV or HCV infection.

  10. Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil

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    Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight, Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight. Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60% released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida, Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida. Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de libera

  11. Fauna of Simuliidae (Diptera from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: distribution, new records and list of species

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    Karina Bertazo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of Simuliidae (Diptera from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: Distribution, new records and list of species. The fauna of Simuliidae in Brazil is composed of 87 species, 17 of which are recorded from the state of Espírito Santo. Entomological collections were carried out in 2010-2011 with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the species richness of this family in the state. Ninety three rivers and streams were sampled, each collection being carried out in a 50m transect. During the study period 30 species were collected, 13 of which represent new records for the state, 12 of the genus Simulium and one of the genus Lutzsimulium. Among these new state records one, Simulium lobatoi, also represents a new record from southeastern Brazil. The other newly recorded species are: Lutzsimulium hirticosta, Simulium distinctum, Simulium exiguum, Simulium oyapockense, Simulium botulibranchium, Simulium petropoliense, Simulium clavibranchium, Simulium rappae, Simulium minusculum, Simulium dinellii, Simulium ochraceum and Simulium scutistriatum.

  12. Avifauna in forest fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest in the south of Espírito Santo state, Brazil

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    Fabio Rossano Dario

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in forest fragments located in the Atlantic Rainforest, in the town of Anchieta, south of Espírito Santo State, Brazil (located at latitude 20o40’S to 20o48’S, longitude 40o34’W to 40o42’W, along the seasons of 2008. The main objective of the study was to analyze the groups of birds that were affected by the forest fragmentation and the degree of isolation of these areas. The method used to register the avifauna specimens was the technique of observation per fixed point. Thus, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H’=4.18 was calculated, showing a significant abundance in the studied areas, and Equitability (E=0.81, suggesting that the number of species registered at the site represented the maximum capacity the areas were able to shelter. The Index of Point Abundance (IPA was also calculated for each species. The IPA varied from 0.0042 (one contact to 0.9500 (228 contacts, with a large number of species with low IPA and a few species with intermediate or high IPA. Taking into account 80 hours of observations, it was possible to register a total of 168 species of birds, distributed over a range of 45 families, 20 orders, and grouped in eight trophic guilds. Omnivores and insectivores were the most abundant, with 58 and 52 species respectively. The species most affected by the forest fragmentation were the great frugivores and understorey insectivorous birds.

  13. Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

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    Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

    2012-09-01

    A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espírito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention.

  14. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

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    Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  15. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

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    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  16. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

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    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  17. Costs analysis of eucalyptus implantation on steep areas in the south of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil

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    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research carried out a cost analysis of the subsidized timber production of eucalyptus in the activities of implementation, maintenance, partially mechanized harvesting and transport of timber on steep topography in the south of the Espírito Santo, Brazil. The economic viability of the project was calculated through the net present value (VPL, internal rate of return (TIR and average cost of production (CMP for the following productivities: 140.00; 180.00; 220.00; and 250.00 m³ ha-1. According to these results, the producer had a total cost of 10381.24; 11306.59; 12115.79; and R $ 12722.69 per hectare for each scenario. The project was not feasible for the minimum productivity of 140.00 m³ ha-1 (VPL R$ 127.14 ha-1, TIR 8.16% and CMP R$ 58.29 m-3 and was feasible for yields of 180.00, 220.00, and 250.00 m³ ha-1, being more attractive at productivity of 250.00 m³ ha-1 that presented the highest VPL (R$ 2412.14 ha-1, the highest TIR (17.24% and the lowest CMP (R$ 40.83 m-3.

  18. Macroalgal composition and its association with local hydrodynamics in the Laje de Santos Marine State Park, southwestern Atlantic, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Renato Rocha Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Laje de Santos Marine State Park (LSMSP, located in southeastern Brazil, is the only marine park in São Paulo State. This conservation unit has been established as a protected area of high biological diversity. Despite its importance for the conservation of the marine biota, little is known about the park's seaweed flora. The objectives of this study were as follows: to furnish increased knowledge of the composition of the macroalgae in the Park area; to relate the area's macroalgal composition to the presence of an important water mass in the region, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW; and to investigate the possible influence of the Port of Santos on the composition of the macroalgae of the LSMSP. This study registered 31 new records for the LSMSP, 11 for São Paulo State, four for Brazil, one for the western Atlantic and one for the South Atlantic Ocean, in addition to the possible occurrence of one new species of Osmundea (Rhodomelaceae and one new genus belonging to Ceramiaceae. The taxonomic composition of the macroalgae had a direct correlation with the arrival of the SACW in the summer-fall season. The SACW generated a strong thermocline and increased the supply of nutrients in the water column. Hydrodynamic and dispersion modeling analyses suggested that the Port of Santos influenced the composition of the LSMSP phycoflora.O Parque Estadual Marinho da Laje de Santos (PEMLS, localizado no sudeste do Brasil, é o único parque marinho do litoral paulista. Essa unidade de conservação foi classificada como de "alta diversidade biológica". Apesar da sua importância para a preservação da biota marinha, pouco é conhecido sobre a flora de macroalgas do Parque. Os obejtivos deste estudo foram: aumentar o conhecimento da composição de macroalgas na região do PEMLS; relacionar tal composição com a presença de uma importante massa d'água na região, a Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS; e verificar uma possivel influ

  19. Subtidal benthic marine algae of the Marine State Park of Laje de Santos (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gilberto M. Amado Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Laje de Santos Marine State Park has been pointed out as a site of high marine diversity. In spite of its importance to conservation of marine biota no results of investigations about its marine biodiversity have been published. The aim of this work was to characterize the subtidal seaweed flora of this Marine Park. Samplings were performed by scuba diving: a qualitative one that included the subtidal zone down to 26 m depth and other quantitative at two pre-determined depths, 10 and 20 m. Among the 129 taxa identified, 5 species were identified for the first time for the São Paulo State, 3 for the Brazilian coast and 1 for the South Atlantic Ocean. The most abundant algae were Sargassum vulgare and turf composed by geniculate coralline and filamentous groups. The frequency of occurrence of taxa revealed that most of species are restricted to frequencies less than 20 % in all samples. The analyses of the subtidal marine benthic algal flora indicate the Marine State Park of Laje de Santos as a site of elevated species richness and that its floristic composition is related to a benthic community structure dominated by turf-forming groups and population of S. vulgare.O Parque Estadual Marinho da Laje de Santos tem sido apontado como local de elevada diversidade marinha. Apesar de sua importância para a conservação da biota marinha não existem resultados efetivamente publicados. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de caracterizar a flora marinha bentônica desse Parque Marinho. Amostragens foram realizadas por mergulho autônomo: uma qualitativa que incluiu a zona do sublitoral até a profundidade de 26 m e outra quantitativa em duas profundidades pré-determinadas, 10 e 20 m.. Dentre os 129 táxons encontrados, foram identificadas pela primeira vez, 5 espécies para o Estado de São Paulo, 3 espécies para o litoral brasileiro e 1 espécie para o Atlântico sul. As algas mais abundantes foram Sargasum vulgare e tufos compostos de coralin

  20. Harm Reduction Unit of the City of Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil: An Evaluation

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    Silvia Moreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harm Reduction Unit (HRU in Santo André (São Paulo State was created to improve the health of people who either live or work on the streets: drug users, commercial sex workers (male and female, men who have sex with men, sexually exploited adolescents, transsexuals, transvestites, lesbians, and women working in brothels. This project was undertaken to evaluate the HRU from the perspective of its users. A semi-structured interview was administered to nineteen users from different segments of the populations served by the unit. The major weaknesses of the HRU were felt to be its inconsistent presence in some areas and the absence of psychologists to provide follow-up care. The unit was seen as promoting better health, increased use of condoms, reduction in drug usage, increased access and use of health care services, and less sharing of equipment used in drug consumption. Users see the HRU as a sympathetic presence whose ongoing work provides them with a sense of security and protection. The impact of the HRU went beyond harm reduction; users reported transformative changes such as increased awareness of their social rights and knowledge about how those rights can be demanded. Users had been given new tools to face their problems and seek access to education, work, and housing. Key words: harm reduction, illegal drugs, health service evaluation, social problems

  1. Assessment of occupational stress and associated factors among bank employees in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

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    Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Zandonade, Eliana; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2015-12-01

    Occupational stress has become a major cause of illness and a major risk to the psychological and social well-being of workers. In this context, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational stress in employees of a banking network in the municipal region of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, and its association with sociodemographic variables and work characteristics. This cross-sectional study involved 525 bank employees. Occupational stress was evaluated using the short version of the Job Stress Scale. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the Karasek quadrants and the independent variables. It was found that most bank employees belonged to the "passive jobs" quadrant (34.4%, n = 179) and were considered to have an intermediate risk of occupational stress. Considering the "low demand jobs" category as the standard, the increased risk of stress was associated with low education levels (odds ratio, 3.69, 95% CI, 1.64-8.28), working in bank agencies (odds ratio, 2.55, 95% CI, 1.36-4.77), a length of employment at the bank of more than five years (odds ratio, 3.32, 95% CI, 1.89-5.81), a daily work period of six hours (odds ratio, 2.72, 95% CI, 1.27-5.81), and, mainly, low social support (odds ratio, 2.57, 95% CI 1.45- 4.56).

  2. O bosque de mangues e a pesca artesanal no Distrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Bahia: uma abordagem etnoecológica = The mangrove forest and artisan fishing in the Acupe District (Santo Amaro, Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

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    Francisco José Bezerra Souto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Os manguezais são ecossistemas que apresentam alta biomassa e concentração de biodiversidade. Estas características favorecem a utilização por muitas populações que vivem tradicionalmente da mariscagem e da pesca artesanal, como é o caso da que habita oDistrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Estado da Brahia, situado na margem oeste da Baía de Todos os Santos. Além dos recursos pesqueiros, a população também faz uso da vegetação do manguezal, conhecida localmente como “mangue”. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo abordar conhecimentos de pescadores e marisqueiras sobre o bosque de mangues, bem como seus usos à luz da etnoecologia abrangente de Marques (1995. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas buscando-se registrar os conhecimentos e comportamentosenvolvidos na utilização dos mangues. Os resultados foram analisados em uma óptica emicista/eticista, comparando-se os conhecimentos locais com aqueles disponíveis na literatura científica e correlacionando-se os comportamentos observados com suas possíveisimplicações ambientais. Os dados obtidos revelaram um corpo de conhecimentos possuído pelos entrevistados sobre a vegetação do manguezal, incluindo classificação, ecologia trófica,fenologia e ecozoneamento e percepção ecossistêmica, por vezes compatíveis com os conhecimentos acadêmicos. Interações da comunidade pesqueira com o componente vegetal revelaram formas de percepção e de utilização de recursos fortemente associadas à cultura local e com implicações etnoconservacionistas.Mangrove ecosystems feature a high biomass and biodiversity concentration. High productivity supports the exploitation by manytraditional populations that survive on shellfish catching and artisan fishing, such as those living in the Acupe District, located in Santo Amaro, in the west coast of the Todos os Santos Bay (BahiaState, Northeastern Brazil. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the native knowledges

  3. Ossification Pattern of Estuarine Dolphin (Sotalia guianensis Forelimbs, from the Coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

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    Anna Paula Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is one of the most abundant cetacean species in Brazil. Determination of age and of aspects associated with the development of this species is significant new studies. Counts of growth layer groups in dentin are used to estimate age of these animals, though other ways to evaluate development are also adopted, like the measurement of total length (TL. This study presents a procedure to evaluate the development of the estuarine dolphin based on the ossification pattern of forelimbs. Thirty-seven estuarine dolphins found in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Age was estimated, TL was measured and ossification of epiphyses was examined by radiography. We analyzed results using the Spearman correlation. Inspection of radiographs allowed evaluation of the significance of the correlation between age and development of the proximal (r = 0.9109 and distal (r = 0.9092 radial epiphyses, and of the distal ulnar epiphyses (r = 0.9055. Radiographic analysis of forelimbs proved to be an appropriate method to evaluate physical maturity, and may be a helpful tool to estimate age of these animals in ecological and population studies.

  4. Architecture and stratigraphic framework of shelf sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro state, Northern Santos Basin-Brazil

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    Renata Moreira da Costa Maia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic analysis of sparker lines of GEOMAR cruises allowed us to address a first stratigraphic scenario for the shallow sedimentary record (~300 msec of the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin. Two sets of seismic sequences were identified and interpreted as a succession of depositional sequences induced by repeated glacioeustatic cycles. Depositional sequences composing Set I (SqA-SqC are dominantly sigmoidal, reflecting periods of increasing accommodation space that favoured the preservation of both aggradational and progradational units; sequences of Set II (Sq1-Sq5 are essentially seaward-thickening stacks of forced-regression wedges, implying periods of declining accommodation space. Comparison between seismic lines and chronostratigraphic data allowed the mapped sequences to be placed within the Plio-Quaternary. Correlations also suggest that most of Set I (SqA and lower portion of SqB was deposited during the Pliocene (undifferentiated Pliocene, while the upper portion of sequence SqC and sequences of Set II (Sq1-Sq5 have been placed within the Quaternary. Correlation of chronostratigraphic data with δ18O isotopic "sea level curves" also supports the hypothesis that sequences Sq1-Sq4 are fourth-order forced-regression sequences that record 100-120 kyr glacioeustatic cycles for the last 440-500 kyr, while sedimentary units labeled Sq5 would represent the transgressive and highstand deposition during the Holocene.A análise sísmica de dados sparker das Operações GEOMAR permitiu a elaboração de um primeiro arcabouço estratigráfico da seção rasa (~300 msec da plataforma continental do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, norte da bacia de Santos. Dois conjuntos de seqüências sísmicas foram interpretados como seqüências deposicionais induzidas por oscilações glacio-eustáticas. O Conjunto I (SqA-SqC, composto por seqüências dominantemente sigmoidais, reflete condições de geração de espaço de acomoda

  5. Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espírito Santo.

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    Gonçalves, Patricia Lofego; Zago-Gomes, Maria da Penha; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonça, Ana Tereza; Gonçalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2013-01-01

    To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2 ± 12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1 %), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1 %), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (pAlcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis.

  6. Floristica da restinga de Camburi, Vitória, ES The flora of Camburi restinga, Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Oberdan José Pereira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento florístico e classificação da vegetação de restinga em Camburi, Vitória, ES. Foram realizadas coletas mensais na área de estudo, que totalizaram 211 espécies distribuídas em 70 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 e Lauraceae (7 as mais importantes quanto ao número de espécies. A região apresenta remanescentes das comunidades mata seca, aberta de Ericaceae e brejo herbáceo, além de áreas degradadas com espécies pioneiras. A maioria das espécies possui ampla distribuição pela costa brasileira, no entanto, outros padrões foram encontrados. Erythroxylum tênue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia plantaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade e Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. são citadas pela primeira vez para as restingas do Espírito Santo.The flora of the Camburi restinga in the municipality of Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, was surveyed and vegetation types were classified. Monthly visits to the area resulted in a list of 211 species from 70 plant families of which the most important, according to species richness, were Fabaceae (19, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 and Lauraceae (7. This coastal plain still supports remnant patches of dry restinga forest, open Ericaceae scrub and sedge marsh, as well as disturbed areas dominated by pioneer species. Most of the species are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast other patterns, however, being found. Erythmxylum tenue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia pilntaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade and Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. are reported for the first time in the restingas of Espírito Santo.

  7. Outbreak of type C botulism in chickens in Pancas city, Espírito Santo state, BrazilSurto de botulismo tipo C em frangos na cidade de Pancas, Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to describe an outbreak of botulism in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus, in Pancas City, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The birds were derived from a subsistence property with approximately 150 domestic fowls. The owner reported finding some birds lying on the floor and others exhibiting limited mobility. Ten animals in agony were euthanized, necropsied and had their blood serum collected. About 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs, 144 (96% animals of the creation had already died. No postmortem changes were found at necropsies. Clostridium botulinum type C toxins were detected in the sera of euthanized chickens by mice neutralization tests. The observation of clinical signs, absence of post-mortem lesions and the result of mouse neutralization tests confirmed the diagnosis of botulism caused by C. botulinum type C. Unfortunately, the source of toxins was not found. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever um surto de botulismo em aves domésticas (Gallus gallus domesticus, ocorrido na cidade de Pancas, estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. As aves eram oriundas de uma propriedade de subsistência com aproximadamente 150 frangos domésticos. O proprietário relatou encontrar algumas aves caídas no chão e outras apresentando dificuldade de locomoção. Dez animais em estado agônico foram eutanasiados, submetidos à necropsia e coleta de soro sanguíneo. Em 72 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos, 144 (96% animais da criação já haviam vindo a óbito. Nenhuma alteração post-mortem foi encontrada durante a necropsia. Foi possível detectar a toxina botulínica tipo C por soroneutralização em camundongos no soro dos animais eutanasiados. A observação da sintomatologia clínica, ausência de lesões à necropsia e o resultado da soroneutralização permitem confirmar o diagnóstico de botulismo por Clostridium botulinum tipo C.

  8. Foco de leishmaniose tegumentar americana nos municípios de Viana e Cariacica, Estado do Espirito Santo, Brasil A focus of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Viana and Cariacica counties, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Gelcilio Coutinho Barros

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um foco de leishmaniose tegumentar americana abrangendo quatro localidades dos municípios de Viana e Cariacica situados próximo ao litoral do Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Foram diagnosticados 71 casos no período de maio de 1978 a dezembro de 1982. A confirmação laboratorial foi obtida pela intradermorreação de Montenegro em 66 pacientes e pelo encontro do parasita em 15. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a de 0-10 anos. Amostras do parasita isoladas de 3 pacientes e de 27 cães foram classificadas como Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. De apenas dois Proechimys iheringi, entre 257 mamíferos silvestres estudados, isolou-se Leishmania, que foi identificada como Leishmania mexicana aristedesi. As espécies de flebotomíneos mais numerosas (Lutzomyia intermedia, L. fischeri e L. migonei apresentaram um elevado grau de adaptação aos ambientes intra e peri-domibiliar. Levantou-se a hipótese da transmissão estar ocorrendo no intra e peri-domicílio.A mucocutaneous leishmaniasis focus occuring in four village situated in Viana and Cariacica counties, located near the sea-coast of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, is described. Seventy one cases of the disease were diagnosed between May 1978 and December 1982. The laboratorial confirmation was obtained by the Montenegro test in 66 patients and by biopsy in 15. The 0 to 10 year age-group was the most affected. The strains of the parasites isolated from 3 patients and 27 dogs were classified as Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. Among 257 wild animals captured the Leishmania was isolated in two Proechimys iheringi only, and identified as L. mexicana aristedesi. The most numerous sandfly specimens (Lutzomyia intermedia, L. fischeri and L. migonei were captured with greater frequency both inside and outside residences. The possibility of the transmission's occuring both inside and outside residences was noteworthy.

  9. Spatial distribution of suicide incidence rates in municipalities in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil), 2003-2007: spatial analysis to identify risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macente, Luciene Bolzam; Zandonade, Eliana

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the spatial distribution of suicide incidence rate in a residential municipality of the state of Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil, from 2003 to 2007. Ecologic study of the exploratory kind, based on secondary data. Deaths per suicide, which took place in each municipality of ES, were included in the data according to information provided by the Mortality Information System. For the spatial data analysis, a Bayesian approach was used (Global empirical and Local Bayesian ones) to correct epidemiological rates. Moran's I index was calculated to a worldwide spatial level dependence, and Local Moran (LISA) to a local spatial correlation. The following software applications were used: Excel; R 2.6.2; SPSS 11.5 and TerraView 3.3.1. The geographical localization of the municipalities that showed an incidence rate characterized as the average for suicide after adjustment (EBest Global) forms a corridor in the countryside. Some common characteristics among these municipalities are: a) immigration (Italians, Pomeranians/ Germans); b) rural population (average of 53%); c) supporting economy (agriculture, husbandry and livestock). A global and local spatial correlation was found among the municipalities (p identified the spatial context where the greatest death incidence rate per suicide occurred in the state of ES, during the mentioned period.

  10. Epidemiological and clinical features of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Falqueto A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1985 and 2000, epidemiological surveys of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL were carried out in several rural and urban communities in Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 100 stocks of Leishmania (comprising isolates from both human and canine hosts with ATL were identified by two methods of molecular characterization, using specific monoclonal antibodies and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Parasite isolates from 19 municipalities were found to belong to the same zymodeme and serodeme type as of the Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis reference strain. In contrast, our genotyping studies have shown intra-specific variation among these parasites (comparisons of the variability of the internal transcribed spacers between the small and large subunits of the rRNA genes of the 22 stocks studiedrevealed at least 11 genotypes. Two main clusters of L. (V. braziliensis genotypes were observed, representing parasites collected from different endemic regions in the state, where transmission reflects distinct eco-epidemiological features. Infection with this pathogen was associated with the characteristic disease forms, but neither the clinical outcome nor the response to treatment could be related to the genetic polymorphism of the isolates, as defined by using the proposed methodology.

  11. Representações sociais da homeopatia: uma revisão de estudos produzidos no Estado do Espírito Santo Social representations of homeopathy: a revision of studies produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Túlio Alberto Martins de Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    classified as minor. As to the health professionals, all studies but one referred to the alopaths. Among the alopaths, the ideas expressed by the subjects, pharmacists apart, were identical to those expressed by the community members. Viewed as a specialized discipline, homeopathy is a social phenomenon that provokes representations which undergo changes as they circulate in society. Our study holds that all misinterpretations about the nature and role of homeopathy detected in the community's responses as well as in the scientific domain, in the State of Espírito Santo, are historical reminiscences which go back to the time when homeopathy was introduced in Brazil and,even today, the contents of homeopathy are still absent in most health courses.

  12. Ecological scenario and Trypanosoma cruzi DTU characterization of a fatal acute Chagas disease case transmitted orally (Espírito Santo state, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Maria Augusta; Rodrigues, Marina Silva; Barros, Juliana Helena da Silva; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2016-08-31

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection via oral route results in outbreaks or cases of acute Chagas disease (ACD) in different Brazilian regions and poses a novel epidemiological scenario. In the Espírito Santo state (southeastern Brazil), a fatal case of a patient with ACD led us to investigate the enzootic scenario to avoid the development of new cases. At the studied locality, Triatoma vitticeps exhibited high T. cruzi infection rates and frequently invaded residences. Sylvatic and domestic mammals in the Rio da Prata locality, where the ACD case occurred, and in four surrounding areas (Baia Nova, Buenos Aires, Santa Rita and Todos os Santos) were examined and underwent parasitological and serological tests. Triatomines were collected for a fecal material exam, culturing and mini-exon gene molecular characterization, followed by RFLP-PCR of H3/Alul. Paraffin-embedded cardiac tissue of a patient was washed with xylene to remove paraffin and DNA was extracted using the phenol-chloroform method. For genotype characterization, PCR was performed to amplify the 1f8, GPI and 18S rRNA genes. In the case of V7V8 SSU rRNA, the PCR products were molecularly cloned. PCR products were sequenced and compared to sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood method with 1000 bootstrap replicates was performed. None of the animals showed positive hemocultures. Three rodents and two dogs showed signs of infection, as inferred from borderline serological titers. T. vitticeps was the only triatomine species identified and showed T. cruzi infection by DTUs TcI and TcIV. The analysis of cardiac tissue DNA showed mixed infection by T. cruzi (DTUs I, II, III and IV) and Trypanosoma dionisii. Each case or outbreak of ACD should be analyzed as a particular epidemiological occurrence. The results indicated that mixed infections in humans may play a role in pathogenicity and may be more common than is currently recognized. Direct molecular characterization from biological

  13. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil Parasitos intestinais em comunidade quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitos intestinais em população quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo. Descendentes de escravos que chegaram ao Brasil a partir do século XVI, essa população estabeleceu-se no município de São Mateus no ano de 1858. Entre agosto de 2009 e julho de 2010, amostras fecais de 82 indivíduos que aceitaram participar do trabalho foram coletadas, a fresco, e, imediatamente, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo da

  14. Sedimentation processes and beach morphodynamics active at the Doce River mouth, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Jacqueline Albino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal sedimentation model in the Doce River mouth and surroundings extends beyond the hydraulic jetty effect created by its stream-flow. During flooding, marine sediments transported by longshore currents are retained on the updrift side, causing strandline progradation. As the longshore current direction varies, local depositional and erosional effects can be produced and identified laterally within beach profiles from north and south of the Doce River mouth area. Sedimentological studies carried out in this river, beach and adjacent inner continental shelf sands showed that, at present, the influence of Doce River sediments is restricted to the area surrounding its mouth. Meanwhile, beach morphodynamic stages and present-day coastal-plain processes of sedimentation are directly affected by the Doce River discharge as a natural continuation of the Quaternary geological evolution of the area.A sedimentação costeira adjacente à desembocadura do Rio Doce, Espírito Santo, Brasil destaca o efeito de jato hidráulico desempenhado pela descarga fluvial. Por ocasião da enchente, os sedimentos marinhos transportados pela corrente longitudinal são represados a barlamar da desembocadura, causando progradação nas praias adjacentes e erosão nas praias situadas a sotamar da desembocadura fluvial. Com a inversão do rumo da deriva litorânea, os processos erosivos e construtivos se invertem. Estudos sedimentológicos realizados nos sedimentos do rio, das praias e da plataforma continental interna adjacente à desembocadura, indicam que a contribuição da carga do rio Doce é atualmente restrita às áreas imediatamente vizinhas. Contudo, a tipologia das praias e os processos de sedimentação da planície costeira são diretamente afetados pela descarga do rio Doce, sendo a continuação dos processos de sedimentação identificada na evolução geológica da área.

  15. GIS applied to agriclimatological zoning and agrotoxin residue monitoring in tomatoes: A case study in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Teixeira, Luciano José Quintão; Saraiva, Sérgio Henriques; Freitas, Deivid França; Pereira, Olavo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Neves, Antônio Augusto; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2016-01-15

    Searches related to global warming have provided important insights into the response of terrestrial ecosystems, but few have examined the impacts on agricultural crops, particularly those associated with the monitoring of agrotoxin residues. In this context, the agriclimatological zoning is an important tool in the planning and consolidation of crops and should be considered in any initiative that involves such planning. This tool is particularly important in the analysis of agrotoxin residues and may be applied by the Program Analysis of Agrotoxin Residues in Food (PARA) created by the National Health Vigilance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA), which enables greater food security and contributes to the improvement of human health. The aim of this study was to elaborate the current and future agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, relating it with the monitoring of samples collected by PARA in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The results indicate that a temperature increase of 5 °C creates a decrease in apt areas from 37.3% to 4.3%, for a total reduction of 33 percentage points (-88.5%). It is noted that of the 41 producing municipalities, only 26 have apt areas greater than 50%, highlighting the municipalities with apt areas greater than 90%, represented by Mantenópolis (100%), Guaçuí (98.5%), São José do Calçado (97.8%), Irupi (94.4%), Santa Teresa (92.3%), and Marechal Floriano (91.4%). The veracity of agriclimatological zoning is proved by a Kendall rank correlation coefficient of 0.876, indicating that the distribution of the variables of apt areas and productivity are similar at the significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval 95%. After validation of the agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, it is recommended that the PARA should monitor 36 municipalities rather than the current 18, representing an increase of 100%. The methodology can be adjusted to agricultural crops of other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. FROG ASSEMBLAGE ASSOCIATED WITH BROMELIADS IN A SANDY COASTAL PLAIN IN THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    MARCIO MARQUES MAGESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians may use bromeliads for reproduction (i.e., bromeligenous species or only for refuge and foraging (i.e., bromelicolous species. The partition of bromeliad resources is essential to maintain the coexistence of the associated assemblages. We sampled 913 bromeliads in a sandy coastal plain (i.e., restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil and found 234 frogs belonging to seven species. One of the frog species was bromeligenous and the other six were facultative bromelicolous. The bromeliads of the genus Aechmea were the most frequently used by frogs. The low degree of frog occupancy of bromeliads (26% suggests habitat segregation. Our study highlights the importance of maintenance of bromeliad species for conservation of the associated frog assemblages.

  17. Three new species of Bertolonia (Melastomataceae from Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Lucas F. Bacci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe and illustrate three new species of Bertolonia, all endemic to the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Bertolonia duasbocaensis and B. macrocalyx occur close to each other, in the municipalities of Cariacica and Viana. Bertolonia ruschiana has a wider distribution, occurring in the municipalities of Santa Leopoldina, Santa Maria de Jetibá and Santa Teresa. The first two species are classified as critically endangered (CR, and the latter as endangered (EN. We also present an identification key for the species of Bertolonia that occur in Espírito Santo.

  18. Bats from Santo Antônio dos Ipês Farm, Jaú, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Ayesha Ribeiro Pedrozo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study recorded the bat species that occur on Santo Antônio dos Ipês Farm, in Jaú, SP, Brazil, studied the food items the bats consumed and analyzed bats for the rabies virus. Sampling was performed using mist nets, on twenty-one nights in five areas on the farm, between November 2009 and July 2011. After a capture effort of 18,217.5 m2.h, 580 bats and 16 species were netted. Sturnira lilium (n = 184 captures, Artibeus lituratus (n = 134 and Carollia perspicillata (n = 126 were the most abundant species. In addition, two individuals of Lasiurus ega were observed in their shelter, resulting in 17 sampled species. The most consumed food items were fruits of Solanaceae and Piperaceae and fruits of Muntingia calabura were less consumed. None of the 132 bats analyzed for rabies was positive. Santo Antônio dos Ipês Farm is an important area because it contains Reserva Ecológica Amadeu Botelho (a conservation unit, a unique remnant of semideciduous seasonal forest in the Jaú region that serves as refuge for wild animals, including bats.

  19. PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in crabs Hepatus pudibundus and Callinectes danae from Santos Bay, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, C A; Taniguchi, S; Cascaes, M J; Montone, R C

    2012-03-01

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in crabs Hepatus pudibundus and Callinectesdanae was assessed from two different places inside of the Santos Bay and Moela Island near one of the most economically important metropolitan areas in Southern Brazil. Among POPs analyzed, ∑PCBs (222-923 ng g(-1)lipid weight) and ∑DDTs (154-410 ng g(-1)lw) exhibited the highest concentrations in the crabs. ∑HCHs ranged from 10.3 to 30.9 ng g(-1)lw and were found in all individuals. Other OCPs found in lower concentration was Mirex (7.6-41.6 ng g(-1)lw) and HCB (5.83-16.9 ng g(-1)lw). ∑PBDEs (24.1 ng g(-1)lw) were only found in one male individual from the species C. danae collected near to the submarine sewage of Santos. Male crabs showed higher POP concentrations than female crabs for those two species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A paisagem urbana como herança cultural: a praça Santos Dumont, Umuarama, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = The urban landscape as a cultural heritage: Santos Dumont plaza, Umuarama, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Alexander Fabbri Hulsmeyer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A paisagem urbana possui uma forte conotação histórica, e pode ser considerada uma herança cultural. Neste contexto, os espaços livres públicos podem converter-se em registros importantes, fortalecendo tradições, valores e identidades. Nos quatro principais núcleosurbanos projetados pela Companhia de Terras do Norte do Paraná CTNP, e denominada Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná CMNP após 1942, as praças exercem o papel de elementos ordenadores na configuração dos centros cívico, religioso e comercial, demonstrando a íntima relação entre os espaços livres públicos e seu entorno. Esta pesquisa1 teve o objetivo de analisar, a partir da pesquisa dos registros fotográficos, jornais de época e bibliografia referente àsraízes conceituais do traçado morfológico da cidade e seu contexto histórico, a Praça Santos Dumont, maior praça e palco de importantes momentos da história da jovem cidade de Umuarama, Estado do Paraná.The urban landscape has strong historical meaning because it can be considered as cultural heritage. In this context, public open spaces are important registries, reinforcing traditions, values and identities. In the four main cities projected by the Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná (CMNP, the squares and plazas carry out the task of ordination elements for the configuration of the civic, religious and commercial centers, reinforcing the close relation between public open spaces and their surroundings. This research was done under the Scientific Initiation Program of Universidade Paranaense, and is about Santos Dumont Plaza, the biggest one that supported important historical moments of earlyUmuarama, in northwestern Paraná, Brazil. The analysis was based on the research of photographic registries, newspapers, and the publications about the conceptual roots of the urban morphology of the city and its historical context.

  1. Variation of age and total length in Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864 (Cetacea, Delphinidae, on the coast of Espírito Santo state, Brazil

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    J. Y. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Variations of age and total length of Sotalia guianensis from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were evaluated. Specimens were found stranded. Age and total length of 44 Guiana dolphins were assessed based on tooth analysis. Age varied between 0.5 year and 33 years (mean = 8.23 years. Most specimens were between zero and 6 years old (47%. Total length varied from 119 cm to 198 cm, with mean of 172.52 cm. Asymptotic length was reached at 185 cm and approximately 5-6 years of age. Mean total length and age were higher than in other regions of the distribution range of the species. Nevertheless, more studies have to be carried out to evaluate the morphological variations in S. guianensis populations in the study area and Brazil.

  2. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in healthy children and adolescents in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Figueira-Silva Cecília M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and age distribution of Epstein-Barr virus infection varies in different populations and there is little information about the epidemiology of this infection in Brazil. We studied the prevalence of EBV antibodies in a sample of 283 children and adolescents between 1 and 21 years old. The sample was taken from two neighborhoods in Vitória (capital city of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The São Pedro (SP neighborhood represented an area with lower socioeconomic status and the Praias (P neighborhood represented an area with higher SES. Anti-VCA (Virus Capsid Antigen antibodies were detected by ELISA and anti-EBNA (Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen antibodies were detected by an anti-complement immunofluorescence method, both using commercial kits. The results showed an overall prevalence rates of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA of 71% and 54% respectively. The prevalence for both anti-EBV antibodies was higher and probably the infection occurred earlier in the SP neighborhood. Among the various socioeconomic factors studied only low family income and maternal education level were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of positive serology for anti-VCA. These results demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of EBV antibodies in children and adolescents living in Vitória, that occurs more frequently at a younger age in children from families with low socioeconomic status. In addition, the results demonstrate an intermediate age distribution pattern between those reported in developed and underdeveloped countries.

  3. Seed dispersal of Solanum thomasiifolium Sendtner (Solanaceae in the Linhares Forest, Espírito Santo state, Brazil Dispersão de sementes de Solanum thomasiifolium Sendtner (Solanaceae na Floresta de Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    João Vasconcellos-Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse seed dispersal and establishment of Solanum thomasiifolium in an area of "nativo" vegetation in Espirito Santo state on the southeastern Brazilian coast. Ten species of birds, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, and one species of lizard (Tropidurus torquatus fed on S. thomasiifolium fruits and dispersed viable seeds in their faeces. The proportional contribution of each of these groups to seed dispersal was 77% (birds, 19% (crab-eating fox and 4% (lizards. Ants also contributed to seed dispersal. More seeds were deposited in vegetation islands than in the surrounding open areas. Germination rates of seeds collected directly from fruit (control, bird droppings, the faeces of crab-eating foxes and lizards were, respectively, 64, 64, 53, and 80 %. Differences among these rates were all significant, except between birds and control. Lizards were important as seed carriers between nearby islands and they expelled a higher proportion of viable seeds. Birds and the crab-eating foxes did not enhance seed germination, but promoted seed dispersal over a wider area. Plant architecture, fruit productivity, fruit characteristics and the diversity of frugivores are important for the success of S. thomasiifolium in habitat colonization.O propósito deste estudo foi analisar a dispersão de sementes e o estabelecimento de Solanum thomasiifolium em uma área de vegetação de "nativo" no Estado do Espírito Santo, na costa do sudeste do Brasil. Dez espécies de aves, o cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous e uma espécie de lagarto (Tropidurus torquatus alimentaram-se de frutos de S. thomasiifolium e dispersaram sementes viáveis em suas fezes. A contribuição proporcional de cada um destes grupos na dispersão de sementes foi de 77% para aves, 19% para o cachorro-do-mato e 4% para o lagarto. Formigas também contribuíram com a dispersão de sementes. Mais sementes foram depositadas nas ilhas de vegetação do que nas

  4. [Access to the diagnosis of tuberculosis in health services in the municipality of Vitoria, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Rafaela Borges; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Ruffino-Netto, Antônio; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Braga, Jose Ueleres; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to assess the accessibility to the diagnosis of tuberculosis in health services in Victoria, state of Espírito Santo. It featured a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 of patients with tuberculosis using the Primary Care Assessment Tool and statistical analysis with the Chi-square test (p <0,05). In relation to initial access to care, it was seen that the health service of first access most sought was Primary Care (37.6%), with most diagnoses occurring in the Tuberculosis Control Program Reference Units (61.3%). There was evidence of association between first health service accessed and the factors of time delay in: obtaining consultation at the first health service sought (p = 0.0182); diagnosis made by the first health service sought (p = 0.0001); request for sputum exam (p = 0,0003); request for X-ray exams (p = 0.0159); referral for X-rays at another institution (p = 0.0001); diagnosis by the same health service (p = 0.0001); exams conducted by the same health service that initially diagnosed tuberculosis (p = 0.0018); and proximity to the home (p = 0.0001). Therefore, the identification of important gaps in accessibility to diagnosis of tuberculosis seems to be related to the operational difficulties of organization of health care.

  5. Variables disclosing the processes of transformation of the countryside: the case of the Espirito Santo - Brazil

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    Patrícia Ferraz do Nascimento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the occurrence of changes in the countryside, in Brazil, from the observation of variables such as type of job, income, family profile, access to consumer goods, services, and information and communication technology. There had been used exploratory analysis and logistic regression method, based on data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra de Domicílios (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey - PNAD for the state of Espirito Santo. The study found that about 27.2% of individuals who had lived in the countryside report an urban profile, revealing that the urban lifestyle is encompassed not only in the city

  6. Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

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    Fabiana Criste Massariol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Ephemeroptera exhibits great diversity among bodies of freshwater in the Atlantic Forest, a biome that is suffering from massive human impact. Within this context, the creation of conservation units using biological information is more recommended than economic, cultural, or political criteria. The distribution pattern of 76 Ephemeroptera species was analyzed using the biogeographical methods Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and Network Analysis Method in order to infer relevant areas for conservation of the mayfly community in Espírito Santo. The results obtained from both analyses were largely congruent, and pointed out four relevant areas for conservation: two in the south of the state, where conservation units or priority areas for conservation are well established; and two in the north, a region in the state where little conservation efforts have been historically done. Therefore, based on our analyses on mayflies, we recommend the expansion of the existing APCs or the creation of new APCs on the north of Espírito Santo.

  7. Influence of demographics on clinical outcome of dengue: a cross-sectional study of 6703 confirmed cases in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

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    Vicente, C R; Cerutti Junior, C; Fröschl, G; Romano, C M; Cabidelle, A S A; Herbinger, K-H

    2017-01-01

    Dengue presents a wide clinical spectrum of signs and symptoms, with characteristics of the host potentially influencing the disease evolution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of gender and age on dengue clinical outcomes in a recent outbreak situation in Brazil, applying a cross-sectional design and including 6703 dengue cases with laboratory confirmation, occurring in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, between 2007 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases. Overall, 11·3% of the sample presented with severe dengue, which affected 13·0% of males, 10·0% of females, 8·8% of children, 12·5% of adolescents, 10·5% of adults and 15·5% of the elderly. Age was higher in the severe dengue group (P = 0·03). Severe dengue was associated with males and the elderly (P dengue cases, taking into consideration host factors like age. These findings also suggest the elderly and children as priority groups for immunization in a future implementation of a vaccine.

  8. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  10. Benthic macrofauna structure in the northeast area of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil: patterns of spatial and seasonal distribution

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    Ana Maria S Pires-Vanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure of intertidal and subtidal benthic macrofauna in the northeastern region of Todos os Santos Bay (TSB, northeast Brazil, was investigated during a period of two years. Relationships with environmental parameters were studied through uni-and multivariate statistical analyses, and the main distributional patterns shown to be especially related to sediment type and content of organic fractions (Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, on both temporal and spatial scales. Polychaete annelids accounted for more than 70% of the total fauna and showed low densities, species richness and diversity, except for the area situated on the reef banks. These banks constitute a peculiar environment in relation to the rest of the region by having coarse sediments poor in organic matter and rich in biodetritic carbonates besides an abundant and diverse fauna. The intertidal region and the shallower area nearer to the oil refinery RLAM, with sediments composed mainly of fine sand, seem to constitute an unstable system with few highly dominant species, such as Armandia polyophthalma and Laeonereis acuta. In the other regions of TSB, where muddy bottoms predominated, densities and diversity were low, especially in the stations near the refinery. Here the lowest values of the biological indicators occurred together with the highest organic compound content. In addition, the nearest sites (stations 4 and 7 were sometimes azoic. The adjacent Caboto, considered as a control area at first, presented low density but intermediate values of species diversity, which indicates a less disturbed environment in relation to the pelitic infralittoral in front of the refinery. The results of the ordination analyses evidenced five homogeneous groups of stations (intertidal; reef banks; pelitic infralittoral; mixed sediments; Caboto with different specific patterns, a fact which seems to be mainly related to granulometry and chemical sediment characteristics.A estrutura da macrofauna b

  11. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

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    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    endangered in Brazil and at the international level. Lack of recent reports north of Rio de Janeiro state, including the northern portion of Espírito Santo state (where it had been found probably till 1991 suggested the species had vanished from this part of the range. The present paper reports the rediscovery of A. vinacea in Alto Rio Novo region, northwestern Espírito Santo. Two flocks were seen in two different places, the largest one with 28 parrots was found in December 2005. The flocks of A. vinacea were eating seeds of Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, a new resource for this parrot. Historical data list places up to 35 km from the two localities where the flocks were now found, stressing its regional importance for the Vinaceous Amazon. However, the continuous habitat degradation of the last forest remnants in the region and illegal capture of nestlings are considered the main constrain for this population's conservation. As recently as December 2002, the Pontões Capixabas National Park has been created. It is the first Conservation Unit in the mountains of northern Espírito Santo state. Luckily, it protects a historical place of the Vinaceous Amazon in the region and encompasses forested remnants suitable for the species. Its current limit is some 10 km apart from one of the places where the parrot was found in this study. Besides the conservation, data gathering on the Vinaceous Amazon populations in northwestern Espírito Santo state and the nearby region of Minas Gerais state are critical for the species future in the area. A management plan could be then established, aiming to conserve the current northernmost currently known population of this parrot.

  12. Oomycota (Straminipila da Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba, Santo André, SP, Brasil Oomycota (Straminipila from the Paranapiacaba Biological Reserve, Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Alexandra Lenk Gomes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de novembro/2003 a novembro/2004, coletas trimestrais de amostras de água e solo foram realizadas na Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba, importante fragmento de Mata Atlântica localizado no estado de São Paulo, para estudo da diversidade de oomicetos. Para o isolamento destes organismos, as amostras foram tratadas pelo método de iscagem, que resultou na identificação de 35 espécies, das quais uma pertence a Leptomitales, quatro a Peronosporales, duas a Rhipidiales, e 28 a Saprolegniales, sendo descritas, comentadas e ilustradas neste trabalho as de ocorrência relatada no Brasil, das quais três são citadas pela primeira vez para o estado de São Paulo, Leptolegnia eccentrica Coker & Matthews, Pythiopsis humphreyana Coker e Pythiopsis irregularis Seymour, e 20 para a Reserva.From November/2003 to November/2004, water and soil samples were collected every three months in the Paranapiacaba Biological Reserve, an important fragment of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest, to study Oomycota diversity. To isolate these organisms, the samples were treated by the baiting technique, which resulted in the identification of 35 species: one belongs to Leptomitales, four to Peronosporales, two to Rhipidiales and 28 to Saprolegniales; in this paper we describe and illustrate, with comments, the species already mentioned for Brazil. Three are cited for the first time for São Paulo state, Leptolegnia eccentrica Coker & Matthews, Pythiopsis humphreyana Coker and Pythiopsis irregularis Seymour, and 20 for this area.

  13. Impact of climate change on agro-climatic zoning of Arabica coffee in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil = Impactos das mudanças climáticas no zoneamento agroclimatológico do café arábica no Espírito Santo

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    Rosembergue Bragança

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define, using current agro-climatic zoning, and for the next 100 years, areas of different climatic suitability for the cultivation of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L. in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Monthly and yearly data of average air temperature and rainfall were used, taken from historical series for the period of 1976 to 2006. It was necessary to simulate the effects of temperature increments of +1 ºC, +2 ºC, +3 ºC, +4 ºC and +5 ºC, using the mean result of six models, namely: GFDL-R30 (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, R-30 resolution, CCSR/NIES (Center for Climate Research Studies, CSIROMk2 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization GCM mark 2, CGCM2 (Canadian Global Coupled Model v 2, ECHAM4 (European Centre Hamburg Model v 4 and HadCM3 (Hadley Centre Coupled Model v 3. The results showed that currently, areas which are completely suitable represent 19.49% of the area of Espirito Santo which, with an increase of 5 °C, would decrease to 0.02%; whereas completely unsuitable areas would increase from 33.47% to 95.63%, making the cultivation of Arabica coffee unsuited to the state if the genetic and physiological characteristics, which have a tolerance limit for the average annual temperature of between 23 °C and 24 °C, are maintained. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho definir, por meio do zoneamento agroclimatológico atual e para os próximos 100 anos, áreas com diferentes aptidões climáticas para a cultura do café arábica (Coffea arabica L., no estado do Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram utilizados dados de temperatura média do ar e precipitação pluviométrica, em escala mensal e anual, de séries históricas representativas do período de 1976 a 2006. Foi necessário simular o efeito do incremento de temperatura de +1 ºC, +2 ºC, +3 ºC, +4 ºC e +5 ºC, por meio da média obtida do resultado de seis modelos, a saber: GFDL-R30 (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

  14. O bosque de mangues e a pesca artesanal no Distrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Bahia: uma abordagem etnoecológica - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5014 The mangrove forest and artisan fishing in the Acupe District (Santo Amaro, Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5014

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    Francisco José Bezerra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os manguezais são ecossistemas que apresentam alta biomassa e concentração de biodiversidade. Estas características favorecem a utilização por muitas populações que vivem tradicionalmente da mariscagem e da pesca artesanal, como é o caso da que habita o Distrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Estado da Brahia, situado na margem oeste da Baía de Todos os Santos. Além dos recursos pesqueiros, a população também faz uso da vegetação do manguezal, conhecida localmente como “mangue”. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo abordar conhecimentos de pescadores e marisqueiras sobre o bosque de mangues, bem como seus usos à luz da etnoecologia abrangente de Marques (1995. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas buscando-se registrar os conhecimentos e comportamentos envolvidos na utilização dos mangues. Os resultados foram analisados em uma óptica emicista/eticista, comparando-se os conhecimentos locais com aqueles disponíveis na literatura científica e correlacionando-se os comportamentos observados com suas possíveis implicações ambientais. Os dados obtidos revelaram um corpo de conhecimentos possuído pelos entrevistados sobre a vegetação do manguezal, incluindo classificação, ecologia trófica, fenologia e ecozoneamento e percepção ecossistêmica, por vezes compatíveis com os conhecimentos acadêmicos. Interações da comunidade pesqueira com o componente vegetal revelaram formas de percepção e de utilização de recursos fortemente associadas à cultura local e com implicações etnoconservacionistas.Mangrove ecosystems feature a high biomass and biodiversity concentration. High productivity supports the exploitation by many traditional populations that survive on shellfish catching and artisan fishing, such as those living in the Acupe District, located in Santo Amaro, in the west coast of the Todos os Santos Bay (Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the native

  15. Fonte alimentar e potencial vetorial de Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 com relação à doença de Chagas humana no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Feeding and vectorial capacity of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 in relation with human chagas' disease in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In paralel with several other epidemiologic and entomologic data of 19 Municipalities of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, the feeding pattern of 222 Triatoma vitticeps is studied through precipitin tests. Very high levels of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi are observed in adult insects, in contrast with the abscence or minimum degrees of infection among nymphs and human individuals. The precipitin tests showed the contact of the insects with multiple blood sources, chiefly human and birds, followed by rodents and marsupials. The data suggest that T. vitticeps in spite of being highly antropophilic, become infected by T. cruzi in sylvatic ambient and occasionally invade houses. The species doesn't seem to be - at least until now - a good vector in the domestic cycle of Chagas' disease. Several factors seem to be involved in this conclusion, mainly the low density of the insect in the houses, its hardness to coloniza them, its slowness concerning to suction and defecation and possibly its low susceptibility to different T. cruzi strains.

  16. Índice padronizado de precipitação aplicado às condições de seca no Estado do Espírito Santo Standardized precipitation index applied to drought conditions of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Gabriel C. Blain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O Índice Padronizado de Precipitação (SPI é um dos métodos mais utilizados para quantificação da seca. A fim de verificar a possibilidade de utilização do SPI no monitoramento das deficiências e excessos de precipitação na escala mensal, no Estado do Espírito Santo objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o ajuste das séries temporais dessa variável meteorológica à distribuição gama em cinco localidades do Estado. Por meio dos testes de aderência Kolmogorov-Smirnov e qui-quadrado, as séries mensais de precipitação pluvial das localidades sob análise podem ser consideradas oriundas de uma população com distribuição gama incompleta, permitindo o uso do SPI no monitoramento das condições de seca meteorológica. Através de análises de autocorrelação e correlação-cruzada, observou-se que a principal característica das séries do SPI é sua grande variabilidade espaço-temporal, a qual indica que em uma mesma região meses extremamente secos podem ser precedidos e/ou seguidos de meses úmidos ou normais, e que distintos casos de seca podem ocorrer de forma aleatória, entre as localidades e em um mesmo período.The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is one of the most widely used methods for quantification of drought conditions. In order to apply the SPI model to the climate conditions of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, the study evaluated the adjustment of the monthly rainfall time series to the gamma distribution in five regions of this State. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Chi-Square test, it was possible to verify that the monthly rainfall time series, used in this study, can be fitted to the gamma distribution. On this sense, the SPI model can be applied for monitoring the meteorological drought conditions in the State of Espírito Santo. Using the autocorrelation function and the cross-correlation function, it was possible to verify that the main characteristic of the monthly SPI series is

  17. Violence against women, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Franciele Marabotti Costa Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with psychological, physical and sexual violence in women victims of intimate partner violence assisted in the primary care services. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 26 health units in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, from March to September 2014. We interviewed 991 women aged 20-59 years. To classify the psychological, physical and sexual violence, the World Health Organization instrument on violence against women was used and a questionnaire to investigate the sociodemographic, behavioral characteristics, and the women’s family and life history was developed. The statistical analyzes used were Poisson regression, Fisher’s exact test and Chi-square. RESULTS The prevalence we observed were psychological 25.3% (95%CI 22.6–28.2; physical 9.9% (95%CI 8.1–11.9 and sexual 5.7% (95%CI 4.3–7.3. Psychological violence remained associated with education, marital status, maternal history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence in childhood and drug use, while physical assault was related to age, education, marital status and maternal history of intimate partner violence. Sexual violence occurred the most among women with low income, and victims of sexual violence in childhood. CONCLUSIONS Psychological, physical and sexual violence showed highly frequency among women assisted by primary care services. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors, personal experiences, and maternal violence influence the phenomenon.

  18. Modelo alternativo para o controle da esquistossomose: estado atual do projeto no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil An alternative model for schistosomiasis control: the present status of the project in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Frederico S. Barbosa

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho que vem sendo desenvolvido em uma área rural do município de Afonso Cláudio (Espírito Santo representa uma proposta alternativa aos atuais programas de controle. Este é um trabalho de pesquisa controlado, em integração interdisciplinar e multi-institucional, envolvendo várias entidades de pesquisa e de serviços. O modelo alternativo de controle da endemia conta com amplo envolvimento comunitário e com a organização dos serviços locais de saúde a nível primário (SUS. A pesquisa participante tem sido o ponto de partida metodológico que baliza os procedimentos de coleta e análise de dados e os de intervenção na realidade local. Os métodos de controle estão limitados ao tratamento médico individualizado e à melhoria das condições de saneamento. Estes métodos estão, evidentemente, integrados às ações sociais acima descritas. O projeto está dividido em três fases: pré-controle, controle (intervenção e avaliação final. No momento, o mesmo entra em sua fase de intervenção, com duração prevista de três anos.An intervention study for schistosomiasis control is being carried out in the county of Afonso Cláudio, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, having begun in February 1992. This study is an alternative response to classical control methods. The project is being developed using an interdisciplinary approach and involves both research and service institutions. The organization of health services at the primary care level is part of the project. Participant observation is seen as the methodological point of departure for guiding data collection and analysis and the intervention process in local reality. Control methods are restricted to the medical treatment given to all infected individuals and to improvements in the sanitation facilities available in the area. These methods are obviously integrated with the above-mentioned social actions. Consisting of three phases - pre-control, control (intervention

  19. Population features of Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828 (Siluriformes, Callichthyidae at Santo Anastacio Reservoir, Brazil

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    Francisco D. do Nascimento Chaves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The length-weight relationship and condition factor of fish are indicators of physiological well-being and may be related to reproduction and feeding periods. These attributes were evaluated for a population of Hoplosternum littorale sampled in the Santo Anastácio Reservoir (Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. Materials and methods. One hundred and fifty-five specimens were collected with gillnets between October 2009 and March 2010, and standard length (cm, total weight (g, sex and gonadal maturation stage were registered. Results. The observed length-weight relationship indicated negative allometric adjustment (2.72. Only seventy individuals were evaluated for the condition factor analysis, sexual determination and gonadal state classification. Condition factor values peaked in November and plummeted in February, no statistical differences in sex ratio (χ²=13.683; p=0.057 were observed. Mature females were collected throughout the study period. Conclusions. The results indicate that the population of H. littorale in the Santo Anastácio reservoir presents growth deficiency and changes in reproductive strategy in this hypereutrophic environment.

  20. Vascular epiphytes in seasonal semideciduous forest in the Espírito Santo State and similarity with other seasonal forests in Eastern Brazil

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    Dayvid Rodrigues Couto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliamos a composição florística de epífitos vasculares em remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semedicidual na bacia hidrográfica do rio Itapemirim, sul do estado do Espírito Santo, com o intuito de analisar sua similaridade com outras florestas semidecidual estudadas no Brasil. Excursões quinzenais foram realizadas entre junho de 2008 a maio de 2009 e os epífitos coletados e registrados (55 espécies, 34 gêneros e seis famílias. Orchidaceae, com 21 espécies, foi a mais rica, enquanto os gêneros com o maior riqueza foram Tillandsia (7 spp., Rhipsalis (4, Aechmea, Epidendrum e Peperomia, com três espécies cada. A categoria ecológica mais representativa foi holoepífita característica com 84% das espécies. O ambiente mais importante para a flora epifítica foi as matas ciliares. Análise de similaridade e PCA sustentaram quatro grupos, onde a área estudada aparece disjunta das demais, corroborando a hipótese de que a proximidade geográfica, a altitude e clima tem forte efeito sobre a composição florística, condicionando a formação de floras distintas. Estudos detalhados sobre a composição florística e estrutura dessa comunidade é importante para a elaboração de estudos de impactos ambientais coerentes, porque epífitas é típico de florestas tropicais, e é importante componente florístico, estrutural e funcional desses ecossistemas.

  1. Disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV positive patients in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a clinical-laboratory study of 12 cases (1999-2001

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    Janaina Aparecida Schineider Casotti

    Full Text Available Twelve cases of histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients were found in a retrospective analysis at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (HUCAM, Vitória (ES, from June 1999 to May 2001. The frequency of histoplasmosis among HIV-positive patients was 2.1% in the infectious diseases division of the hospital during this period. Histoplasmosis compromised mainly males (11/12, 27 to 44 years old, and residents of the metropolitan urban area (10/12. Alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking were described in 10 of the 12 patients. For all patients, this was the first opportunistic infection. Two of the 12 patients died; 10 patients had disseminated disease, one patient had an intestinal presentation and one had disease restricted to the lungs. The most frequent clinical manifestations were weight loss, fever, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, coughing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Six of the 12 patients had skin lesions. Time of symptoms preceding the diagnosis varied from two months to one year. CD4 counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 9 of 10 patients. Diagnosis was made by histology in two thirds of the patients. The typical adult patient with HIV infection and histoplasmosis in our series was male, had a CD4 count below 200 cells/mm³, had fever, weight loss, cough, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly in the last two months or more, had a high probability of alcohol and tobacco addiction, was having his first opportunistic infection, and had no identifiable environmental exposure risk.

  2. Ecological and epidemiological aspects of the sand fly (Diptera, Psychodidae) fauna of the National Monument of Pontões Capixabas, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil.

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    Ferreira, Adelson L; Falqueto, Aloisio; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Peixoto, Alexandre A; De S Pinto, Israel

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the ecological and epidemiological aspects of the sand fly fauna in an area of the Atlantic Forest biome with records of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sand fly collections at three different localities at the National Monument of Pontões Capixabas, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, were conducted by using two Centers of Disease Control and Prevention automatic light traps in the peridomiciliary environment and eight Centers of Disease Control and Prevention automatic light traps in the forested environment. Collections occurred during four consecutive nights within each of the months and locations: São Luiz (December 2009, May 2010, July 2010, and December 2010), Córrego Palmital de Baixo (September 2010 and October 2010), and Córrego São Bento (February 2011 and May 2011). We collected 21,138 sand flies belonging to 31 species and 14 genera. Of this total, 12,412 sand flies were captured in the peridomiciliary environment and 8,726 in the forested environment. All of the vector species, Lutzomyia longipalpis (=Lutzomyia longipalpis, sensu; Young and Duncan), Migonemyia migonei (=Lutzomyia migonei, sensu; Young and Duncan), and Nyssomyia intermedia (=Lutzomyia intermedia, sensu; Young and Duncan), occurred in significantly higher numbers in the peridomiciliary environment than compared with the forested environment. Our results highlight the importance of conservation in the forest remains of the National Monument of Pontões Capixabas, because of higher species richness and diversity. Furthermore, they indicate the epidemiological role of Lu. longipalpis as the vector of Leishmania infantum within the study area, and the no evident role of Mg. migonei.

  3. Air pollution and respiratory diseases in the Municipality of Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil Doenças respiratórias e poluição atmosférica no Município de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Hermano Albuquerque de Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, increasing air pollution in urban areas has led to a rise in respiratory diseases among children and the elderly and has also been the main cause of hospital admissions. This study aims to evaluate the air pollution levels in Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, in comparison to Brazilian legislation and recent World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, analyzing the spatial distribution of asthma cases treated at local outpatient services. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed with daily records on air pollution and outpatient treatment for respiratory diseases from 2001 to 2003, for children under 6 years of age. A geographic information system (GIS was used to identify asthma distribution in the municipality. Air pollution levels were relatively low when compared to the Brazilian legislation and WHO guidelines. Only mean PM10 and NO2 exceeded the annual quality standard. The three highest asthma outpatient treatment rates were observed in the districts of São José, Jabou, and Morro do Quadro.No Brasil, o crescimento da poluição do ar em áreas urbanas tem sido responsável pelo aumento das doenças respiratórias em crianças e idosos e a principal causa das internações hospitalares. O presente estudo tem como objetivos avaliar os níveis de poluição do ar no Município de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, em relação à legislação nacional e o recente padrão proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS e, a distribuição espacial dos casos de asma atendidos nos ambulatórios das unidades básicas de saúde no Município de Vitória. Um estudo epidemiológico descritivo foi realizado para o período de 2001 a 2003 para menores de seis anos. O Sistema Geográfico de Informação foi usado para identificar o padrão de distribuição de asma na municipalidade. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de poluição de ar no município são relativamente baixos, quando comparados à legisla

  4. Anti-Toxocara antibodies detected in children attending elementary school in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

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    Roberta Paranhos Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. METHODS: The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltdon serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286. The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³ was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.

  5. Anti-Toxocara antibodies detected in children attending elementary school in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors.

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    Fragoso, Roberta Paranhos; Monteiro, Mariza Buriche Macedo; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltd)on serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286). The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³) was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.

  6. Experimental introduction of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae in Praia das Neves, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: a descriptive study 18 years later Introdução experimental de Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae em Praia das Neves, Espírito Santo, Brasil: um estudo descritivo 18 anos depois

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    Ana Hermínia B. Soares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results of the introduction into Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, of Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, a lizard species threatened with extinction. Since there are few studies that evaluate how species establish and adapt to new environments, it is useful to assess to what extent the introduction of a critically endangered species into an area similar to where it originally occurred can help reduce its decline in number of individuals and avoid its possible extinction. This study presents the first results of an ongoing monitoring survey set up after the experimental introduction. We analyze how the introduced population uses space and food and we compare these characteristics to that of the original population at Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro state. We also compare morphological measurementss of specimens from both populations. Both make similar use of the microhabitat, but there are differences in their diets. We recommend that the introduced population, potential competitors, predators, parasites, and the habitat characteristics continue to be monitored, so as to insure that this species will not become a threat to Praia das Neves beach community.Esse artigo examina o resultado da introdução, em Praia das Neves, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, de Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, uma espécie de lagarto ameaçada de extinção. Como existem poucos estudos que avaliam como espécies estabelecem-se e adaptam-se a novos ambientes, é útil conhecer em que extensão a introdução de uma espécie criticamente em perigo em uma área similar àquela onde ocorria naturalmente pode ajudar a reduzir seu declínio em número de indivíduos e evitar sua possível extinção. Esse estudo apresenta os primeiros resultados de um monitoramento em andamento, iniciado depois da introdução experimental. Analisamos o uso do espaço pela população introduzida e sua alimentação, e comparamos essas caracter

  7. Avaliação das condições de segurança do trabalho na colheita e transporte florestal em propriedades rurais fomentadas no Estado do Espírito Santo Evaluation of work safety conditions of timber harvesting and transport in fomented farms of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com informações obtidas de 70 proprietários rurais fomentados, responsáveis por 90 contratos de fomento florestal, com o objetivo de caracterizar as condições de segurança do trabalho na colheita e transporte florestal, em propriedades rurais fomentadas no Estado do Espírito Santo. A área fomentada por contrato variava entre 1,5 e 100,0 ha, sendo de até 30 ha em 86,7% dos contratos e com relevo montanhoso em 61,2%. A colheita e transporte florestais foram terceirizados em 70 e 80% dos contratos amostrados, respectivamente, e realizados por conta dos proprietários nos demais. A maioria dos prestadores de serviço terceirizados era contratada informalmente. Foi empregada a mão-de-obra contratada na maioria dos contratos com colheita própria, sendo a maior parte não qualificada e contratada informalmente. Grande parte dos trabalhadores deslocava-se por conta própria até o local de colheita. Ocorreram acidentes de trabalho em 16,3% dos contratos, sendo 60% na colheita e transporte florestal próprios. A maioria dos acidentes aconteceu na atividade de corte e atingiu, principalmente, os membros inferiores e superiores do trabalhador acidentado. Os trabalhadores não utilizavam equipamentos de proteção individual em 62,1% dos contratos com colheita própria e em 23,0% dos terceirizados. Observou-se carência de material de primeiros socorros, bem como falta de instrução para o socorro de trabalhadores acidentados na colheita florestal.This research was developed with data obtained from 70 fomented farm owners in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, who were responsible for 90 forest contracts distributed in 22 cities of the State. The area fomented per contract ranged from 1.5 to 100 hectares, being 84.8% of contracts up to 30 ha and 59.8% with mountainous relief. Timber harvesting and log transport were outsourced and carried out by a subcontractor in 70% and 80% of the contracts respectively

  8. Violence against women, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

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    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2017-04-10

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with psychological, physical and sexual violence in women victims of intimate partner violence assisted in the primary care services. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 26 health units in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, from March to September 2014. We interviewed 991 women aged 20-59 years. To classify the psychological, physical and sexual violence, the World Health Organization instrument on violence against women was used and a questionnaire to investigate the sociodemographic, behavioral characteristics, and the women's family and life history was developed. The statistical analyzes used were Poisson regression, Fisher's exact test and Chi-square. The prevalence we observed were psychological 25.3% (95%CI 22.6-28.2); physical 9.9% (95%CI 8.1-11.9) and sexual 5.7% (95%CI 4.3-7.3). Psychological violence remained associated with education, marital status, maternal history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence in childhood and drug use, while physical assault was related to age, education, marital status and maternal history of intimate partner violence. Sexual violence occurred the most among women with low income, and victims of sexual violence in childhood. Psychological, physical and sexual violence showed highly frequency among women assisted by primary care services. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors, personal experiences, and maternal violence influence the phenomenon. Estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados às violências psicológica, física e sexual nas mulheres vítimas de violência perpetrada pelo parceiro íntimo atendidas nos serviços de atenção primária. Estudo transversal, realizado em 26 unidades de saúde do município de Vitória, no Espírito Santo, de março a setembro de 2014. Foram entrevistadas 991 usuárias de 20 a 59 anos. Para classificar as violências psicológica, física e sexual foi utilizado o instrumento da Organização Mundial de Sa

  9. Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes adultos com tuberculose e AIDS no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: relacionamento dos bancos de dados de tuberculose e AIDS Epidemiological profile of adult patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: cross-referencing tuberculosis and AIDS databases

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    Thiago Nascimento do Prado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com tuberculose (TB e daqueles com TB e HIV no estado do Espírito Santo entre 2000 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Coletamos dados demográficos e clínicos dos pacientes de interesse do Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado do Espírito Santo (banco de dados para TB, do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, do Sistema de Controle de Exames Laboratoriais da Rede Nacional de Contagem de Linfócitos CD4+/CD8+ e Carga Viral e do Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos (bancos de dados para HIV/AIDS. Todos os dados compilados foram cruzados. RESULTADOS: Durante o período do estudo, 9.543 pacientes com TB > 15 anos de idade foram identificados, dos quais 437 (4,6% tinham HIV. A mediana de idade não diferiu entre os pacientes com TB/AIDS e somente com TB (35 anos vs. 38 anos. Dos 437 pacientes com TB/AIDS, 298 (68,2% eram homens, e 156 (35,8% estavam na faixa etária de 30-39 anos. Quanto ao desfecho do tratamento da TB, 79,0% foram curados, 9,7% foram transferidos para outros locais, 6,0% foram a óbito, 5,2% abandonaram o tratamento, e 0,2% desenvolveram TB multirresistente. O óbito foi 4,75 vezes mais comum nos pacientes com TB/AIDS do que naqueles somente com TB. A TB pulmonar representou 82,4% dos casos. A combinação de TB pulmonar e extrapulmonar foi 8,2 vezes mais frequente nos pacientes com TB/AIDS do que naqueles somente com TB (IC95%: 6,2-10,8. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados enfatizam a significância da AIDS em pacientes com TB no Brasil, assim como a importância de se avaliar dados secundários a fim de melhorar a sua qualidade e desenvolver intervenções de saúde públicaOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with tuberculosis (TB only and that of patients with TB/AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. METHODS: For the patients of interest, we collected

  10. Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum em áreas comerciais de tomate, no Espírito Santo, em regiões de diferentes altitudes Occurrence of Trichogramma pretiosum in commercial fields of tomato, in Espírito Santo State (Brazil, in areas with different altitudes

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados sete campos experimentais em altitudes entre 200 e 1050 metros, nos municípios de Afonso Cláudio e Venda Nova do Imigrante no Espírito Santo, para desenvolvimento de avaliações pré-introdutórias de Trichogramma. Visou-se determinar as espécies nativas e conhecer o índice de parasitismo natural, para utilização em programas de manejo integrado da traça-do-tomateiro. Em todos os campos comerciais de tomateiros foram coletados apenas Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. No primeiro ano de coleta, o número médio de amostras de cartelas com parasitismo, bem como o número médio de ovos parasitados, apresentaram uma relação inversa, quando comparado com as regiões de altitudes entre 200 e 850 metros. Em regiões de menor altitude (200, 380 e 450 metros, foram observadas presença constante desses parasitóides de ovos em todas as áreas amostradas. No segundo ano de coleta não foi observado o mesmo comportamento em relação ao primeiro, tendo os valores médios dos parâmetros sido inferiores, com o número médio de ovos parasitados por cartela reduzido pela metade. Os resultados de dois anos de coleta mostraram que a agressividade das linhagens de T. pretiosum foi diferenciada em função das áreas.Seven experimental fields were installed in altitudes varying from 200 to 1050 meters, located in Afonso Cláudio and Venda Nova do Imigrante in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The evaluations of Trichogramma presence were done to determine the native species, know the natural parasitism rate in order to use the obtained results in programs of pest management of Tuta absoluta. In all commercial tomato fields only Trichogramma pretiosum Riley was collected. In the first year the medium number of egg-cards sample with parasitism, as well as the medium number of parasitized eggs, presented an inverse relationship when compared to the areas of altitude between 200 and 850 meters. In the lower areas (200, 380 and 450 m a constant

  11. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em crianças de 7 a 10 anos de área urbana, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil Cardiovascular risk factors in 7-to-10-year-old children in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi identificar a ocorrência simultânea de fatores de risco cardiovascular em crianças de 7 a 10 anos de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, e investigar variáveis socioeconômicas associadas. Foram pesquisadas 1.282 crianças e obtidos dados antropométricos e medidas da pressão arterial com aparelho automático. Dados socioeconômicos, de alimentação e de atividade física foram obtidos com base em questionário. Para avaliação da ocorrência simultânea de fatores de risco cardiovascular foi desenvolvido um índice a partir da presença de excesso de peso, pressão arterial elevada, alimentação de baixa qualidade e lazer sedentário > 4h/dia. Presença simultânea de quatro fatores de risco cardiovascular foi identificada como risco alto. Classe socioeconômica e escolaridade materna foram incluídas no modelo de regressão logística. Cerca de 34% das crianças apresentaram dois fatores de risco cardiovascular, 20% três fatores e 6,4 quatro fatores de risco cardiovascular. A escolaridade materna se manteve associada ao risco cardiovascular alto (OR: 7,36, IC95%: 2,09-25,97 e médio (OR: 2,57, IC95%: 1,58-4,20. Baixa escolaridade materna foi o fator mais importante associado ao risco cardiovascular.The study aimed to identify the simultaneous occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in children 7 to 10 years of age in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and investigate associated socioeconomic variables. In a sample of 1,282 children, anthropometric data were obtained and blood pressure was measured with an automatic device. Socioeconomic, nutritional, and physical activity data were obtained with a questionnaire. To evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors, an index was developed including overweight, high blood pressure, poor eating, and sedentary leisure > 4hours/day. The simultaneous presence of four cardiovascular risk factors was defined as high risk. Socioeconomic status

  12. HCMV gB genotypes in cervical secretion and placenta tissues in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastearn Brazil Genótipos gB de citomegalovírus humano em secreção cervical e placenta no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil

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    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV displays genetic variability in several regions, supposed to be related with strain-specific tissue tropism and immunopathogenesis. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes gB glycoprotein, HCMV strains can be assigned to one of four genotypes. Previous studies have addressed gB genotyping mostly by investigating strains derived from immunosuppressed patients, sometimes without previous knowledge about genotype distribution in a geographic area. The present study verified the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes of strains obtained from immunocompetent women at Vitória City, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern, Brazil. The HCMV genome was extracted from their cervical secretion, fetal and maternal placenta tissues (chorionic villous and decidua from abortion cases and from white blood cells (WBCs. HCMV genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of amplified product from the high variability site of the UL55 gene. All four genotypes were observed in both cervical secretion and placenta, whereas in WBCs a single gB1 genotype was detected. HCMV gB1 and gB2 genotypes were detected, respectively, in nine and in six of the 23 studied samples, while gB3 and gB4 were each found in four separate samples of the total. The differences in genotype frequency were not considered statistically significant. No mixed genotype infection was observed. The results indicated that the four gB HCMV genotypes had no particular tropism for placenta tissues and that all genotypes circulated within immunocompetent women at the time and in the region of study.O citomegalovírus humano (HCMV apresenta variabilidade em diversas regiões do genoma, supostamente relacionada ao tropismo tecidual e imunopatogênese viral. Baseando-se na variação de seqüência do gene UL55 que codifica a glicoproteína gB, o HCMV pode ser classificado em um dos quatro genótipos. Estudos prévios têm investigado a

  13. Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011-2012.

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    Aline Guio Cavaca

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media.Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011-2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists' reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics.Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms.Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing various realities. Therefore, we propose that the

  14. The price of the natural gas in the producing states: Espirito Santo case; O preco do gas natural nos estados produtores: caso Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cometi, Darcy Lannes

    2008-07-01

    The State of the Espirito Santo will become until the end of 2008, one of the main producers and natural gas exporters of Brazil, where, according to PETROBRAS, the State will produce about 20 million /day m{sup 3}, what it will go to contribute significantly for reduction of the dependence of the Bolivian gas, and still to give support to the natural gas sector in Brazil. The Intention of this work, is to identify proposals so that it has left of the gas produced in the State of the Espirito Santo, has a differentiated price. It does not make sensible the State to pay for the gas that is removed in its proper territory the same price that paid Sao Paulo for the gas that consumes imported of national Bolivia. With the markdown of the gas the State will be able to attract investments of great transport, to generate job and income and to advance in the question of the regional development that is of great importance for the developed cities less. Important to stand out that this study it will present proposals to try to sensitize PETROBRAS, initiating a quarrel on the subject. (author)

  15. Acceptance of Santo Giorno cheese typical of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Edimir Andrade; Roncatti, Roberta; Todescatto, Carla; Beux, Simone; Marchi,João Francisco; Daltoé, Marina Leite Mitterer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Santo Giorno cheese, obtained from raw milk and selected autochthonous starters, is emerging as the newest typical food product from the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of the cheese with two ripening times of 60 and 180 days, produced in two dairy factories, testing two starters and two preservatives. Subjective sensory evaluation was applied using 129 consumers and hedonic scales for the attributes and for purchasin...

  16. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  17. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  18. Soroprevalência da doença de Chagas em crianças em idade escolar do Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, em 1999-2000 Chagas' disease seroprevalence among school-age children in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, 1999-2000

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    Paulo Augusto Sessa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o Estado do Espírito Santo não seja considerado endêmico para a doença de Chagas, triatomíneos silvestres que lá ocorrem freqüentemente invadem as casas, com chances de transmissão da doença às pessoas. Avaliou-se o padrão epidemiológico da moléstia no Estado por meio de um inquérito sorológico realizado em 5.243 escolares de 7 a 14 anos de idade, residentes em 17 municípios. Os testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta, Hemaglutinação Indireta e Imunoenzimático (ELISA foram positivos em apenas uma pessoa, representando 0,019% do total. O resultado foi semelhante aos encontrados por outros autores em investigações anteriores. Concluiu-se que, apesar da intensa destruição da Mata Atlântica ocorrida nas últimas décadas, o padrão epidemiológico da doença de Chagas permanece estável, a julgar pelo resultado dos testes sorológicos.Although the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo is not considered endemic for Chagas' disease, the sylvatic triatomines occurring there frequently invade houses, increasing the chances of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to man. The epidemiological pattern of the disease in Espírito Santo was evaluated by a serological survey of 5,243 schoolchildren ages 7 to 14 years, residents of 17 municipalities. Indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination, and immunoenzymatic (ELISA tests were positive in only one person, representing only 0.019% of the total. This result was similar to those found by other authors in previous studies. Based on the results of serological tests it is concluded that the epidemiological pattern of Chagas' disease in Espírito Santo remains stable, despite the intensive destruction of the Atlantic Forest that has occurred in recent decades.

  19. Relação entre situação social e crescimento físico, numa população infantil de Santo André, SP, Brasil Relationship between social situation and physical growth in children from Santo Andre, State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria Stella Ferreira Levy

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Baseado em dados sócio-antropológicos e em medidas antropométricas coletados no Município de Santo André, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foi analisada a população infantil de ambos os sexos e de treze idades diferentes (0, 3, 6 e 9 meses, 1 ano, 1 ano e meio, 2 a 8 anos. Foram utilizadas 3 variáveis independentes ISSE - índice de situação sócio-econômica da família (baseado nas inter-relações da média de gasto familiar mensal "per capita" e a instrução e ocupação do chefe da casa; CATANCES - construída a partir da informação sobre a nacionalidade dos ascendentes das crianças até 3ª geração; e Tamanho do Grupo Residencial. Como variáveis dependentes, utilizou-se a estatura, o peso e o Índice de Kaup. Considerando a relação positiva entre melhores condições de vida e desenvolvimento físico, constatou-se (através do teste de ordenação de médias de Duncan que, embora as médias das medidas diferissem segundo as variáveis independentes, isso não acontecia igualmente nas mesmas idades e nos dois sexos. Observou-se pelos resultados das análises de variância, na maioria das vezes significantes, que as variáveis selecionadas explicavam muito pouco da variação das medidas nas várias idades e sexos. Conclui-se que a amostra estudada, segundo as variáveis independentes deste estudo, difere entre idades em ambos os sexos. Isto levanta uma série de questões sobre quais as variáveis mais adequadas a estudos desse gênero. Sugere-se, consideradas as duas categorias de variável CATANCES, a utilização de duas "tabela padrão" para peso e altura, segundo regiões brasileiras. Quanto ao índice de Kaup, evidenciou-se a necessidade de ser encontrada uma função matemática específica para cada idade, uma vez que, ao menos em relação a crianças em crescimento, o índice não media aquilo a que se propunha.This article was based on some of the data collected in the county of Santo André, State of Sew Paulo

  20. A new species of Leiostracus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicoidea from Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable new species of pulmonate land snail was found in the collection of the Senckenberg Forschungninstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Germany and is described here as Leiostracus faerie sp. nov. It can be easily identified by its small and translucent shell with fine axial light brown bands and its protoconch sculpture. It was collected in the Rio Doce ("Doce River" region in Espírito Santo, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity and endemicity of land snails. This discovery shows how little this fauna is known and reinforces the importance of museum collections in the study of biodiversity and conservation.

  1. Participação do cão no ciclo de transmissão da Leishmaniose tegumentar no município de Viana, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil Participation of the dog in the cycle of transmission of cutaneous leishmanioses in the municipality of Viana, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil

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    Aloísio Falqueto

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Em área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar no município de Viana, Estado do Espírito Santo, investigou-se a ocorrência de infecção natural por Leishmania em animais domésticos, procurando-se relacionar a presença dos animais infectados com a ocorrência da doença humana. No período de três semanas foram examinados 186 cães, dos quais 32 (17,2% estavam parasitados. Durante um ano surgiram, entre os moradores da área, 11 casos novos de leishmaniose tegumentar. Três amostras humanas de Leishmania e 27 amostras isoladas de cães foram identificadas como L. braziliensis braziliensis. Observou-se nítida relação entre a presença de cães infectados e a ocorrência de novos casos humanos da doença. Supõe-se que a moléstia esteja se comportando na área como uma zoonose mantida pelos cães domésticos.In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the viana municipality, Espírito Santo state, an investigation was performed on natural hosts of leishmania among domestic animals, trying to correlate the presence of infected animals with the occurrence of the disease in humans. Within a three weeks period 186 dogs were examined and 32 (17,2% were found infected.Eleven new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded during one year, among people living in the endemic area. A close relationship was between the presence of infected dogs and the occurrence of human leishmaniasis. In the area studied, the disease seems to behave as a zoonosis maintained by domestic dogs.

  2. Air pollution and its impacts on health in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; de Leon, Antonio Ponce; Juger, Washington; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the impact of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity of children and adults in the city of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo. A study was carried out using time-series models via Poisson regression from hospitalization and pollutant data in Vitoria, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. Fine particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were tested as independent variables in simple and cumulative lags of up to five days. Temperature, humidity and variables indicating weekdays and city holidays were added as control variables in the models. For each increment of 10 µg/m3 of the pollutants PM10, SO2, and O3, the percentage of relative risk (%RR) for hospitalizations due to total respiratory diseases increased 9.67 (95%CI 11.84-7.54), 6.98 (95%CI 9.98-4.17) and 1.93 (95%CI 2.95-0.93), respectively. We found %RR = 6.60 (95%CI 9.53-3.75), %RR = 5.19 (95%CI 9.01-1.5), and %RR = 3.68 (95%CI 5.07-2.31) for respiratory diseases in children under the age of five years for PM10, SO2, and O3, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases showed a significant relationship with O3, with %RR = 2.11 (95%CI 3.18-1.06). Respiratory diseases presented a stronger and more consistent relationship with the pollutants researched in Vitoria. A better dose-response relationship was observed when using cumulative lags in polynomial distributed lag models.

  3. Air pollution and its impacts on health in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil

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    Clarice Umbelino de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity of children and adults in the city of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo. METHODS A study was carried out using time-series models via Poisson regression from hospitalization and pollutant data in Vitoria, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. Fine particulate matter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and ozone (O3 were tested as independent variables in simple and cumulative lags of up to five days. Temperature, humidity and variables indicating weekdays and city holidays were added as control variables in the models. RESULTS For each increment of 10 µg/m3 of the pollutants PM10, SO2, and O3, the percentage of relative risk (%RR for hospitalizations due to total respiratory diseases increased 9.67 (95%CI 11.84-7.54, 6.98 (95%CI 9.98-4.17 and 1.93 (95%CI 2.95-0.93, respectively. We found %RR = 6.60 (95%CI 9.53-3.75, %RR = 5.19 (95%CI 9.01-1.5, and %RR = 3.68 (95%CI 5.07-2.31 for respiratory diseases in children under the age of five years for PM10, SO2, and O3, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases showed a significant relationship with O3, with %RR = 2.11 (95%CI 3.18-1.06. CONCLUSIONS Respiratory diseases presented a stronger and more consistent relationship with the pollutants researched in Vitoria. A better dose-response relationship was observed when using cumulative lags in polynomial distributed lag models.

  4. Acute liver failure in children: observations in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil Insuficiência hepática aguda na criança: observações em Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Sandra F. Moreira-Silva

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we report 46 cases of acute liver failure in children diagnosed at the Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Glória in Vitória, E Santo. Serology for IgM anti-HAV, IgM anti-HBc, HbsAg, anti-HCV and biochemical tests were performed in all cases in a routine laboratory. The M/F ratio was 1.1:1 and the mean age was 4.7±3.2 years, without gender difference. Anti-HAV IgM+ in 38 (82.6% cases, anti-HbcIgM+ in two (4.3 % cases and 6 (13.1% cases were negative for all viral markers investigated. Anti- HCV+ in one anti-HAV IgM+ case. HbsAg+ in two anti-HbcIgM+ and in two HAVIgM+ cases. Among the six A, B and C negative cases, four (8.6% did not have the suspected exogenous intoxication. Mortality was 50%, without gender or age differences. These results demonstrate that HAV infection is the main etiology of acute liver failure in children in Brazil, confirming that, although it is a self limited, relatively mild illness, it can cause serious and even fatal disease. The observation of four cases without A, B and C viral markers and no history of exogenous intoxication, agree with the observation of non A-E acute sporadic hepatitis in Northeastern Brazil.São relatados 46 casos de insuficiência hepática aguda, diagnosticados no Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Glória, em Vitória, Espírito Santo. Sorologia para IgM anti-HAV, IgM anti-HBc, HbsAg, anti-VHC e testes bioquímicos realizados em laboratório de rotina. Relação M/F de 1,1:1; média de idades: 4,7±3,2 anos, sem diferença entre os sexos. IgM anti-VHA+ em 38 (82.6% casos, IgM anti-HBc+ em dois (4,3% casos e seis (13,1%casos foram negativos para os marcadores virais investigados. HbsAg+ em dois casos IgM anti-HBc+ e em dois com IgM anti-VHA+. Anti-VHC+ em um caso IgM anti-VHA+. Entre os seis casos negativos para VHA, VHB e VHC, quatro (8,6% não tinham suspeita de intoxicação exógena. A mortalidade foi de 50% sem diferenças em relação à idade ou sexo. Os

  5. First stranding records of Ziphius cavirostris (Cetacea, Odontoceti on the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Luis Felipe Silva Pereira Mayorga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first stranding records of Ziphius cavirostris (Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier, 1823 (Cetacea, Odontoceti in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The first occurrence was recorded in the second half of 2007 on Trindade Island (20°30’46,82”S, 29°18’26,32”O, a volcanic island located 1.167km away from the mainland, where morphometric data were not collected. The other occurrence was recorded in the second half of 2009 in the city of Vila Velha (20º22’570”S, 40º18’292”O, where morphometric data were collected.

  6. [Evaluation of the quality of data in the Live Birth Information System and the Information System on Mortality during the neonatal period in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laura Pedroza; Moreira, Claudia Maria Marques; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; de Castro, Denise Silveira; Zandonade, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    Health information systems make it possible to be aware of health problems and often represent the sole source of information, thereby making it essential to assess their quality. The scope of this paper was to evaluate the quality of data about live births and deaths in the neonatal period in the Live Births Information System (SINASC) and Mortality Information System (SIM) in the state of Espírito Santo during the period from 2007 to 2009. Descriptive methodology with secondary data obtained from the electronic address of the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System was used to analyze the dimensions of quality of information, namely accessibility, timeliness and completeness. The results indicate that the information is accessible and timely, with a lag of three years compared to the beginning of the study. The completeness of the variables analyzed in SINASC was predominantly classified as excellent. SIM revealed a high percentage of missing data on the number of the Live Birth Declaration, mother's education, age and reproductive history. The conclusion reached is that SINASC is an excellent source of information about births, though SIM reveals a marked need for improvements in the completeness of its information.

  7. Ocorrência de viroses em tomate e pimentão na região serrana do estado do Espírito Santo Occurrence of viruses in tomato and sweetpepper in the highland region of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Antonio C. de Ávila

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A região serrana do Espírito Santo, abrangendo os municípios de Vargem Alta, Venda Nova do Imigrante e Domingos Martins, é importante área produtora de hortaliças no Brasil. Um levantamento foi feito em outubro de 2003 visando verificar a ocorrência e a importância de viroses nas culturas de tomate e pimentão. Cento e trinta e cinco amostras foliares de tomate e pimentão apresentando sintomas semelhantes ao de infecção por vírus foram obtidas nos três municípios e analisadas por meio de sorologia e reação em plantas indicadoras. Os resultados mostraram que o Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV é o vírus prevalente ocorrendo como surto epidêmico em diferentes cultivares de tomate e híbridos suscetíveis de pimentão. O Tospovirus Groundnut ringspot virus e o Cucumovirus, Cucumber mosaic virus apresentaram ocorrência esporádica. Não foi detectada em nenhuma amostra a presença de Potato virus Y (PVY, tobamovírus ou outros tospovírus. Apesar da ocorrência da mosca branca na região, não foram observados sintomas típicos de infecção por begomovírus nas lavouras amostradas durante este levantamento.The highland area of the State of Espírito Santo is an important area for vegetable production comprising the counties of Vargem Alta, Venda Nova do Imigrante and Domingos Martins. A survey for viruses occurrence in the tomato and the sweetpepper crops was done in October, 2003. One hundred and thirty five leaf samples from tomato and sweetpepper showing virus-like symptoms were analyzed by serology and indicator hosts. Epidemics of Pepper Yellow mosaic virus, was observed in tomato and susceptible sweetpepper hybrids. Groundnut ring spot virus the only tospovirus species detected, and Cucumber mosaic virus was sporadically occurred. Potato virus Y, tobamoviruses and other tospoviruses were not detected in any of the analyzed leaf samples. Although high populations of the whitefly Bemisia argentifolii were present in tomato

  8. Spatial distribution of suicide incidence rates in municipalities in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil, 2003-2007: spatial analysis to identify risk areas Distribuição especial das taxas de incidência de suicídio nos municípios do Estado do Espírito Santo (Brasil, no período de 2003 a 2007

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    Luciene Bolzam Macente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of suicide incidence rate in a residential municipality of the state of Espírito Santo (ES, Brazil, from 2003 to 2007. METHODS: Ecologic study of the exploratory kind, based on secondary data. Deaths per suicide, which took place in each municipality of ES, were included in the data according to information provided by the Mortality Information System. For the spatial data analysis, a Bayesian approach was used (Global empirical and Local Bayesian ones to correct epidemiological rates. Moran's I index was calculated to a worldwide spatial level dependence, and Local Moran (LISA to a local spatial correlation. The following software applications were used: Excel; R 2.6.2; SPSS 11.5 and TerraView 3.3.1. RESULTS: The geographical localization of the municipalities that showed an incidence rate characterized as the average for suicide after adjustment (EBest Global forms a corridor in the countryside. Some common characteristics among these municipalities are: a immigration (Italians, Pomeranians/ Germans; b rural population (average of 53%; c supporting economy (agriculture, husbandry and livestock. A global and local spatial correlation was found among the municipalities (p OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial das taxas de incidência de suicídio segundo o município de residência no estado do Espírito Santo (2003 a 2007. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico do tipo exploratório, baseado em dados secundários. Foram incluídos os óbitos por suicídio ocorridos no período, em cada um dos municípios do Estado, conforme o Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade. Para análise espacial dos dados, utilizou-se a abordagem bayesiana (Bayesianos Empírico Global e Local para correção de taxas epidemiológicas. Calculou-se o índice I de Moran, para dependência espacial em nível global, e o Moran Local (LISA, para correlação espacial local. Foram utilizados os seguintes programas: Excel; R 2

  9. Acceptance of Santo Giorno cheese typical of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

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    Edimir Andrade Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Santo Giorno cheese, obtained from raw milk and selected autochthonous starters, is emerging as the newest typical food product from the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of the cheese with two ripening times of 60 and 180 days, produced in two dairy factories, testing two starters and two preservatives. Subjective sensory evaluation was applied using 129 consumers and hedonic scales for the attributes and for purchasing intent. A questionnaire involving the rate of cheese consumption was also used. The results suggested good reproducibility of the cheese preparation by the dairy factories, with no significant differences between the type of preservative used and the suitability of the two types of starter tested. An inverse relationship between hedonic scores for attributes (appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor and ripening time was observed, except for texture. By applying multinomial logistic regression and a box plot analysis, a significant effect of age on cheese purchasing intent was verified, with a mean acceptance rate of 87.8% for 60 days ageing and 81.8% for 180 days ageing. Results revealed a possible Santo Giorno cheese public of older consumers who had a cheese consuming habit.

  10. Educação em saúde para prevenção do câncer de colo do útero em mulheres do município de Santo Ângelo/RS Education in health for prevention of uterine cervical cancer in women in Santo Ângelo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Micheli Renata Casarin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o câncer cérvico-uterino constitui importante problema de saúde, pois apresenta alto índice de letalidade entre mulheres de varias idades. O exame citopatológico foi preconizado como medida de prevenção deste tipo de câncer, devendo ser realizado a partir do início da vida sexual. O estudo teve um caráter prático de promover educação em saúde sexual e conhecer o perfil da saúde sexual de mulheres de Santo Ângelo/RS. As palestras abordaram formas de prevenção e identificação de possíveis sintomas da doença. O levantamento do perfil de saúde sexual das participantes foi realizado através da aplicação de um questionário estruturado. Participaram das palestras 140 mulheres com idades entre 15 e 60 anos. Verificou-se que, mesmo enfrentando dificuldades e medo, a maioria delas realiza exame preventivo, motivada por aparecimento de sintomas e pelo hábito de cuidar da saúde. As participantes referiram a importância da integração entre profissionais e educadores em Saúde. O estudo foi direcionado no sentido de dar relevância à promoção da saúde e à prevenção do câncer, buscando evitar a doença e obter melhores condições de vida para as mulheres.In Brazil, cervical uterine cancer is a major public health problem as it has high mortality rate indices among women of different ages. A cytopathological examination is recommended for preventing this type of cancer from the early stages of a woman's reproductive life. The scope of this study was both to give talks on sexual health education and establish the sexual health profile of women from St. Angelo/RS. The lectures included measures for prevention as well as identification of possible symptoms of the disease. The research into the sexual health profile of the participants was conducted by a structured questionnaire applied to 140 women aged between 15 and 60. It was found that even experiencing difficulties and apprehension, the majority of the women

  11. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  12. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353–865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  13. Primeiras observações sobre o Aedes Albopictus no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil First observations on Aedes albopictus in the State of Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Joaquim A. Ferreira Neto

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Observações realizadas no Estado do Espírito Santo mostraram que o Aedes albopictus, ao ser introduzido no Brasil, não modificou, significativamente, o seu comportamento. Os criadouros são os mesmos utilizados na Ásia e situados, de preferência, em áreas abertas. Os mosquitos adultos se abrigam em vegetação baixa e freqüentam pouco o domicílio.Observations performed at the State of Espirito Santo showed that Aedes albopictus did not change its behaviour to a significant extent after being introduced in Brazil. The breeding places are the same as those described in Asia and can be found more frequently in open areas. The adult mosquitoes rest in short vegetation and only sporadically penetrate into the human habitations.

  14. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  15. Freshwater gastropods in the Northern littoral mesoregion of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Marco Antônio Andrade de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the distribution of molluscs in Brazilhave been conducted since the beginning of the twentieth and the knowledge of the species distributed in the country represent important findings, which contribute to the understanding of human diseases and those of veterinary importance, transmitted by them. In order to verify the distribution of freshwater gastropods in Espírito Santo, a malacological surveywas carried out in nine municipalities that comprise the Northern mesoregion of the State, between January 2010 and February 2015. Initially the water collections occurring in the municipality were verified and the lotic systems at different levels of use and conservation were determined. Molluscs were collected monthly using a hand net adapted to a stick steel. An individual sample effort of 30 minutes was applied, by scanning, at about ten meters in each one of the selected habitats. A total of 6,000 specimens were collected, represented by genera Melanoides, Drepanotrema, Physa, Biomphalaria and Pomacea. Among the molluscs, some specimens were positive for flatworm larvae of medical and veterinary importance. The results contributed to the knowledge of the current distribution of freshwater gastropods in the Northern region of Espírito Santo whose the only record for the region dates back to 1983.

  16. The role of gravitational collapse in controlling the evolution of crestal fault systems (Espirito Santo Basin, SE Brazil) - Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Bell, Rebecca E.

    2017-05-01

    Ze and Alves (2016) use 3D seismic reflection data to describe the geometry and throw characteristics of a salt-related normal fault population in the Espirito Santo Basin, offshore SE Brazil. As part of their analysis they test two competing fault growth models; (i) the isolated model, which states that faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length, an inference seemingly consistent with displacement-length (D-L) scaling relationships (e.g. Watterson, 1986; Walsh and Watterson, 1988; Dawers et al., 1993; Cartwright et al., 1995; Dawers and Anders, 1995); and (ii) the constant-length model, which states that faults grow via establishment of their near-final length relatively early in their slip history, prior to the accumulation of significant displacement (Fig. 1) (e.g. Morewood and Roberts (1999); Morley, 2002; Walsh et al., 2002, 2003; Childs et al., 2003; Nicol et al., 2005; Schlagenhauf et al., 2008; Giba et al., 2012; Jackson and Rotevatn, 2013). Because they make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution and earthquake hazard potential of rifts, critically testing these models is important for structural geologists, geomorphologists and stratigraphers, amongst many others. However, in our view, such critical testing has rarely been undertaken, thus the study of Ze and Alves (2016) is most welcome.

  17. Use of Cathorops spixii as bioindicator of pollution of trace metals in the Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, J S; Fernandez, W S; Farias, L A; Fávaro, D T I; Braga, E S

    2009-07-01

    In the present study Cathorops spixii, was evaluated as a bioindicator fish for trace metal pollution. Concentrations of cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in liver. Mercury (Hg) and methyl-mercury (MeHg) were analyzed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in muscles and livers. High concentrations of Co, Fe, Se and Zn were observed in C. spixii from Santos Bay in comparison to fish collected in a non-polluted site in the same Brazilian coast. These trace metal concentrations were out of the permissible levels for human consumption. Although, Hg and MeHg levels were low, the C. spixii could still be used as an effective bioindicator to observe trace metal behaviors in the environment in function of the bioaccumulation process observed mainly by other analyzed trace metals. Thus, the use of this species is strongly recommended to monitor the effects and behavior of trace metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems in Brazil due to its bioaccumulation function.

  18. PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN CONVENTIONALLY AND ORGANICALLY GROWN TOMATOES IN ESPÍRITO SANTO (BRAZIL

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    Gleissy M. A. D. A. dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of acephate, carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, fenpropathrin, methamidophos and permethrin in conventionally and organically grown tomatoes from Espírito Santo, Brazil, between May 2012 and April 2013. QuEChERS sample preparation was used and analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The method validation showed good linearity (R > 0.99, precision (RSD -1 for all pesticides. The pesticides acephate, carbaryl (0.23 mg kg-1; exceeding maximum residue levels, carbendazim, chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, fenpropathrin (0.41 mg kg-1; exceeding maximum residue levels, methamidophos and permethrin (0.51 mg kg-1, exceeding maximum residue levels were found in conventional tomatoes. In organic tomatoes, only one sample exhibited the presence of permethrin (0.21 mg kg-1. Considering that the pesticides found are toxic and carcinogenic, and given the high incidence of irregularities, it is important to implement government actions to ensure consumer safety.

  19. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

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    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  20. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  1. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregona, Geisa; Cosme, Lorrayne Belique; Moreira, Cláudia Maria Marques; Bussular, José Luis; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-04-27

    To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis - from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24-14.05) and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81-8.43)], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98-7.79), and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15-8.99). The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo. Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à tuberculose resistente

  2. Utilização dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS na cidade de Santos, São Paulo, Brasil Utilization of community mental health services in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sérgio Baxter Andreoli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A fim de descrever a clientela atendida nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS da Cidade de Santos foi realizado um censo de pacientes atendidos nos CAPS no período 1º de junho de 2001 a 30 de junho de 2001. O primeiro contato do paciente com o serviço foi registrado e seus dados foram preenchidos em ficha padronizada utilizando o prontuário médico como fonte de informação. Foram atendidos 1.673 usuários, com idade média de 46 anos, mulheres (59,0%, morando com a família (78,0% e tempo médio de três anos em tratamento no serviço. Atenderam 38,0% de esquizofrênicos, esquizotípicos e delirantes, 31,0% com transtorno de humor e 17,0% de neuróticos, nas modalidades de ambulatório médico-psiquiátrico (81,0%, individual (23,0%, grupal (13,0% e reabilitação psicossocial (4,3%. Os CAPS de Santos atendem todas as categorias de transtornos mentais, sendo os mais freqüentes aqueles considerados mais graves, o que é esperado para este tipo de serviço. O modelo de tratamento oferecido tem características ambulatorial e médico-psiquiátrica.To report on the clientele treated at community mental health services (CAPS in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, a census was conducted of the patients examined at the services from June 1, 2001, to June 30, 2001. The patient's initial contact with the service was registered, and data were recorded on a standardized form, using the medical case history as a source of information. Among the 1,673 patients, average age was 46 years, 59.0% were female, 58.0% lived with their families, and mean duration of treatment was three years. Some 38.0% were schizophrenic, schizotypical, or in acute delusional states, 31.0% presented mood disorders, and 17.0% were neurotic. Treatment modalities included out-patient psychiatric (81.0%, individual (23.0%, group (13.0%, and psychosocial rehabilitation (4.3%. In Santos, CAPS treat all categories of mental disorders (and frequently those considered the

  3. Evaluation of Ra, Th, K and radium equivalent activity in sand samples from Camburi Beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Camburi beach, in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil, is a naturally high background region in Brazil. The beach sands contain monazite, ilmenite and other accessory minerals rich in {sup 226}Ra, {sup 23}'2Th and {sup 40}K. As these radionuclides are the main natural contributors to external exposure from gamma rays, the knowledge of the sands radioactivity content plays an important role in radiation protection. In this work, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities concentrations, together with the radium equivalent activity, Ra{sub eq.} were determined in some selected sand samples from a single location at Camburi beach, known for the high level of radioactivity. The sand samples collected monthly from January to December 2011, were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 23}'2Th series. Preliminary results, without considering samples self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 12 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 1022 {+-} 30 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 35 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 5731 {+-} 134 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 18 {+-} 4 Bqkg{sup -1} to 430 {+-} 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The Ra{sub eq}, presented values ranging from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 9250 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  4. [The prevalence of anemia and its association with socio-demographic and anthropometric aspects in children living in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Della Nina; Pascoal, Mariana Nunes; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Justino, Liusani Elizia Honório; Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Kitoko, Pedro Makumbundu

    2013-11-01

    The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the population is widely acknowledged, but there are not yet sufficient studies that explain the reasons for this problem at local and national level. Thus, the scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia and its relation with socio-demographic and anthropometric aspects of children living in Vitoria, Espírito Santo. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 12- to 72-month-old children. Data were collected in Primary Healthcare Units and involved the hemoglobin dosage, height and weight measurement, in addition to the application of a semi-structured questionnaire to gather socio-demographic information. The evaluation included 980 children, 51.1% of which were female with a median age of 46.00 (95%CI: 45.52 - 48.09) months. Anemia was found in 37%, with a hemoglobin median of 11.4 (95%CI: 11.15 - 11.36) g/dL. The children's' height/age ratio (p = 0.049) and the number of people in the family (p < 0.001) were found to be determinants of anemia, and age was a factor of protection for this deficiency (p = 0.010). The high prevalence of anemia and its strong relation with demographic and anthropometric data suggest the need for more effective public policies than just food fortification and supplementation.

  5. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

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    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  6. Patrick Geddes and the Italian Territorialist School: conceptual and methodological approaches. Reflections on the participation of children in the representation of heritage values at Santa Leopoldina City - Espirito Santo State - Brazil

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    Bruno Amaral de Andrade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de Patrick Geddes sobre el niño en la ciudad, que se remonta a las Exhibiciones del Bienestar del Niño, así como el interés por los estudios de los orígenes históricos y geográficos de las ciudades desde fábulas vinculadas a las condiciones simples y naturales de la relación del hombre con el medio ambiente; por ejemplo, historias de cazador, minero, leñador, pastor, agricultor y pescador. La Escuela Territorialista Italiana, de Alberto Magnaghi, revisita de manera crítica y reflexiva el abordaje participativo precursor del pensamiento geddesiano, y desarrolla el método, la técnica y herramienta para la participación de los niños como actores-protagonistas en la representación y en el proyecto del territorio. De hecho, este artículo aborda la representación de los valores por los niños en sitio histórico, originalmente ocupado por inmigrantes de origen germánico, la ciudad de Santa Leopoldina, Espirito Santo, Brasil. Esto es hecho con diseños de referencia desarrollados por estudiantes de edades comprendidas entre 11 y 15 años, desarrollados individual y colectivamente. Los dibujos producidos por diferentes estrategias recreativas y educativas, revelan una mayor relación emocional con el ambiente paisajístico que con el ambiente urbano.

  7. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  8. Capture fishery in northern Todos os Santos Bay, tropical southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

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    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on marine and estuarine capture fishery activity in northern Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil, based on daily data collected between September 2003 and June 2005 is presented. Small-scale artisanal fishery in this area includes the use of traditional vessels both nonmotorized and motorized for locomotion, being carried out mainly by canoe or on foot, and involves many different kinds of gear, including gillnet, hook and line, seine nets, and traps. A total of 113 taxa were grouped into 77 resources, including 88 fish, 10 crustaceans, and 15 mollusks. Data on nominal catches of fish, crustaceans and mollusks are presented by month and location. A total of 345.2 tonnes of fishery resources were produced (285.4 tonnes of fish, 39.2 tonnes of fresh invertebrates, and 20.6 tonnes of processed invertebrates. Temporal variation in the fish catch was associated with the life cycle of the species or with the hydrographic conditions. The first-sale value of this catch amounted to around US$ 615,000.00, fishes representing 71.3% of it. A table of the average price of each fishery resource is presented. The results produced in this study may be considered a reference for future monitoring programs of fishery resources in the area.Informações sobre a atividade pesqueira extrativa da região norte da Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, nordeste do Brasil são apresentadas, baseadas em coleta diária de dados, realizada entre setembro de 2003 e junho de 2005. Trata-se de uma atividade extrativa artesanal, na qual são utilizadas embarcações tradicionais para o deslocamento ao local da extração. Em cada pescaria foram utilizadas várias artes, tais como rede de espera, linha e anzol, rede de cerco, armadilhas. Foram identificadas 113 categorias taxonômicas de peixes (88, crustáceos (10 e moluscos (15, arranjadas em 77 tipos de pescados comercializados. A produção total no período foi de 345,2 t (285.4 t de peixes, 39,2 t de

  9. Enrichment Factors (EF) on Superficial Sediments of Santos Estuarine System, Southeasthern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. S. M.; Salaroli, A. B.; Mahiques, M.; Figueira, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Baixada Santista, located at southeastern Brazilian coast, hosts the largest harbor of South America, it is also the third most heavily populated region in São Paulo state. Many industries and domestic sewage have been contaminating the environment with heavy metals and arsenic since industrial revolution. This has been a major concern worldwide due to its toxicity and persistence. Levels of metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sc, V) and As were determinated on 180 samples of surface sediments, by acid digestion and quantified by ICP-OES to assess enrichment factors in order to know the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. The levels of metals indicated absence of contamination, but a higher enrichment of As (approximately 9.5) near Bertioga city. Ni and Cr had values between 0.5 - 2.0, Cu and Zn between 0.6 - 4.0 and 0.9 - 7.5 for Pb. Despite As, all others metals showed higher enrichment in Santos - São Vicente Estuary, especially near Cubatão. The analysis of the enrichment factor of As indicate that these values could be due to natural processes of weathering and sedimentation, meanwhile the other metals could be from antropogenic sources, since thoses values were found near industrial area.

  10. Análise química em órgãos de reserva de algumas herbáceas e arbóreas ocorrentes na flora do Espírito Santo, Brasil Chemical analysis of storage organs in herb and tree species from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Joscineia Kelli Clippel

    2008-12-01

    (56-87 mg.g-1 dentre os micronutrientes. Como constatado no presente trabalho, os estudos relacionados à bioprospecção revelam resultados promissores mostrando o grande potencial tecnológico de sementes e de órgãos subterrâneos de armazenamento encontrados na flora do Espírito Santo.The composition of nonstructural carbohydrates was investigated in the underground organs of the herbs Dioscorea sp. 1 and Dioscorea sp. 2 (Dioscoreaceae; Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae; Hippeastrum reticulatum (L'Hérit. Herb. (Amaryllidaceae; Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn Raf. (Amaryllidaceae, Prescottia nivalis Barb. Rodr. (Orchidaceae and Sinningia aghensis Chautems (Gesneriaceae. We was also analyzed the levels of cell-wall storage polysaccharides (CWSP and mineral nutrients in seeds of Cassia fistula L., Cassia grandis L.f., Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC., Erythrina variegata L., Hymenaea courbaril L. and Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms from the Leguminosae family. H. reticulatum showed the highest fructose levels (25% dry mass suggesting the presence of fructans in the underground organs. The highest levels of total soluble carbohydrates, especially sucrose (63%, were observed in rhizomes of P. nivalis indicating that this carbohydrate may act as an osmoregulator in this rock-dwelling resurrection plant. In relation to CWSP, high values were found in H. courbaril (70%, C. grandis (53% and C. rosea (40% seeds. Intermediate values were found in C. fistula (24% and E. variegata (11%. O. arborea seeds showed the lowest amount of WCP (<3% dry mass. Previous work has shown that the storage polysaccharides of H. courbaril are of the xyloglucan type while in C. grandis, C. fistula and C. rosea they are of the galactomanan type. Identification of the polysaccharide in E. variegata and O. arborea depends on future analyses by HPLC. In relation to mineral nutrients, C. rosea and E. variegata seeds stood out due to higher concentrations of N (60 g.kg-1 among the macronutrients and

  11. Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Lima, L.R.P. de, E-mail: lelo@ufba.br [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Federal University of Bahia, C.P. 6974, Salvador, BA 41810-971 (Brazil); Bernardez, L.A. [Ingenium Consultoria em Engenharia Ltda (Brazil)

    2011-05-30

    For 33 years, a primary lead smelter operated in Santo Amaro (Brazil). Since the 1970s, large amounts of Pb and Cd have been widely documented in the blood and hair of people living near the smelter. The plant closed down in 1993, and several years later, the Pb levels in the blood of children under 4 years of age living near the smelter were high, where the disposed lead slag was suspected to be the main source of this contamination. The objective of this study is to elucidate the source of the Pb contamination and any other potentially toxic contamination, focusing on the characterization of the slag. The samples used for this characterization study were taken from the slag heaps. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the major constituents of the slag, in decreasing order of wt%, were the following: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (28.10), CaO (23.11), SiO{sub 2} (21.39), ZnO (9.47), MgO (5.44), PbO (4.06), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3.56), C (2.26), MnO (1.44), Na{sub 2}O (0.27), S (0.37), K{sub 2}O (0.26), and TiO{sub 2} (0.25). The Cd content of the slag was 57.3 mg/kg, which is relatively low. The X-ray diffraction and the electron probe microanalyzer X-ray mapping indicated that the major phases in the slag were wuestite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and franklinite. Only spheroidal metallic Pb was found in the slag. The leaching study showed that the slag was stable at a pH greater than 2.8, and only in an extremely acidic environment was the solubilization of the Pb enhanced significantly. The solubilization of Zn was very limited in the acidic and alkaline environments. These results can be explained by the limited leachability of the metallic Pb and Zn-bearing compounds. The leaching study used TCLP, SPLP, and SWEP and indicated that the lead slag was stable in weak acidic environments for short contact times.

  12. The royalties application on President Kennedy city, Espirito Santo, Brazil; A aplicacao dos royalties em Presidente Kennedy, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaak, Fabricio Jose Bassetto; Cardia, Tarik Hajab [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to assemble a study of implementation of royalty in the municipality of President Kennedy - the state of Espirito Santo, showing the disparity between the collection of royalties on oil and quality of infrastructure that the city offers. Based on data the prefecture of the municipality, PNUD and competent bodies, we will show how the money is being used comes from royalties on oil, and what policies the city council's adopting this to apply this feature. (author)

  13. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The State School Santo Dias da Silva

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The State School Santo Dias da Silva receives students from the Fundamental and High-School cycles of the city of São Paulo, in the Interlagos Region, South Zone of the city. It counts with 500 students of the High-School cycle and 800 of the Fundamental cycle. The Virtual Visit to the ATLAS/CERN experiment is an excelent opportunity to motivate the students in the learning of science.

  14. Associação entre tabagismo e paracoccidioidomicose: um estudo de caso-controle no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil Association between smoking and paracoccidioidomycosis: a case-control study in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werbena Aguiar dos Santos

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A paracoccidioidomicose é a principal micose sistêmica em nosso meio, que exige tratamento prolongado, de alto custo, e que deixa seqüelas graves nos pulmões, órgãos mais freqüentemente acometidos e sujeitos ainda às agressões de fatores de risco externos, como o tabaco. Investigou-se, por meio de um estudo caso-controle, a influência do tabagismo e do alcoolismo no desenvolvimento da forma crônica da paracoccidioidomicose. Dados sobre a ocupação, moradia e hábitos de vida foram obtidos de 70 doentes e 180 controles. Os doentes fumavam e bebiam mais que os controles. A chance de adoecer foi 14 vezes maior entre os fumantes e 3,6 vezes maior entre os que bebiam acima de 50g/dia de álcool. Na regressão logística, foram significativas as variáveis consumo de tabaco por mais de 20 anos (OR = 10,1, consumo de cigarros industrializados (OR = 4,8 e consumo de álcool acima de 50g/dia (OR = 2,9. Os doentes que fumavam 20 ou mais cigarros/dia adoeceram em média oito anos antes que os demais (p = 0,002. O consumo de álcool acima de 50g/dia não influenciou na idade de adoecimento (p = 0,78. Conclui-se que o tabagismo constitui fator de risco para o desenvolvimento da paracoccidioidomicose; o alcoolismo atuaria como um co-fator, associado ao tabagismo.Paracoccidioidomycosis, the main systemic mycosis in Brazil, requires long-term, high-cost treatment and leaves serious sequelae in the lungs, the organ most frequently affected and further subject to aggressive external risk factors like smoking. The influence of tobacco and alcohol consumption on chronic paracoccidioidomycosis was investigated using a case-control study. Data on occupation, place of residence, and living habits were obtained from 70 cases and 180 controls residing in the same geographic areas. The risk of becoming ill was 14 times greater among smokers and 3.6 times greater among individuals with an alcohol intake of more than 50g/day. Logistic regression showed as

  15. Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de mamão cultivar 'Golden' sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação e doses de potássio no norte de Espírito Santo Fruit yield and quality of papaya 'Golden' under different irrigation depths and potassium doses in the north of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanise B. Marinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e de doses de potássio sobre a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos do mamoeiro cultivar Golden. O experimento foi realizado em área de produção agrícola comercial, localizada em Linhares - ES. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com arranjo em parcela subdividida, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco lâminas de irrigação, na parcela, e quatro doses de potássio, na subparcela, totalizando 20 tratamentos. As cinco lâminas de irrigação programadas foram de 50; 70; 90; 110 e 130% da ETo, e as quatro doses de potássio foram de 30; 42; 54 e 66 g de K2O por planta ao mês. Os elevados índices pluviométricos no período experimental (fevereiro-2005 a junho-2006 excederam em muito as necessidades hídricas das plantas, interferindo nos tratamentos, não permitindo variação significativa nas variáveis analisadas, principalmente em função das lâminas aplicadas. Durante os 11 meses e 21 dias de colheita, a produtividade média da cultivar Golden foi de 79,4 t ha-1, com média de 96 frutos por planta, que, no estádio I de maturação, apresentavam massa de 404 g, teor médio de SST de 10,11 ºBrix e firmeza da polpa e do fruto de 79,80 N e 126,19 N, respectivamente.This work aimed to study the effects of different irrigation depths and potassium doses on yield and fruit quality of papaya cv Golden. The experiment was carried out in an area of commercial and agricultural production situated in Linhares - ES, Brazil. The design employed was randomized blocks, arranged in subdivided parcels and having three replications. The treatments consisted of five irrigation depths in the parcel and four potassium doses in the subparcel, totalizing 20 treatments. The five programmed irrigation depths were 50; 70; 90; 110 and 130% of the reference evapotranspiration and the four potassium doses were 30; 42; 54

  16. Sedimentary characteristics and their effects on hatching success and incubation duration of Caretta caretta (Testudines: Cheloniidae in Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauana Schneider Fadini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The beaches of Espírito Santo encompass the most important nesting sites of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous research has shown that, unlike other nesting sites in Brazil, Espírito Santo harbors a large percentage of male individuals, which play an important role in maintaining the equilibrium of C. caretta populations in the South Atlantic. During the 2006/2007 reproductive season, four beaches presenting considerable geologic differences were monitored. The sedimentary features of the nesting sites (mineral composition, albedo, and grain size, nesting dates, and clutch sizes were correlated with hatching success and incubation duration. Results show that hatching success is mostly affected by clutch size _ and to a lesser extent, by grain size and albedo. Incubation duration is more sensitive to the characteristics of the nesting site, being affected by nesting date, clutch size, mineral composition, and grain size. However, results from one nesting site cannot be generalized or extended to other sites, because sediment properties are functions of the geological framework of the area and the interaction among environmental variables is far too complex. Our results reveal the importance of protecting areas with large geologic diversity, since sedimentary characteristics may affect incubation duration and embryo survival. Our findings are important in the scope of management activities, as nest transfer may alter nest microenvironment, impacting incubation duration and hatching success.

  17. Youth map of the city of Santo André, Southeastern Brazil: an instrument to read social inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Tatiana; Soares, Cássia Baldini; Minuci, Elaine Garcia; Campos, Célia Maria Sivalli; Trapé, Carla Andrea

    2010-02-01

    To analyze social inequalities in young adults living in an urban area by mapping sociodemographic and economic data. Using data from the 2000 Demographic Census, 57 sociodemographic and economic variables of young adults aged from 15 to 24 years, living in the city of Santo André, Southeastern Brazil, were distributed among 43 areas of statistical data, corresponding to a division of the region into smaller districts. Data from the year 2000 were collected from the Santo André City Hall Department of Socioeconomic Indicators. Using factorial analysis, 13 variables were grouped in two factors - working conditions and life conditions, which distinguished areas that were similar to one another statistically. Cluster analysis of areas was performed, resulting in four social groups. The area that concentrated young adults with higher access to wealth was classified as central and that including individuals with lower access to wealth was classified as peripheral. Two intermediate areas could be identified, one closer to the highest access to wealth ('almost central') and another close to the lowest access to wealth ('almost peripheral'). Discriminating variables were associated with work, migration, level of education, fertility, adolescent's position in the household, presence of spouse or partner, living conditions and assets owned. Differences among social groups revealed important inequalities among young adults who live, study and/or work in the city, which will contribute to the planning of public social policies aimed at these groups.

  18. Applications of radon and radium isotopes to determine submarine groundwater discharge and flushing times in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Vanessa; Attisano, Karina Kammer; de Souza, Marcelo Friederichs Landim; Mazzilli, Barbara; de Oliveira, Joselene; de Araújo Mora, Tamires; Burnett, William C

    2017-08-16

    Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD. A time-series mooring over a tidal cycle at Marina do Bonfim showed a systematic enrichment of the short-lived radium isotopes (223)Ra and (224)Ra during the falling tide. Assuming that the elevated radium isotopes were related to SGD and using measured radium activities from a shallow well at the site, we estimated groundwater seepage at about 70 m(3)/day per unit width of shoreline. Extrapolating to an estimated total shoreline length provided a first approximation of total (fresh + saline) SGD into BTS of 300 m(3)/s, about 3 times the average river discharge into the bay. Just applying the shoreline lengths from areas identified with high radon and reduced salinity results in a lower SGD estimate of 20 m(3)/s. Flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary were estimated at about 3-4 days based on changing radium isotope ratios from low to high salinities. The flushing time for the entire BTS was also attempted using the same approach and resulted in a surprisingly low value of only 6-8 days. Although physical oceanographic models have proposed flushing times on the order of months, a simple tidal prism calculation provided results in the range of 4-7 days, consistent with the radium approach. Based on these initial results, we recommend a strategy for refining both SGD and flushing time estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Archaeometric studies in the Franciscan convent of Santo Antonio - Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Renata L.; Asfora, Viviane K.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Ferreira, Joao Victor C.; Khoury, Helen J. [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Sullasi, Henry S.L. [Department of Archeology, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Rego, Nuno Jose S.; Mello, Jose Aylton C. de [Nucleo de Integracao Social e Pesquisa - NISPE, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the tiles placed on the walls of the Franciscan convent of Santo Antonio (Recife-PE) and to obtain information about the several expansions and structural reforms performed on the convent by dating the bricks. For this purpose, a portable energy dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to characterize the tiles. The dating of the bricks was performed using the Thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The results of the EDXRF analysis show that the dominant component of the white pigment is Lead [2PbCO{sub 3}.Pb (OH){sub 2}], used since the ancient times until the twentieth century, while the dominant element of the blue pigment is Cobalt (CoO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), that has been used from 1807 until nowadays. The TL dating of bricks indicate that there were walls with different periods of construction, being one built around 1765, with a deviation of 28 years, whereas other was built later, around 1874, with a deviation of 15 years. These results provide new data towards understanding how and when the Recife Franciscan Convent of Santo Antonio was designed and built, contributing to other research works presently underway on site. (author)

  20. Tectonics and sedimentation of the central sector of the Santo Onofre rift, north Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fernanda Costa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Santo Onofre Group registers the filling of a Tonian, intracontinental paleo-rift that developed along the northern and central Espinhaço regions. This paper examines this unit in the central Espinhaço region with stratigraphic analysis and U-Pb geochronology, reviewing and dividing into the Canatiba and Rio Peixe Bravo Formations, which include the Barrinha Member. The Canatiba Formation mainly comprises carbon-rich mudstones that were deposited through low-density turbidity flows that alternated with sediment settling under anoxic conditions. The Rio Peixe Bravo Formation consists of a succession of sandstones and minor mudstones, which were deposited through low- to high-density turbidity flows. The Barrinha Member mainly consists of conglomerates and is related to channelized debris flows. Detrital zircon grains show maximum depositional ages of 930 ± 33 Ma and around 865 Ma for the Canatiba and Rio Peixe Bravo Formations, respectively. We interpret the Santo Onofre rifting to be relative younger than that for the Sítio Novo Group and to be a precursor stage of the glacial and post-glacial rift-to-passive margin-related sequences of the Macaúbas Group. The lithostratigraphic term “Macaúbas Supergroup” would be of better use to accommodate the unconformity-bounded Tonian sequences that were related to the Rodinia breakup in the Congo-São Francisco paleocontinent.

  1. Distribution of bovine fasciolosis and associated factors in south Espírito Santo, Brazil: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution and factors associated with bovine fasciolosis in the south of Espírito Santo were updated and the prevalences of this disease and of snails of the genus Lymnaea in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro were calculated. In the first stage, fecal samples were collected from 10% of the herds of 115 farms in 23 municipalities and interviews were conducted with owners. Generalized linear mixed models were used. In the second stage, in Jerônimo Monteiro municipality, feces and mollusks were collected from all farms registered in the milk cooperatives in the region. The mollusks were identified and examined for infection by Fasciola hepatica. Fasciolosis was diagnosed in 18 (78% of the 23 municipalities. Of the 1157 fecal samples examined, 19.01% were positive for eggs of F. hepatica. The final model shows statistical evidence of associations between positive farms and previous cases of fasciolosis and concomitant grazing of cattle with other definitive hosts. In the evaluated farms from the studied municipality the prevalence of fasciolosis and Lymnaea was of 66.7% and 23.8%, respectively. Mollusks were found in flooded areas and the animals' drinking water troughs. The wide geographical distribution of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Espírito Santo requires control measures to prevent its expansion towards the north of this state and other places characterized as F. hepatica free-infection.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HTLV-I/II infection in low-income postpartum and pregnant women in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco para a infecção por HIV, sífilis, hepatite B, hepatite C e HTLV-I/II em parturientes e gestantes de baixa renda atendidas na Região Metropolitana de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Mello de Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy pose a major risk to the fetus due to vertical transmission. The study's objective was to determine the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C, and HTLV-I/II infection among low-income postpartum and pregnant women treated in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and the risk factors associated with these infections. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to October 1999 assessing postpartum and pregnant women from the maternity ward of the Vitória Mercy Hospital and the Carapina Outpatient Referral Unit in the Municipality of Serra, respectively. Patients were systematically interviewed and had blood samples drawn for serological tests (HIV 1&2, VDRL, HbsAg, anti-HCV, and HTLV-I/II. A total of 534 patients (332 postpartum and 202 pregnant women were assessed. Seroprevalence rates for the target infections in postpartum and pregnant women and the overall sample were as follows, respectively: HIV 0.9%, 0%, and 0.6%; syphilis 2.1%, 3.6%, and 2.7%; HBV 1.2%, 1%, and 1.1%; HCV 1.8%, 0.6%, and 1.4%; and HTLV-I/II 1.7%, 0.6%, and 1.3%. Factors associated with the various infections are presented and analyzed in light of other research findings from the literature.A ocorrência de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis durante a gravidez representa risco aumentado de morbidade e mortalidade para o feto e neonato em virtude da transmissão vertical. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a prevalência da infecção por HIV, sífilis, hepatites B e C e por HTLV-I/II em parturientes e gestantes de baixa renda da Região Metropolitana de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, e avaliar fatores de risco associados a essas infecções. Foi realizado estudo de corte transversal de fevereiro a outubro de 1999, avaliando 534 pacientes (332 parturientes e 202 gestantes. Todas as participantes foram submetidas a entrevista semi-estruturada, após a qual foi coletada uma

  3. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (mCSEM) detects hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Santos Basin - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonora, Marco Polo Pereira; Rodrigues, Luiz Felipe [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zerilli, Andrea; Labruzzo, Tiziano [WesternGeco, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) has driven the attention of an increasing number of operators due to its sensitivity to map resistive structures, such as hydrocarbon reservoirs beneath the ocean floor and successful case histories have been reported. The Santos basin mCSEM survey was performed as part of a technical co-operation project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger to assess the integration of selected deep reading electromagnetic technologies into the full cycle of oil field exploration and development. The survey design was based on an in-depth sensitivity study, built on known reservoirs parameters, such as thickness, lateral extent, overburden and resistivities derived from seismic and well data. In this context, the mCSEM data were acquired to calibrate the technology over the area's known reservoirs, quantify the resistivity anomalies associated with those reservoirs, with the expectation that new prospective locations could be found. We show that the mCSEM response of the known reservoirs yields signatures that can be clearly imaged and accurately quantified and there are evident correlations between the mCSEM anomalies and the reservoirs. (author)

  4. Multi-elemental contamination and historic record in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Machado, Wilson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica; Matos, Rosa H.R. E-mail: wanilson@ige.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper records for the first time the contamination history and identifies the sources of 38 elements in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System (SE Brazil), at one of the most industrialized areas in Latin America. The compositions of samples from a 260 cm long sediment core collected in the Morrao River estuary were determined by ICP-MS. Enrichment factors, principal component analysis, correlation matrixes, and the characterization of geochemical signatures permitted a consistent data evaluation. Contaminant elements such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, and Bi were associated with steel plant-derived Fe concentrations, while Be, Ca, Sc, Co, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U were associated with fertilizer industry-derived P concentrations. An overlap of sedimentary Fe distribution and local steel plant production indicated that Fe is a reliable marker of the contamination history, allowing the estimation of sedimentation rates over a period of 45 years of industrial activities. (author)

  5. Individual determinants of fish choosing in open-air street markets from Santo André, SP/Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Juliana Parreira; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Pinheiro, Sonia Regina; de Oliveira, Thaís Helena Nishikata; Ribeiro, Naassom Almeida Souza; Martins, Cassia Neves; Porfírio, Bruno Augusti; Sanches, Sandra Abelardo; de Souza, Orlando Bispo; Telles, Evelise Oliveira; Balian, Simone de Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of fish consumption in the population that attends open-air street markets in the city of Santo André, SP, Brazil.We performed a survey, covering approximately 482 people in 49 street markets.It consisted of free-answer questions, half open choice and half multiple-choice options, for the identification and evaluation of socioeconomic factors that facilitate and hinder fish consumption.A descriptive analysis of the data and further tests were used to determine the association between variables and linearity with consumption, with a significance level of 5%. The most commonly cited types of fish consumed were hake, sardine and dogfish. The factors that facilitate the purchase and consumption of fish are listed as follows: a preference for purchasing fish at street markets, appearance, firmness, fresh presentation, frozen presentation, as well as the respondent's education and individual monthly income. Limiting factors were identified as the price and the presence of spines. Perishability, odour, ethnicity, proximity to points of sale of residence and work, gender, age, number of people in the household, presence of children and acquisition supermarket were not characteristics that influenced decisions about fish consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter in surface sediments of an estuary under petroleum activity influence, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Almeida, Marcos; Escobar, Narayana C F; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Mortatti, Jefferson; Queiroz, Antônio F S

    2017-06-30

    The present study evaluated the origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the organic matter (OM) in the surface sediment of the São Paulo River estuary, Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazil. The samples were collected in the rainy (CP1) and the dry (CP2) seasons. We analyzed the 16 PAHs from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), and stable carbon isotope (δ13C). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 11.45±1.28 to 1825.35±107.96ngg-1, while TOC ranged from 3.8 to 27.7gkg-1. CP1 showed the highest concentrations for all parameters. The δ13C ratio indicated terrigenous OM (-23.81 to -26.63‰). The TOC/N ratio (C/N) indicated transitional OM (12.32 to 24.39), in addition to the continental origin. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs origin revealed only pyrolytic source, although close to areas with a history of petroleum contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTI- Toxocara ANTIBODIES IN A RANDOM SAMPLE OF INPATIENTS AT A CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL IN VITÓRIA, ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F. MOREIRA-SILVA

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In the streets of Vitória, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, are large number of stray dogs, many of which are infected with Toxocara canis, suggesting a high risk for human infection. In order to investigate the prevalence of Toxocara infection in children in Espírito Santo we studied the prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 100 random inpatients over one year of age, at the Children's Hospital N.S. da Glória, the reference children's hospital for the State.All the sera were collected during the period between October 1996 and January 1997. The mean age was 6.6±4.1 yrs. (1 to 14 yrs., median 6yrs. and there were patients from all of the different wards of the hospital. Sixty-eigth patients came from the metropolitan area of Vitória and the other 32 from 17 other municipalities. The anti-Toxocara antibodies were investigated by ELISA-IgG using a secretory-excretory antigen obtained from second stage larvae. All sera were adsorbed with Ascaris suum antigen before the test. Thirty-nine sera (39% were positive, predominantly from boys, but the gender difference was not statistically significant (boys:25/56 or 44.6%; girls:14/44 or 31.8%; p=0.311. The prevalence of positive sera was higher, but not statistically significant, in children from the urban periphery of metropolitan Vitória (formed by the cities of Vitória, Cariacica, Vila Velha, Serra and Viana than in children from 17 other municipalities (44.1% and 28.1% respectively, p=0.190. Although the samples studied do not represent all children living in the State of Espírito Santo, since the Children's Hospital N.S. da Glória admits only patients from the state health system, it is probable that these results indicate a high frequency of Toxocara infection in children living in Espírito Santo. Further studies of population samples are necessary to ascertain the prevalence of Toxocara infection in our country.Em Vitória é grande o número de cães soltos nas ruas, muitos

  8. CUTANEOUS TUBERCULOSIS: A 26-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF TUBERCULOSIS, VITÓRIA, ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla SPELTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Background: Tuberculosis is a serious health problem in Brazil so that the knowledge on the aspects of cutaneous tuberculosis is medically important. Objective: To assess the characteristics of patients with cutaneous tuberculosis treated at the Cassiano Antonio Moraes University Hospital, located in the city of Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study using the medical records of 29 patients with cutaneous tuberculosis treated at the Dermatology and Pulmonology services of the hospital from 1986 to 2011. The inclusion criterion was the confirmation of cutaneous tuberculosis taking into account clinical, epidemiological, immunological, and bacteriological findings, as well as the response to specific treatment. Results: Of the 29 studied patients; 18 (62% were women with average age of 37 years; the predominant clinical condition was erythema induratum of Bazin in 12 (41.4% cases; and the cutaneous lesions were in the lower limbs in 19 (65.8% patients. Extra-cutaneous involvement occurred in eight (27.6% cases. The tuberculin tests were positive in 15 (79% individuals and the assessment of the infectious agent was negative in most of the investigated cases. Conclusion: The study found a low frequency (0.44% of cutaneous tuberculosis in an endemic area of tuberculosis. There was a predominance of infection in women aged thirty to forty years. Erythema induratum was the most common clinical condition, affecting mainly the lower limbs, in contrast to other Brazilian studies that found scrofuloderma as the most common manifestation, predominating in the cervical region of male children and adolescents.

  9. COSTS AND PROFITABILITIES IN THE ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION VEGETABLES IN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE

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    Jacimar Luis de Souza

    2013-07-01

    various components of their costs of production. We used a database of 20 years, from 1990 to 2009, of the Reference Area in Agroecology in the INCAPER, located in the Domingos Martins City, Espírito Santo State. The organic system confirmed large economic viability, with average production cost per hectare 8% lower than the average conventional vegetables. Spending on hand labor was slightly lower in the organic system and proved to be the component of greater participation in the costs of both production systems. The organic squash, strawberries, cabbage and tomato showed lower costs than conventional systems. Conventional systems produce garlic, potatoes and okra showed lower costs than organic systems. Crops of carrots, peppers and yam have similar costs in organic and conventional systems. All vegetable crops in organic farming showed higher net revenues to the conventional, with ratios ranging from 1.1 for strawberry until 28.4 for cabbage.

  10. Composição Florística do estrato arbóreo da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual na Planície Aluvial do rio Doce, Linhares, ES, Brasil Floristic composition of the tree layer in Atlantic forest on the rio Doce alluvial floodplain, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Samir Gonçalves Rolim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a flora de espécies arbóreas e palmeiras na floresta estacional semidecidual na planície aluvial do rio Doce, uma área de cerca de 20.000 ha, a partir de Linhares (ES até próximo à foz no oceano atlântico. Foram determinadas 408 espécies (27 classificadas em gênero e 59 famílias, entre arbóreas e palmeiras. Por meio da análise de agrupamento, foi evidenciado que a floresta do rio Doce é muito semelhante floristicamente à floresta estacional dos tabuleiros terciários, que estas se agrupam com as florestas estacionais do rio Doce em MG e que, por sua vez, todas estas se agrupam com as florestas ombrófilas do sul da Bahia, sendo o conjunto nitidamente separado das outras formações ombrófilas costeiras. Foram encontradas dezenas de espécies deocorrência restrita ou pouco frequentes em levantamentos na floresta atlântica, enfatizando a importância da área para conservação da biodiversidade. Pelo fato das matas de cacau na região abrangerem mais de 80% dessa área, sugere-se a delimitação de uma Área de Proteção Ambiental, que permita conciliar o cultivo do cacau com a proteção da biodiversidade.The tree and palm flora was studied in the Atlantic forest of the rio Doce alluvial floodplain, in a 20,000ha area, between Linhares (Espírito Santo State and the Atlantic Ocean. The floristic survey recorded 408 species and 59 families. Floristic composition was compared to other forests of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro states using cluster analysis. The forest flora of the study area was most similar to that of forests in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Bahia. Dozens of species in the study area are restricted and rare in Atlantic forest; this area deserves special attention for biodiversity conservation. The Brazilian government should pay heed to the biological importance of this area and declare it an Environmental Protection Area, a type of conservation unit where

  11. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

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    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  12. Os Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes da Baía de Santos (SP, Brasil Scianed fishes (Teleostel: Perciformes from Baía de Santos (SP, Brazil

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    Roberto Giannini

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available A fim de se determinar os padrões de distribuição e de repartição temporal e espacial das espécies de peixes da família Sciaenidae na Baía de Santos, foram efetuadas amostras mensais diurnas com arrastos de praia e de fundo, de março de 1985 a maio de 1986. O estudo foi baseado na comparação das variações espaciais e temporais da ocorrência e abundância e na análise da influência de parâmetros ambientais. Vinte espécies de cienídeos foram coletadas na região, todas ocorrendo nos arrastos de fundo e nove nos arrastos de praia. Dentre essas, Stelliferrastrifer, Isopisthus parvipinnis, Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Micropogonias fumieri, Stellifer brasiliensis, Menticirrhus americanus e Menticirrhus littoralis, estiveram presentes durante todo o período, contribuindo com mais de 90 % do total capturado na Baía de Santos e região de praias adjacentes. A coexistência dessas espécies foi possível devido à alternância das ocorrências e dos picos de abundância em função das épocas do ano, da área de amostragem e da variação da temperatura e salinidade da água. S. rastrifer ocorreu preferencialmente nos arrastos de fundo, no inverno, em águas frias e de profundidade e salinidade medianas e em todos os setores de amostragem. I. parvipinnis, P brasiliensis e S. brasiliensis ocorreram preferencialmente nos arrastos de fundo, no inverno, primavera e outono, respectivamente, em águas frias, profundas e mais salinas e nos setores mais externos. M. furnieri e M. americanus ocorreram nos arrastos de fundo e de praia e, preferencialmente, no verão, em águas quentes, rasas e menos salinas e nos setores mais internos. M. littoralis ocorreu preferencialmente nos arrastos de praia, no inverno, em águas frias e em todas as estações de amostragem.The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence and the spatial partitioning of the most abundant juvenile sciaenid fishes in the Bay of Santos, based upon the variability in

  13. Nannoplankton Assemblage Succession Throughout Cretaceous/ Tertiary Boundary in the “P” Well Section, Santos Basin, Brazil

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    Panuju Panuju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.115The massive change in calcareous nannoplankton assemblages throughout Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T boundary (65.5 M.a. has been illustrated by several authors. The diverse and abundant assemblage disappears suddenly above the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. This event is related to the most dramatic environmental changes in the Earth's history due to the catastrophic events, those are meteorite impact (Chicxulub and supervolcano eruption (Deccan occurring at the end of Cretaceous. The succeeding age was a time of rapid evolution of nannoplankton during Paleocene. A quantitative method analysis of nannoplankton throughout Maastrichtian to Paleocene of “P” well section, Santos Basin, Brazil, indicated that the nannoplankton assemblages abruptly decrease in diversity and abundance and mostly change in species composition. The various complex shapes of species at Maastrichtian also underwent changing to simple plain shapes and small at Paleocene. The sedimentary section ranges from the top of zone CC23 (Coccolith Cretaceous 23 to NP9 (Nannoplankton Paleogen 9. It is bounded by the Last Occurrence (LO of Tranolithus pachelosus at the base and Fasciculithus tympaniformis at the top. The biostratigraphic discontinuity characterized by the absence of zone CC26 to NP4 is an indicator for the presence of an unconformity at K/T boundary within analyzed section. The Cretaceous nannoplankton assemblages are dominated by Genera Watznaueria, Micula, Arkhangelskiella, Cribrosphaerella, Eiffellithus, Predicosphaera, and Retecapsa, whilst the Paleocene assemblages are dominated by Genera Toweius, Ericsonia, and Coccolithus. Survivor Cretaceous species recovered into Tertiary sediments consist of Braarudosphaera bigelowii, Biscutum melaniae, Neocrepidolithus neocrassus, Placozygus sigmoides, Cyclagelosaphaera reinhardtii, Markalius inversus, and Scapolithus fossilis.

  14. Características estruturais de bosques de mangue do estuário do rio São Mateus, ES, Brasil Structural characteristics of the mangrove forests at São Mateus River Estuary, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Maria Amélia Bonfante da Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da vegetação do manguezal do estuário do rio São Mateus foi analisada pelo método de parcelas em quatro sítios de estudo. Nesse manguezal, foram registradas as espécies Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Avicennia schaueriana Stapft & Leechm., Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. e Rhizophora mangle L. Considerando todas as parcelas, o DAP médio variou de 8,12 a 29,6 cm, a altura média de 5,4 a 12,0 m, a área basal de 7,21 a 31,1 m².ha-1 e a densidade de 450 a 1.450 ind.ha-1. Os sítios de estudo sob maior influência das marés apresentaram menor desenvolvimento estrutural e dominância de R. mangle, enquanto que o melhor desenvolvimento estrutural, com dominância de L. racemosa e A. germinans, foi observado nos sítios sujeitos ao maior aporte de ��gua doce. Os resultados demonstraram que o manguezal do estuário do rio São Mateus apresenta bom desenvolvimento estrutural em relação a outros manguezais do Estado do Espírito Santo.The structure of the mangrove forests at São Mateus River Estuary was analyzed using the plot method. Mangrove species at the estuary are Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Avicennia schaueriana Stapft & Leechm., Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn., and Rhizophora mangle L. Structural analyzes were performed in four sites. In all stands, the DBH varied from 8.12 to 29.6 cm, average height from 5.4 to 12.0 m, the basal area from 7.21 to 31.1 m².ha-1, and the density from 450 a 1,450 ind.ha-1. Sites under larger influence of the tides, presented smaller structural development and dominance of R. mangle. L. racemosa and A. germinans were dominant in sites with fresh water predominance. The results obtained demonstrated that mangrove which was studied presented a good structural development in relation to other mangroves located in the Espírito Santo State.

  15. Hospitalization due to norovirus and genotypes of rotavirus in pediatric patients, state of Espírito Santo

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    Leandro Rua Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the leading cause for hospitalization due to gastroenteritis worldwide. Group A rotaviruses (RV are the most prevalent and are assorted in glycoproteins (G and protease sensitive (P dual genotypes based on polymorphic genes that encode the external VP7 and VP4 capsid proteins, respectively. Noroviruses (NoV have increasingly answered by sporadic gastroenteritis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV and RV in 68 hospitalized children, between July 2004 and November 2006, at a pediatric hospital in Vitória city, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. Nucleic acid was extracted from fecal suspension following the guanidine-silica procedure. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were employed for NoV and RV detection, respectively. RV genotyping was accomplished using RT-PCR followed by heminested multiplex PCR with specific primers for the most prevalent types of G and P. Fecal samples were positive for NoV and RV in 39.7% (27/68 and 20.5% (14/68, respectively and together were responsible for 60% (41/68 of the cases. RV genotypes were: 50% G9P[8], 28.7% G2P[4], 7.1% G1P[8], G2P[8] and G?P[8]. Vomit was a prominent manifestation observed in 92% and 85% of the NoV and RV cases, respectively. The median hospitalization was 5 and 5.5 days for the patients infected with NoV and RV, respectively. The data showed that NoV prevailed over RV and it also corroborated the emergence of RV G9 genotype followed by G2P[4], reinforcing the need for RV genotype surveillance.

  16. Impacto dos Royalties do Petróleo no PIB Per Capita dos Municípios do Estado do Espírito Santo, BrasilOil Royalties Effects on the Per Capita GDP in the cities of Espirito Santo, BrazilEl Impacto de los Royalties del Petróleo en el PIB Per Capita de los Municipios del Estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    RIBEIRO, Edivan Guidote

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIdentificar os impactos que a política pública provoca na economia é essencial para a sua formulação e para o direcionamento da aplicação dos recursos financeiros auferidos pelo Estado. Este trabalho estuda a política pública brasileira de royalties de petróleo e gás natural e tem como objetivo identificar os efeitos das receitas de royalties dos governos municipais do Estado do Espírito Santo, no PIB per capita dos respectivos municípios. Os dados utilizados neste estudo correspondem aos 78 municípios de que se compõe o Estado, entre os anos de 1999 e 2004. Por meio de um modelo estatístico de dados em painel equilibrado, procedeu-se à estimação do modelo para sua efetiva análise. Os resultados mostraram que não há evidências dos impactos dessas políticas no PIB per capita nos municípios do Espírito Santo.ABSTRACTThe identification of the economical effects of public policies is essential for the formulation of such policies, as well as for the adequate allocation of the financial resources obtained by the government. The present work studies the Brazilian public policies regarding oil and natural gas royalties. Its main goal is to uncover the effects of royalties’ revenues on the per capita GDP at the city level in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The data correspond to the 78 cities comprising the Brazilian state, from 1999 to 2004. An econometric model, using balanced panel data, was used to estimate the effects. The results indicate that there is no evidence of impact of these public policies on the per capita GDP of the cities of Espirito Santo.RESUMENLa identificación de los impactos que la política pública produce en la economía es esencial para su formulación y para orientar la aplicación de los recursos financieros obtenidos por el estado. Este trabajo estudia la política pública brasileña de los royalties del petróleo y del gas natural y tiene la finalidad de identificar los efectos del

  17. Effects of dredging operations on sediment quality. Contaminant mobilization in dredged sediments from the Port of Santos, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ronaldo J.; Santos, Fernando C.; Mozeto, Antonio A. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica Ambiental, Dept. de Quimica, Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abessa, Denis M.S.; Maranho, Luciane A.; Davanso, Marcela B. [Campus Experimental do Litoral Paulista, UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista ' Julio de Mesquita Filho' , Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do [Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC), CNEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, MG (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Background, aim, and scope Contaminated sediments are a worldwide problem, and mobilization of contaminants is one of the most critical issues in environmental risk assessment insofar as dredging projects are concerned. The investigation of how toxic compounds are mobilized during dredging operations in the channel of the Port of Santos, Brazil, was conducted in an attempt to assess changes in the bioavailability and toxicity of these contaminants. Materials and methods Bulk sediment samples and their interstitial waters and elutriates were subjected to chemical evaluation and ecotoxicological assessment. Samples were collected from the channel before dredging, from the dredge's hopper, and from the disposal site and its surroundings. Results The results indicate that the bulk sediments from the dredging site are contaminated moderately with As, Pb, and Zn and severely with Hg, and that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations are relatively high. Our results also show a 50% increase in PAH concentrations in suspended solids in the water collected from the hopper dredge. This finding is of great concern, since it refers to the dredge overflow water which is pumped back into the ecosystem. Acute toxicity tests on bulk sediment using the amphipod Tiburonella viscana showed no toxicity, while chronic tests with the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus showed toxicity in the interstitial waters and elutriates. Results are compared with widely used sediment quality guidelines and with a sediment quality assessment scheme based on various lines of evidence. Conclusions The data presented here indicate that the sediments collected in this port show a certain degree of contamination, especially those from the inner part of the channel. The classification established in this study indicated that sediments from the dredged channel are impacted detrimentally and that sea disposal may disperse contaminants. According to this classification, the sediments are

  18. Evaluation of the potential of water aquifers located in the field of production of Fazenda Alegre, in the municipality of Jaguare, northern state of Espirito Santo, Brazil: a new horizon for the rational and sustainable use of groundwater by the local community; Avaliacao do potencial hidrico dos aquiferos situados no campo de producao de Fazenda Alegre, no municipio de Jaguare, norte do estado do Espirito Santo, Brasil: um novo horizonte para o uso racional e sustentado da agua subterranea pela comunidade local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Claudio A.; Rodriguez, Sergio G.H. [PETROBRAS, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio

    2004-07-01

    Petroleo Brasileiro S.A - PETROBRAS, through Espirito Santo Business Unit, has been intensifying the utilization of underwater on its onshore production activities, where the utilization of water or steam injection techniques on the reservoir rock become necessary, aiming at supplemental hydrocarbons recovery in the mature fields or heavy oil fields, such as Fazenda Alegre field. The hydrogeologic study of the groundwater potential appears as a tool capable to improve the planning and utilization of the hydro resources of the region. The main tool used was the geophysics investigation of electric resistivity technique able to investigate aquifers as deep as 200 m. The drilling of the first wells selected proves the expectations according to the groundwater potential resources of the area. The maximum rate water obtained before that was about 30 m{sup 3}/h. Considering deeper wells (180 m), which incorporate news aquifers, it practically doubles, achieving values in a set of 60 m{sup 3}/h. The characterization of these recent discoveries/aquifers is a sign of news horizons for the local society, especially concerning the possibility of giving support in agricultural projects and rural communities supply concomitant with the process of petroleum projects expected in Fazenda Alegre helping thus, the sustainable development in the areas surrounding the project. (author)

  19. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

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    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  20. Presence of infection and analysis of HPV subtypes in girls younger than 9 years old attended at a referral service in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Mariana P D N; Agostini, Lidiane P; Tovar, Thaís T; Reis, Raquel S; Dettogni, Raquel S; Dos Santos, Eldamária de V W; Filho, Antônio C; Louro, Iúri D

    2017-11-16

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in adults and adolescents and is associated with genital warts and cervical cancer. However, it has been detected in girls younger than 10 years old. Currently, there are no prevention methods for this age group, since it is not considered a risk group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infection and HPV subtype in girls under 9 years old attended at a referral service in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Forty-three girls younger than 9 years old had gynecological brush samples collected from vulval and perineal/anal regions. Viral detection and subtyping were done using polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Statistics was performed using Action Stat 3.1. The mean age of girls was 6.1 years. Sexual activity and abuse were not reported by 95.3%. Family stories showed viral infection in 9.3% of mothers, 4.7% of fathers and 9.3% of caretakers. None of these were related with the children infection. In the only case of mother's gestational HPV infection, the daughter tested negative. Genital warts and infection were observed in 7% and 13.9% of the patients, respectively. Viral subtypes detected were 6, 11, 38, and 42. These results demonstrate the presence of HPV infection in girls under 9 years of age. Prevalence studies are needed in order to evaluate a possible alteration in age of vaccination policy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Eocene slope and basin depositional systems in the Santos Basin, SP, Brazil; Sistemas deposicionais de talude e de bacia no Eoceno da Bacia de Santos

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    Moreira, Jobel Lourenco Pinheiro [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao. Polo Norte]. E-mail: jobel@petrobras.com.br; Carminatti, Mario

    2004-05-01

    The study of deposits originated by sedimentary gravity flows in continental margin basins has systematically underrated the local stratigraphic context. In consequence, some types of terrigenous depositional systems, from both shallow and deep waters, are improperly described as turbidity deposits. In the same way, sand/shale maps have been elaborated for sedimentary gravity flow deposits without considering their depositional environment. This fact provides incorrect information about reservoir behaviour and seal rock distribution, with possible prejudice to geological interpretation for petroleum exploration and production. Sedimentary gravity flows form the main deposits in the slope-basin of the lower-middle Eocene depositional sequences to the N of the Santos Basin. The objective of this study is the stratigraphic characterization of the the main elements of the depositional systems that occur in the Eocene section of the study area on the basis of sequence stratigraphy. As a result, two distinct systems of terrigenous deposits formed by sedimentary gravity flows on a single 3 rd order depositional sequence are defined: A Sandy System and a Muddy System. The Sandy System, deposited during periods of sea level fall, was formed by autochthonous sediments of gravity flows originated by fluvial floods. It is characterized by the following depositional elements: fluvial channels, canyons, submarine channels and basin sandy fans. These sandstone reservoirs have generally high porosity and permeability. A Muddy System, deposited under high-stand sea level conditions, and formed by gravity flows caused by autochthonous sediment slides, can be recognized by the following depositional elements: shelf-margin delta, steep erosional surfaces, accretion wedges and chaotic matrix-supported conglomerate beds. Such conglomerate beds have low permeability and form poor quality reservoirs. The hemi pelagic sediments of the late transgressive sea level phase, when preserved from

  2. Surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brasil An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Canoa, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonise Follador

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Em 1993, um surto leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA foi detectado no povoado rural de Canoa, município de Santo Amaro, Bahia. Um estudo observacional prospectivo delineou-se, com objetivo de determinar as taxas de freqüência e caracterizar clinicamente a doença. Foram acompanhados 555 indivíduos, registrando-se 29 casos de LTA, 11 casos sugestivos de LTA pregressa e 529 sadios. Desses 529 sadios, 65 apresentaram reação de Montenegro positiva sem qualquer evidência presente ou passada de doença. A prevalência de LTA no período de estudo foi de 5,2% (29/555. A leishmania envolvida foi caracterizada como Leishmania braziliensis e o vetor, Lutzomyia intermedia. Foram detectados cães e equídeos infectados por leishmania O acometimento de crianças menores de 10 anos, o acometimento igual entre os sexos e um componente de agregação familiar sugerem um padrão de transmissão peri ou intradomiciliar.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was detected in the village of Canoa in 1993. A prospective observational study was outlined to determine the frequency rates and to clinically characterize the disease. A total of 555 people were followed up. There were 29 cases of ACL, 11 cases of probably previous ACL (scars and 529 healthy individuals. Of these 529 individuals, 65 had a positive Montenegro reaction without any present or past evidence of leishmaniasis. The prevalence of ACL during the two years was 5.2% (29/555. The leishmania involved was Leishmania braziliensis and the vector, Lutzomyia intermedia. Evidence of infection was detected in dogs and horses. The high frequency of the disease among children under ten years, the similar sex distribution of cases and a component of familial aggregation suggest a peri- or intra-domiciliary transmission.

  3. Preços de commodities e nível de atividade em uma pequena economia aberta: evidências empíricas para o estado do Espírito Santo Commodity prices and activity level in a small open economy: empirical evidence for the State of Espírito Santo

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    Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    's economy compared to the national economy and other Brazilian states will also be measured. The results obtained reveal five distinct empirical patterns: (i given the state's high degree of openness, the impacts of commodity price fluctuations tend to be stronger when compared to Brazil and other Brazilian States; (ii Granger-causality test results show that commodity prices precede output levels both in the case of the State and the country; (iii a similar result occurs when a broad set of economic variables related to the State of Espírito Santo are considered; (iv a positive shock to commodity prices causes output to initially rise , followed by a contraction, with this variable displaying a permanently higher level in the long run; (v variance decomposition results show that, on average, the quantitative impacts of commodity price shocks are larger in the case of the State than the country. The results obtained are robust with regards to several specification issues, such as different stationary transformations of data, as well as distinct number of lags employed in Granger-causality tests. These results are important in the sense of providing a better understanding of the effects of commodity price variations on a small, open economy, as seems to be the case for the State of Espírito Santo.

  4. Profile of skin cancer in Pomeranian communities of the State of Espírito Santo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Patrícia Henriques Lyra; Duque, Danilo Schwab; Pinto, Estanrley Barcelos; Dalvi, Giulia Cerutti; Madalon, Sammy Zogheib; Nunes, Tarcizo Afonso; DE-Vargas, Paulo Roberto Merçon

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the profile of skin cancer in Pomeranian communities of the State of Espírito Santo, composed of descendants of European immigrants, regarding gender and age at diagnosis, lesion size and histological type. we studied histopathological reports of 3,781 patients operated between 2000 and 2010, with resection of 4,881 lesions. We assessed histological type, lesion size, age and gender of the patients at diagnosis and their correlations in the 11-year period. the histopathological examination revealed basal cell carcinoma in 3,159 patients (83.5%), squamous cell carcinoma in 415 (11%), melanoma in 64 (1.7%), and 143 patients (3.8%) had combined lesions of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. As to size, 47.1% measured between 5.1 and 10mm. The age group of 61 to 70 years was the one that sustained the largest number of surgical interventions (24.3%). There was a predominance of the female gender (2,027, 53.6%) in relation to the male (1,754, 46.4%). basal cell carcinoma was the most frequent histological type. The prevalences of squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma were below the national estimate of the National Cancer Institute. The diagnosis of tumors occurred at more advanced ages (above 60 years) and there was an increase in the incidence and size of skin tumors in the male population. avaliar o panorama do câncer de pele em comunidades pomeranas do Estado do Espírito Santo, compostas por descendentes de imigrantes europeus, quanto ao sexo e idade ao diagnóstico, tamanho da lesão e tipo histológico. foram avaliados laudos histopatológicos de 3781 pacientes operados entre os anos de 2000 e 2010, com ressecção de 4881 lesões. Foram avaliados tipo histológico, tamanho das lesões, idade e sexo dos pacientes ao diagnóstico e suas correlações no período de 11 anos. o exame histopatológico evidenciou carcinoma basocelular em 3159 pacientes (83,5%), carcinoma espinocelular em 415 (11%), melanoma em 64 (1,7%) e 143 pacientes (3

  5. Saúde sexual e reprodutiva em penitenciária feminina, Espírito Santo, Brasil Sexual and reproductive health of female inmates in Brazil

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    Angélica Espinosa Miranda

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar o perfil sociodemográfico e as condições de saúde das mulheres encarceradas em penitenciária feminina. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo descritivo de março a setembro de 1997, em penitenciária feminina do Estado do Espírito Santo. Todas as presidiárias foram convidadas a participar da pesquisa. Participaram 121 mulheres com idade superior a 18 anos, avaliadas por meio de entrevista aplicada, explorando informações sociodemográficas, clínicas e criminais, registradas em questionário estruturado, seguida de exame clínico-ginecológico. RESULTADOS: Um total de 121 mulheres foram incluídas. A média de idade das participantes foi de 30,2 anos (DP 8,98 e de escolaridade, 4,8 anos (DP 3,50. Todas já haviam tido atividade sexual pregressa; a idade média do primeiro coito foi de 15,2 anos (DP 2,55, variando de nove a 27 anos; e 28% apresentavam história de doença sexualmente transmissível (DST. Doze (9,9% mulheres estavam grávidas no momento da entrevista. História de gravidez na adolescência foi freqüente. A maioria não adotava nenhum método contraceptivo e nem fazia uso de preservativos. Laqueadura tubária foi observada em 19,8% e citologia cervical anormal em 26,9%. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento sobre problemas de saúde existentes dentro do sistema carcerário pode contribuir para fortalecer e ampliar o papel de reabilitação que lhe é conferido. Entretanto, somente a cooperação entre os órgãos de saúde pública e o sistema penitenciário pode produzir resultados eficientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociodemographic profile and health problems of inmates in a women's prison. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted from March to September 1997 in a women's prison in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. All inmates were invited to participate in the study. A total of 121 women aged more than 18 years were interviewed. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographics

  6. COMPETITION FOR SPACE BETWEEN FISHING AND EXPLORATORY OIL DRILLING, OBSERVED FROM A DRILLING PLATFORM IN THE ESPIRITO SANTO BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Alessandra Coutinho Thomé da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fishing and oil drilling compete for space in some regions off the Brazilian coast. Fish congregate around drilling platforms, which attracts fishing vessels that may illegally breach the 500 m safety perimeter. The objective of this study was to identify the fleets that frequent the safety zone of a platform and their behavior and to determine if there was a seasonal relationship in this interaction, during two exploration campaigns, in different periods, carried out on the "Ocean Star" platform in the Espírito Santo Basin. The results indicated a high incidence of artisanal fishing vessels inside the prohibited area, and of uncooperative behavior on the part of the boat crews. The statistical method of Factorial Correspondence Analysis distinguished vessels that were using pelagic longlines to fish for dolphinfish, registered in the state of Espírito Santo and longer than 11 m, which operated during the summer campaign. Vessels fishing for scombrids, which were less than 11 m long and registered outside Espírito Santo, were prominent in the autumn-winter campaign. In conclusion, the data showed that the fleets involved in each exploratory campaign were different, but to determine the real reason why the boats insist on frequenting the area close to the platform further study is necessary.

  7. Characterization of organic matter in sediment cores of the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, by elemental analysis and 13C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A B; Novotny, E H; Bloise, A C; de Azevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Zucchi, M R; Santos, V L C S; Azevedo, A E G

    2011-08-01

    The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by elemental analysis and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions of Todos os Santos Bay. The elemental profiles of cores collected on the eastern side of Frades Island suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) analysis corroborates this result. The range of depths of the cores corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects in the region. Principal Component Analysis of the 13C NMR spectra clearly differentiates sediment samples closer to the Subaé estuary, which have high contents of terrestrial organic matter, from those closer to a local oil refinery. The results presented in this article illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vin Santo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domizio, Paola; Lencioni, Livio

    2011-01-01

    Vin Santo is the typical dessert wine produced in Tuscany, in particular, and in other areas of central and northern Italy, as well as on the Greek island of Santorini. It remains one of the most important "meditation wines", whose glamour starts with its ancient and mysterious origin. Italy is the country with the World's greatest tradition for sweet wine production. In this contest most of the steps in the Vin Santo making process are still linked to old local traditions. This chapter provides an overview of the different styles of Vin Santo produced in Italy together with its marketing. The main factors affecting grapes drying, alcoholic fermentation, maturation in barrels, are also described. So far there have been few scientific studies that have focused on Vin Santo. However, the increasing demand registered in the last few years for this kind of wine, is now greatly stimulating the research aimed to better manage its peculiar production process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae from Acanthamoeba and Naegleria genera in non-hospital, public, internal environments from the city of Santos, Brazil

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    Lais Helena Teixeira

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species are free-living amoebae (FLA found in a large variety of natural habitats. The prevalence of such amoebae was determined from dust samples taken from public non-hospital internal environments with good standards of cleanliness from two campuses of the same University in the city of Santos (SP, Brazil, and where young and apparently healthy people circulate. The frequency of free-living amoebae in both campuseswas 39% and 17% respectively, with predominance of the genus Acanthamoeba. On the campus with a much larger number of circulating individuals, the observed frequency of free-living amoebae was 2.29 times larger (P< 0.00005. Two trophozoite forms of Naegleria fowleri, are the only species of this genus known to cause primary amoebian meningoencephalitis, a rare and non-opportunistic infection. We assume that the high frequency of these organisms in different internal locations represents some kind of public health risk.

  10. Insect galls from Atlantic Forest areas of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil: characterization and occurrence

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Galhas de insetos de areas de Mata Atlântica de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil: caracterização e ocorrência. Três áreas protegidas de Mata atlântica foram investigadas em  Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, de junho de 2007 a agosto de 2009: Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi e Parque Natural Municipal São Lourenço. A vegetação local foi examinada à procura de galhas de insetos. Foram encontrados 265 morfotipos de galhas em 141 espécies de plantas (104 gêneros e 49 famílias. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae e Rubiaceae foram as famílias de planta com maior riqueza de galhas. Os gêneros super-hospedeiros foram Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae, Myrcia DC. ex. Guill. (Myrtaceae e Inga Mill. (Fabaceae. A espécie super-hospedeira foi Guapira opposita (Vell. Reitz. (Nyctaginaceae. As galhas foram encontradas em folhas, caules, botões, raízes e gavinhas. As folhas foram o órgão vegetal mais galhado, seguidas pelos caules e botões. Os indutores pertencem a quatro ordens de insetos: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera e Thysanoptera, sendo Cecidomyiidae (Diptera os mais frequentes e diversificados galhadores. Inquilinos foram obtidos de seis morfotipos de galhas, estando representados por Cecidomyiidae and Muscomorpha. Nove species galhadoras são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado do Espírito Santo, e Cordiamyia globosa Maia, 1996 é assinalada pela primeira vez para o município de Santa Teresa. O presente estudo indica Santa Teresa (ES como a área de Mata Atlântica com maior riqueza de galhas de insetos.

  11. First record of Stygnidae for the state of Espírito Santo and description of a new Protimesius (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores Primeiro registro de Stygnidae para o estado do Espírito Santo e descrição de um novo Protimesius (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores

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    Adriano B. Kury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Protimesius osvaldoi sp. nov. is described from the Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, being the first record of Stygnidae from this State and the southernmost record of the family in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (hitherto, the family was recorded down to Bahia only, extending in 210 km south of the previously known distribution. This is a large species, with armature of leg IV very reduced and penial morphology differing from the closest counterparts mainly in the ventral plate, which recedes deeply at the lateral borders and has the distal margin curved ventrally and by the presence of two small intermediate setae. Protimesius Roewer, 1913 consisted hitherto of 17 species, recorded from northern/northeastern Brazil and Amazonia of adjacent countries. A key is given for the 17 species of Protimesius for which males are known.Protimesius osvaldoi sp. nov. é descrita da Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil, sendo considerado o primeiro registro de Stygnidae para este Estado (até então a distribuição registrada para a família se estendia apenas até a Bahia e o registro mais ao sul na Floresta Atlântica, aumentando em 210 km ao sul a distribuição do grupo. Protomesius osvaldoi é uma espécie de tamanho grande, com armação reduzida na perna IV e placa ventral. Protimesius possui 17 espécies, registradas no norte e nordeste do Brasil e Região Amazônica. É apresentada uma chave para as 17 espécies de Protimesius com machos conhecidos.

  12. Morphological, genotypic, and physiological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from keratitis patients and the domestic environment in Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Juliana L; Furst, Cinthia; Klisiowicz, Débora R; Klassen, Giseli; Costa, Adriana O

    2013-09-01

    Amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are free-living protozoa that can cause granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis in humans. In this study, four clinical and three household dust isolates obtained in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil were characterized by their morphological, genotypic, and physiological properties. All isolates belonged to group II according to Pussard and Pons' cyst morphology. Analysis of their 18S rDNA sequence identified one isolate from household dust as genotype T11 and the others six samples as genotype T4. Five T4 isolates presented a highly variable region (DF3) in 18S rDNA identical to those previously described. Physiological assays carried out with trophozoites in co-culture with bacteria or in axenic conditions showed all samples tolerated temperatures up to 37°C, regardless of culture method. One keratitis isolate grew at 42°C in co-culture with bacteria. Most isolates in co-culture survived at 1.0M, except a T11 isolate, which tolerated up to 0.5M. The isolates did not grow at 42°C and did not tolerate 0.5M and 1.0M under axenic condition. This is the first report of 18S rRNA gene genotyping applied to Acanthamoeba isolated from keratitis patients in Brazil. The results also indicated that osmo-tolerance is dependent on the culture system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  14. Study of seasonal variation of the gamma radiation at Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brazil: radiometry and risk analysis; Estudo da variacao sazonal dos niveis de radiacao gama na Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brasil: radiometria e analise de risco ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the natural gamma radiation at the Areia Preta Beach (APB) in Guarapari, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The level of this radiation is dependent on the concentration of the radioactive mineral monazite in the sand. Probable risks of the exposure to gamma radiation at the APB were evaluated by the preliminary environmental risk analysis technique. For this purpose were conducted two annual sets monitoring gamma radiation in the APB every two months and so, acquired the seasonal variation of the radioactive levels. Additional/y was investigated the granulometry of the heavy mineral fraction and also carried out electronic microscopic scanning and radiometric age dating of the monazites of the APB, the mineral separation by magnetic susceptibility, and the mineralogic determination of the sediment. In order to gain a more complete picture of the seasonal variation, and, consequently, of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at the APB, the radiometric variation was also studied at some other beaches in the same region. The results indicate that the highest radiometric values are measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The radiometric dating of the monazites from the APB revealed the ages of 475 and 530 Ma. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis indicates a minimum risk of excessive radioactive exposition. It would take a period of approximately 870 years of a beach fully crowded to result in one case of bad consequences due to exposure to gamma radiation. (author)

  15. Geochemical markers of sedimentary organic matter in Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia - Brazil. Indicators of sources and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; do Rosário Zucchi, Maria; Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; Spano, Saulo

    2017-06-30

    Natural stable isotopes, such as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), are modern tools to assess geochemical processes. C and N in organic matter can carry fingerprints of their hydrologic flows and sedimentary processes, including any anthropogenic modification on the natural system. This study focuses on the determination of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and isotopic ratio in the sediment of Todos os Santos Bay (TSB). The isotopic results of the total organic matter indicate varied contribution marine and terrigenous. Typical rates of PAHs mainly indicate a pyrogenic source and mixture between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. Typical ratios for the n-alkanes indicate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The isotopic composition of n-alkanes suggests a mixture of sources, with the possible contribution of petrogenic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo; all...

  17. Lead and cadmium in the blood and their relation to the nutritional status of children in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Lima, Maria Engrácia Chaves; Tavares, Tânia Mascarenhas; Azaro, Maria da Graça Andrade; Quaglia, Gilca Maria Cardoso

    1987-01-01

    Num estudo de prevalência foi estudada a relação entre níveis de chumbo (PbS) e de cádmio no sangue (CdS) e o estado nutricional de crianças de 1 a 9 anos de idade, residentes a menos de 900 metros de uma fundição primária de chumbo, situada em Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, Brasil. Em 555 crianças o nível médio (média ± s) de PbS foi de 2,84 ±1,20 µmol/1. Em 396 crianças, o nível médio de CdS (geométrico) foi de 0,087 µmol/1, com desvio padrão de 2,5. Os níveis de PbS e de CdS estavam ex...

  18. Capability of Paraguaçu estuary (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil) to form oil-SPM aggregates (OSA) and their ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Mariana C; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Pereira, Taís S; de Almeida, Marcos; Trindade, Maria Clara L F; Menezes, Leonardo; Caldas, Alex S

    2017-01-15

    For experiments concerning the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA), oil and sediment samples were collected from Campos Basin and six stations of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, respectively. The sediments samples were analyzed for organic matter determined by the EMBRAPA method, nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus determined by the method described by Aspila. The oil trapped in OSA was extracted following the method described by Moreira. The experiment showed a relationship between the amount of organic matter and OSA formation and consequently the dispersion of the studied oil. On the basis of the buoyancy of OSA and the ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic community, the priority areas for application of remediation techniques are Cachoeira, Maragogipe, and Salinas da Margarida because of the large amount of oil that accumulated at the bottom of the experiment flask (5.85%, 27.95%, and 38,98%; 4.2%, 17.66%, and 32.64%; and 11.82%, 8.07%, and 10.91% respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estudo sobre a ictiofauna acompanhante da pesca do camarão sete-barbas (Xyphopenaeus kroyeri nas proximidades da baía de Santos - SP: I - aspectos quantitativos Fish bycath from shrimp fishery (Xyphopenaeus kroyeri in the bay of Santos, SP, (Brazil: I - quantitative studies

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    Alfredo Martins Paiva-Filho

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available During the sea-bob shrimp fishery, a large quantity of miscellaneous fishes are caught, of which the most part was discarded in the sea. In this paper, quantitative aspects of this bycatch products are analized, e.g. diversity of ichthyofauna, catch per unit effort and proportions of the sea-bob shrimp versus acompanying fish fauna. Sampling has been made from Sept. 1981 to Sept. 1983 at Santos bay, one of the most important fishing area from Brazil. A total of 5583 fishes were collected during 28 fishery operations with otter-trawl.

  20. State, socioenvironmental conflict and violence in the Amazon border of Brazil, Colombia and Perú

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    Carlos Gilberto Zárate Botía

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian border region of Brazil, Colombia and Peru has been place or stage to extraction, trade and transport of a wide variety of forest and aquatic resources, including those associated with activities considered illegal like drug or some types of mining. Aditionally the borders have also been converted in areas of conflict, violence and insecurity, and these, at the same time, are produced and exacerbated by state and institutional weakness of the three states, trying substitute it increasing the military presence, with little and contested results, on the one hand, by different public policies or the existence of rules and laws also different and incompatible. In a historical and current perspective, the article shows the relationship between the state, extractive economies of natural resources and conflict in the brazilian, colombian and peruvian amazon border, taking into account the limitations and possibilities of agreements recently signed between the government Colombian Juan Manuel Santos and FARC guerrillas.

  1. Analysis of the influence of the Colatina Belt in the Campos and Espirito Santo Basins-Brazil; Analise da influencia da Faixa Colatina nas Bacias de Campos e Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gustavo Henrique Teixeira da; Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante; Souza, Iata Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    Recent discoveries in the Espirito Santo Basin confirm the importance of it in the national exploratory scenery (oil and gas production). The new fields like Carapo and Camarupim, beyond others, next to already known Golfinho and Canapu, totalize an addition of 560 million barrels. In this way, studies in the area add importance, as the case of the present research, where if it looked to analyze the influence of Colatina Belt in Espirito Santo Basin and secondarily in Campos Basin. The results had been gotten through the integration of diverse data, such as lineaments extracted from images SRTM, potential maps and analyze of seismic lines. It was concluded that the Colatina Belt if projects for the interior of the basins, but that the same one seems to be dislocated in relation to the direct projection of the continental features, being that its influence can be felt with bigger emphasis in the Campos Basin, while in the Espirito Santo it look like to have low importance with regard to the exploration aspects. Also it was verified the presence of numerous halo kinetic structures that affect all the mapped horizons, this element determine great importance in the generation of structural traps. (author)

  2. Adolescentes em situação de rua: prostituição, drogas e HIV/AIDS em Santo André, Brasil Street youth: prostitution, drugs and HIV/AIDS in Santo André-Brazil

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    Eliane Lima Guerra Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi investigar as condições de vida de adolescentes do sexo feminino em situação de rua, envolvidas com o abuso de drogas e com a prostituição, visando orientar estratégias de prevenção às Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis - DST/AIDS. Foram entrevistadas sete adolescentes entre 14 e 19 anos, por meio de roteiro semi-estruturado com questões sobre escolaridade; desligamento da família; violência; histórico de uso de drogas, sexualidade e existência de DST/AIDS; vida na rua e futuro. Observou-se que os principais motivos que levaram essas adolescentes à rua foram violência doméstica; baixo nível sócio-econômico familiar e abuso de múltiplas drogas. As entrevistadas afirmaram conhecer medidas preventivas para as DST/AIDS, porém não as aplicaram aos clientes fixos e namorados. A análise dos resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa confirma a importância da criação de estratégias específicas para as DST/AIDS, além da adequação da rede educacional e de atenção psicossocial às necessidades das adolescentes para a garantia de seus direitos e conquista da emancipação.The aim of this study was to investigate living conditions of female street adolescents, who are involved with illicit and licit drugs, and with prostitution, in the city of Santo André, as well as to tailor strategies for STD/AIDS prevention. We have interviewed seven adolescents, aged from 14 to 19 years old, using a semi-structured questionnaire with questions about education, family disaffection, violence, living on the streets, history of drug use, sexuality, level of information about STD/AIDS, and hopes for the future. We observed that among the reasons for these adolescents to live on the streets were domestic violence, low socioeconomic level, and drug abuse. They stated that they are aware of STD/AIDS preventive measures, but they do not bring them into effect with steady partners and boyfriends. The analysis of our results

  3. Evaluation of geostatistics interpolators and deterministic of the daily reference evapotranspiration in the state of Espirito Santo = Avaliação de interpoladores geoestatísticos e determinísticos da evapotranspiração de referência diária para o estado do Espírito Santo

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    Giselle Sabadim Saraiva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Espírito Santo it is notorious the importance of agriculture for the State economy, several crops have been irrigated due to irregular distribution of rainfall. The daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo is an important variable in irrigation management, making it possible to quantify the water demand of a culture and region. This study aimed to compare interpolation methods to the spatial distribution of daily ETo. The study included the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, with a total area of 46,184.1 km2 . Fifteen automatic meteorological stations were selected as the basis for interpolation and ten for cross-validation. The daily data analyzed were from the period 2010-2012, using three methods of interpolation, employed: the Kriging geostatistical method and deterministic methods Distance Square Inverse (IQD and Spline Tensioned. Three sets of data were interpolated. The IQD interpolation presented the best performance for the variable among the three methods, presenting lower deviation and variation among the ETo values estimated by the Penman-Monteith method. The IQD interpolator showed, as a good method to estimate the daily reference evapotranspiration variable in places where do not have weather stations installed. The estimated values of ETo obtained by IQD interpolation method can be used with confidence in irrigation management. = No estado do Espírito Santo é notório o destaque da agricultura na sua economia, mas, devido a irregularidade na distribuição das chuvas, as culturas têm sido irrigadas, sendo assim, o manejo da irrigação se torna importante para a produção das culturas. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo diária é uma variável importante no manejo da irrigação, possibilitando quantificar a demanda hídrica de uma cultura e região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar métodos de interpolação visando à espacialização da ETo diária. A área de abrangência do estudo foi o

  4. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  5. HIV infection and related risk behaviors in a community of recyclable waste collectors of Santos, Brazil Infección por HIV y comportamiento de riesgo relacionados con colectores de basura de Santos, Brasil Infecção por HIV e comportamentos de risco relacionados em coletores de lixo de Santos, Brasil

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    Mauro Abrahão Rozman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C and syphilis and to describe risk behaviors associated to their transmission among recyclable waste collectors. METHODS: A seroepidemiological survey was carried out in the city of Santos, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. A total of 315 individuals were enrolled in the survey, of which 253 subjects underwent serological testing HIV, hepatitis B and C and syphilis. Statistical analysis consisted of univariate and bivariate analyses (cross-tabulation and odds ratio and multivariate analysis (by logistic regression, relating HIV infection with established risk behaviors and seropositivity. RESULTS: Overall seroprevalences were: HIV, 8.9%; hepatitis B, 34.4%; hepatitis C, 12.4%; and syphilis, 18.4%. Subjects were characterized by a predominance of males with low educational and economic levels, subjected to parenteral and sexual exposures to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Multivariate analysis results indicated that risk factors for both sexually and parenterally related exposure were significantly associated with HIV in this community. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalences found in the study were approximately 10 to 12 times higher than the national average. These communities are socially marginalized and generally not recognized by national programs as potentially endangered populations.OBJETIVO: Estimar la seroprevalencia de HIV, Hepatitis B y C y sífilis y describir los comportamientos de riesgo asociados a la transmisión entre colectores autónomos de basura. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una investigación seroepidemiológica en la ciudad de Santos (Sudeste de Brasil, en 2005. Se realizaron análisis serológicas para HIV, Hepatitis B y C y sífilis a 253 individuos, de un total de 315 incluidos en el estudio. Los análisis estadísticos consistieron de pruebas uni y bivariadas (tabulación cruzada y odds ratio y análisis multivariada (por regresión logística, relacionando la

  6. Descrição da larva de último estádio de Nephepeltia berlai Santos, 1950 (Odonata, Libellulidae

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    Marina Schmidt Dalzochio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A larva de último ínstar de Nephepeltia berlai Santos, 1950 é descrita e ilustrada, a partir de material procedente do Municipio de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A caracterização do gênero com base nos imaturos é redefinida.Description of the Last Instar Larva of Nephepeltia berlai (Odonata, LibellulidaeAbstract.The larvae of the last instar of Nephepeltia berlai Santos, 1950 is described and illustrated based on material collected in Cascavel Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. The generic concept based in the immatures is redefined.

  7. Media, State and Society in Bahia, Brazil

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    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I seek to assess the role of the media in ongoing subnational democratization processes from a State-in-society perspective. I use the case of Bahia, a state in North-Eastern Brazil, to assess ownership and social access to the media, the media’s autonomy from both the State and social actors as well as how conflicts between public interest and private profit are solved. We will thus understand the role of subnational media in sustaining pluralism and in providing independent sources of information, two critical dimensions of democracy.

  8. Modos de vida de internos do sistema penitenciário capixaba Ways of life of interns of espírito santo state penitentiary system

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    Gilead Marchezi Tavares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do referencial da RedSig e da filosofia espinosana, este trabalho objetivou investigar os modos de vida produzidos na e pela prisão, apostando no conhecimento de alguns circunscritores do processo de constituição de pessoas que habitam os presídios. Foram realizadas duas entrevistas com quatro internos do Instituto de Readaptação Social de Vila Velha (ES, com um período de espaçamento de um ano entre elas. A análise das entrevistas seguiu no aporte metodológico das Práticas Discursivas como produção de sentidos, implicando adotar postura construcionista e ressignificar a relação entre sujeito e objeto para fora da idéia cristalizada de dualidade. Os quatro casos investigados são apresentados a partir da iluminação das histórias de vida dos sujeitos entrevistados, de seus sentimentos em relação à experiência da vida prisional e de seus modos de vida.Stemming from the RedSig referential and Spinozian philosophy, this work had as objective to investigate ways of life produced in and by the prison, anchored on the knowledge of some constraints of the process of constitution of people who live in prisons. Two interviews with four interns of Instituto de Readaptação Social (Social Readaptation Institute of Vila Velha (Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were performed, one year apart. The analysis of the interviews proceeded on the methodological approach of Discursive Practices as production of meaning, implying the adoption of a constructionist posture and re-signification of the relation between subject and object outside the crystallized idea of duality. The four investigated cases are presented after the highlight of the life histories of the interviewed subjects, of their feelings towards prison life experience and their ways of life.

  9. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  10. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  11. Primeiro isolamento ambiental de Cryptococcus gattii no Estado do Espírito Santo First isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from the environment in the State of Espírito Santo

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    Ludmila de Matos Baltazar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A presença de Cryptococcus gattii foi investigada em diferentes regiões do Estado do Espírito Santo. A maioria (73 das amostras foi coletada de árvores localizadas em lugares públicos de Vitória; 47 amostras foram coletadas de áreas preservadas ou ainda com pouco impacto humano, situados nos arredores desta cidade, a altitudes entre 0 e 900m acima do nível do mar e 48 de árvores nativas das regiões norte e sul do estado. As amostras foram coletadas de ocos e troncos de árvores com auxílio de swab e resultaram em 2 (1,2% isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans, 2 (1,2% de Cryptococcus gattii e 1 (0,6% de Cryptococcus laurentii. A espécie Cryptococcus gattii foi encontrada somente em árvores nativas da região norte, áreas que ainda apresentam resquícios de Floresta Atlântica, enquanto todas as amostras obtidas de vinte e duas espécies de árvores localizadas em área urbana não permitiram a detecção de Cryptococcus gattii. Esses resultados mostram uma possível relação entre ocorrência de Floresta Atlântica e Cryptococcus gattii e confirma que o meio ambiente é fonte de infecção desse fungo.The presence of Cryptococcus gattii was investigated in different regions of the State of Espírito Santo. The largest number (73 of samples was collected from trees located in public places in Vitória; 47 came from preserved areas or areas with only minor human impact, surrounding this city, at altitudes from 0 to 900m above sea level; 48 came from trees native of the northern and southern regions of the state. The samples were collected from tree hollows and trunks by of swabs and yielded two isolates (1.2% of Cryptococcus neoformans, two (1.2% of Cryptococcus gattii and one (0.6% of Cryptococcus laurentii. The species Cryptococcus gattii was found only in native trees from the northern region, in areas that still have remains of the Atlantic Forest, while none of the samples from any of the 22 tree species located in urban areas was

  12. The African Diaspora in Mexico, Brazil, and the United States

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    Van Den Berghe, Pierre L.

    1976-01-01

    Central question addressed is why people of African descent show different rates of acculturation and different degrees of racial distinctiveness in Mexico, Brazil and the United States. Acculturation is greater in Mexico and the U.S. than in Brazil. Mexico makes the least racial distinctions, the U.S. the most, and Brazil is in between.…

  13. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Andreoni, G I; Veneziano, D B; Giannotti Filho, O; Marigo, C; Mirra, A P; Fonseca, L A

    2001-08-01

    As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics), who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo). The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  14. Physico-chemical composition and sensory quality of conilon coffee produced in Espírito Santo State and submitted to different processing formsComposição físico-química e qualidade sensorial de café conilon produzido no Estado do Espírito Santo e submetido a diferentes formas de processamento

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    Tarcísio Lima Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Espirito Santo State is the largest producer of conilon coffee in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information about physico-chemical composition and sensory characteristics of this coffee submitted to different processing forms. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the Espirito Santo conilon coffee submitted to three forms of processing. The harvest was performed selecting only cherry grains, which were submitted to three forms of processing (dry process, semi dry process or wet process. Sensory analysis was performed by two professional classifiers. Analysis of moisture, pH and titratable acidity were determined in samples of raw and roasted coffee and aqueous extract were determined in samples of roasted coffee. The processing forms and types of grains did not differ in terms of pH and acidity. Natural and peeled coffee showed higher levels of aqueous extract. In sensory classification, all samples showed good overall evaluation. The use of raw material within the quality standards, grains of cherry type and the proper conduction of post-harvest stages allow the obtainment of a beverage with good sensory ratings and without changes in pH and acidity regardless the processing form used. Therefore, it is possible to obtain good quality beverages using dry processing, which is less expensive than the other types of coffee processing Apesar de o estado do Espírito Santo ser o maior produtor de café conilon brasileiro, pouco se sabe sobre a composição físico-química e características sensoriais desse café submetido a diferentes formas de processamento. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a caracterização físico-química e sensorial do café conilon capixaba submetido a três formas de processamento. A colheita foi realizada selecionando-se apenas grãos cereja, que foram submetidos a três formas de processamento (via seca, via úmida sem fermenta

  15. Oil-suspended particulate material aggregates as a tool in preventing potential ecotoxicological impacts in the São Paulo river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of salinity and suspended particulate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Lorena S; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Santos, Carlito P; Pinheiro, Samires M M; Oliveira, Lua M L; Martins, Adriele B O; Filho, Milton S C

    2016-11-15

    Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of a natural process of interaction between oil droplets and suspended particulate material, resulting in the formation of aggregates which are dispersed in the water column, known as oil-suspended particulate material aggregates (OSAs). The experiments aimed to investigate the contribution of OSAS in indicating where most likely is the oil sedimentation in the São Paulo river, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, in order to predict possible ecotoxicological risks caused by oil spills. The results showed that salinity and MPS concentration interfere on the formation of aggregates. In addition, the point 3 was nominated as the most vulnerable area to the potential ecotoxicological impacts of oil spills and should be treated as a priority area for the application of preventive and mitigating techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Search for cytotoxic agents in multiple Laurencia complex seaweed species (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta harvested from the Atlantic Ocean with emphasis on the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo

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    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of new anti-cancer drugs of algal origin represents one of the least explored frontiers in medicinal chemistry. In this regard, the diversity of micro- and macroalgae found in Brazilian coastal waters can be viewed as a largely untapped natural resource. In this report, we describe a comparative study on the cytotoxic properties of extracts obtained from the Laurencia complex: Laurencia aldingensis, L. catarinensis, L. dendroidea, L. intricata, L. translucida, L. sp, and Palisada flagellifera. All of these species were collected in the coastal waters of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Four out of the twelve samples initially investigated were found to show significant levels of toxicity towards a model tumor cell line (human uterine sarcoma, MES-SA. The highest levels of cytotoxicity were typically associated with non-polar (hexane algal extracts, while the lowest levels of cytotoxicity were found with the corresponding polar (methanol extracts. In this report, we also describe a biological model currently in development that will not only facilitate the search for new anti-cancer drug candidates of algal origin, but also permit the identification of compounds capable of inducing the destruction of multi-drug resistant tumors with greater efficiency than the pharmaceuticals currently in clinical use.

  17. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

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    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  18. Efeitos da exposição ocupacional ao mercúrio em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas localizada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brasil Effects of occupational exposure to mercury in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cecília Zavariz

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a intoxicação por mercúrio metálico em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas situada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo. Foram realizadas visitas à empresa para verificação do ambiente e das condições de trabalho, além de reuniões com os trabalhadores para uma melhor compreensão acerca do processo produtivo e de suas repercussões na saúde. Foram investigados 91 trabalhadores, dos quais 77 (84,62% apresentaram quadro de intoxicação crônica. Entre os intoxicados, foram detectadas alterações nos testes neuropsicológicos em 76 (98,70%, alterações neurológicas em 69 (75,82%, alterações no exame clínico em 62 (68,13% e alterações psiquiátricas em 59 (63,96%.The aim of this research was to study metallic mercury poisoning in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo (Brazil. Visits were made to the factory to check both the work environment and the working conditions. Meetings with the workers took place in order to better understand the production process and how working conditions affect their health. Of the 91 workers investigated, 77 (84.62% were chronically poisoned. Among chronically poisoned workers, 76 (98.70% displayed neuropsychological alterations, 69 (75.82% suffered from neurological impairments, 62 (68.13% showed pathological findings under clinical examination, and 59 (63.96% displayed psychiatric disorders.

  19. Evidence of contamination by oil and oil products in the Santos-São Vicente estuary, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Juliana Souza Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Different components of the mixed function oxidase (MFO system and the levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile (FACs were measured in Cathorops spixii in order to assess the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Fish were sampled in an estuary (Santos/São Vicente with a history of contamination by PAHs, mainly due to the presence of the industrial complex of Cubatão city and of another of low anthropogenic influence (Cananéia on the Brazilian coast. FACs were higher in fish from the polluted site, and the PAH 5 and 6-ring metabolites were the most frequent - with 14% and 15%, respectively. Levels of the different components of the MFO system showed the same variation profile as the FACs for both estuaries. Therefore, the values found for somatic indexes and biomarkers with data of bile PAH metabolites indicate the presence of organic contaminants, especially in the area subject to the influence of the industrial complex on the Santos/São Vicente estuary.Diferentes componentes do sistema oxidase de função mista (MFO e os níveis de compostos aromáticos fluorescentes em bile (FACS foram determinados em Cathorops spixii a fim de avaliar o impacto de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (PAHs. Os peixes foram coletados em um estuário com histórico de contaminação por PAHs (Santos/São Vicente, devido principalmente a presença do complexo industrial na cidade de Cubatão e em outro com baixa influência antropogênica (Cananéia na costa brasileira. FACs foram maiores nos peixes oriundos da área contaminada, sendo os metabolitos de HPAs com 5 e 6 anéis, os mais representativos com 14% e 15%, respectivamente. Os níveis dos diferentes componentes do sistema MFO mostraram o mesmo perfil de variação que os FACs em ambos os estuários. Portanto, os valores encontrados para os índices somáticos e os biomarcadores considerados, em associação com os dados de metabólitos biliares de PAHs, indicam a presença de

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT IMPACT MILK PRODUCTION FROM FAMILY FARMS LOCATED NORTH OF THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO

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    Maria da Penha Píccolo Ramos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in São Mateus, ES, is a traditional and important socioeconomic activity for family farmers and for the state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production characteristics of four rural communities, coded as A, B, C and D, as well as the microbiological quality of raw milk in one of these locations. The four communities were based on family farms. Community A was composed of 4 farmers; community B was composed of 12 farmers; community C was composed of 10 farmers and community D was composed of 2 farmers, totaling 28 family farms in the city of São Mateus, northern region of the State of Espírito Santo. The quality of milk samples from 10 producers of community C was assessed after milking, as well as samples from the collective cooling tank, in five repetitions. A structured questionnaire based on the requirements of the legislation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply was sent to each farmer from the 28 farms. The questions included cleaning and physical structure of the barn, quality of water, hygiene practice of milkers and animals and tests for detection of mastitis. None of the farms performed pre-dipping and post-dipping. Thirty (30 samples (55.0% and 25 samples (45.5% of the total 55 samples assessed did not meet the standards for total bacterial count (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC, respectively. Nonconformities were detected in the stages of production, and milk samples did not meet microbiological standards. Milk production should be improved and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP should be implemented in the farms to ensure food safety and the sustainability of the segment in the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo.

  1. Helminth fauna of Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758 in the south of Espírito Santo State in Brasil

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    Binoti E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to an inadequate knowledge about threats to the sea turtle, we aimed to evaluate the helminth fauna of Chelonia mydas which had died on the southern coast of Espirito Santo, Brasil and described the associated tissue pathological lesions. Retrospective and prospective studies on turtle parasites were conducted and tissues samples were collected. 106 of 212 of sea turtles (50 % were parasitized, and 47 of 106 of infected animals 43.0 % (47/106 were in poor health condition. Seven trematoda families covering 19 different helminths species were identified. Turtles were inhabited with one or more species of parasites, and there was no significant association between parasitism and weakness of the animals. Trematode eggs, with or without giant cells in tissues of various organs were observed.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of feline obesity in Alegre, Espírito Santo, BrazilPrevalência e fatores de risco da obesidade felina em Alegre-ES, Brasil

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    Aguinaldo Francisco Mendes-Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat. In humans, this condition has shown fast and worrying growth, like in pets. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of obese cats living in Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil and its association with risk factors. Spearman correlation and chi-square test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 14% in the studied population of 50 cats. Neutered and male cats were considered a risk factor for the development of obesity, unlike physical activity, considered as a protective factor. No correlation was found between the frequency or type of food provided and obesity. O acúmulo excessivo de gordura corpórea é a condição que caracteriza a obesidade. Esta condição na espécie humana vem mostrando um crescimento acelerado e preocupante, se fazendo da mesma forma em animais de companhia. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estabelecer a prevalência de gatos obesos domiciliados no município de Alegre – Espírito Santo e sua associação com fatores de risco. Utilizou-se o método de correlação de Spearman e o teste do Qui-quadrado, considerando um nível de significância de 5%. A prevalência de obesidade ou sobrepeso foi de 14% na população estudada de 50 gatos domiciliados. Gatos machos e castrados foram considerados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento da obesidade, ao contrário da prática de atividade física, considerada como um fator protetor. Não houve correlação entre a frequência ou o tipo de alimento fornecido e o desenvolvimento da obesidade.

  3. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

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    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  4. Chronology of anthropogenic impacts reconstructed from sediment records of trace metals and Pb isotopes in Todos os Santos Bay (NE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R L B; Hatje, V; Masqué, P; Zurbrick, C M; Boyle, E A; Santos, W P C

    2017-12-15

    The evolution of the impacts of anthropogenic activities in Todos os Santos Bay was evaluated by profiles of trace metals and Pb isotopes determined in sediment cores. Fluxes of metals increased up to 12, 4 and 2 times for Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively, compared to those recorded in the beginning of the 20th century. Stable Pb isotopes identified a decommissioned lead smelter and burning of fossil fuels as the main sources of Pb. Most metals showed minor to moderate enrichment factors (EF<4), but Cu and Pb were highly enriched (EF=28 and 6, respectively) at the Aratu harbor. Temporal changes in sediments were associated to different activities, namely Pb smelting, burning of fossil fuels, maritime traffic, petroleum related activities, inputs of domestic effluents, and changes in land uses. The effects of the implementation of environmental policies to improve the waters of the bay could not be identified in the evaluated cores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avaliação de política ambiental e sustentabilidade: estudo de caso do município de Santo André - SP Environmental policy assessment and sustainability: case study of Santo André City - SP - Brazil

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    Juliana Pellegrini Cezare

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A gestão da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo tem como um dos desafios resolver a problemática do uso e ocupação do solo em áreas de proteção de mananciais, visando proteção dos recursos hídricos desta região. Este artigo tem como objetivo contribuir para a discussão sobre Avaliação de Estratégia de Desenvolvimento Sustentável, a partir de uma análise das políticas ambientais do Município de Santo André, no contexto da proteção dos recursos hídricos. Propõe-se a verificar, com base nos Princípios de Bellagio, se houve enfoque sistêmico, transparência, participação e engajamento social no processo de formulação e implementação de suas políticas ambientais. Observou-se coerência nas políticas, programas e ações estudadas, entretanto, foram identificadas lacunas que, sobre o enfoque estratégico, representam fraquezas na construção da sustentabilidade local, como no caso da ausência de um sistema consolidado de indicadores de sustentabilidade.The management of the São Paulo Metropolitan Area has as one of the challenges to bring a sustainable solution for land use in watershed protection areas, aiming at regional water resources protection. This paper has the objective to contribute to the discussion about Sustainable Development Strategy Assessment, from an analisys with focus at the environmental policies of the Santo André City - SP Brazil, in the context of water resources protection. For this, the proposal is to verify, based on the Bellagio Principles, the use of systemic approach, transparency, participatory process and social engagement in its policy formulation and implementation process. It was observed coherence within the policies, programmes and actions analysed, nevertheless, gaps were identified, which, within a strategic approach, means weakness for the construction of the local sustainability, as the lack of a consolidated sustainability indicators system.

  6. Chumbo e cádmio no sangue e estado nutricional de crianças, Bahia, Brasil Lead and cadmium in the blood and their relation to the nutritional status of children in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil

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    Fernando Martins Carvalho

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available Num estudo de prevalência foi estudada a relação entre níveis de chumbo (PbS e de cádmio no sangue (CdS e o estado nutricional de crianças de 1 a 9 anos de idade, residentes a menos de 900 metros de uma fundição primária de chumbo, situada em Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, Brasil. Em 555 crianças o nível médio (média ± s de PbS foi de 2,84 ±1,20 µmol/1. Em 396 crianças, o nível médio de CdS (geométrico foi de 0,087 µmol/1, com desvio padrão de 2,5. Os níveis de PbS e de CdS estavam extremamente elevados, mas não variaram significantemente entre subgrupos de crianças de diferentes estados nutricionais. Análises de regressão múltipla não mostraram associações estatisticamente significantes entre os níveis de PbS ou logCdS 1 malnutrição, medida através da relação peso/altura, mantidos constantes os efeitos de idade, sexo, grupo racial, hábito de geofagia, distância do domicílio da criança à fundição, ser filho de trabalhador da fundição, renda familiar, balanço de ferro do organismo e infestação ancilostomótica severa. A distância do domicílio da criança à fundição foi a variável que se mostrou mais fortemente associada à variação dos níveis de PbS ou de logCdS. O peso ou a altura de crianças com baixos níveis de chumbo no sangue (iguais ou inferiores a 1,68 µmol/1 não estavam significantemente associados com os níveis de PbS, mas mostraram elevada correlação com a idade dos indivíduos.The levels of lead in blood (PbB and of cadmium in blood (CdB were related to nutritional status, in the context of a prevalence study, carried out in a population of 1 to 9 year-old children, living at less than 900 meters from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, State of Bahia, Brazil. Among 555 children, the arithmetical mean and standard deviation of PbB levels was 2.84 ± 1.20 (µmol/1. More than seventy-five per cent of the children presented PbB higher than 1,68 µmol/1 (or 35

  7. [The sustainability of day-to-day life: a study of the social networks of users of mental healthcare service in the municipality of Santo André (SP, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Melissa Tieko; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Studies into social networks show that relationships have a significant impact on people's lives. When associated with the population suffering from mental disorders, they serve as an important protection factor and a manager of resources and social support. However, studies show that people with mental disorders have impoverished social networks and few significant relationships. In this perspective, this research sought to characterize the social networks of users of NAPS II in Santo André (SP, Brazil). Conducted in 2006, the qualitative research adopted an ethnographic approach and used interviews by topics, participant observation and field notes. The results revealed that the group studied had an impoverished social network; the life histories of the subjects is related to this impoverishment, since the disruptions caused by situations of crisis or institutionalization removed them from the network of relationships, placing them in a situation of social vulnerability. An attempt was made to address the importance of intervention in the relationships and the role of the services in this process.

  8. Fatores de risco para uso do tabaco em adolescentes de duas escolas do município de Santo André, São Paulo Risk factors for tobacco use in adolescent students of two high schools of Santo André city, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Halley Ferraro Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco para uso de tabaco em estudantes de duas escolas do ensino médio do município de Santo André (SP em 2005, bem como traçar o perfil do adolescente experimentador do fumo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com questionário padronizado, autoaplicável e anônimo aplicado a adolescentes escolares de ambos os sexos, matriculados no primeiro ano do ensino médio de duas escolas de Santo André, uma particular e outra pública. Foram levantadas as seguintes variáveis: idade, sexo, raça, prática de esportes, religião e hábitos do adolescente e da família. Definiu-se como "experimentador do fumo" o adolescente que experimentou cigarro (tabaco e não continuou o hábito tabagista. Foi feita a análise descritiva com o teste do qui-quadrado e os fatores de risco para "experimentar fumo" foram analisados por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Dos 232 questionários aplicados, 226 (90% foram respondidos, sendo 137 (61% na escola particular e 89 (39% na estadual. Dentre os entrevistados, 54 (24% referiram já ter experimentado tabaco uma vez na vida (35 na escola privada e 19 na pública. Foram fatores de risco significativos para experimentar fumo na escola particular: mãe fumante (OR 12,4; IC95% 4,1-37,8 e amigos fumantes (OR 9,6; IC95% 3,1-29,9. Na escola pública, os fatores de risco para a mesma variável foram: consumo de bebida alcoólica (OR 8,8; IC95% 1,9-40,1, amigos fumantes, (OR 7,9; IC95% 1,9-31,3 e contato com fumaça do cigarro (OR 6,4; IC95% 1,6-26,2. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se influência significativa do meio ambiente do adolescente, inclusive social e familiar, para a experimentação do tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for tobacco use in high school students of two schools of the city of Santo Andre (São Paulo, Brazil in 2005, as well as to describe the profile of the adolescent who uses tobacco. METHODS: Cross sectional study that applied a standardized anonimous self

  9. Estudo de mutações causadoras de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica em um grupo de pacientes no Espírito Santo, Brasil Estudio de mutaciones causadoras de cardiomiopatía hipertrófica en un grupo de pacientes en Espírito Santo, Brasil Study of mutations causing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a group of patients from Espirito Santo, Brazil

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    Júlia Daher Carneiro Marsiglia

    2010-01-01

    un grupo de pacientes en el estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Usando la técnica SSCP, se estudiaron 12 exones de los tres principales genes involucrados con la CH: exones 15, 20, 21, 22 y 23 del gen de la cadena pesada de la β-miosina (MYH7, exones 7, 16, 18, 22 y 24 del gen de la proteína C unida a la miosina (MYBPC3 y exones 8 y 9 del gen de la troponina T (TNNT2. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 16 alteraciones, incluyendo dos mutaciones, una de ellas posiblemente patogénica en el gen MYBPC3 gen (p. Glu441Lys y otra patogénica ya descrita en el gen TNNT2 (p. Arg92Trp; 8 variaciones de secuencia raras y 6 variaciones de secuencia con frecuencia alélica mayor que el 1% (polimorfismos. CONCLUSIONES: Con estos datos, es posible concluir que el genotipaje de los pacientes es factible en nuestro medio. Es posible que la variante p.Glu441Lys en el exón 16 del gen MYBPC3 sea patogénica, resultando en un fenotipo más leve que el encontrado en asociación con otras mutaciones. La variante p.Arg92Trp en el exón 9 del gen TNNT2 no resulta en un fenotipo tan homogéneo como el descrito anteriormente y puede llevar a hipertrofia grave.BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC is the most frequent cardiac hereditary disease, caused by mutations in sarcomere protein coding genes. Although more than 430 mutations have been identified in several continents and countries, there have been no reports of mutations in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a genetic study to identify genetic mutations that cause HC in a group of patients in Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: Using the SSCP technique, 12 exons from the three main genes involved in HC were studied: exons 15, 20, 21, 22 and 23 of the β-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7, exons 7, 16, 18, 22 and 24 of the myosin binding protein C gene (MYBPC3 and exons 8 and 9 of troponin T gene (TNNT2. RESULTS: 16 alterations were found, including two mutations, one of them possibly pathogenic in the MYBPC3 gene (p. Glu441Lys and

  10. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

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    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2 were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization. The soils were classified, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (and US Soil Taxonomy as: "Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distroférrico argissólico" (Typic Hapludox (P1 and "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico" (Rhodic Paleudult (P2. Pedon 1 differs from Pedon 2 in some aspects. For instance, P1 presents more yellowish colors, absence of clay illuviation, more friable consistence and the prismatic structure undergoes transformation to angular and subangular blocks. Pedon 2 presents ferri-argilans and leptocutans which indicate that vertical and lateral illuviation of clay is an active process in their formation. These chemically poor and mineralogically uniform soils are a result of the high temperature and rainfall of the studied area.

  11. Novas curvas de crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde: comparação com valores de crescimento de crianças pré-escolares das cidades de Taubaté e Santo André, São Paulo New World Health Organization growth standards: comparison with growth data of preschool children of the cities of Taubaté and Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Claudio Leone

    2009-03-01

    children. METHODS: 2,830 children between three and six years old from Taubaté and Santo André cities, in São Paulo State, Brazil, were studied regarding weight, height and body mass index (BMI. The 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles (P were calculated in several ages for both genders and compared to the WHO reference values. RESULTS: Concerning height, the WHO reference values were closer to or a little higher than the Brazilian studied samples until five years. At this time, an opposed tendency was noticed with WHO height percentiles becoming progressively below the Brazilian samples until the age of seven. For weight and BMI in all considered ages, the 5thP and the 50thP of the WHO referential were slightly lower than the children's ones, but the 95thP shows a trend of a progressively lower growth close to seven years: the BMI 95thP from the preschool samples were around 4kg/m² higher than WHO values. CONCLUSIONS: The use of WHO reference growth chart will produce a lower prevalence of malnutrition and short stature between five and seven years and, at the same time, an important rise of obesity prevalence between ages three and seven.

  12. O conhecimento sobre morcegos (Chiroptera: Mammalia do estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil

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    Poliana Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ordem Chiroptera apresenta importância relevante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, sendo a ordem de mamíferos com maior diversidade de hábitos de vida. Dentre os estados da região Sudeste do Brasil, o Espírito Santo é um dos mais carentes em relação ao conhecimento de morcegos. Este estudo sintetizou o estado do conhecimento sobre quirópteros gerado no Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram catalogados os morcegos depositados no Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, no Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH e University of Michigan Museum Zoology (UMMZ. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca por artigos publicados sobre morcegos do Espírito Santo. Foram revistos 49 artigos científicos, realizadas três teses de mestrado e 11 monografias. Considerando as coleções amostradas e artigos publicados totalizam-se 63 espécies de morcegos para o estado, provenientes de 37 dos 78 municípios do Espírito Santo. A maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos foi encontrada nos municípios de Linhares e Santa Teresa, o que é provavelmente reflexo da maior parte dos espécimes depositados nos museus também serem desses municípios. O Espírito Santo apresenta um grande potencial para se encontrar novas ocorrências de espécies, enfatizando a importância da realização de futuros estudos sobre morcegos no estado.The Order Chiroptera plays a vital role in ecosystem dynamics. Among the states of Southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo State is the one with the least known bat fauna. This study reports on the current state of knowledge on Espírito Santo bats generating this data bank. We have catalogued the bats deposited in the Biology Museum Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, Laboratory of Bat Studies of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario

  13. Assessment of metal concentrations in muscles of the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Santos Estuarine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A; Andrade, Nathalia P

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the concentrations of eleven metals in the blue crab, Callinectes danae, from nine sites in the Santos Estuarine System of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The results were compared to guidelines established in the United States, Europe and Brazil for the safety of human consumers. Muscles of blue crabs were removed by dissection and concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. In general, the concentrations of metals were low, and the crabs were regarded as safe for human consumption. Crabs from a single site (site 4) exceeded the guidelines established by the United States and Europe, but not Brazil, for Pb, with a mean tissue concentration of 1.725 μg g(-1). With the exception of Al, Fe and Ni, significant differences were noted between sites in the concentrations of each metal in crab tissue.

  14. Analysis of HIV-1 protease gene reveals frequent multiple infections followed by recombination among drug treated individuals living in Sao Paulo and Santos, Brazil.

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    Edsel Renata De Morais Nunes

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the prevalence of HIV-1 multiple infections in a population composed by 47 patients under HAART failure and enrolled at the National DST/AIDS, Program, Ministry of Health, Brazil.Detection of multiple infections was done using a previously published RFLP assay for the HIV-1 protease gene, which is able of distinguishing between infections caused by a single or multiple HIV-1 subtypes. Samples with multiple infections were cloned, and sequence data submitted to phylogenetic analysis. We were able to identify 17 HIV-1 multiple infections out of 47 samples. Multiple infections were mostly composed by a mixture of recombinant viruses (94%, with only one case in which protease gene pure subtypes B and F were recovered. This is the first study that reports the prevalence of multiple infections and intersubtype recombinants in a population undergoing HAART in Brazil. Based on the data there was a steep increase of multiple infections after the introduction of the combined antiretroviral therapy in Brazil. Cases of multiple infections may be associated with HIV-1 genetic diversity through recombination allowing for the generation of viruses showing a combination of resistance mutations.

  15. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

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    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  16. A descriptive analysis of the seasonal variation of physical oceanographic characteristics in the northern region of the Todos os Santos Bay (Bahia, Brazil

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    Luiz Bruner de Miranda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in the August and December 2003, August 2004 and January 2005 oceanographic campaigns in the northern region of the Todos os Santos Bay (lat. 12º44.5'S; long. 038º35.00'W between the Madre de Deus and Maré islands are analyzed. Instruments of continuous and discrete samplings were used to measure hydrographic properties currents and tides. The water mass of the northern region of the bay is forced by semidiurnal and mesotides of form number 0.08 and the lunar component M2 height was estimated at 91cm. The time series of the surface currents indicated movements in the N/S direction, forced by the tide with maximum magnitudes of 0.73 m.s-1 on the December 2003 campaign. However, in August 2004 the currents were dominated by the wind stress forcing, with a maximum speed of 1.85 m.s-1 and SE direction. Near the bottom, the influence of the tide is not as evident, with a decrease in intensity due to internal and bottom friction, with a maximum velocity of 0.17 m.s-1. The thermal and haline structures were weakly horizontally, as well as vertically stratified, with extreme values varying in the intervals 23ºC (August, 2004 to 28ºC (December, 2003 and 31.0 psu (August, 2003 to 36.0 psu (December, 2003, respectively. Some conclusions may be drawn from these results: i The signs of the dilution of the fresh water discharges of the Caípe, Mataripe and São Paulo rivers in the region under the influence of the RLAM were observed only during the winter periods, but in the summer the region was flooded by waters of oceanic origin and the salinities above 36.0 indicated TW mass intrusion; ii The N-S circulation near the RLAM is strongly dominated by the tide, and the importance of the M2 component was unequivocal, however, the E-W component presented some tidal modulation away from abrupt bottom topographical changes, and iii The residual series, calculated as the difference between the original and modeled, is about ¼ of the

  17. Redescription and first genetic characterisation of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), including re-evaluation of the species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) from marine fishes off Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Carla J; Pereira, Felipe B; Luque, José L

    2017-07-01

    Newly collected specimens of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 from the intestine of Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are redescribed and genetically characterised. Additionally, all congeners deposited in the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC) parasitic in marine fishes of the South Atlantic, including types of P. (S.) macaensis, were re-evaluated. The following features are described for the first time in P. (S.) macaensis: morphology and arrangement of cephalic structures, shape of deirids and location of phasmids. The position of the excretory pore, the number and arrangement of caudal papillae in males, the structure of the spicules and of tail end in both males and females are rectified. Most specimens deposited in the CHIOC identified as P. (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 were transferred to P. (S.) macaensis and others were designated as Procamallanus (S.) sp. Procamallanus (S.) cruzi Guimarães, Cristófaro & Rodrigues, 1976 is considered a species inquirenda due to its poor description and the lack of match of its original description with the type-material re-examined. Moreover, several taxonomic problems were noted after observations of the specimens (mostly poorly preserved), including inadequate morphological reports as well as misidentifications. Phylogenies inferred using sequences of the SSU rDNA from camallanids (Nematoda: Camallanidae) mostly generated weakly supported clades; however, Camallanus Railliet & Henry, 1915 and Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 do not seem to be monophyletic. Based on the present results and the lack of molecular data, it would be pertinent to adopt the widely-used classification for the subgenera of Procamallanus.

  18. The Cognitive and Functional Profile of the elderly that frequent the Community Center for the Elderly in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state

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    Nathalia Barros de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing population must be accompanied by the promotion of healthy aging and maintain maximum functional capacity. Objective: To understand the cognitive and functional profile of the elderly who take part in the Community Center for the Elderly in Santos, Sao Paulo state. Method: Ninety elderly people were evaluated in this study. The following instruments were used: Social-demographic profile Questionnaire, Socialeconomic Questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire (SMC-Q, Independence in Activities of Daily Living Scale (Katz Scale, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (Lawton & Brody. Results: The average age of the elderly was 72.5 years old and the predominant gender was female (95.5%. There was a preponderance of participants from 1 to 4 years of education, and Class C was the predominant economic class. In the MMSE scores, 63.33% of the participants were below of the cutoff established for education, and in the SMC-Q, 71.11% of the elderly presented subjective dysfunction of memory. In the performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL, 84.44% of the participants are independent. As for the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, only 33.33% of the participants are independent. In the statistical analyses between cognitive profile and functional performance, associations were found between MMSE and SMC-Q, MMSE and Lawton & Brody Scale, and SMC-Q and Lawton & Brody Scale. Conclusions: A significant portion of the elderly patrons of the Community Center presents functional decline and cognitive decline.

  19. Viagem(ns a Santos Journey(s to Santos

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    Henrique Luiz Cukierman

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo busca lançar algumas luzes sobre a construção do laboratório de Manguinhos, recontando um de seus episódios precursores: a viagem a Santos empreendida em 1899 por Oswaldo Cruz, um jovem médico às vésperas de tornar-se herói nacional enquanto símbolo brasileiro da ciência. Destinada a confirmar a chegada pela primeira vez da famigerada peste bubônica em terras brasileiras, a viagem constituiria um marco na justificação da construção de uma fábrica de soro antipestoso no Rio de Janeiro, o futuro Instituto Soroterápico Federal, inaugurado em 1900 e no qual viria a ser instalado o embrião do laboratório de Manguinhos. A partir de quatro narrativas distintas, é possível verificar o processo de ‘criação do mundo’ através do qual cada uma delas realiza sua própria expansão do que seria aparentemente uma ‘mesma’ viagem, permitindo assim configurar a historicidade desses relatos.The article intends to shed some light on the creation of the Manguinhos laboratory by recounting an episode which predates it: the journey to Santos taken in 1899 by Oswaldo Cruz, a young physician about to become a national hero and the Brazilian symbol of science. Destined to confirm the arrival of the infamous bubonic plague in Brazil for the first time, this journey was a milestone in justifying construction of a factory to produce anti-plague serum in Rio de Janeiro - the future Instituto Soroterápico Federal, inaugurated in 1900 and later embryo of the Manguinhos laboratory. Four different narratives of this journey reveal different processes of ‘creating the world’, each arriving at its own interpretation of the same journey.

  20. Estado nutricional de crianças atendidas na rede pública de saúde do município de Santos Nutritional status of children assisted in public health care settings of the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rafael Jeferson P. Damaceno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Caracterizar o perfil nutricional de crianças de 6 a 24 meses de idade frequentadoras de Unidades Básicas de Saúde do município de Santos e sua relação com condições socioeconômicas, de saúde, nutrição e alimentação. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 95 crianças em cinco Unidades Básicas de Saúde de diferentes regiões do município de Santos, em rotina normal de atendimento em Pediatria. Foram feitas medidas de peso e comprimento e aplicou-se um questionário às mães/responsáveis com perguntas sobre identificação, alimentação e nutrição, saúde e situação socioeconômica da criança. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pelas seguintes curvas de referência: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS, 1977, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000 e o padrão de crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde do ano 2006 (OMS, 2006. Analisaram-se os índices: peso para idade (P/I, estatura para idade (E/I e peso para estatura (P/E, medidos em escores Z. Consideraram-se como desnutrição os valores P/I, E/I e P/E menores que -2 escores Z e sobrepeso, valores de P/E maiores que +2 escores Z. RESULTADOS: Entre as crianças estudadas, foram observadas frequências de desnutrição para P/I em 4,2%, 9,5% e 3,2%, para E/I em 2,1%, 2,1% e 4,2% e para P/E, em 2,1%, 4,2% e 1,0% das crianças, respectivamente para as curvas NCHS (1977, CDC (2000 e OMS (2006. Com relação ao sobrepeso, as frequências foram 4,2%, 3,2% e 5,3%, respectivamente para as curvas NCHS (1977, CDC (2000 e OMS (2006. CONCLUSÕES: Notou-se baixa frequência de desnutrição. A curva da OMS identificou menor proporção de déficits nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the nutritional status of children with 6 to 24 months of age assisted by the public health service in the city of Santos, Brazil, and its relation with socioeconomic status, health and nutritional conditions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 95 children who attended

  1. Vaccination coverage in a cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving care at an AIDS outpatient clinic in Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79% and hepatitis B (56.7%, and lowest for hepatitis A (6.8% and for meningococcal group C (6%. Only 11.74% of the patients had received the influenza virus vaccine yearly since their HIV-infection diagnosis. No vaccination against influenza (p < 0.034 or hepatitis B (p < 0.029 were associated with CD4 counts <500 cells/mL; no vaccination against flu or pneumococcus were associated with detectable HIV viral load (p < 0.049 and p < 0.002, respectively. Immunization coverage is still very low among HIV-infected adults in this setting despite recommendations and high infection-related mortality.

  2. Vaccination coverage in a cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving care at an AIDS outpatient clinic in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79% and hepatitis B (56.7%, and lowest for hepatitis A (6.8% and for meningococcal group C (6%. Only 11.74% of the patients had received the influenza virus vaccine yearly since their HIV-infection diagnosis. No vaccination against influenza (p < 0.034 or hepatitis B (p < 0.029 were associated with CD4 counts <500 cells/mL; no vaccination against flu or pneumococcus were associated with detectable HIV viral load (p < 0.049 and p < 0.002, respectively. Immunization coverage is still very low among HIV-infected adults in this setting despite recommendations and high infection-related mortality.

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianizella, Sergio L; Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Aguiar, Nair O; Gravena, Waleska; do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Neto, Laérzio C; Faria, Diogo L; Lima, Natália A S; Solorio, Monica R; Maranhão, Louise; Lima, Ivan J; Cobra, Iury V D; Santos, Tamily; Lopes, Gerson P; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2018-02-01

    The tick fauna of Brazil is currently composed by 72 species. The state of Amazonas is the largest of Brazil, with an area of ≈ 19% of the Brazilian land. Besides its vast geographic area, only 19 tick species have been reported for Amazonas. Herein, lots containing ticks from the state of Amazonas were examined in three major tick collections from Brazil. A total of 5933 tick specimens were examined and recorded, comprising 2693 males, 1247 females, 1509 nymphs, and 484 larvae. These ticks were identified into the following 22 species: Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma goeldii, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatun, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, Amblyomma varium, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes cf. Ixodes fuscipes, Ixodes luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from 17 (27.4%) out of the 62 municipalities that currently compose the state of Amazonas. The following four species are reported for the first time in the state of Amazonas: A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, H. juxtakochi, and Ixodes cf. I. fuscipes. The only tick species previously reported for Amazonas and not found in the present study is Amblyomma parvum. This study provides a great expansion of geographical and host records of ticks for the state of Amazonas, which is now considered to have a tick fauna composed by 23 species. It is noteworthy that we report 1391 Amblyomma nymphs that were identified to 13 different species.

  4. The unique karyotype of Henochilus wheatlandii, a critically endangered fish living in a fast-developing region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

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    Priscilla C Silva

    Full Text Available Henochilus wheatlandii, the only species of this genus, is critically endangered and was considered extinct for over a century. The rediscovery of this fish in 1996 made it possible to study its phylogenetic relationships with other species in the subfamily Bryconinae. The aim of this study was to characterise the karyotype of H. wheatlandii. Standard staining, C-positive heterochromatin and nucleolar organiser region (NOR banding, chromomycin A(3 staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes were conducted on nineteen specimens collected in the Santo Antonio River, a sub-basin of the Doce River in Ferros municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Henochilus wheatlandii shared the same diploid number and chromosome morphology as other species of Bryconinae. However, its heterochromatin distribution patterns, NOR localisation, and FISH patterns revealed a cytogenetic profile unique among Neotropical Bryconinae, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this threatened species.

  5. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum. The term of the current representatives to the U.S. Section will...

  6. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on June 11, 2011. DATES: Applications should...

  7. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program AGENCY: Office of... Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: United States (U.S.)- Brazil Higher Education... institution of higher education (IHE) in another country in Latin America (in addition to Brazil) to create a...

  8. U.S.-Brazil Security Cooperation and the State Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    AU/ACSC/MIKAELSEN, D/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY U.S.- BRAZIL SECURITY COOPERATION AND THE STATE PARTNERSHIP...8 C. Security Cooperation with Brazil ...began as a question of basically why Brazil does not have a State Partnership Program with the National Guard and that being the case, how could it

  9. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

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    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  10. Technological behaviour of state-owned enterprises in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Fleury AC

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, case studies of decision making regarding choice of technology in public enterprises (Petrobras in the fertilizer industry and Embraer in the aerospace industry) in Brazil - outlines business organization; considers the impact of state intervention and the imperative of competitiveness on organization behaviour; contrasts private enterprise management practice; concludes that employment considerations are not taken into account. Organigrams, references, statist...

  11. Brazil - An Allied Country? (A Brazilian Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    numerous contingent; - open policy of immigration ; - military success. I.’ 9 I% - ,-b. r CHAPTER I I EM nDNO -r E f-3 I. .. (1) "Pau Brazil" is a kind of...the state of Bahia (see Map, Appendix I) in 1624, but they did not succeed and were expelled less than one year latter. They returned again in 1630...those dsessessionist who settled Brazil ?" The following conclusion was reached: there was no vestige of the immigrants in Espirito Santo; almost all

  12. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

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    VV Kuhnen

    Full Text Available The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008 of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%. In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  13. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, V V; Remor, J O; Lima, R E M

    2012-02-01

    The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008) of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%). In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  14. The state of the surgical workforce in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mário C; Guilloux, Aline G A; Matijasevich, Alicia; Massenburg, Benjamin B; Saluja, Saurabh; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2017-02-01

    A critical insufficiency of surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians exists around the world, leaving billions of people without access to safe operative care. The distribution of the surgical workforce in Brazil, however, is poorly described and rarely assessed. Though the surgical workforce is only one element in the surgical system, this study aimed to map and characterize the distribution of the surgical workforce in Brazil in order to stimulate discussion on future surgical policy reforms. The distribution of the surgical workforce was extracted from the Brazilian Federal Medical Board registry as of July 2014. Included in the surgical workforce were surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians. There are 95,169 surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians in the surgical workforce of Brazil, creating a surgical workforce density of 46.55/100,000 population. This varies from 20.21/100,000 population in the North Region up to 60.32/100,000 population in the South Region. A total of 75.2% of the surgical workforce is located in the 100 biggest cities in Brazil, where only 40.4% of the population lives. The average age of a physician in the surgical workforce is 46.6 years. Women make up 30.0% of the surgical workforce, 15.8% of surgeons, 36.6% of anesthesiologists, and 53.8% of obstetricians and gynecologists. Brazil has a substantial surgical workforce, but inequalities in its distribution are concerning. There is an urgent need for increased surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians in states like Pará, Amapá, and Maranhão. Female surgeons and anesthesiologists are particularly lacking in the surgical workforce, and incentives to recruit these physicians are necessary. Government policies and leadership from health organizations are required to ensure that the surgical workforce will be more evenly distributed in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

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    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p13 The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena, Reticularia and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  16. Clinical engineering & equipment policy for Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive equipment policy was established for the health system of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Research, development and regulation issues were integrated with all phases of the equipment life cycle, including: planning, procurement, acceptance testing, commissioning, maintenance, repair, refitting, and decommissioning. This policy was implemented by a multidisciplinary group, which advised and coordinated planning and procurement, created a technology management and maintenance network composed of clinical engineering teams and reference centers, and worked closely with manufacturers, universities and research institutes to improve the quality and increase the variety of domestic medical products in order to substitute for imported devices.

  17. Portrait of leptospirosis in the State of Acre, Brazil

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    Eloizy Mariana Dias de Medeiros Cirilo Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptospirosis is an acute bacterial disease, that has global distribution and manifests itself in subclinical or asymptomatic way, having mild or severe conditions that can lead to the death of the patient. Objective: To identify, among the municipalities of the state of Acre, Brazil, those with the highest incidence of leptospirosis between 2010 and 2015, and in addition, to determine the prevalence of this disease between the sexes. Methods: Descriptive study, of documentary character, with epidemiological base and quantitative approach. It was made by available documents through the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System of Brazil (DATASUS and also by the Health Secretary of State of Acre (SESACRE. Variables were selected as sex, age and year of notification. Regarding the analysis, it is emphasized that it was quantitative and descriptive and the results were presented in tables built in Microsoft Word. Results: It was found that the capital of the state of Acre, Rio Branco, led every year, contributing to the higher proportion of notifications related to leptospirosis. Regarding gender, there was a predilection for males and among age groups, the period of 20 to 39 years contributes to the greater number of cases of the disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is a worldwide public health problem and in the state of Acre, the high rainfall, the agglomeration of low income combined with inadequate sanitation, collaborate to infestation of transmitters animals, providing high rates of the disease. Thus, it appears that these high numbers can probably be attributed to the ineffectiveness of preventive activities, as well as insufficient investment directed to social policies and infrastructure sectors. Keywords: Infectious Disease. Leptospirosis. Prevalence. Incidence.

  18. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Igor da Cunha Lima Acosta

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The Reserve is one of the last lowland Atlantic Forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. The presence of IgG antibodies was determined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for T. gondii (cut-off 1:16 and N. caninum (cut-off 1:50. Positive samples were diluted 2-fold until the last positive dilution. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 77 (47.05% dogs and antibodies to N. caninum in 22 dogs (11.76% and one only dog was positive for both infections. No association between T. gondii and N. caninum infection and sex was observed (p>0.05. Control measures to prevent those infections in dogs that living surrounding the reserve and that had contact with wild animals are important to avoid the introduction of N. caninum in wild animals. This was the first study of frequency of occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in dogs from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  19. Carta al Presidente Eduardo Santos

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    Boletin Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available Carta de agradecimiento al Presidente de la Repúblia Eduardo Santos, escrita por el Gerente General del Banco de la República Iganacio Copete Lizarralde. En la cual le agradece por el obsequio de colecciones de impresos nacionales del siglo XIX a la Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango.

  20. The Role of the Judicial Branch in the Effectiveness of Health Public Policies in the State of Espírito Santo: (NON Existence of Dialogue Between the Parties

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    Tainá Aguiar Junquilho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental right to health, especially from the 1988 Constitution on, is inserted in the list of social rights that have been going through the process of judicialization. In this context, the present study had as its goal to analyze the (nonexistence of dialogue between the parties involved in the judicialization of health in the state of Espirito Santo. The research was made by the evaluation of the mechanisms currently available to the fulfillment of health public policies set by the constitution. After that, the participation of the Center of Technical Support with the judges in the State of Espirito Santo was also evaluated. A case analysis was  also  conducted  on  the  entered  decision  on  the  Court Injunction  nº  0025675-15.2013.8.08.0000 (100130043811, looking to evaluate how the process of granting the medication took place. Lastly, some instruments that could effectively help in the concretion of the fundamental right to health were suggested. Through these analysis, it was perceived that with the lack of Technical Support and especially in sight of the disability of communication between the Public and the Judicial Branches, many times premature and onerous judgments are made to one of the parties. However, the mechanisms on the New Code of Civil Procedures and the Center of Technical Support for Judges are important instruments that seek to promote cooperation between social actors and that must be used to materialize the fundamental dialogue between the parties.

  1. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.

  2. Agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids for silage production in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15592 Agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids for silage production in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléverton Marcelino de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso in the municipality of Santo Antônio do Leverger, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids in the cultivation of second crop for silage production. The experimental design was carried out with randomized blocks with 23 treatments (hybrids and three replications. Corn hybrids from different seed companies and recommended for the midwestern region of Brazil, were used. The agronomic traits were: stem diameter (cm, plant height and ear insertion (m; yield of green matter (ton. ha-1, percentage of spike, stem and leaves in green mass; ear productivity (ton. ha-1, dry matter content of stem + leaf and whole plant. Hybrids BF 9304, DKB 370, 177 DKB, BF 9534, BF 9417, AG 5020, BE 9701, P 3021 and P 30F98 had the highest production of green matter, plant height and spike insertion. The hybrid BF 9304 was also prominent for spike percentage (50.55%. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso in the municipality of Santo Antônio do Leverger, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of corn hybrids in the cultivation of second crop for silage production. The experimental design was carried out with randomized blocks with 23 treatments (hybrids and three replications. Corn hybrids from different seed companies and recommended for the midwestern region of Brazil, were used. The agronomic traits were: stem diameter (cm, plant height and ear insertion (m; yield of green matter (ton. ha-1, percentage of spike, stem and leaves in green mass; ear productivity (ton. ha-1, dry matter content of stem + leaf and whole plant. Hybrids BF 9304, DKB 370, 177 DKB, BF 9534, BF 9417, AG 5020, BE 9701, P 3021 and P 30F98 had the highest production of green matter, plant height and spike insertion. The hybrid BF 9304 was also prominent for spike

  3. Clinicians' perceptions of boundaries in Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrice Marie; Commons, Michael Lamport; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2006-01-01

    Although there has been considerable discussion of boundary excursions in clinician-patient relationships, little empirical research exists. This pilot study adds to the existing theoretical discussion by comparing perceptions by mental health professionals in Brazil and the United States of what may constitute boundary violations. Participants rated each possible boundary violation according to its degree of harm and professional unacceptability. Three distinct groupings of boundary violations were found: (1) core, consisting of the most serious violations; (2) separation of therapist and client lives, involving encounters between therapists and clients outside of therapy; and (3) disclosure and greeting behavior, involving disclosure of information about the therapist and greeting behavior. The U.S. and Brazilian perceptions were found to be surprisingly similar, with only a few differences.

  4. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marlucia da Silva; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Quincó, Patrícia de Lima; Monte, Rossicleia Lins; Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira; Perez-Porcuna, Tomás Maria; Martinez-Espínosa, Flor Ernestina; Saraceni, Valéria; Cordeiro-Santos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  5. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  6. New records of Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from shallow waters off Maceió, State of Alagoas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Manso, Cynthia Lara de Castro; Lima, Maria Lilian F.; Correia, Monica D.; Sovierzoski, Hilda H.

    2011-01-01

    Aspects of the distribution and ecology of ophiuroids from shallow waters off Maceió, State of Alagoas in north-eastern Brazil were characterized. The ophiuroid fauna comprised 16 species in nine genera and seven families, including three endemic species from Brazil, Ophiocnida loveni, Ophiactis brasiliensis and Amphiura kinbergi, and also four new records for the coastal reef system off north-eastern Brazil. On coral reefs 15 species were found and Ophiothrix angulata was the most abundant s...

  7. Alimentação: o trabalho de preservar e elaborar a identidade e a memória dos imigrantes alemães na Colônia de Santo Ângelo/RS (1850-1900 = Feeding: the act of preserving and preparing the identity and the memory of german immigrants at Santo Angelo Colony/RS/Brazil (1850-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Fabiana Helma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1850 o governo Imperial entrou em contato com o governo Provincial do Rio Grande do Sul para ajustar a instalação de uma colônia de imigrantes alemães em terras devolutas na região central do Estado, surgindo dessas aspirações a Colônia de Santo Ângelo. Ao tratarmos da questão do imigrante, é válido observar a relação dele com a alimentação, com a língua, com sua história, sua identidade e memória. A alimentação dos imigrantes alemães que vieram habitar a Colônia Santo Ângelo na metade do século XIX não foi um transplante direto das regiões de onde estes partiram. Foi necessário adaptar receitas e gostos aos ingredientes e sabores encontrados no Novo Mundo. A identidade assim, pode se manifestar e se sustentar através da comida, fazendo sentido, e, ao mesmo tempo, apontando para a exterioridade que é constitutiva da alimentação. A identidade, não é estável, homogênea e acabada, está em constante movimento e é cheia de discursos construídos e reelaborados através da memória. Para tanto, nosso interesse recai sobre as questões que envolvem o imaginário de identidade e os aspectos atrelados à alimentação nas práticas sociais e como essas questões são apresentadas a partir da memória dos imigrantes alemães. A memória pode apresentar-se de forma documentada ou ainda adquirida através da oralidade, por meio de depoimentos, testemunhos, registros escritos, entre outras modalidades. Quando refletimos sobre os aportes teóricos da memória e identidade percebemos que questões do cotidiano são elementos formadores dos conceitos sobre o assunto. Nessa perspectiva, a alimentação ascende como um agente social que atuava dentro e fora das colônias de imigrantes, na região central do Rio Grande do Sul identificando questões étnicas

  8. Stakeholder Choices in Adaptation and Public Finance Planning for Coastal Hazard Mitigation in a Changing World: Highlights from Case Studies in Santos, Brazil, Broward County, FL, US and Selsey, UK (The METROPOLE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Merrill, S.; Pelling, M.; Marengo, J. A.; Reynolds, C. J.; Langbehn, K.; Paterson, S.; Nunes, L. H.; Kartez, J.; Lockman, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Better integration of the human dimensions (values, beliefs, cultural identity, place, risk perceptions, communications, decision making) with scientific, technical, and economic data is required to advance effective municipal planning for adaptation to changes that can be expected to occur based on a changing climate. The international METROPOLE project offers practical insights and a path forward for coastal communities around the world with results from applied research carried out by social scientists, natural scientists, and practitioners working in coastal municipalities in Brazil, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Decision makers were interviewed to assess the Adaptive Capacity of their communities, and stakeholders were engaged in workshops to discuss the risks due to projected sea level rise (SLR) in terms of impacts and costs to property. The team investigated the social, cultural, and governance factors that shape decision making. Municipal leaders and local experts selected the SLR scenarios and adaptation options to be modelled using COAST, a state-of-the-art tool. The visualizations and risk maps integrated scientific and local economic data, and illustrated the potential impacts on 10,000 properties in each study area. Stakeholders voted on parameters to determine the cost-benefit ratio of potential adaptation options. Stakeholder priorities for local adaption planning, agreement with the need for increased fees/taxes, and acceptability of possible public finance mechanisms were evaluated with pre- and post-workshop surveys. The research identified similar patterns of adaptation "priorities" and new insight into how stakeholders consider public finance mechanisms for local action, in the context of "fiscal benefits and burdens." The research suggests implications for small towns, land-use policy changes, implementing adaptation options which deliver short and long-term benefits, and, for state and local governments to develop finance policy

  9. Variabilidade espacial e sazonal da concentração de elementos-traço em sedimentos do sistema estuarino de Santos-Cubatão (SP Spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations in sediments from the Santos-Cubatão estuarine system, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanilson Luiz-Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-element analyses of sediment samples from the Santos-Cubatão Estuarine System were carried out to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations. The study area contains a rich mangrove ecosystem that is a habitat for tens of thousands of resident and migratory birds, some of them endangered globally. Enrichments of metals in fine-grained surface sediments are, in decreasing order, Hg, Mn, La, Ca, Sr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, Nb, Y, Ni and Ga, relative to pre-industrial background levels. The maximum enrichment ranged from 49 (Hg to 3.1 (Ga. Mercury concentrations were greater in the Cubatão river than in other sites, while the other elements showed greater concentrations in the Morrão river. Concentrations of Mn were significantly greater in winter and autumn than in summer and spring. However, other elements (e.g. Cd and Pb showed the opposite, with greater concentrations in summer and spring. This study suggests that seasonal changes in physical and chemical conditions may affect the degree of sediment enrichment and therefore make the assessment of contamination difficult. Consequently, these processes need to be considered when assessing water quality and the potential contamination of biota.

  10. Spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao estuarine system, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Variabilidade espacial e sazonal da concentracao de elementos-traco em sedimentos do sistema estuarino de Santos-Cubatao (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: wanilson@ige.unicamp.br; Matos, Rosa Helena Ribeiro; Kristosch, Giane Chaves [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Machado, Wilson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geoquimica

    2006-03-15

    Multi-element analyses of sediment samples from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System were carried out to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations. The study area contains a rich mangrove ecosystem that is a habitat for tens of thousands of resident and migratory bi some of them endangered globally. Enrichments of metals in fine-grained surface sediments are, in decreasing order, Hg, Mn, La, Ca, Sr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, Nb, Y, Ni and Ga, relative to pre-industrial background levels. The maximum enrichment ranged from 49 (Hg) to 3.1 (Ga). Mercury concentrations were greater in the Cubatao river than in other sites, while the other elements showed greater concentrations in the Morrao river. Concentrations of Mn were significantly greater in winter and autumn than in summer and spring. However, other elements (e.g. Cd and Pb) showed the opposite, with greater concentrations in summer and spring. This study suggests that seasonal changes in physical and chemical conditions may affect the degree of sediment enrichment and therefore make the assessment of contamination difficult. Consequently, these processes need to be considered when assessing water quality and the potential contamination of biota.(author)

  11. An Integrated Framework to Analyze Local Decision Making and Adaptation to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Regions in Santos-Brazil, Broward County-USA and Selsey-UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Pelling, M.; Reynolds, C. J.; Merril, S. B.; Nunes, L. H.; Paterson, S.; Gray, A.; Lockman, J. T.; Kartez, J.; Moreira, F.; Greco, R.; Harari, J.; Souza, C. G.; Alves, L. M.; Hosokawa, E.; Tabuchi, E.

    2016-12-01

    One of the clear signals of present climate change is sea level rise (SLR). There is mounting evidence of other changes, including warmer temperatures in many localities, and changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme meteorological events, including wind, rain, and waves. A rising sea level combined with these factors and tides is expected to affect coastal communities through a number of processes, including increased risk of flooding and contamination of water sources. An international collaboration between Brazil, the United Kingdom, and the United States was designed to evaluate local decision making processes and to open convening space for local urban managers to reflect on possible actions toward adaption to SLR and the constraints imposed by framing administrative and institutional structures. The overall goal of the project is to help coastal communities better understand factors that facilitate or hinder their intrinsic, local decision-making processes related to planning for adaptation to risk. The project carried out these tests in 2014 and 2015 in one coastal city in each partnering nation. The framework was designed by an interdisciplinary team that incorporated social and natural scientists from these three nations, and which included local government officials. To support the overall goal, this paper 1) discusses some aspects of adaptive capacity and participant survey research conducted through the project, 2) presents technical modelling results for adaptation options that may reduce the potential damages of SLR and storm surge in each location, and 3) identifies project design considerations for similar transnational adaptation projects.

  12. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  13. Fish, upper Purus River, state of Acre, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, K. N. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna of the headwaters of the main tributaries of the mighty Solimões/Amazonas River hasbeen little studied. Considering the importance of those environments for the overall fish diversity in that river system,we surveyed the composition of the fish fauna of the upper portion of Purus River and two of its tributaries (Caeté andMacapá rivers, state of Acre, Brazil. The collections were done in November 2004, using a seine net and a set ofgillnets of different mesh sizes. A total of 735 specimens belonging to 86 species and 28 families were collected. Eightspecies, Creagrutus occidaneus, Phenacogaster pectinatus, Prionobrama filigera, Moenkhausia cf. lepidura,Leptagoniates pi (Characidade, Henonemus punctatus (Trichomycteridae, Toracocharax stellatus (Gateropelecidae,and Eigenmannia macrops (Sternopygidae composed nearly half of the specimens collected. This survey adds 48 newrecords to the ichthyofauna of Purus River and elevates to 243 the number of known fish species in that river, but agreater sampling effort is necessary to produce a reasonably complete picture of the fish diversity in the basin.

  14. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalea, Roger; Robertson, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Boaventura de Sousa Santos is Professor of Sociology, School of Economics, University of Coimbra and Distinguished Legal Scholar, Law School, University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is also director of the Center for Social Studies at the University of Coimbra. Santos is one of the outstanding theorists whose work is engaged with pressing social and…

  16. [Analysis of motor performance associated with the nutritional status of the elderly enrolled in the Family Health Program in the municipality of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Lisandra Delfino de Albuquerque; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares; Lima, Bruna Rafaela Dornelas de Andrade; Siqueira, Danielle Ferreira de; Fittipaldi, Etiene Oliveira da Silva; Arruda, Silvana Gonçalves Brito de; Faro, Zelyta Pinheiro de

    2012-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and the motor skills of the elderly registered in the Family Health Program in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco, by means of a transversal epistemological descriptive-analytical field study. The participants of this survey were 235 elders, both male and female of 60-years-old and over registered in the family health program in the urban area of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index and the circumference of the calf. Four motor tests were used to evaluate motor performance: Time Up&Go, Tinetti's Index, Functional Reach and Unipodal Support. The associations were checked using Spearman's correlation. The association of the nutritional status with the motor tests was statistically significant among males* or females**: (Time Up&Go rho = 0.290* / 350**; Functional Reach rho = 0.232* / 352**; Tinetti's Index rho = 243* / 363** and Unipodal Support rho = 221* / 475**. The evaluation of the results revealed an association between nutritional status and functional capacity of the elders no matter what gender; with obesity being a limiting nutritional condition to adequate performance in the tests.

  17. [Family Health Strategy: evaluating the access to SUS from the perception of the users of the health unit Resistência, in the region of São Pedro, Vitória, Espírito Santo State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Talita Dourado; Ferreira, Josilda Terezinha Bertulozo; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Lima, Rita de Cássia Duarte

    2010-07-01

    Family Health is a re-orientation strategy of the assistance model. One of its guiding principles is the establishment of a link between the health teams and the SUS users. The purpose of this research is to evaluate user access to the Family Health Unit (FHU) and the local problems faced. It is an exploratory, qualitative research, developed at the FHU Resistencia of São Pedro, located in the Greater Vitória, Espírito Santo State, with data collected individually through a semi-structured survey. It was found that the main needs of the population are incorporated in the services provided by the FHU, and the users face many difficulties with access. The main criticism is related to access to the specialized services. The majority of the participants of the survey showed satisfaction with the access to the services, and were not intimidated to express the difficulties faced. The work developed by the Family Heath Strategy (FHS) at FHU Resistência has been contributing to the improvement of the quality of the services offered by FHS to the users served, although many problems have been identified, which demonstrates the great challenge in redefining the assistance model, as proposed by this public policy.

  18. Sistemas de colheita da cana-de-açúcar e alterações nas propriedades físicas de um solo podzólico amarelo no Estado do Espírito Santo Sugar cane harvesting systems and changes on physical properties of a yellow podzolic soil in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bacis Ceddia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de longa duração (1989-1994 com cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB 739735 no município de Linhares, ES, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos seguintes sistemas de colheita da cana-de-açúcar: a Sistema Cana Crua - corte da cana sem queima, com posterior espalhamento do palhiço sobre o solo; e b Sistema Cana Queimada - corte da cana com queima prévia do palhiço, sobre algumas propriedades físicas de solo Podzólico Amarelo em área de tabuleiro. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Após seis anos de cultivo, constatou-se alteração do solo no sistema Cana Queimada, evidenciada pela diminuição do diâmetro médio ponderado dos agregados estáveis em água e pelo aumento da densidade do solo na profundidade de 0-5 cm. Foram também detectadas alterações significativas na porosidade total e distribuição de poros, na profundidade de 0-5 cm, devido às práticas de manejo do sistema de colheita. Verificou-se, ainda, que a velocidade de infiltração instantânea foi maior nas áreas sob tratamento sem queima. Os mesmos resultados não foram encontrados quando se avaliou o fluxo de água saturado através do método do permeâmetro.A long term (1989-1994 experiment with sugar cane (RB 739735 was carried out, in Linhares, ES, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effect of two systems of sugar cane harvesting: the first with previous burning (burned cane, and the second with crop residue remaining on the soil surface (green cane, on some physical properties of a tableland Yellow Podzolic soil. The statistical design was in randomized blocks, replicated six times. After six years of cultivation, a process of soil degradation was observed in the burned cane system, with decreasing of aggregate mean diameter and increasing of soil bulk density at the 0-5 cm soil depth. There were also differences in total porosity and porous distribution at the 0-5 cm soil depth as a consequence

  19. ALCOHOL- AND DRUG-RELATED CONTENTS IN THE NURSING PROGRAM AT ESPÍRITO SANTO FEDERAL UNIVERSITY: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce S. Macieira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was based on the project sponsored by the Organization of American States which wasdeveloped by São Paulo Federal University College of Nursing aiming at analyzing the alcohol- and drug-relatedcourse contents taught in undergraduate nursing programs in Brazil. Its purpose was to evaluate teachingconditions concerning this theme in the undergraduate nursing program at Espírito Santo Federal Universitythrough a descriptive survey applied to 86 nursing students. To 95% of the students, the problem related to theconsumption of alcohol and drugs is a theme of great interest. The inclusion of these themes in nursing programsis a facilitating condition for the education of nurses in this area.

  20. y Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Consuelo Chapela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la exploración teórico-metodológica del vínculo universidad-sociedad convocamos a dos grandes pensadores: Jaques Derridá y Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Derridá y de Sousa Santos son pensadores preocupados por identificar formas de potenciar y lograr el pensamiento crítico necesario para lograr una "universidad sin condición", resistir a los poderes hegemónicos, y para proponer caminos de entendimiento y acción en la consecución de los ideales de la Universidad Pública aún en el contexto de sometimiento económico y político en el que se intenta colocarlas. Aunque pertenecientes a campos del saber y corrientes del pensamiento diferentes, sus visiones y propuestas son insumos necesarios para la reflexión sobre la formación, condición y posibilidad de los vínculos universidad-sociedad.

  1. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  2. Oomycota (Straminipila) da Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba, Santo André, SP, Brasil Oomycota (Straminipila) from the Paranapiacaba Biological Reserve, Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Lenk Gomes; Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires-Zottarelli

    2008-01-01

    Durante o período de novembro/2003 a novembro/2004, coletas trimestrais de amostras de água e solo foram realizadas na Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba, importante fragmento de Mata Atlântica localizado no estado de São Paulo, para estudo da diversidade de oomicetos. Para o isolamento destes organismos, as amostras foram tratadas pelo método de iscagem, que resultou na identificação de 35 espécies, das quais uma pertence a Leptomitales, quatro a Peronosporales, duas a Rhipidiales, e 28 a Sa...

  3. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  4. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  5. Nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella) vittata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in an area of the Cerrado in the northeast of the State of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marina; de Albuquerque, Patrícia; Rêgo, Márcia

    2010-01-01

    The nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella) vittata Lepeletier was studied in the Urbano Santos Cerrado in the northeast of Maranhão State, Brazil. To date, this species has only been studied in trap-nests. The nesting behavior of this species in a natural condition is recorded for the first time. Nesting occurred in preexisting holes in dead trunks of aroeira, Astronium myracrodruon (Anacardiaceae), at the end of the rainy season. The cells were constructed with a mixture of sand and oil. After finishing the nests, females used only oil to line the entrance wall. Two females collected sand at the same time to build their nests, and another one was seen collecting resources at Byrsonima sp. (Malpighiaceae). The pollen load of one bee was analyzed and was found to contain mainly Hymenaea courbaril (Leg-Caesalpiniaceae). Development from egg to adult took about 60 days. Protandry was observed, being males smaller than females. The nests were parasitized by Coleoptera and Diptera. However, the females only showed aggressive behavior against females of the same species or genus.

  6. Regional inequalities in Espirito Santo: perspective of petroleum exploration; Desigualdades regionais no Espirito Santo: perspectivas da fronteira de exploracao petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Viviane Mozine [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Do donate the subject of the present article look to know the possible impacts about the space distribution of the wealth before the tendencies of exploration of petroleum and natural gas in the Espirito Santo it goes: will it be the exploration activity and production of petroleum and natural gas an element of increase of problems of the regional inequalities? The central object is to examines the the distribution of petroleum royalties among the state region, enforcing or finishing it. (author)

  7. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  8. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  9. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. The Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, as a segmented internationalization territory of the national space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolmar A. Rückert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes recent scenarios of the territorial restructuring and the new roles of territories as links of the global society, specially limited to the case of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The constitutional reform of the Brazilean economy southeast portion of the country - particularly in Rio Grande do Sul, a southern state that borders Argentina and Uruguay. The above process has redefined the role of borders from defensive to articulating, focusing the strategic infrastructure and the industrial economy's dynamic nuclei toward the geoeconomical core Mercosur. This has led to deepening of the interreglonal inequalities in southeastern and southern Brazil, as well as internally amongthe Federation states.

  11. Effects of tillage systems on physical properties of a cohesive yellow argisol in the northern state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Valmir José Zuffo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage systems are a key element of the technology of crop production, both with a view to crop yield and from the perspective of soil conservation and sustainability of the production system. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of five tillage systems on the physical properties of a cohesive Yellow Argisol. The experiment was installed in the field on January 21, 2011 and lasted 260 days, in an area previously used as pasture with Brachiaria grass without liming or fertilization, but irrigated by a low pressure spray system. The treatments, in five replications and in a randomized block design, consisted of: 1 disk plow (twice + disk harrow + ridge-furrow tillage (raising a ridge along the planting row, 135 days after transplanting (DP + RID; 2 disk plow (twice + disk harrow (DP no RID; 3 subsoiler (SB; 4 disk plow (twice + disk harrow + scarification with three shanks along the plant row (DP + SPR; and 5 disk plow (twice + disk harrow + scarification with three shanks in the total area (DP + STA. In all tillage systems, furrows were mechanically opened for the papaya plants. After the treatments, the mechanical resistance to penetration was determined, followed by soil moisture, mean weight diameter (MWD, geometric mean diameter (GMD, bulk density (BD, macroporosity (Ma, microporosity (Mi, and number of fruits per plant. There were differences in penetration resistance (PR between treatments. The subsoiler was more effective to decrease RP to a distance of 0.35 m from the plants, perpendicular to the plant row. The scarifier resulted in a lower PR than DP or SB, even at the depth of 0.40 m, and it was more effective at greater distances perpendicular to the plant. All tillage systems induced a PR between 2.0 and 3.0 MPa at the depth with the highest concentration of papaya tree roots (0-0.25 m, improving the physical conditions to this depth. There was no statistical difference among the treatments for BD, Ma, Mi, MWD, and GMD at a depth of 0.20 m. The disk plow changed the physical properties of the soil most intensely to a depth of 0.20 m. The use of scarification, reduced tillage with a forest subsoiler, or ridge-furrow tillage did not improve the physical properties in the rhizosphere. Reduced tillage with a forest subsoiler resulted in a lower number of fruits per plant than all other treatments, which did not differ from each other.

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of the Chytridiomycota from the "Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba", Santo André, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pires-Zottarelli, Carmen Lidia Amorim; Gomes, Alexandra Lenk

    2007-01-01

    Estudo da diversidade de quitridiomicetos de solo e água, na "Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba", resultou no isolamento de 29 espécies, com três Blastocladiales, 23 Chytridiales, uma Monoblepharidales e duas Spizellomycetales. Dos táxons isolados, 69% são citados pela primeira vez para a Reserva, 14% para o estado de São Paulo, e 7% para o país. É a primeira menção de Rhizophydium condylosum Karling no Brasil. The diversity study of the chytrids from soil and water from the "Reserva Biol...

  13. A new species of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae from the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    João Filipe Tonini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among Neotropical microhylids, the genus Chiasmocleis is exceptionally diverse. Most species of Chiasmocleis were described in recent years based on external morphology, but recent studies using molecular data did not support the monophyly of the species groups clustered based on feet webbing. Furthermore, a phylogeographic study of C. lacrimae estimated high genetic divergence and low gene flow among populations across small geographic ranges. Increasing the molecular and geographic sampling, and incorporating morphological data, we identified new cryptic species. Herein, we used novel genetic and morphological data to describe a new species of Chiasmocleis.

  14. Bioecology of the uçá-crab, Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763, in Vitória Bay, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Péricles Goes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The biology of the Ucides cordatus in Vitória Bay (ES was evaluated as a possible tool for population management. Sampling occurred monthly for about a year (October 1998 to September 1999 with biometric analysis (CW = carapace width; WW = total wet weight and abiotic factors on four transects, each with four bands (margin to supratidal region. The density was 3.7±1.5 crabs.m-2 , with an increase toward the supratidal region, and depth of the galleries with 1.1 ± 0.3 m. The salinity of interstitial water differed between bands, being higher in the supratidal. There was significant correlation between the abundance of individuals and some environmental factors, the same occurring with open and closed burrows. The sex ratio showed a predominance of females (1.0M:1.6F, particularly between 50 and 75 mm (CW. The higher incidence of closed burrows occurred in August and September, while ovigerous females were recorded from January to April. The relationship WW/CW showed isometry for males (WW=0,425.10-3 LC3,0014; R²=0.99 and females (WW=0,439.10-3 LC2,97; R²=0.99. For the total population the average size (CW and weight (WW were 54.6±11.8 mm and 77.5±42.4 g, respectively. The population is under super-exploitation, requiring proper management for the viability of activity in the area.A biologia de Ucides cordatus na Baía de Vitória (ES foi avaliada como subsídio ao manejo populacional. As amostragens ocorreram mensalmente durante um ano (outubro/1998 a setembro/1999, com análise biométrica (LC = largura da carapaça; PE = peso total úmido e de fatores abióticos em quatro transectos, com quatro faixas cada (margem à região supratidal. A densidade foi de 3,7±1,5 caranguejos.m-2, com incremento em direção à região supratidal, sendo a profundidade das galerias de 1,1±0,3 m. A salinidade da água intersticial diferiu entre as faixas, sendo mais elevada na região supratidal. Houve correlação significativa entre a abundância de exemplares e alguns fatores ambientais, o mesmo ocorrendo quanto as tocas abertas e fechadas. A razão sexual evidenciou um predomínio de fêmeas (1,0M:1,6F, particularmente entre 50 e 75 mm LC. A maior incidência de tocas fechadas ocorreu em agosto e setembro, enquanto as fêmeas ovígeras foram registradas de janeiro a abril. A relação PE/LC mostrou isometria para os machos (PE=0,425.10-3 LC3,0014; R²=0,99 e fêmeas (P=0,439.10-3 LC2,97; R²=0,99. Para o total da população a média de tamanho (LC e peso (PE foi de 54,6±11,8 mm e de 77,5±42,4 g, respectivamente. Os dados evidenciam que a população encontra-se sobrexplotada, requerendo manejo adequado para a viabilidade da atividade extrativa na área estudada.

  15. Lutzomyia gasparviannai Martins, Godoy & Silva, 1962, probable vector of Leishmania mexicana ssp. in Viana municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Aloísio Falqueto

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos flebótomos atraídos pelo Proechimys iheringi numa área onde esse roedor foi achado naturalmente infectado por Leishmania mexicana ssp., 98,1% foram Lutzomyia gasparviannai, o que sugere que essa espécie não antropofílica seja o transmissor entre os roedores mas não habitualmente ao homem.

  16. Update to the legend of the reconnaissance soil map of Espírito Santo state and the implementation of Geobases interface for data usage in GIS

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    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the upgrade of soil mapping units defined in surveys published by the Radambrasil/ IBGE in 1983 and 1987, with the main focus on the clas - ses of soils. To accomplish this, data from representative soil profiles of those surveys were used to classify them in the current Brazilian Classification System. The mapping units which do not have representative profiles were updated based solely on the direct correlation between the denomination used in the old and current classification. This work has also updated the legend of the reconnaissance soil map. The layer of information related to soil, in shape format, containing an attribute table with data regarding mapping units and the respective updated legends (taxonomy, symbols and colors is currently available and can be downloaded by the general public using the Geobases browser. A specific geographic interface for the partners of Geobases dedicated to soil studies has also been created. This interface allows the analysis, acquisition and input of new data, which contributes to the non-duplication of efforts and financial resources on activities of surveying, registering and maintenance of geospatial database related to soils in the State

  17. Comparisons between nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus populations in Brazil and the United States

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    W.J. Loughry

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared characteristics of a population of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus studied in the southern United States with a population found in the Atlantic coastal rainforest of Brazil. Adult armadillos in Brazil weighed less than those in the U.S., but when weight was accounted for, did not differ in other measures of body size. However, juveniles in the U.S. were proportionately bigger than those in Brazil. Armadillos in Brazil were less abundant (numbers sighted per h of observation and were active later at night than those in the U.S. Adult sex-ratios were male-biased in both populations. Finally, there was no significant difference in the incidence of littermate associations observed in the two populations, but groups of juveniles (which included non-littermates were observed more frequently in the U.S. Many of these differences may be due to the fact that armadillos are hunted extensively in Brazil but not in the United States.

  18. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions listed in the Kyoto Protocol by the utilization of landfill gas using solid oxide fuel cells; Reducao das emissoes de gases de efeito estufa listados no protocolo de Quioto pelo aproveitamento do gas gerado em aterros sanitarios utilizando celulas a combustivel de oxido solido. Estudo de caso do aterro municipal de Santo Andre, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Alexandre Gellert

    2007-07-01

    In the last few years, the Kyoto Protocol had been a subject very debated, at first, in a restricted niche, manly academics and professionals related to the area of climate changes. On 16th February 2005 the Kyoto Protocol entered into force and with this a lot of publicity all over the world, so today is common to hear about it at the mass communications media. The extension of the subject is broad, this work discuss the utilization of one the Kyoto's flexibility mechanisms, to contribute to financing the use of the landfill gas in the solid oxide fuel cells. Among the three mechanisms presented in the Kyoto Protocol, the clean development mechanism (CDM) in article 12, is the only one that can be implemented by non-Annex I countries, the case of Brazil. In other hand, the issue of solid waste in Brazil is critical. Even being illegal, most of the solid waste goes to uncontrolled areas in open air places 'lixoes', causing degradation of the environment and the communities around this areas, and also emission of green house gases (GHG), deregulating the global climate system. Decontaminate this areas and the construction of landfills to replace than, considering the landfill as a bioreactor, and the utilization of the biogas to generate power can improve nowadays picture that we are facing. The utilization of an innovative alternative technology as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) instead the conventional technologies will be more efficient and environmentally better. Among other barriers the cost is pointed as the biggest. In this context, the SOFC is the most expensive fuel cell, so the utilization of CDM can contribute to finance the application of this technology. Scenarios were made of 250 kW, 500 kW, 1,000 kW, 5,000 kW and 10,000 kW of installed power using biogas from the Municipal Landfill of Santo Andre. The calculations of the emission factor were done ex ante and ex post according to ACM0002. Comparing the costs of the installed power

  19. Review of Thoreyella Spinola with the description of two new species from Brazil (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae

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    Jorge Luiz Cabeleira Bernardes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Thoreyella Spinola with the description of two new species from Brazil (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Thoreyella Spinola is revised, with detailed descriptions of the four known species (T. brasiliensis Spinola, 1850, T. trinotata Berg, 1878, T. cornuta Berg, 1883 and, T. taurus Jensen-Haarup, 1931, and two new species from Brazil: T. maracaja sp. nov. (Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul states and T. paraiba sp. nov. (Paraíba State. New geographical country and state/ province records are as follows: T. cornuta from Rio Grande do Sul; T. brasiliensis from Mato Grosso, Espírito Santo, Catamarca, and Córdoba; and T. trinotata from Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul. A key to all species is given.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among turkeys on family farms in the state of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys and chickens on family farms in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In order to do so, 204 sera samples from turkeys were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination T...

  1. An Analysis of Context-Based Similarity Tasks in Textbooks from Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos Amaral, Rúbia; Hollebrands, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Three textbooks from Brazil and three textbooks from the United States were analysed with a focus on similarity and context-based tasks. Students' opportunities to learn similarity were examined by considering whether students were provided context-based tasks of high cognitive demand and whether those tasks included missing or superfluous…

  2. The Cultural Context of Educational Policy: Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jose Augusto; Lynch, Patrick D.

    Both Brazil's and the United States's educational policies are influenced by centralization of administration and formal objectives mandated by law. Arising from a long division in Brazilian life between government and people, public schools have been seen to be the concern of the government, which has preserved the antiquated division of…

  3. Glanders in donkeys (Equus asinus in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a case report

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    Rinaldo Aparecido Mota

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test.

  4. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test.

  5. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registered in a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographical distribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  6. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

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    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  7. [Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Raimunda N S; da Silva, Gilson S; Araújo, José R G; Das Chagas, Evandro F; Moreira, Aldenise A; Soares, Ana T M

    2006-01-01

    Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in citrus and mango crops in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, is recorded. Samples of 2003 and 2004 from several counties were identified and deposited in the Insect Collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Agronômica, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão.

  8. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  9. Psychoactive substances and the provision of specialized care: the case of Espirito Santo Substâncias psicoativas e a provisão de cuidados especializados: o caso do Espírito Santo

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    Marluce Miguel de Siqueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, we conducted a survey of all the institutions that provide treatment for psychoactive substances in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil during the period 2004-2005. METHOD: We used a snowball sampling technique to include all the treatment facilities in our State in which we employed a semi-structured interview instrument for key informants at each institution. We present descriptive results and test differences between groups using the Chi-square test. RESULTS: In Espirito Santo, 250 institutions provide treatment for psychoactive substances and are distributed as follows: governmental (17.6%, nongovernmental (22.8%, and self-help groups (59.6%. Of these 250 institutions, 85 provide direct care, with the majority found in the Central region (70.6% and followed by the Northern (15.3% and Southern (14.1% regions. The majority of those that provide direct care are private nonprofit centers (16.8% institutions with ties to religious organizations make up nearly one-third (30.6% of direct care providers. The drugs most consumed by those seeking care are alcohol (82.4%, tobacco (81.2% and marijuana (68.2%. The institutions generally give assistance to people in the 26-45 years age group (89.4%; with regard to gender, the institutions take care of: men (31.8%, women (5.9%, and both sexes (56.5%. The treatment models most used are psychosocial (58.8%, therapeutic community (47.1% and biomedical (43.5% and the work is evaluated through the team technique (72.9 %. CONCLUSIONS: In the state of Espirito Santo, indirect care services are many times greater than those that offer direct care and the majority of all services are in the Central region. The populations in the mainland have a comparative disadvantage when it comes to treatment options for psychoactive substance use. We observed that a significant number of institutions that provide drug abuse treatment have financial support from religious organizations. The Espirito

  10. Occurrence of female sexual hormones in the Iguazu river basin, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Karina Scurupa Machado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual hormones have attracted the attention of the scientific community due to the effects that they cause by interfering in the endocrine system. Many contemporary studies have sought to monitor some of the main female sexual hormones in surface waters in Brazil. Current article evaluates the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and progesterone in the surface waters of Curitibaand the surrounding metropolitan area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, performed at 7 different sites. The study revealed that a range of concentrations between 0.07 and 13.45 µg L-1 of female sexual hormones was extant; higher values than these were found in other regions ofBrazil and in other countries. Higher concentrations have been attributed to the region´s sanitation due to large sewage amounts. Sewage discharge has also been confirmed by results of limnological parameters.

  11. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

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    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  12. States, Movements and the New Politics of Blackness in Colombia and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paschel, Tianna Shonta

    2011-01-01

    The 1990s marked a dramatic shift throughout Latin America from constitutions and state policies that hinged on ideas of colorblindness and mestizaje to targeted policies for black and indigenous peoples. This study analyzes the role black social movements played in this shift in Colombia and Brazil, two countries where the state adopted the most comprehensive reforms for black populations in the region. It also analyzes the impact of achieving such reforms on black movements' trajectories in...

  13. Hymenoptera “Parasitica” in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Eduardo Mitio Shimbori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A checklist composed of 105 species of parasitic Hymenoptera, which includes the non-aculeate Apocrita, recorded in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil, is presented. A new list, containing 153 genera obtained in recent surveys is also presented; out of these 131 are new records. The major knowledge gaps for these organisms in the State and the prospects for future studies for these organisms are discussed.

  14. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918: Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

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    Fortes, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian burrowing snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis, occurs in aquatic habitats such as swamps, from MinasGerais and Distrito Federal until Rio Grande do Sul. In spite of this wide distribution, the species’ geographic range stillremains unclear. This note reports the occurrence of G. brasiliensis in the municipality of Vargem Bonita, state of SantaCatarina, south Brazil, extending the species’ range ca. 80 km to the west in this state.

  15. Radiographic analysis of 1000 cast posts in Sergipe state, Brazil

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    Caroline Garcez MENDONÇA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Endodontically treated teeth with extensive coronary destruction require posts and cores to enable prosthetic restoration. Despite the increasing use of prefabricated posts, cast metal posts and cores are still widely used. The quality of the latter is important for the longevity of restorative treatment, and failure can occur if the fundamental principles are not followed. Objective To radiographically evaluate the prosthetic principles of 1000 cast metal post-and-core restorations performed in single-rooted teeth and their coherence with the principles used for their confection. Material and method Digital periapical radiographs of 1000 endodontically treated, single-rooted teeth with cast metal posts and cores were selected from the collection of a radiology clinic (Centro de Imagem, Aracaju/SE, Brazil. The images were analyzed using a measurement software (ImageJ, USA in accordance with the fundamental prosthetic principles: length and diameter of the post, ratio between post and bone crest, contiguity of post to the root canal, gap between post and the remaining root canal filling, amount of remaining root canal filling, and absence of periapical lesion. The data were qualitatively analyzed, classified into ideal and not ideal, and submitted to the chi-square test (α=0.05. Result Only 6.7% of the cast metal posts analyzed were satisfactorily fabricated. Conclusion Many prosthetic criteria are neglected during the manufacturing of cast metal post and cores, resulting in inadequate work that may compromise the longevity of restorative treatments.

  16. Conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Fernando Henrique Furlan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de conidiobolomicose em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina. O surto ocorreu entre os meses de dezembro e março de 2006, no município de Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, região litorânea do Estado. A propriedade possuía 75 ovinos da raça Santa Inês e seis desses animais adoeceram. Clinicamente os animais doentes apresentavam dificuldade respiratória, corrimento nasal seroso a mucossanguinolento e, por vezes exolftalmia. Na necropsia verificou-se uma massa amarelada na região etmoidal e adjacências que, às vezes, atingia os linfonodos regionais, cérebro, globo ocular e pleura. Microscopicamente a massa caracterizava-se por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso com áreas necróticas associadas a hifas largas pouco ramificadas. Através de exame molecular detectou-se DNA de Conidiobolus lamprauges. Os aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos e moleculares caracterizam a conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos.An outbreak of conidiobolomycosis affecting sheep in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil is reported. The disease occurred in six Santa Inês breed sheep from a flock of 75 during the rainy season. Common clinical signs were noisy respiration and dyspnea, serous to mucosanguineous nasal discharge and exophthalmus. At necropsy there was a dense yellow mass in the nasopharyngeal area affecting the ethmoidal region, turbinate bones and occasionally limph nodes, central nervous system and pleura. Histopathologycally there was multifocal granulomas whith an eosinophilic necrotic reaction containing ribbon type hyphae similar to zygomycetous fungi. At molecular examination Conidiobolus lamprauges DNA was detected. The clinical, epidemiological, macroscopical, microscopical and molecular aspects characterize conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep.

  17. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the current U.S. Section of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on August 12...

  18. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Apistogramma borellii (Regan, 1906: First record for state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanés, L. E. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This note extends the distribution of the dwarf cichlid fish Apistogramma borellii, and is the first record of thespecies, and the genus for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, suggesting that the fish diversity of wetlands,although relatively high, is still poorly investigated in southern Brazil.

  19. The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System: From R&D to Operational Regional Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Fragoso, M.; Moore, A. M.; dos Santos, F. A.; Marques Da Cruz, L.; Carvalho, G. V.; Soares, F.

    2016-02-01

    Santos Basin is located on the Southwestern Brazilian Ocean Basin and comprises the main offshore oil reserves of Brazil. The exploration and production activities on its ocean are growing in accelerated pace, which means that oil spill contingency and search & rescue operations are likely to be more frequent. Therefore, ocean current reliable nowcasts and forecasts has become even more important for this region. The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System was designed as an R&D project and its main objective was to establish and maintain a systematic oceanographic data collection for this region in order to study its ocean dynamics and improve regional ocean forecast through data assimilation. In the first three years of the project surface drifters, profiling floats and gliders were deployed to measure and monitor mainly the Brazil Current Western Boundary System, a highly unstable baroclinic current system, that present several meanders and mesoscale eddies activities. Throughout the development of the project, the team involved was able to learn how to operate the equipment, treat the collected data and use it to assimilate on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). After performing a one-year 4DVAR assimilation cycle (Fragoso et al., 2015) in which the forecasting skill was assessed, the system was considered mature enough to start producing ocean circulation forecasts for Santos Basin. It is the first time in Brazil that a regional ocean model using a 4DVAR data assimilation scheme was used to produce high resolution operational ocean current forecasts. This paper describes all the components of this forecasting system, its main results and discoveries with special focus on the Brazil Current System Transport and mesocale eddies dynamics and statistics.

  20. Interview to Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Manuela; Dietz, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    In this interview, Professor Boaventura de Sousa Santos addresses, on the one hand, the process of transnationalisation of universities and the neoliberalisation of the classical model of the European university. On the other hand, he stresses that the recognition of difference and internal pluralism of science, which have pervaded the…

  1. Characterization of autochthonous wine yeasts isolated in vineyards of the State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Samarina Rodrigues Wlodarczyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of grape must into wine is a complex microbiological process and is the product of the combined action of several genera and species of yeasts, dominated in the intermediate and final stages of fermentation by an alcohol-tolerant Saccharomyces sp. Current assay characterizes 42 autochthonous yeasts, isolated from the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, according to the following oenological properties: H2S production, fermentation rate, flocculation capacity, and killer phenotype (killer, sensitive and neutral characteristics. Current analysis is the first to evaluate killer phenotype in yeasts isolated from the State of Paraná, Brazil. With regard to their oenological traits, the yeasts evaluated were not suitable for winemaking and suggested that, depending on the harvest, the winemakers may face problems during the spontaneous wine production process.

  2. Myxomycetes, State of Piauí, Northeast Brazil

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    Ponte, M. P. M. P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no record in the literature about collections of Myxomycetes in the State of Piauí before 1997. This check-list intends to cover all currently reported taxa from savanna (cerrado, deciduous mixed forest, riverine forest, and urban zone environments of Piauí between 1998-2005. It contains a classification of the genera in order of families, followed by a list of species and lower taxa set out in alphabetical order within each genus. The three subclasses and six orders of the Class Myxomycetes are represented by eight families, 20 genera, 50 species, and two varieties. Liceaceae, represented by Licea biforis, is reported for the first time for the State of Piauí.

  3. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Papini Solange; Andréa Mara Mercedes de

    2001-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation...

  4. Freshwater Fishes, Ilha de Santa Catarina, southern coastal drainage of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Bertaco, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ilha de Santa Catarina is situated in southern Brazil, Atlantic Forest, in the state of Santa Catarina,municipality of Florianópolis. Fish specimens were collected in 15 sampling points along the drainages of rio CórregoGrande, rio Palha, rio Ratones, rio Tavares, rio Vermelho, as well as in the channel of lagoa do Peri. Specimensbelonging to 16 species (one of them exotic were collected, distributed in 12 families and six orders.

  5. Herpetofauna, Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Goiás, Brazil.

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    Vaz-Silva, W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a checklist of the herpetofaunal assemblage from Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant region(UHE Espora, southwestern of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Representatives of 32 amphibian and 71 reptile species wereobtained during faunal monitoring and faunal rescue programs carried out in the study area. The obtained species listand distribution records are here discussed in an attempt to improve the still limited knowledge on Cerradoherpetofaunal assemblages.

  6. Hechtiella lopesi sp. n. from São Paulo state, Brazil (Siphonaptera: Rhopalopsyllidae

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    Lindolpho Rocha Guimaräes

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of the male and female of Hechtiella lopesi sp. n., collected on Proechimys sp. and Tayra barbara from Boracéia Ecological Station, Salesópolis, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new species is discussed in relation to Hechtiella lakoi and Hechtiella nitidus, species previously included in the genus Polygenis. The name is a tribute to the late Brazilian entomologist, Prof. Hugo de Souza Lopes.

  7. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Rocha, Lívia Laura dos Santos; Monte, Rossicléia Lins; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. Since the 1970s, the (currently named) Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD)] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  8. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  9. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nosocomial Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission among healthcare students in a high incidence region, in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo Transmissão nosocomial por Mycobacterium tuberculosis nos estudantes da área de saúde em uma região de alta incidência de tuberculose, Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This open comparative study for evaluating hypersensitivity to tuberculin among medical students (n=441, nursing students (n=178 and economics students (n=230 in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, had the aim of assessing whether the prevalence of positive tuberculin tests among healthcare students could be used as a sentinel event for nosocomial transmission in localities with high endemicity. There was a significant change in the frequency of purified protein derivative reactivity in the nursing students (20. 3% and medical students (18. 4%, in comparison with the economics students (6% (p Este estudo aberto, comparativo, para avaliar a hipersensibilidade a tuberculina em estudantes de medicina (n=441, enfermagem (n=178 e economia (n=230 em Vitória, ES, teve por objetivo avaliar se a prevalência de teste tuberculínico positivo em discentes da área da saúde poderia ser utilizada como evento sentinela de transmissão nosocomial em locais de alta endemicidade. Houve mudança significante na freqüência de reatividade purified protein derivative no grupo de estudantes de enfermagem (20,3% e medicina (18,4% comparativamente ao grupo dos estudantes de economia (6% p<0,001. Como esperado os alunos de medicina e enfermagem tem mais conhecimento sobre a tuberculose que os de economia (p <0,001. Nossos dados sugerem que a incidência da infecção pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis em estudantes de enfermagem e medicina na nossa região com alta endemicidade de tuberculose não difere de países com baixa incidência da doença. Estes dados reforçam a necessidade de implementação de programas de biossegurança para essa população-alvo.

  11. Checklist of the Heleomyzidae, Neriidae and Oestridae (Insecta, Diptera in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Julia Calhau

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We provide a checklist of flies of the families Heleomyzidae, Neriidae, and Oestridae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Heleomyzidae are represented in Brazil by 13 species, and only Neorhinotora aristalis (Fischer is recorded to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The two reported species of Neriidae, Longina abdominalis Wiedemann and Nerius pilifer Fabricius, are among the 15 species now known in Brazil. The Oestridae family is represented by two species distributed in two genera: Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. and Cuterebra rufiventris Macquart.

  12. Meloidogyne luci, a new infecting nematode species on common bean fields at Paraná State, Brazil

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    Machado A. C. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common bean diseased plants with symptoms of decline and root knots were collected in two growing areas in the municipality of Araucária, Paraná State (Brazil. Morphological (perineal patterns, biochemical (esterase phenotypes and molecular (ITS1 sequences studies allowed us to identify the infecting nematode as Meloidogyne luci. To our knowledge, this is the first formal record of M. luci parasitizing common bean in Paraná State, Brazil.

  13. Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes from the Late Aptian of São Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil

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    FRANCISCO J. DE FIGUEIREDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT †Codoichthys carnavalii is a clupeomorph fish only found in calcareous concretions of Codó Formation, State of Maranhão. It is known based on three specimens housed in the paleontological collection of the Museu de Ciências da Terra of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro. It was omitted in most of recent cladistic analyses about clupeomorphs. We revisited its anatomy furnishing new data and additional restorations. Furthermore we explored the relationships of †Codoichthys with the computer program TNT based on a matrix with 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. Elops was used to root the tree. The strict consensus was obtained from three shortest trees (L=181; CI=0.387; RI=0.632. The monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is supported by a sigmoid cleithrum and an uniquely derived predorsal scute series. Most of subgroups showed low support indices. †Sorbinichthyidae and †Horseshoeichthys appear in the most basal position, and not closely related to †Armigatus or †Diplomystus. A †Diplomystus clade is more advanced than †Armigatus and sister-group of remaining †ellimmichthyiforms. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines. Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and all other †ellimmichthyiform taxa.

  14. Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Late Aptian of São Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Francisco J DE; Ribeiro, Douglas R M

    2016-09-01

    †Codoichthys carnavalii is a clupeomorph fish only found in calcareous concretions of Codó Formation, State of Maranhão. It is known based on three specimens housed in the paleontological collection of the Museu de Ciências da Terra of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro. It was omitted in most of recent cladistic analyses about clupeomorphs. We revisited its anatomy furnishing new data and additional restorations. Furthermore we explored the relationships of †Codoichthys with the computer program TNT based on a matrix with 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. Elops was used to root the tree. The strict consensus was obtained from three shortest trees (L=181; CI=0.387; RI=0.632). The monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is supported by a sigmoid cleithrum and an uniquely derived predorsal scute series. Most of subgroups showed low support indices. †Sorbinichthyidae and †Horseshoeichthys appear in the most basal position, and not closely related to †Armigatus or †Diplomystus. A †Diplomystus clade is more advanced than †Armigatus and sister-group of remaining †ellimmichthyiforms. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines). Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and all other †ellimmichthyiform taxa.

  15. DIAGNOSIS OF SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

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    Carlos Eduardo Rangel Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With a technical approach, this diagnosis aims to fill a gap in the overview of the activity, considering its technical aspects that manage the fishing effort of shrimping of Penambuco. From October 2013 to August 2014, the fishing grounds were identified used in this activity, as well as the fishing method, the number of boats and fishermen acting, type of boat and gears used. Analyses were performed with the major communities operating in this fishery (Recife, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Barra de Sirinhaém and São Jose da Coroa Grande. The analyzes of the catch were tested using one-way ANOVA (α 5%. They observed two traditional types: the beach seining and trawing. It was cataloged about 50 vessels in the activity, with approximately 100 fishermen. They are caught mainly three types of shrimp: pink (Farfantepenaeus spp., Seabob (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and white (Lithopenaeus schmitii. Statistical data concentrated in the metropolitan area of Recife and Barra de Sirinhaém. There seems to be a direct relationship rainfall with shrimp production because with increased rainfall, there is a higher volume of landing fishery. Barra de Sirinhaém is the main area used in the State. Keywords: ‘mangote’; trawling fishing; pink shrimp; Farfantepenaeus spp.

  16. Federalism and Public resources in Brazil: Federal Discretionary transfers to States

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    Márcia Miranda Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses intergovernmental rel ations in Brazil based on the dynamics of t he distribution of federal d iscretionary transfers to the states between 1997 and 2008. The theme becomes more relevant when we consider the process of fiscal recent ralization that has taken place in Brazil, particularly from 1994 on, and the importance of discretionary transfers for state budgets. Our purpose is to ident ify which factors can account for a higher or lower state’s share in overall resources, by building on two explanatory dimensions: t he partisan-political and the social-redistributive. The first one examines how the political dynamic affects resource allocation; the second, if discretionary transfers exhibit a redistributive character across states. Our findings show that a governor’s partisan alignment w it h the president or with the president’s government coalition are important factors in determining higher resource allocation for his/her state, and that states that are overrepresented in the lower chamber are favored. We have also found a redistributive character associated with federal discretionary transfers, favoring states with lower Human Development Index (HDI rankings.

  17. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  18. A Coligação Operária de Santos quebrou a pasmaceira Workers’ Colligation of Santos ceased the apathy

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    Dainis Karepovs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se o surgimento e a ação da Coligação Operária de Santos nas eleições municipais de 29 de novembro de 1925. A Coligação Operária, que atuou até 1930, foi a primeira organização eleitoral criada pelo Partido Comunista do Brasil (PCB e que encontrou muitas resistências na forte cultura abstencionista que impregnava os trabalhadores brasileiros. Formada com base em sindicatos influenciados pelos comunistas, a Coligação Operária foi um dos passos iniciais ensaiados pelos trabalhadores brasileiros em sua inserção na cena político-partidária brasileira.This text discusses the emerging and the action of the Workers’ Colligation of Santos during municipal elections that took place in November, 29, 1925. The Workers’ Colligation, which acted until 1930, was the first electoral organization created by the Communist Party of Brazil (PCB, in Portuguese which had many difficulties because of the resistant abstentionist culture of Brazilian working class. The Workers’ Colligation, whose foundation was based in labour unions, influenced by communists, was one of the initial steps towards Brazilian workers insertion into the political scene in Brazil.

  19. Infección por HIV y comportamiento de riesgo relacionados con colectores de basura de Santos, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rozman,Mauro Abrahão; Alves,Igor Santino; Porto,Marcela Alves; Gomes,Patrícia Oliveira; Ribeiro,Nilva Maria; Nogueira,Lucyene Aparecida Andrade; CASEIRO, Marcos Monteiro; Silva, Vera Aparecida da; Massad, Eduardo; BURATTINI, Marcelo Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C and syphilis and to describe risk behaviors associated to their transmission among recyclable waste collectors. METHODS: A seroepidemiological survey was carried out in the city of Santos, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. A total of 315 individuals were enrolled in the survey, of which 253 subjects underwent serological testing HIV, hepatitis B and C and syphilis. Statistical analysis consisted of univariate and bivariate analys...

  20. Rabies virus in Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.

  1. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  2. THE INSTRUMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPENSATION IN BRAZIL AND IN THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS

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    Eva Costa de Barros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compensation for environmental projects that cause significant environmental impact is an instrument established by Article 36 of Law No. 9.985/2000. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze relevant environmental legislation to the Environmental Compensation instrument in Brazil and use the state of Minas Gerais as a case study. For this we adopted the techniques of bibliographic and documentary research. The result showed that environmental compensation increased in the state of Minas Gerais and can be an important tool to help in environmental conservation through protected areas.

  3. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    AN. Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period and from April through July 2000 (rainy period during four pre established sampling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.

  4. Adaptation of spineless cactus to semi-arid region of Paraíba state, Brazil.

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    Aldo Torres-Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of two spineless cactus of the species Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck (Miuda and Alagoas under the environmental conditions of the semi-arid region in the tate of Paraiba, Brazil. An experimental randomized block design with five replications was used. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in São João do Cariri county, State of Paraiba, Brazil (7°22’45,1”S and 36°31’47,2”W, from August 2004 to May 2007. Every twenty-eight days the relative growth rate of cladodes height, length, width, and thickness were evaluated, as well as the number of cladodes per plant and the photosynthetic active area of cladodes and plant. The biomass accumulation per hectare was also measured at the end of the experimental period. One thousand days after planting, the cultivars did not differ in length and width of cladodes. The Alagoas cultivar showed greater thickness of cladode than the Miuda. The Miuda had a larger number of cladodes (p>0.05. There was no difference (p>0.05 in biomass accumulation between cultivars. In conclusion, both cultivars showed similar behavior in the environmental conditions of the semiarid region of the State of Paraiba, Brazil.

  5. Multiple trends of tertiarization: A comparative input–output analysis of the service sector expansion between Brazil and United States

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    Kênia Barreiro de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The service sector expansion has shown to be a multiple trend process, producing distinct sectorial compositions. The present paper aims to make a comparison between two large economies in different stages of development with an extensive service sector (Brazil and United States, by focusing on final and intermediary demand changes and sectorial productivity as well. Input–output matrices for Brazil and United States were used and two applications were carried out: structural decomposition analysis and total factor productivity. Main results are as follows. Firstly, the growth in services was fostered by several factors, among which household consumption assumes an important role for both countries. Second, inter-industrial linkages play a major role only for United States. Thirdly, there is now evidence of cost disease for Brazil. Finally, productivity is lower in Brazil, nonetheless labor productivity increased above the average in some service sectors.

  6. First records of Zygnematales (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta for the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Ivania Batista de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first taxonomic inventory of the order Zygnematales in the Litoral Norte Environmentally Protected Area, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fifty samples of planktonic and periphytic material were collected, from lotic and lentic environments, during the summer (January-March and winter (June-August of 2009. We identified 18 taxa distributed among five genera (Cylindrocystis, Mougeotia, Netrium, Spirogyra, and Spirotaenia. Of those 18 taxa, eight were new additions to the Brazilian desmid flora: Mougeotia calcarea; Mougeotia elegantula; Spirogyra gracilis; Cylindrocystis crassa var. elliptica; Cylindrocystis brebissonii var. minor; Cylindrocystis brebissonii var. turgida; Netrium digitus var. parvum; and Netrium oblongum var. oblongum. The geographical distributions of ten taxa were extended to include northeastern Brazil.

  7. Digenea parasites of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris (Osteichthyes, Acestrorhynchidae) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Berenice Maria Musco; Justo, Marcia Cristina Nascimento; Anjos, Camila Saraiva Dos; Malta, José Celso de Oliveira; Dumbo, José Chissiua

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the helminthofauna of digenean parasites of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris in the state of Amazonas (Brazil). Eight species belonging to four families were recovered: Metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Diplostomidae) and Clinostomum marginatum (Clinostomidae) and mature specimens of Bellumcorpus majus, Prosorhynchoides carvajali, Rhipidocotyle santanaensis (Bucephalidae); Prosthenhystera obesa (Callodistomidae); Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae) and Phyllodistomum spatula (Gorgoderidae). Examining specimens belonging to the genus Bellumcorpus collected from A. falcirostris, were observed a great variation in the size and shape of testes, which also could be observed in the type specimens of Bellumcorpus majus and B. schubarti. Considering the similar morphology and morphometric characteristics of both species, in this paper B. schubarti is considered synonym of B. majus. Acestrorhynchus falcirostris is a new host records for all these species of digenean, except to A. compactum and C. marginatum. Prosorhynchoides carvajali is referred for the first time in Brazil.

  8. [Multiple causes of maternal mortality related to abortion in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2000-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eunice Francisca; Almeida, Pollyanna Ferraz Botelho de; Paixão, Cilene de Oliveira; Bicalho, Paula Gonçalves; Errico, Livia de Souza Pancrácio de

    2017-02-13

    This study aimed to analyze trends in maternal mortality from abortion in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2011, addressing multiple causes of death. The analysis focused on women's social and demographic characteristics, year, location, and underlying and associated causes of death. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and abortion-specific ratio were calculated for each year, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient (p abortion were recorded, accounting for 15% of maternal deaths, and MMR remained stable. The ratio between multiple causes and underlying cause of death from abortion was 1.38. Use of the multiple-causes method proved effective for lending greater visibility to abortion. Problems deriving from the illegality of abortion in Brazil favor the appearance of causes that mask maternal deaths, in addition to their underreporting. Inter-sector actions are thus necessary to define strategies for reducing social inequalities and improving the quality of services for women.

  9. [Identification of schistosomiasis risk areas using spatial analysis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Luciana Lobato; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Pacheco, Selma Turrioni Azevedo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Carneiro, Deborah Daniela M Trabuco; Bavia, Maria Emilia

    2011-05-01

    The spread of schistosomiasis mansoni defies efforts by Brazil's Unified National Health System, thus demonstrating the need to reassess endemic control programs in the country. The aim of this study was to demarcate geographic areas at risk of schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil, and to establish the epidemiological and socioeconomic profile of the disease in this municipality (county). Kernel density estimator exploratory analysis was used for visual identification of areas at risk. Kulldorff & Nagarwalla's spatial analysis was used to obtain statistically significant clusters and to measure risk. These technologies identified four risk areas for schistosomiasis. Clusters identified within the risk areas were characterized by lower socioeconomic conditions. Multiple correspondence analyses showed a distinct profile for positive patients in the primary cluster. The techniques employed here represent an important methodological acquisition for tracking and controlling schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas.

  10. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil

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    Cristiane Maria Fernandes de Melo

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6% and cestodeRaillietina sp. (2.4%. A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots andRaillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus(Synhimantus rectus (100% and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%. In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita andRaillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential.

  11. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Cristiane Maria Fernandes de; Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; Wagner, Paulo Guilherme Carniel; Febrônio, Andrei Brum

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes) necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6%) and cestode Raillietina sp. (2.4%). A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots and Raillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus (Synhimantus) rectus (100%) and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%). In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita and Raillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential.

  12. Evaluation of umbu-caja germplasm in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Rogério Ritzinger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The umbu-caja is a tree native to the Northeastern region of Brazil, with promising perspectives of economicuse. Aiming to detect variability in the species, 43 umbu-caja genotypes were identified in 14 counties of the state of Bahia,Brazil. Fruits of these genotypes were collected for physical, chemical and physico-chemical analysis. The range of variationof all analyzed traits was large. Among genotypes, there was, however, predominance of pear-shaped to slightly pear-shapedfruits, fruit weight ranging from 15 g to 27 g, pulp/seed index around 2.0, total titratable acidity between 1.5 and 2.6%, totalsoluble solids between 9.0º and 14.0º Brix, and vitamin C content ranging from 3.6 to 16.4 mg ascorbic acid 100g pulp-1. Thepresence of seeds in genotypes ranged from 5 to 100 % of fruits without seeds.

  13. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil ( Lepidoptera , Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea )

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz-Santos,Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restri...

  14. CRÔNICA DE SANTO DOMINGO

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    Victor Condina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta crônica não pretende ser uma fria sucessão cronológica de datas e informações, o dia-a-dia da IV Assembléia de Santo Domingo, no estilo dos boletins emitidos diariamente pelo CELAM. Deseja antes ser um testemunho, que busca, mais do que a sucessão diacrônica dos fatos, o percurso de alguns momentos e temas mais significativos. Não é um calendário da Assembléia, mas uma vivência da experiência eclesial de Santo Domingo. É uma crônica vivida de fora da sala de reuniões e, inclusive, de fora da casa San Pablo, onde se celebrou a IV Assembléia.

  15. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Las novelas juveniles de Care Santos

    OpenAIRE

    Barbadillo de la Fuente, M.ª Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Valoración de las tres novelas protagonizadas y dirigidas a los jóvenes publicadas por la escritora catalana Care Santos, teniendo en cuenta los asuntos que aborda,los personajes que aparecen, el uso de la lengua y la técnica narrativa. [ABSTRACT]Appraisal of three Catalonian writerCare Santos’ youthful stories touching on the plots, the characters, the language and the narrative technique.

  17. Does knowledge on diabetes management influence glycemic control? A nationwide study in patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes MB; Santos DC; Pizarro MH; Barros BSV; Melo LGN; Negrato CA

    2018-01-01

    Marilia Brito Gomes,1 Deborah Conte Santos,1 Marcela H Pizarro,1 Bianca Senger V Barros,1 Laura G Nunes de Melo,2 Carlos A Negrato3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Unit, State University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Bauru’s Diabetics Association, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil Objective: The purpose of this study is to establish demographic and clinical data a...

  18. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

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    Margarete do Socorro Mendonça GOMES

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011. DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana, followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  19. Insects related to Olive culture in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Marcelo Perrone Ricalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased cultivation of olive trees in Rio Grande do Sul State and its potential production arouse the need to characterize the assemblage of insects in olive groves, especially those with potential as pests. Therefore, the insect fauna was sampled monthly for two years, in the canopy of olive trees, using beat cloth, and collection of buds in five municipalities in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State. The faunal indices analyzed were abundance, constancy, dominance and frequency. The olive caterpillar Palpita forficifera Munroe 1959 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and mealybugs Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791 and Saissetia coffeae (Walker, 1952 (Hemiptera: Coccidae are the main phytophagous insects in olive farms in the Rio Grande do Sul State, with potential to reach pest status. Eleven insect species were recorded for the first time in olive groves in Brazil. The occurrence of P. forficifera is a new record for the Rio Grande do Sul State.

  20. Siphonaptera of small rodents and marsupials in the Pedra Branca State Park, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heloiza H; Almeida, Adilson B; Carvalho, Raimundo W; Gomes, Valmir; Serra-Freire, Nicolau M; Quinelato, Igor; Carvalho, Acácio G

    2010-01-01

    In an region of Atlantic Rainforest corresponding to the geopolitical area of the Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, 160 small mammals were captured, of which 64 rodents and 96 marsupials from October 2005 to October 2007. There were collected in these hosts six flea species from three families (Ctenophthalmidae, Rhopalopsyllidae and Pulicidae), totalizing 162 specimens. Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia was the most common species found, followed by Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis. Philander frenatus and Micoureus paraguayanus were reported as new hosts to Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia and P. o. occidentalis was reported for the first time in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Eder Dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensissp. n.

  2. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Eder dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. PMID:27833419

  3. [Compliance with guidelines by state plans for food and nutritional security in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mick Lennon; Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Soar, Claudia; Mamed, Gisele Rockenbach; Machado, Patrícia Maria de Oliveira; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Martins, Milena Corrêa; Marcon, Maria Cristina

    2018-02-05

    A descriptive and documental study was performed from August to October 2016 to analyze compliance by state plans for food and nutritional security (PlanSAN) with the guidelines set by the Brazilian National Policy for Food and Nutritional Security (PNSAN). The state plans were accessed via the websites of the Inter-Ministerial Chamber for Food and Nutritional Security (CAISAN) or the state governments, plus complementary data collection at the state level. All the states of Brazil joined the National System for Food and Nutritional Security (SISAN), while fewer than half (13 states, 48%) had drafted their plans. Of these, 5 (38%) of the PlanSAN had schedules that coincided with the same state's pluriannual plan, 5 (38%) of the PlanSAN specified the budget requirements for meeting the proposed targets, 7 (54%) specified mechanisms for monitoring the plan, and only 2 (15%) defined methodologies for monitoring food and nutritional security. The recent existence of (and adherence to) the CAISAN appear to be related to the lack of state plans in half the states. Although most of the states that did have plans met some of the guidelines laid out by the PNSAN, these mechanisms become weak and impractical when they lack earmarked budget funds to meet their targets. Since the PNSAN is structurally inter-sectorial, the development of plans requires collective work by various government departments. Importantly, the items analyzed here are all guidelines, which implies the need for mechanisms to monitor their actual implementation.

  4. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

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    Luciana Damascena da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012.

  5. Prevalence and molecular characterization of β-thalassemia in the state of Bahia, Brazil: first identification of mutation HBB: c.135delC in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Silvana F; Moura Neto, Jose P; Goncalves, Marilda S

    2013-01-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-thal) is a hereditary disease with at least 200 known causative molecular defects, with a limited number of distinct mutations predominating in any given population. The Brazilian population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Although occurrences of β-thal in this country have been recognized for a long time and previous studies have shown important regional differences related to the mutational profile, no extensive analysis of mutations of the HBB gene has been carried out in Brazil. We examined 1011 teenagers from Bahia, a state located in the northeast of Brazil. Hematological data were obtained using automated cell counting, hemoglobin (Hb) profiles were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and DNA was analyzed by automated sequencing. None of the four Mediterranean mutations that are most frequently found in South and Southeast Brazil (HBB: c.118C>T; HBB: c.93-21G>A; HBB: c.92+1G>A; HBB: c.92+6T>C), was found to be responsible for thalassemia in the cases that we studied. One heterozygote for a frameshift mutation at codon 44 (-C) was identified. This is the first study to determine the prevalence and profile of β-thal in Bahia State. For the first time in Brazil, we report the occurrence of the HBB: c.135delC mutation in the β-globin gene.

  6. Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: pollen characters

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    Renata Suzano Candido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The order Asparagales comprises 14 families, five of which occur in Brazil. Amaryllidaceae is a family of economic relevance and includes numerous ornamental genera. The genus Hippeastrum is widely distributed in Brazil and comprises 34 species, 11 of which occur in areas of restinga (coastal woodland and Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The morphology of Hippeastrum has not been extensively studied in Brazil, where only a few systematic floristic surveys have been carried out with native species. In field studies and reviews of herbarium collections, we identified five Hippeastrum species occurring in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The five species identified could be distinguished according to the following palynological characteristics: pollen grain size, polarity, pollen units, shape, aperture (number and type, exine sculpture, colpus length and pattern of sexine ornamentation. Of the five species identified, Hippeastrum aulicum Herb. and H. glaucescens (Ker Gawl. Herb. were not identified in the field. Among the three species that were found in the field, H. striatum had the widest distribution in the study area, whereas the distribution of H. reticulatum was restricted to a single area of restinga, in the Jaconé district of the municipality of Saquarema. Through palynological examinations of specimens from herbaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, we were able to confirm the identity of all five species of Hippeastrum studied. Our data represent a relevant contribution to increasing knowledge of this plant group in the region and will aid in future conservation efforts.

  7. The epidemiological scenario of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Sandro Antonio Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sporotrichosis is a mycosis affecting both humans and animals. Within the context of the ongoing sporotrichosis epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sick cats plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission. The aim of this study was to update the number of feline cases diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (2005-2011. Methods The medical records of the cats followed were reviewed; the inclusion criterion was the isolation of Sporothrix spp. in culture. Results In total, 2,301 feline cases were identified. Conclusions These results should alert sanitary authorities to the difficulties associated with sporotrichosis control.

  8. Guidelines for the management of human brucellosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    Full Text Available Abstract Human brucellosis is a re-emerging disease with the potential for bioterrorism. The number of cases in Brazil has increased; however, the ideal management has not been established. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for patients with suspected brucellosis in the State of Paraná. We included a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention of exposure, prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis, treatment of disease, monitoring of adverse effects during treatment, management of treatment failure and relapse cases.

  9. Immature mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in a eutrophic landfill tank from State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Jeronimo Alencar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. Results The species found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. Conclusions The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.

  10. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

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    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  11. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

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    ALEXANDRE PORTE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7 %, p-cymene (18.6 % and g-terpinene (16.5 %.

  12. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in stray dogs from Patos city, state of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to survey the prevalence of leptospirosis in stray dogs from Patos city, state of Paraíba, Brazil. This study was held during the period of February to April of 2003, when 130 serum samples were collected. The diagnostic method run for leptospirosis was the microscopic agglutination test, using a batch of 22 leptospiral serovars. The most prevalent serovars were found crossing the results of frequency and titer of agglutinins. The results obtained indicated a prevalence of 20% and most frequent reactant serovars were autumnalis (20%, pomona (17,5%, grippotyphosa (10% e patoc (10%.

  13. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

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    Camila Poli; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Cinthia Saska; Rita Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%). Sixty five percent (n = 13) of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas...

  14. A new species of Enderleina Jewett (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, N; Silva, J O; Pedroza, M K

    2016-04-06

    Enderleina Jewett, 1960 is one of the least-known Perlidae genera in northern South America, including six species. During an aquatic insect survey of the northern portion of Amazonas State, Brazil, we collected a male Enderleina with a distinct pronotum pattern and genitalic morphology. The objectives of this study are to describe a new species of Enderleina based on male morphology. The new species can be distinguished from all other Enderleina species in the male by the presence of a paired thin dark band on the mesal region of pronotum and by the structure of the penial armature.

  15. The Conditions for Prisons in Brazil and the Things of State Unconstitutional

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    Roberto Correia da Silva Gomes Caldas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to verify the conditions of penitentiaries in Brazil and its reflection on prisoners. The Federal Supreme Court judgments in Extraordinary Appeal n. 592.581 (RE and Precautionary Measure in the Allegation Injunction of breach of fundamental precept n.347 (ADPF, where recognized the "unconstitutional state of affairs" to impose regulatory measures by the Executive Branch and by the Judiciary, focusing on the limits of its performance in the prioritization of public security policies regarding penitentiaries and the fundamental rights of prisoners in the light of neoconstitutionalism.

  16. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Itapirema, Evaulino; Gimaque, João Bosco Lima; Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3%) were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  17. Detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in cats (Felis catus) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita de Cássia Nascimento; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Pimentel, Danillo de Souza; Oliveira, Gênova Maria de Azevedo; Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida de; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Serum samples (n=153) obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene). Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153) of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in this area.

  18. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

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    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  19. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  20. Rust in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

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    Cassia de Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Frangipani (Plumeria spp. is a plant widely used in urban ornamentation, due to its hardiness, easy handling and exuberance of its flowers. Plumeria spp. Leaves were collected in Dourados, MS, Brazil, with typical symptoms and signs of the presence of rust: powdery yellowish uredinias in the abaxial and chlorotic and necrotic spots on the adaxial surface of the leaves, sometimes resulting in leaf abscission. The present study aims to record the occurrence of the disease in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Microscopic observations and measurements of uredinospores and teliospores confirmed that the fungus infecting plants was Coleosporium plumeriae.

  1. Seabather's eruption: a clinical and epidemiological study of 38 cases in Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

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    Rossetto, André Luiz; Dellatorre, Gerson; Silveira, Fábio Lang da; Haddad Júnior, Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Seabather's eruption (SBE) is an intensely itchy, papule-erythematous dermatitis that occurs predominantly in regions of the body covered by bathing costumes, after exposure to marine water. The planulae larvae of Linuche unguiculata scyphomedusae (thimble jellyfish) are the etiologic agent of the dermatitis, which is frequent in waters of Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida. The authors report 38 cases of SBE in the State of Santa Catarina (Southern region of Brazil), with emphasis on their clinical and epidemiological aspects, such as profile of victim, topography of the papules and conditions predisposing to the accident.

  2. Discourses of cyberspace securitization in Brazil and in the United States

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    LUÍSA CRUZ LOBATO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper uses the framework of the Copenhagen School to understand the process of securitization of cyberspace, exploring how something in such sphere becomes a threat. Seeking to contribute to the debate, this study analyses the securitization discourses of Brazil and of the United States from Hansen and Nissenbaum's (2009 theorization about the existence of a specific sector for cybersecurity. To comprehend the securitization of cyberspace in these terms allows not only to identify distinct levels of securitization, but also to capture the dynamics of cyber threats, distinguishing them from those existent in other sectors, as well as to trace distinctions between tendencies of securitization and militarization.

  3. How Brazil outpaced the United States when it came to AIDS: the politics of civic infiltration, reputation, and strategic internationalization.

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    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2011-04-01

    Using a temporal approach dividing the reform process into two periods, this article explains how both Brazil and the United States were slow to respond to AIDS. However, Brazil eventually outpaced the United States in its response due to international rather than democratic pressures. Since the early 1990s, Brazil's success has been attributed to "strategic internationalization": the concomitant acceptance and rejection of global pressure for institutional change and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. The formation of tripartite partnerships among donors, AIDS officials, and nongovernmental organizations has allowed Brazil to avoid foreign aid dependency, while generating ongoing incentives for influential AIDS officials to incessantly pressure Congress for additional funding. Given the heightened international media attention, concern about Brazil's reputation has contributed to a high level of political commitment. By contrast, the United States' more isolationist relationship with the international community, its focus on leading the global financing of AIDS efforts, and the absence of tripartite partnerships have prevented political leaders from adequately responding to the ongoing urban AIDS crisis. Thus, Brazil shows that strategically working with the international health community for domestic rather than international influence is vital for a sustained and effective response to AIDS.

  4. Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance inHaematobia irritans (Muscidae from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil

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    Antonio Thadeu Medeiros Barros

    Full Text Available Horn fly resistance to pyrethroid insecticides occurs throughout Brazil, but knowledge about the involved mechanisms is still in an incipient stage. This survey was aimed to identify the mechanisms of horn fly resistance to cypermethrin in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Impregnated filter paper bioassays using cypermethrin, synergized or not with piperonyl butoxide (PBO and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, were conducted from March 2004 to June 2005 in horn fly populations (n = 33 from all over the state. All populations were highly resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors (RF ranging from 89.4 to 1,020.6. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays to detect the knockdown resistance (kdr mutation also were performed in 16 samples. The kdr mutation was found in 75% of the tested populations, mostly with relatively low frequencies (<20%, and was absent in some highly resistant populations. Addition of TPP did not significantly reduce the LC50 in any population. However, PBO reduced LC50s above 40-fold in all tested populations, resulting in RFs ≤ 10 in most cases. Horn fly resistance to cypermethrin is widespread in the state, being primarily caused by an enhanced activity of P450 mono-oxygenases and secondarily by reduced target site sensitivity.

  5. Retrospective survey of rabies in Paraíba State, Brazil, from 2004 to 2011

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    José Sóstenes Leite de Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform a retrospective study of rabies in herbivores in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to evaluate epidemiological aspects of the disease from 2004 to 2011. Data on notification of rabies cases included in the Continental Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVCONT were used. During the study period samples from 17,454 animals from Brazil were sent to rabies diagnosis, from which 43 (0.25% samples from the state of Paraiba, and all of them were positive for rabies. The frequency of rabies outbreaks by county ranged from 2.3% to 11.6%. The distribution of cases ranged according to species affected, with predominance in cattle (93%, followed by horses (4.7% and one bat (2.3% (p < 0.001. It was observed a predominance of positive cases when the notification was made by owners (53.5%, followed by others (39.5% and surveillance (7% (p = 0.001. Related to occurrence of outbreaks by month in all years of the study period, the frequencies ranged from 4.7% in August to 14% in April. It was found predominance of outbreaks in 2010 (41.9%, with significant differences among years (p < 0.001. In conclusion, it is suggested the adoption of strategic measures for the control of rabies and continuous surveillance of nervous diseases in herbivores in the state of Paraíba.

  6. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

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    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  7. Industrial radiography in the State of Bahia, Brazil The health protection of workers

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    Andrade, A E O D

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the Regulatory and Inspection Authority for actions developed by industrial radiography enterprises in the State of Bahia, Brazil, concerning health protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in industry. Institutions which legislate about this matter at international, national and State level were identified. These legislations were analysed according to recommendations by the Basic Safety Standards from the Atomic Energy International Agency. Medical Supervision is proposed as a factor to warrant protection to worker's health. This is a service evaluation study, encompassing results, processes and structural components. Emphasis is given to the process component which investigated the adequacy of which is performed by employees and workers. Five enterprises which provide industrial radiography services in the State of Bahia were identified, employing forty workers on a temporary basis. This study also observed: intense workforce, a complete process of contracting out in...

  8. Terrestrial mammals of Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Jorge José Cherem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, located in the central-eastern region of the state of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, has 85,000ha and a wide diversity of habitats (mangrove, restinga, dense and mixed rain forest, cloud forest and fields. From 1991 to 2010, 22 studies on its mammalian fauna were conducted, which used the following methods: live trapping (Young and double-door, pitfall traps, nesting boxes, mist nets, camera traps, direct observation and indirect evidence. Seventy-five autochthonous species (about 54% of the terrestrial mammal species known from Santa Catarina, belonging to nine orders and 25 families, were recorded. Fifteen of these species are considered threatened at the state, national or global level. General aspects about the conservation of the mammals in the park, and the possibility of other species occurring in this area, are discussed.

  9. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

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    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  10. Anisakidae infection in five commercially important fish species from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia Mattos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mattos D.P.B.G., Lopes L.M.S., Verícimo M.A., Alvares T.S. & São Clemente S.C. Anisakidae larvae infection in five commercially important fish species from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Infecção por larvas Anisakidae em cinco espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.] Revista Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4:375-379, 2014. Laboratório de Inspeção e Tecnologia de Pescado, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brazil, 64, Santa Rosa, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: scsc@vm.uff.br From March 2009 to March 2012, 213 teleostei fish were obtained from fish markets and fishermen from Niteroi and Cabo Frio municipalities, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The fish belonged to the species Micropogonias furnieri (107; Trichiurus lepturus (35; Centropomus undecimalis (22; Genypterus brasiliensis (18; Pagrus pagrus (18; Pomatomus saltatrix (7 e Merluccius hubbsi (6. Nematode larvae of Anisakidae were found in P. saltatrix (85.71%; T. lepturus (71.42%, P. pagrus (55.55%, G. brasiliensis (50.00%, and M. furnieri (0.93%. The prevalence rates raised as fish size increased. The highest mean intensity was observed in T. lepturus parasitized by Contracaecum sp. (30.50 larvae per fish. The sites of infection were only mesenteries, hepatic capsule and gastric serosa. No larvae were found in flesh, however, the high prevalence and intensity observed in some species, could represent a risk to human health by the larvae migration to flesh.

  11. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

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    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  12. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Vitreorana uranoscopa (Muller, 1924: Distribution extension in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

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    Machado, I. F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The glass frog Vitreorana uranoscopa (Müller, 1924 has been considered a vulnerable species for the state ofRio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This note recorded the presence of the species for São Marcos municipality, extendingthe species distribution towards eastern region of the state.

  13. The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: implementation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Reinaldo Gaspar da; Barros, Nelson Filice

    2016-09-01

    Although the 224 health professionals engaged by the More Doctors for Brazil Project (Projeto Mais Médicos para o Brazil, PMMB) to strengthen the National Primary Health Care Policy (Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, PNab) in 104 municipalities of Mato Grosso (MT) State have encountered significant problems in the work process, important advances have resulted in the health of populations served by the More Doctors Programme (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM). This article analyses the implementation and development of the PMM in MT, from 2013 to 2015, on the basis of primary data from focus groups and interviews of social stakeholders at the institutions involved and secondary data from reports by supervisors, tutors, managers and institutions on the MT State Coordinating Committee (CCE) of the PMM. Despite political difficulties in managing implementation, the results show that the endeavour was beneficial in that it surmounted previous obstacles, afforded users greater access, prompted discussion of the problem and proposed and experimented with ways to strengthen primary health care. We conclude that there is a need for broader academic discussion of the provision and training of doctors, of the model of care and of human resource capacity-building by continuing professional development with integration among teaching, service and community.

  14. Seroepidemiological inquiry on bovine neosporosis in northern Mato Grosso state, Brazil

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    Riciely Vanessa Justo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work involved the study of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay in serum samples of 205 cows (Bos taurus indicus Nellore, pure origin, aged over 24 months, reared on farms in the municipalities of Sinop, Itaúba, Colíder, Carlinda and Guarantã do Norte, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. An epidemiological evaluation through an interview with employees responsible for taking care of the animals during the period of 2010-2012. The studied area revealed epidemiological conditions favorable for the occurrence of bovine neosporosis, with 37.56% seropositive animals for anti-N. caninum. Sinop (70% and Carlinda (50% showed a frequency of seropositive animals was statistically equal to that observed (26.67% in other studies for other cities in Brazil. By confronting the serological status of the animals with variables of questionnaire, there was association (p < 0.01 between seropositivity of cows and the natural sources of drinking water, the incidence of abortion and repeating estrus. However, there was no statistical association between seropositive cows and the occurrence of neonatal deaths (p = 0.075, stillbirths (p = 0.02, presence of domestic dogs (p = 0.9 and the habit of giving raw offal to dogs (p = 0.93. Besides the occurrence of N. caninum, it was evidenced misinformation about bovine neosporosis and its control among interviewed people. This first study shows the need for further research on the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in northern Mato Grosso state.

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine milk from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa de; Santos, André de Souza; Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz de; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Erika Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes; Oliveira, Júnior Mário Baltazar de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Júnior, José Wilton Pinheiro

    The aim of this study was to detect the IS900 region of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine milk samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and conventional PCR, and to study the agreement between these tests. A total of 121 bovine milk samples were collected from herds considered positive for MAP, from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. MAP DNA was detected in 20 samples (16.5%) using conventional PCR and in 34 samples (28.1%) using qPCR. MAP DNA was detected in all of the 6 animal farms studied. Moderate agreement was found between qPCR and conventional PCR results, where the sensitivity and specificity of conventional PCR in relation to qPCR were 50% and 96.6%, respectively. Thus, the IS900 region of MAP was found in bovine milk samples from the State of Pernambuco. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MAP DNA found in bovine milk in Northeast Brazil. We also demonstrated the qPCR technique is more sensitive than conventional PCR with respect to detection of MAP in milk samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Analysis of Maternal and Child Health Indicators in an Area at Paraná State, Brazil

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    Emiliana Cristina Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze maternal and child health indicators and infant mortality rate (IMR at the cities located at the 18th Health Division (HD in Parana State, Brazil. In this ecological study we analyzed all live births and infant deaths which occurred from 2000 to 2009 at the 18th HD, collecting data from the Mortality Information Database and the Live Births Information Database. The variables assessed were grouped into maternal, pregnancy and delivery, and neonatal variables. The analysis was conducted using the mean percentage of each variable and the IMR calculated for both periods: from 2000 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2009. The IMR was reduced considerably, following Brazil's and Paraná State's trend. Maternal indicators went down regarding the mean percentage of teenage mothers and low education, whereas they went up regarding mother with 35 years old or older and mothers without a partner. Pregnancy indicators showed increased prematurity and cesarean birth. Neonatal indicators raised in black/brown skin color and low birth weights percentages. This study provides a better understanding of maternal and child health in the cities located at the 18th HD, supplying grounds to plan actions regarding the real needs of each specific city.

  17. El cielo se llena de santos mexicanos

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    Verónica Zárate Toscano

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Preliminares A fines del próximo mes de julio, si Dios le conserva la vida y su salud se lo permite, el Papa Juan Pablo II elevará a la categoría de Santo al indio Juan Diego en una ceremonia en la ciudad de México, culminando así un largo, discutido y tortuoso proceso de canonización. Suerte parecida corrió en su momento el criollo Felipe de Jesús; sin embargo, otros miembros de la corte celestial de origen mexicano se han elevado a los altares de manera casi vertiginosa, como es el caso de ...

  18. Sobre o De Magistro, de Santo Agostinho

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    João Azevedo Abreu

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Primeiro, mostramos os diferentes papéis das citações presentes no De Magistio, de Santo Agostinho. Depois, comparamos a estrutura em que o texto está disposto com a teoria que é aí desenvolvida. A partir de tal comparação, podemos ver que, nesse texto, uma teoria da linguagem não é filosoficamente fundamental e que o diálogo não é a melhor forma de alcançar a verdade.

  19. Incorporation of limestone residue from marble processing plant in the city of Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espirito Santo, Brazil, in the production of mortars; Incorporacao de residuo proveniente de usina de beneficiamento de marmore do municipio de Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, ES, Brasil, na confeccao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, G.P.; Alexandre, J.; Dias, D.P.; Dias Junior, N.S.; Anderson, R.B., E-mail: gabrielkgbs@gmail.co [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LECIV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Cachoeiro do Itapemirim city (ES), located 136 km from Vitoria, the state's capital, is the largest ornamental stones producer in Brazil, whose beneficiation produces a large amount of waste that, even today, is responsible for major damages done to the environment. This article aims the experimental study of hydrated lime use (product marketed to be used in mortar) by a residue from marble beneficiation from an industry located in that city. Two mixes were made with cement:sand:hydrated lime and cement:sand:residue. The mortars were evaluated by their properties comparisons in fresh and hardened states, namely: consistency index, mass density and incorporated air content, compressive strength, tensile and bending grip for traction. Chemical and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction were also made. The obtained results met the requirements prescribed by ABNT NBR 13 281 (2005). (author)

  20. Bioecologia de crustáceos decápodos, braquiúros, no sistema baía-estuário de Santos e São Vicente, SP: 1. ocorrência e composição Bioecology of the brachyuran, decapod crustacean or the estuary-bay system of Santos and São Vicente, SP. Brazil: 1. occurrence and composition

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    Plinio Soares Moreira

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available De junho de 1985 a maio de 1936, foi realizado um programa de pesquisa no complexo baia-estuário de Santos e São Vicente, SP. Para a obtenção do material foram utilizadas redes de arrasto de fundo, e de praia, além de armadilhas. As operações de pesca capturaram 14 espécies de decápodos brachiuros, por meio de arrastos de fundo; oito com os arrastos de praia; e cinco, no estuário, utilizando armadilhas iscadas, sendo, estas ultimas, todas pertencentes ao gênero Callinectes. Callinectes danae dominou nos três ambientes, seguidos por C. sapidus e Portunus spinimanus que também foram abundantes. O número de fêmeas foi superior ao de machos para as espécies dominantes e, em geral, esse número foi maior nas amostras da Baía do que nas de Praia e Estuário. O aumento da captura total nos meses de primavera-verão pode estar relacionado com temperaturas mais elevadas da água e com padrões reprodutivos apresentados pelas espécies. São apresentadas listas de ocorrência e abundância das espécies capturadas e de parâmetros hidrográficos e operações de pesca.The present work was developed from June 1985 to May 1986. Monthly sampling was performed in estuarine and coastal adjacent habitats. Samples were collected using bottom trawl, beach seine and bottom pots. Fourteen species (6,538 individuals of decapod brachyurans were identified, being Callinectes danae the most abundant in all habitats, followed by C. sapidus and Portunus spinimanus. Bottom trawling prove to be the more efficient fishing gear, caughting fourteen species, while beach seine caught eight species and estuarine catches, using bottom pots, were constituted by five species, all of them belonging to the genus Callinectes. The number of females was higher than males for all dominant species, and generally, this number was higher mainly at bay region than at beach and estuarine habitats. The growing of total catches during spring-summer months may be correlated with

  1. Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae from northeastern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Ângelo Parise Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MZSP: Brazil, Santa Catarina State, [São Bento do Sul municipality, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W], [railroad station] Rio Vermelho, II.1952 is described and illustrated based on three males. The long cercus (2.9-3.2 mm places this species in the longistyla-group together with N. kiautai, N. longistyla and N. nitens but it differs from them mainly by the shape of cercus, with carinated part occupying 0.33 of cercus total length, and also by dorsal, ventro-medial and ventro-lateral tubercles developed. An unusual process on tergal portion of prothorax is reported for the first time in Navicordulia. The rate of description of new species of South American 'Corduliidae' is discussed. A map with records of Atlantic Forest Navicordulia species and a list of Brazilian corduliids by state are also presented.

  2. Rise and consolidation of the federal State in Brazil: implications on education management

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    Edson Francisco Andrade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the relationship between federalism, as a particular form of State organization, and its interface with the field of education management. First, we analyze the historical and political significance of the construction of the national State in Brazil, as well as its indispensability for the optimization of care for social demands in the country; then, we discuss the relationship between the conception of federalism embodied in the Brazilian case and the systemic management model, under process of incorporation, to the educational field. The final considerations highlight the urgency of building the national system of education in view of establishing the federative pact mechanism in education.

  3. Teacher training in the formation of the higher education system in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Daisi Teresinha Chapani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The higher education system in the state of Bahia, Brazil, comprises four universities offering, altogether, several undergraduation and graduation courses, in a number of areas. The system configuration is around 20 years old, but the colleges which gave rise to it were structured back in the late sixties. The aim of this study is to highlight the teacher training role in the system formation. Also, it is presented a discussion on the possibilities and limitations originated from the teacher training colleges in the higher education democratization process. The conclusion is that, although the teacher training courses have been the driving force of the higher education system in Bahia for more than 40 years, the number of vacancies offered by the course is not sufficient to equate the historical problem regarding the lack of titled teachers in the state.

  4. Quality and safety of maize (Zea mays L.) from Rondonia state storage units, Northern Brazil.

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    Valmorbida, R; Savi, G D; Silva, J R; Yanez, M M O; Soares, C E S; Runtzel, C; Nascimento, P N; Scussel, V M

    2017-11-16

    The quality and safety of maize (Zea mays L.) from different grain storage units (GSUs), located in the main producing region of Rondonia State (RO), Northern Brazil were evaluated. Maize grains (n= 76) stored in four GSUs were collected from July to November 2014 and evaluated for grain damages, humidity, fungi and fumonisins (FBs) content. The climate conditions data were also obtained from plant growing to storage periods. Regarding the moisture content and water activity, these varied from 10.0 to 16.1% and 0.5 to 0.8, respectively. As expected, fungi spores were present in 94.8% of the samples, prevailing Fusarium genera, with a fungi colony maximum of 2.2x104 CFU g-1. Regarding FBs, 60.5% of the samples were contaminated, below Brazilian and United States maximum limits, but 9.2% had levels higher than the European legislation.

  5. Non-volant mammals in areas predominantly of the Atlantic forest belonging to Samarco Mineração S.A., municipality of Anchieta, Espírito Santo

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    Sandrelly Amigo Lopes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the Atlantic forest has a very diverse fauna with several endemic species, in Espírito Santo state its mastofauna is still poorly known. This paper presents a preliminary inventory of non-volant mammals of remnants of the Atlantic forest on properties of Samarco Mineração S.A., in southern Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mammals were captured in different areas (secondary vegetation, exotic and flooded using traps placed on the ground and fixed on branches and tree platforms, or they were confirmed through direct and indirect evidence recorded during diurnal and nocturnal censuses. In total, 20 mammal species, excluding bats, were recorded for the study region, and Didelphimorphia was the order with the highest richness of species. Although the number of mammal species is high, many large species might be locally extinct, especially those with the largest spatial requirements. However, the conservation of areas with native vegetation may be facilitating the reestablishment of fauna in the areas owned by the company.

  6. Geoquímica e índice de geoacumulação de mercúrio em sedimentos de superfície do estuário de Santos - Cubatão (SP

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    Luiz-Silva Wanilson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of mercury in surface sediments (<63mum fraction from Santos-Cubatão Estuary, located in State of São Paulo, southeast Brazil, were determined to obtain the level of contamination in this highly polluted area. Fifteen stations distributed though seven rivers were sampled (156 samples collected from September 1997 to August 1998 (12 stations sampled monthly and during March, June, September and December 1998 (three stations sampled quarterly. The levels of mercury varied from 0.10 to 6.77 ppm, with the index of geoaccumulation of the rivers varying between grades 1 and 3 (annual average. The Cubatão is the most polluted river and the main agent of Hg dispersion in the study area. Geochemical data revealed that Hg levels in surface from Santos-Cubatão Estuary at present are as elevated as in past (for instance, by comparison 1980's, when Cubatão city was known as one of the most polluted cities in the world.

  7. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

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    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test ( p linear spatiotemporal trend. According to the clustering analysis, the first group (G1) contains stations located over the coastal lowlands and also over the ocean facing area of Serra do Mar (Sea ridge), a 1500 km long mountain range over the coastal Southeastern Brazil. The second group (G2) contains stations over all the state, from Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira Mountains) and Costa Verde (Green coast), to the south, up to stations in the Northern parts of the state. Group 3 (G3) contains stations in the highlands over the state (Serrana region), while group 4 (G4) has stations over the northern areas and the continent-facing side of Serra do Mar. The last two groups were formed with stations around Paraíba River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  8. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( n = 1,326), Mexico ( n = 1,349), and Brazil ( n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned.

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    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-06-10

    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  10. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

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    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  11. [Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

    2013-09-01

    Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (≥ 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group.

  12. Balantidium sp. in ostriches (Struthio camelus L., 1758) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Nicole B Ederli Francisco Carlos R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was report for the first time the occurrence of Balantidium sp. in ostriches reared in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Feces samples from 82 ostriches were examined by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique and morphometric analyses were made of the cysts. The data were compared by a simple linear regression analysis. The cysts found ranged in size from 60.39 by 34.62 mm and 59.13 by 33.92 m in diameters. The spherical shape was confirmed by observing the shape index of 1.05 and r = 0.9630, which suggested there were cysts of different sizes with similar shapes. In spite of polymorphism, cysts measurements were uniform in their distribution, evidencing the possibility of a single species (R2 = 0.9274). The cysts were morphologically indistinguishable from the Balantidium sp. cysts already reported in ostrich feces or B. coli. This is the first report of parasitism by Balantidium sp. in ostriches in Brazil. In spite of the high Balantidium sp. frequency, no clinical sign was observed.

  13. Congenital neosporosis in goats from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Mary S; Hirsch, Christian; Wouters, Flademir; Nakagaki, Karen Y; Guimarães, Antônio M; Santos, Domingos S; Bezerra, Pedro S; Costa, Rafael C; Peconick, Ana P; Langohr, Ingeborg M

    2012-03-01

    Congenital Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two Saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. Gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. Multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. Several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that reacted strongly only with polyclonal antiserum to Neospora caninum were seen in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. The second kid was born from a Neospora caninum seropositive mother that aborted in the last pregnancy. It was born without clinical signs. The diagnosis of neosporosis was based on antibody titer of 1:800 to N. caninum by indirect fluorescence antibody test obtained from blood collected before the goat kid ingested the colostrum and Neospora caninum DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from placenta. This is the first report of neosporosis in goats in the southeast region of Brazil.

  14. Vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383, Rondônia, Brazil.

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    Luiz Carlos Batista Turci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Roadkills are a serious threat to many species of wildlife worldwide. In Brazil, few studies are available about the importance of roadkills. Information about roadkills in Amazonia are even more scarce when compared to central and southern Brazil. Here we describe the vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383 in Rondônia. From May 2004 – April 2005, thirty samples were taken the along 110km of the highway between Cacoal and Alta Floresta D’Oeste. Thirty-four vertebrate species were found in 259 specimens. In terms of absolute numbers, amphibians were the most frequent roadkills, with 68 individuals of two species. Birds followed, with 67 individuals of 12 species, then reptiles (67 indiv., 12 species and mammals (63 indiv.,13 species. Eight species (Leptodactylus gr. pentadactylus, Rhinella sp, Amphisbaena sp., Liophis reginae, Crotophaga ani, Didelphis marsupialis, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cerdocyon thous were the most frequent roadkills, accounting for 76% of the vertebrate roadkills. More than half of the roadkills occurred during the dry season.

  15. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013.

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    Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  16. Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen and milk of goat from Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Bruno H.L.S. Alves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In goat and sheep flocks, mycoplasmosis is a disease that may cause severe economical losses associated with polyarthritis, mastitis, agalactia, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and reproductive failure. The latter may involve repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma in semen and milk samples from naturally infected goat in the semiarid region from Pernambuco State, Northeast from Brazil. Thirty-nine semen samples and 81 milk samples were submitted to DNA extraction using a commercially available kit and following the manufacturer's instructions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was then performed in accordance with protocols described in the literature. The results of the present study revealed the presence of Ma in the DNA of 17.9% (7/39 of the semen samples and 3.7% (3/81 of the milk samples. The results obtained in the present study confirm the elimination of the DNA of Ma in the semen and milk samples. The presence of this agent in goat flocks is considered very risky in terms of reproductive disorders and contagious agalactia outbreaks in the Northeast region of Brazil.

  17. Myxomycetes from mangroves: species occurring in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

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    L. A. N. N. Agra

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country’s northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2 equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73% over K-strategist (27% species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.

  18. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value=0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  20. [Trichomoniasis: prevalence in the female gender in 2004-2005 in Sergipe State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mayra Santos; Argôlo, Danilo Souza; Almeida Júnior, José Sodré; Pinheiro, Malone Santos; Brito, Ana Maria Guedes de

    2010-06-01

    Trichomoniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, which initiates a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus, cervical cancer, infertility and other diseases. Its incidence ranges from 20% up to 40% in Brazil. The primary channel of transmission is by sexual contact and laboratorial diagnostic may be performed by chain polymerase reaction (CPR), culture medium isolation, fresh vaginal content exam and/or colored by Giemsa and Papanicolau methods. The later has limitations in the detection of pathologies considered sexually transmissible, like Thricomoniasis. This work deals with prevalence of Thricomoniasis in users of laboratories associated with the Ministry of Health, in the age group from 19 up to 44 years old which were submitted to Papanicolau test in 2004-2005 in Sergipe state, Brazil. Results have revealed that among 206,034 users, 7,349 have shown Thricomoniasis, being 3,788 in 2004 and 3,498 in 2005. It could be observed that the estimated prevalence in Sergipe in the biennium studied did not corroborate with the Brazilian reality, which may be attributed to the diagnostic executed.

  1. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  2. Prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Mônica M. Osório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in Pernambuco, a state in northeastern Brazil, so as to help guide health and nutrition policies there. Methods. In 1997 a representative sample of 777 young children had their hemoglobin concentration measured. The sampling process was in three stages. First, 18 municipalities were randomly selected to represent the state and its three geographic areas (metropolitan region of Recife, urban interior, and rural interior. Next, using census lists, 45 census sectors were randomly chosen. Finally, 777 children aged 6-59 months old were selected. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and hemoglobin was measured with a portable hemoglobinometer. In the analysis, prevalence was weighted to reflect the census age distribution. Results. The prevalence of anemia among children 6-59 months old was 40.9% for the state as a whole. Prevalence in the metropolitan region of Recife was 39.6%, and it was 35.9% in the urban interior. The rural interior had the highest prevalence, 51.4%. Prevalence was twice as high in children aged 6-23 months as among those 24-59 months old, 61.8% vs. 31.0% (chi² = 77.9, P < 0.001. The mean hemoglobin concentrations in the younger and older age groups were 10.4 g/dL (standard deviation (SD = 1.5 and 11.4 g/dL (SD = 1.4, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes in terms of prevalence. Conclusions. This is the first statewide assessment of anemia prevalence among young children in Brazil. Given the very high prevalence of anemia among the children studied in Pernambuco, especially those in the age group of 6-23 months, public health interventions are needed.

  3. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

  4. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

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    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  5. Analysis of the female mortality trend due to assault in Brazil, States and Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Mascarello, Keila Cristina; Almeida, Ana Paula Santana Coelho; Fávero, Juliana Lopes; Santos, Andréia Soprani Dos; Silva, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze time trend of female mortality due to assault in Brazil, regions and states from 2002 to 2012. This is an ecological times series study with secondary data from women aged 20-59 years who died due to assault. Mortality rates were analyzed by simple linear regression and stratified by region, Gini Index and Human Development Index (HDI). The trend of female rate of mortality due to assault was stable in the country, with differences between states and regions. The Midwest had the highest rates and stagnation trend. There was an increased trend in the North, Northeast and South and a decreased trend in the Southeast. The states of the tertile with the highest HDI evidenced a declining trend and stabilization in the first and second tertiles. An increased mortality rate was recorded in states with greater social inequality. Notwithstanding the national stabilization behavior, results point to the need for social policies appropriate to the specificities of states and regions.

  6. Spatial dynamics: a new “milk corridor” in Paraná state, Brazil

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    Ferenc Istvan Bankuti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the fourth largest milk producer in the world, and Paraná state is the third largest producer in the country. Milk production plays an important socioeconomic role in Paraná state, and since the 1990s, institutional and market changes have influenced Paraná’s milk production. Given this context, this study searches to analyze the spatial dynamics of dairy activity in Paraná state. Specifically, it seeks to identify areas of greater expansion and contraction in dairy activities, and discuss possible structural and socioeconomic consequences in those regions. Data concerning productive and economic variables of the 399 municipalities in Paraná state were used to generate an indicator of dairy activity through Common Factor Analysis. Cluster analysis allowed the formation of groups, according to municipalities’ importance in Paraná’s dairy activity. We conclude that since the 1990s, there has been displacement of dairy activity from the northern regions and toward the south. Dairy activity has started to occupy areas otherwise considered "agriculturally empty" and socioeconomically vulnerable. Those areas, along with traditional production regions, comprise a new "milk corridor" in Paraná. This may generate a set of socioeconomic benefits in the region. Important structural changes may occur along the dairy chain, and both public and private policies should be set to assure dairy chain competitiveness in Paraná state.

  7. Plantio de aveia-preta na região de São Mateus no estado do Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    D. P. Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as cultivares de aveia-preta, optou-se pela cultivar Embrapa 29 (Garoa por ser uma espécie de boa produção de massa e adaptada às condições da região Sudeste. Mas, não há estudo do cultivo da aveia-preta para a região norte do Espírito Santo. Portanto, avaliar o crescimento e desenvolvimento da Avena strigosa cultivar Embrapa 29 (Garoa nas condições edafoclimáticas do norte do ES, torna-se de suma importância para região, visto que essa propicia várias melhorias na qualidade do solo. A área onde foi instalado o experimento, pertence à Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo-CEUNES, câmpus de São Mateus – ES. A semeadura foi realizada com uma máquina de plantio direto em sulcos espaçados de 0,30 m. Não realizou a correção da acidez do solo e nem aplicações de adubos minerais e orgânicos. Mesmo com o plantio tardio, a aveia-preta teve um bom desenvolvimento nas condições edafoclimáticas da região norte do ES. Este, possivelmente, foi beneficiado pela textura, visto que não há nenhum impedimento para o sistema radicular da planta. A aveia-preta desenvolve bem nas condições edafoclimáticas da região de São Mateus-ES, principalmente, sobre um Argiloso Amarelo de textura do tipo areia-franca.Oat planting in the region of São Mateus in the State of Espirito Santo, BrazilAbstract: Among the cultivars of oat, it was decided to Embrapa 29 (Garoa to be a good kind of mass production and adapted to the conditions in the Southeast. But there is no study of the cultivation of oat to the northern region of the Holy Spirit. Therefore, assessing the growth and development of Avena strigosa Embrapa 29 (Garoa at conditions of northern ES, it is of paramount importance for the region, since this provides a number of improvements in soil quality. The area where the experiment was conducted, belongs to the Federal University of Espirito Santo, University Center North

  8. Religião, identidade e segurança entre imigrantes luteranos da Pomerânia, no Espírito Santo (1880-2005

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    André Droogers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available No século 19, muitas pessoas de diversas regiões rurais da Alemanha emigraram pra o Brasil. Vários contingentes oriundos da Pomerânia Oriental (hoje noroeste da Polônia fixaram-se no estado do Espírito Santo. A maioria era seguidora da igreja luterana. Neste artigo, examinamos como sua religião ajudou esses imigrantes a conservar um nível de segurança satisfatório. A palavra segurança é utilizada especialmente mas não exclusivamente no sentido existencial ou ontológico. Na busca de certo nível de segurança em sua nova pátria, eles e seus descendentes construíram, reproduziram, desconstruiram e reconstruíram suas identidades coletiva e individual. Mostra-se como a religião ressaltou entre os recursos transnacionais utilizados, junto com a cultura e a língua pomeranas.In the 19th century, many people from various rural areas in Germany migrated to Brazil. Several contingents from Eastern Pomerania (now North-West Poland settled in the state of Espírito Santo. In majority they were members of the Lutheran church. In this chapter the question is discussed how their religion helped these immigrants to maintain a satisfying level of security. The term security is especially but not only taken in the existential or ontological sense. Seeking some degree of security in the new homeland, these migrants and their descendants constructed, reproduced, deconstructed and reconstructed their collective and individual identities. Religion is shown to have been prominent among the transnational resources they used, alongside Pomeranian culture and language.

  9. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  10. Analysis of environmental studies of the mammals in small hydroelectrics power in the Espirito Santo; Analise dos estudos ambientais da mastofauna em pequenas centrais hidreletricas do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesi, Patricia Conde

    2011-10-15

    The hydroelectric projects have been the main form to supply the energy demand in Brazil. Although it has been considered a way of clean generation, it brings many environmental impacts. Due to the fact that inconsistencies in environmental impact studies often occur, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of environmental diagnosis of the mammals in SHP in the Espirito Santo. Therefore, was notice an insufficient data survey, because of the relevance given to the secondary data and the lack of seasonal investigations, bringing damages to the proposals submitted of environmental compensation. This way, manners ware proposed that aim to improve the quality of these studies, which include since environmental awareness programs at the penalizing of those involved in such studies. (author)

  11. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GISs are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  12. Detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in cats (Felis catus from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Rita de Cássia Nascimento Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Methods: Serum samples (n=153 obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene. Results: Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153 of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. Conclusions: These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in this area.

  13. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

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    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  14. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed.

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

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    Josué Pires Topazio

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC, southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58% were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems.

  16. Simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil in 2011

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    Michele de Souza Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Manaus, the capital city of the state of Amazon with nearly 2 million inhabitants, is located in the middle of the Amazon rain forest and has suffered dengue outbreaks since 1998. METHODS: In this study, blood samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, aimed at identifying dengue virus serotypes. RESULTS: Acute phase sera from 432 patients were tested for the presence of dengue virus. Out of the 432 patients, 137 (31.3% were found to be positive. All the four dengue virus serotypes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous circulation of the four dengue serotypes is described for the first time in Manaus and in Brazil.

  17. [Oral health care and health decentralization in Brazil: two case studies in Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Vieira-da-Silva, Lígia Maria

    2007-05-01

    A comparative case study was performed in two selected municipalities in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to discuss the relationship between health system decentralization and characteristics of oral health services. A logical model was developed and submitted to an expert panel. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews, field observation, and analysis of secondary data from the national Health System database. The results point to the influence of municipal government characteristics on oral health practice. One municipality was classified as having an intermediate standard of oral health system implementation (50%), while the other showed only 11% implementation. The study showed that the decentralization process has not been accompanied by an effort to improve management capacity in the local oral health services, despite the transfer of funds to this area.

  18. [Evaluation of decentralized management of basic pharmaceutical care in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Joslene Lacerda; Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Lessa

    2010-06-01

    This article analyzes the decentralized management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal (local) level in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The working hypothesis is that conditioning factors for such management results mainly from an essentially technical and procedures-based approach that still prevails in pharmaceutical care. Two research strategies were used: an extensive strategy, based on the Protocol of Indicators developed by the Nucleus for Studies and Research in Pharmaceutical Care (NEPAF) at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University in Bahia, in two Bahian municipalities. Data were collected with questionnaires, a checklist, and document analysis. The intensive phase used semi-structured interviews with key informants. The findings confirm the initial premises, detecting management practices limited to the operational dimension, with an emphasis on aspects of the logistic cycle in pharmaceutical care. Some limited strides were identified in the organizational and sustainability dimensions, focused on promoting greater participation and autonomy in the management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal level.

  19. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCORPION ENVENOMATION IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Sanny da Silva FURTADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a retrospective study of the epidemiology of scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2013 in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 11,134 cases were studied and distributed across all the months of the studied period and they occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 years-old women. Most victims were bitten on the hand; and received medical assistance within 1-3 hours after being bitten. Cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion envenomation in Ceará is an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year.

  1. A new species of Cordia (Cordiaceae for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Franklin Guimarães, Elsie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Cordia (Cordiaceae, C. kuhlmannii E.F. Guim., N.T. Ranga & J.I.M. Melo, for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is described and illustrated. The species, belonging to the section Gerascanthus is characterized mainly by irregular calyx lobes, corolla with narrow tube, stamens with glabrate bases and long branches of the style.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie del género Cordia (Cordiaceae, C. kuhlmannii E.F. Guim., N.T. Ranga & J.I.M. Melo, para el estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. La especie pertenece a la sección Gerascanthus y es caracterizada, principalmente, por presentar los lóbulos del cáliz irregulares, la corola con tubo estrecho, los estambres glabros en la base y las ramas de los estilos largas, de cerca de 5 mm.

  2. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence.

  3. [Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides.

  4. Description of Trichophoromyia uniniensis, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2014-08-29

    A new species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 genus is described, based on males collected in Jaú National Park, Amazonas state, Brazil. The Sand flies were mounted in Canada balsam. They were measured with a binocular Olympus CH-2 microscope with the aid of a micrometer objective and the drawings were done with the help of a camera lucida. This new species named Trichophoromyia uniniensis sp. nov. is closely related to Trichophoromyia omagua (Martins, Llanos & Silva, 1976). The former can be distinguished from the latter by the shape of its paramere that has the lower apical region turned up in the new species. With the new species here described a total of 39 species belonging to the Trichophoromyia genus are now known, most of them present in the Amazon rainforest.

  5. READERS AS GATEKEEPERS OF ONLINE NEWS: Brazil, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of online news items is calculated by news sites as afunction of reader behaviors, such as clicking on or reading articles,emailing them to others, commenting on or discussing them, andeven linking to them in blogs. Online news sites often provide rankorderedlists of popular articles that are updated throughout theday. Popularity reflects not only the interest of individuals, butit also can represent communication from an individual reader toother people. In the case of emailed articles, recipients may befriends, family or colleagues. When readers add comments belowan article, they may reach anyone on the internet. When readerscommunicate with other readers, they extend the usual gatekeepingprocess but their selections may not reflect the news values of thejournalists who put the sites together. This study compares thenews values of readers in Brazil, China and the United States.

  6. Parent-professional partnerships in young children's care and education in the United States and Brazil

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    Lia B. L. Freitas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the most promising practices in intervening with young children at risk for adverse developmental outcomes include respectful partnerships between professionals and children’s families. Often referred to as the family-centered system of care, this approach has been incorporated into policy both in the United States and Brazil. This paper focuses on outlining historical changes in young children’s care and education in these two societies, changes in the views of child care and the importance of socio-emotional development, and the key elements of meaningful professionalfamily partnerships. It also presents a set of necessary conditions to translate the family-centered system’s principles and research findings into practice

  7. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p95 Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  8. Mammalia, Estacao Ecologica do Panga, a Cerrado protected area in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

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    Bruna, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a species list of the mammals of the Estação Ecológica do Panga, a 404 ha Cerrado reserve in MinasGerais state, Brazil. Using methods ranging from camera traps to direct observations, we documented 46 species in thereserve. Among medium and large-sized mammals, the order Carnivora was the most commonly observed (N=12 species.The highest relative frequencies of observation were of Mazama guazoubira and Cerdocyon thous. Pecari tajacu was themost frequent species in camera traps. Over the course of 7320 trap nights there were 105 captures of small mammals fromseven species, with an overall capture rate of 1.6 %. The highest capture rates were for the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis,with Calomys tener the most commonly caught rodent. Our survey suggests that many of the Cerrado’s mammal species canpersist in landscapes that are a mosaic of natural areas and some types of agriculture.

  9. Herpetofauna, Santa Edwiges I and II hydroelectric power plants, state of Goiás, Brazil

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    Cintra, C. E. D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a check list of amphibians and reptiles of the area under the influence of Santa Edwiges I and IIsmall hydroelectric power plants on Rio Buritis, state of Goiás, Brazil. The list was the result of faunal rescueoperations carried out between 31 August and 29 September 2005 (Santa Edwiges II and between 30 July and 12September 2006 (Santa Edwiges I. The list comprises 30 species of amphibians belonging to 16 genera and 8 families(Caeciliidae, Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae, Hylidae, Brachycephalidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae, andMicrohylidae, and 45 species of reptiles belonging to 38 genera and 16 families (Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae,Gekkonidae, Gymnophtalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae,Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Dipsadidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae.

  10. Zooplankton composition in five oxbow lakes from the Upper Juruá River, Acre State, Brazil

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    Maria José Alencar dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted in five oxbow lakes located between Cruzeiro do Sul and Rodrigues Alves counties (Acre State, Brazil, to provide additional information about the composition of zooplankton assemblages in the Upper Juruá River. Samples were collected from May 2009 to May 2010, and fixed with 4% formalina. The numeric density (ind.m -3 was obtained from subsequent sub-samples (1 mL. The study recorded 19 zooplankton families. Rotifers showed higher species richness (81 species, followed by cladocerans (3 species and various forms of copepods and other organisms. Higher zooplankton means of numeric density was found in Novo Lake, with rotifers (1879 ind.m -3, cladocerans (207 ind.m -3, copepods (870 ind.m -3 . Diversity and numeric density were similar to other Neotropical aquatic ecosystems.

  11. [Inter-sector social mobilization for dengue control in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elvira Caires de; Vilasbôas, Ana Luiza Queiroz

    2011-08-01

    Discussions on the health-disease process and health promotion indicate the need to reach beyond the limits of the health sector itself to link knowledge from various fields in order to promote better health conditions for the population. Inter-sector approaches have thus emerged as a new rationale for guiding public policies. This study aimed to analyze the implementation of inter-sector actions in social mobilization for dengue control in Bahia State, Brazil, from 2008 to 2009, using evaluative research. A log frame was developed to define criteria for assessing the degree of implementation of the above-mentioned actions (implemented; partially implemented; not implemented). The results identified political support from government agencies as the main positive factor for inter-sector practices. Barriers included the concentration of responsibilities in a single sector and lack of planning as a work tool. The results emphasize inter-sector linkage as a persistent challenge.

  12. Herpetofauna, municipality of Porto Murtinho, Chaco region, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Souza, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the physiographic regions included in the central South American diagonal of open formations,the Chaco, with some endemic species, represents the southernmost dry area. In Brazil, the Chaco is foundin southwestern corner of Mato Grosso do Sul state, mostly in the municipality of Porto Murtinho along theParaguay and Apa rivers. From February 2008 to December 2009, we carried out an inventory of amphibiansand reptiles in Porto Murtinho, using pitfall traps, time-limited searches, and occasional encounters. A total of34 amphibian and 39 reptile species were registered. Although some typical Chacoan species were found, mostof the species are open area dwellers that also occur in other open biomes, such as the Cerrado and Caatinga.

  13. [Evaluation of the Mobile Emergency Care Service in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiga, Angela Maria Blatt; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Natal, Sonia; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2016-12-15

    This case study evaluated the Mobile Emergency Care Service (SAMU) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2013/2014. The theoretical log frame and evaluation matrix were validated by expert consensus workshops. Two dimensions were proposed: emergency care management and emergency care, analyzed with 22 indicators. Data collection used interviews, direct observation in the eight regional SAMU dispatches, and a questionnaire sent to the coordinators of the municipal SAMU. The analysis and value judgment according to separate dimensions, sub-dimensions, and indicators allowed identifying strengths and weaknesses amenable to intervention. No regional dispatch performed well in both dimensions; all were classified as "fair" in emergency care and "bad" in emergency management. An important strength was agile communication with callers for help, standardization, and external support for care. The mechanisms for internal and external linkage and communication need to be effectively implemented. The quality of advanced support units requires improvement.

  14. [Dialogue and participation in a local health council in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendhausen, Agueda; Caponi, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Although we are accustomed to believing that dialogue must involve participation, actual practice shows that it can occur in different ways. In this study, conducted in a municipal health council in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, the discursive mechanisms and strategies that appear as "obstacles" to this dialogue were analyzed, based on the minutes from 39 council meetings. Dialogue remained absent even though the council was intended as a forum for participation. Among the strategies, certain expressions which Umberto Eco refers to as "hypercodifications" were identified. Such expressions apparently act to block any debate in the council. The hypercodifications identified in this study were expressions of technical, administrative, and political jargon. Through these discursive strategies, the authors observed that language is used as a ruse, closing off possibilities for democratic interlocution, effectively cutting off dialogue. Thus, there is little transitivity in the power wielded by various segments in the council, which ended up concentrating primarily in the government sector.

  15. Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: An Ethnozoological Approach

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    MORGANA R. LICARIÃO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB, Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%, with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%. The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande.

  16. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira Dos; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Witter, Rute; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the presence of Ehrlichia DNA in the blood samples of 320 dogs from the urban and rural areas of the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal region, Mato Grosso state, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), targeting the ehrlichial dsb gene. Risk factors for infection in dogs were also evaluated. Forty-eight (15%, 95% CI: 11.4-19.5%) dogs were positive: 25 (15.6%, 95% CI: 10.4-22.2%) from the urban area and 23 (14.4%, 95% CI: 9.3-20.8%) from the rural area (P > 0.05). Partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products of 18 samples from the urban area and 16 samples from the rural area were 100% identical to E. canis from Brazil and the USA. This study reports the first E. canis molecular detection in dogs from the northern Pantanal region.

  17. Cetacean diversity on the Parnaiba Delta, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil

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    FA. Magalhães

    Full Text Available The increase in the research of cetacean surveys on the Brazilian coast has brought new data on the distribution of species never reported before. The present work reviews the current knowledge on cetaceans species and extends this knowledge with an analysis of cetaceans stranded in the Parnaiba Delta, on the coast of Maranhão State, Brazil. The studies on cetacean diversity on the coast of the Parnaíba Delta were made from August 2004 to August 2006. Fourteen strandings were reported, representing six distinct species, such as the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni, dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata, pigmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata, sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus and two specimens which have not yet been identified. The significant degree of cetacean diversity in the region shows that the Parnaíba Delta is, possibly, of an important area for cetacean studies in Brasil.

  18. [Epidemiology of gestational syphilis in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil: an uncontrolled disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Luiza de Araujo; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Melo, Simone Paes de; Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho

    2010-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the epidemiological profile of pregnant women with positive VDRL in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, in 2008. The study verified the proportion of pregnant women with syphilis that was classified as treated incorrectly according to Brazilian Ministry of Health guidelines, and assessed the reasons for inadequate treatment. Fifty-eight women who had given birth at five public maternity hospitals were interviewed consecutively following delivery. Data were also recovered from medical files and pregnancy cards. Sociodemographic and obstetric data and information related to the diagnosis and treatment of syphilis in both pregnant women and their partners were analyzed. Only three (5.2%; 95%CI: 1.8%-14.1%) pregnant women had received adequate treatment. The main reason for inadequate treatment was lack of partner treatment (88% of cases; 95%CI: 76.2%-94.4%). Medical care as currently provided does not guarantee the control of gestational syphilis in this sample.

  19. Ecological niche of family farmers in southern Minas Gerais state (Brazil

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    M. M. Cavallini

    Full Text Available The concept of ecological niche, considered by the food dimension point of view, was used to characterize a small farmers community from the south of Minas Gerais State (Brazil. Ten small farmer families and 76 different meals eaten by them were evaluated in this study, during three different periods: September 1995 (end of the dry season, December 1995 (rainy season and April 1996 (end of the rainy season. The analysed community appeared to depend markedly on certain food items showing little seasonal variation in their diet and appeared also to be self-sufficient in food supply, with satisfactory nutritional status. The food niche breadth for the studied small farmer families was always below 50%, with high seasonal overlap of the food niche, around 72% to 80%. The results are discussed based on social-cultural, economical and agrarian context.

  20. Decentering the United States in the studies of blackness in Brazil

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    Patricia de Santana Pinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominance of Eurocentric or US-centric perspectives in the social sciences has strengthened the notion that there is an exclusive model of modernity, experienced firstly in the economic centers of the world, and only later adopted in the 'peripheries.' This same logic can be found in studies of blackness in Brazil which have frequently characterized the black experience in the U.S.A. as the most 'modern within the African Diaspora.' In this article I develop a theoretical reflection which aims to overcome the centrality of the United States in the studies of blackness, recovering the notion of the African Diaspora as a multi-centered configuration. In order to do so, I examine the position of the city of Salvador da Bahia as an important center for the formation of the modern world, as well as for the construction of contemporary black identities.

  1. The eolianites between Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    NOWATZKI CARLOS H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the facies distribution of Mesozoic eolian sandstones between the Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations and also their contact relationships, in São Leopoldo area, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil. The main distinctive characteristics regarding these sandstones and formations are the mineralogical composition, paleocurrents and the occurrence of wet interdune deposits. These interdune deposits are characterized by frequent thin mudstone layers with mudcracks, ichnofossils and salt impressions. There are also some features that resemble plant fossils. The distinctive characteristics of these sequences to Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations allow us to suggest the informal name of Pedreira Sandstone, considering its type section, the Pedreira Cliff, at Sapucaia do Sul, RS.

  2. Risk analysis and prediction of visceral leishmaniasis dispersion in São Paulo State, Brazil.

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    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country. VL in São Paulo State, Brazil, first appeared in the northwestern region, spreading in a southeasterly direction over time. We integrate data on the VL vector, infected dogs and infected human dispersion from 1999 to 2013 through an innovative spatial temporal Bayesian model in conjunction with geographic information system. This model is used to infer the drivers of the invasion process and predict the future progression of VL through the State. We found that vector dispersion was influenced by vector presence in nearby municipalities at the previous time step, proximity to the Bolívia-Brazil gas pipeline, and high temperatures (i.e., annual average between 20 and 23°C. Key factors affecting infected dog dispersion included proximity to the Marechal Rondon Highway, high temperatures, and presence of the competent vector within the same municipality. Finally, vector presence, presence of infected dogs, and rainfall (approx. 270 to 540mm/year drove the dispersion of human VL cases. Surprisingly, economic factors exhibited no noticeable influence on disease dispersion. Based on these drivers and stochastic simulations, we identified which municipalities are most likely to be invaded by vectors and infected hosts in the future. Prioritizing prevention and control strategies within the identified municipalities may help halt the spread of VL while reducing monitoring

  3. Assessment of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil

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    Francisco Kennedy Scofoni Faleiros de Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is funded by the national public health system (SUS. To evaluate treatment results in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil, we have consulted the files of the office of the State Department of Health responsible for supplying such medications. We obtained information on 232 treatments of 201 patients who underwent treatment in or prior to 2008. The study was conducted by reviewing medical records, making telephone calls and interviewing the assistant physicians. Thirty-nine patients (19.4% had cirrhosis and HCV genotype 1 predominated (64.3%. Excluding patients with comorbidities or treatment without ribavirin we analysed 175 treatments (sustained virologic response occurred in 32.6% of cases. Twenty-six of these 175 were retreatments and the sustained virological response (SVR rate among them was 30.8%; the SVR rate was 32.9% among those receiving treatment for the first time. The SVR rate of genotype 1 patients was 27.8%, whereas it was 37.5% in non-1 genotype patients. The adjusted multivariate analysis showed association of SVR with the absence of cirrhosis [odds ratio (OR: 7.7; confidence interval (CI 95%: 2.5, 33.3], the use of pegylated interferon (OR: 5.8; CI 95%: 1.5, 21.4, non-1 genotype (OR: 5.3; CI 95%: 1.7, 16.7 and uninterrupted treatment (OR: 9.0; CI 95%: 3.3, 45.4. The SVR rates were similar to those found in other Brazilian studies about HCV, but lower than those found in national and international clinical trials. These data suggest that the treatments of chronic hepatitis C that are made available by SUS does not, under normal conditions, work as well as the original controlled studies indicated.

  4. Multidrug and multispecies resistance in sheep flocks from São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Cecília José; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Alberti, Ana Lúcia Luz; Rodrigues, Carlos Frederico Carvalho; Barbosa, Cristina Maria Pacheco; Chiebao, Daniela Pontes; Cardoso, Daniel; da Silva, Giane Serafim; Pereira, José Roberto; Margatho, Luiz Florêncio Franco; da Costa, Ricardo Lopes Dias; Nardon, Romeu Fernandes; Ueno, Tatiana Evelyn Hayama; Curci, Vera Cláudia Lorenzetti Magalhães; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2012-06-08

    The economic importance of sheep production is increasing worldwide simultaneously with the emergence of parasitic resistance. This study aimed to survey the current situation of management practices and parasite resistance in sheep flocks in São Paulo state, Brazil. A questionnaire was given to 35 sheep farmers to obtain information related to flock management practices. Of these flocks, 30 were submitted to the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with at least one of the five following anthelmintics: albendazole, closantel, ivermectin, levamisole, and moxidectin, for comparison against an untreated control group. In the survey, the median number animals per flock was 301, mainly of the Santa Ines breed (in 75.8% of the flocks) and crossbred animals (in 54.5% of the flocks). The predominant farming system was semi-intensive (82.9%), using rotational grazing (80%). Selective treatment was based on FAMACHA grade (47.1%) and in clinical signs (41.2%). The most often applied anthelmintics were macrocyclic lactones (42.9-54.2% in the last three applications). Considering the anthelmintics employed in this study, 10.7% of the farms' flocks were resistant to three, 35.7% to four, and 53.6% to all five anthelmintics. The main helminth genera observed before and after treatments were Haemonchus sp. (75.8%) and Trichostrongylus sp. (19.1%), but all observed genera (Cooperia sp., Oesophagostomum sp., and Strongyloides sp.) were detected by the FECRT. Considering efficacy values less than or equal to 90% in the FECRT as resistant, 100% of flocks were resistant to albendazole and ivermectin, 96.6% to moxidectin, 92.9% to closantel, and 53.6% to levamisole. It is thus possible to conclude that multidrug resistance is widespread in sheep flocks in São Paulo state, Brazil, and this involves all prevalent helminth genera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Edson V. Guilherme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0% has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167 tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7, increased serum IgE levels (6/7 and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7. The presence of pets (dogs or cats at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  6. Mortality from asthma in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil (1970-1992

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    Paulo Andrade Lotufo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from asthma has shown important variations over time in several countries. In Brazil, a mortality study performed in the 60s, covering the cities of S.Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, and other ten cities showed that S.Paulo presented the lowest death rate from asthma among of them all. It was decided to study the time trends of deaths from asthma and from the whole set of respiratory diseases from 1970 to 1992, in the population aged 15-34 yrs. old in the State of S.Paulo, as well as to compare them with those of other countries. Asthma mortality rates during the 23 years of observation since 1975, showed an oscillatory declining pattern with a peak of deaths in the initial years. The linearization of the curve allows the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient that was significantly negative, suggesting a decline in the mortality over this period, mainly in the 5-9 yrs. old and 30-34 yrs. old strata. The segmentation of data between the period of ICD-9, 1970 to 1978, and of ICD-9, 1979 and subsequent years, shows that there is stability within each period, in all age-groups, except for that of 5-9 yr. olds between 1970-1978. Comparing the rates of the population aged 15-34 yrs. old for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with trends observed in 14 other countries, an intermediate pattern for the first triennial period (1970-1972 as well as for the subsequent triennial periods, emerges. A prevalence study of asthma, a follow up program meant for using emergency rooms and a surveillance of deaths due to all respiratory diseases and specifically to asthma are strongly recommended.

  7. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, Lazaro; Martins, Maria Virginia Alves; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Ballalai, João M; Belart, Pierre; Habib, Renan; Fontana, Luiz F; Clemente, Iara M M M; Lorini, Maria Lucia; Mendonça Filho, João G; Laut, Vanessa M; Figueiredo, Marcos de Souza Lima

    2017-01-01

    Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil), and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM), namely total organic carbon (TOC), total sulfur (TS), total phosphorus (TP) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), including carbohydrates (CHO), lipids (LIP) and proteins (PTN). The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment) where the autotrophic activity is

  8. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Laut

    Full Text Available Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil, and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM, namely total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS, total phosphorus (TP and biopolymeric carbon (BPC, including carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP and proteins (PTN. The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment where the autotrophic

  9. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  10. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS FILHO, Günther; HIGA JÚNIOR, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  11. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  12. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Ribeiro Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin. Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity.

  13. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  14. Energy and social and environmental consequences in Rondonia State, Brazil; Energia e reflexos socio-ambientais em Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Vania L. di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica; Paz, Luciana R.L. da [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Sociologia

    1996-12-31

    The social and environmental consequences of the recent occupation of the State of Rondonia, Brazil, are presented.The lack of basic structure for settlement of the migrants brought many problems and in this context, the use of renewable energy could be the basis for developing the region 10 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  16. The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

  17. Aedes albopictus may not be vector of dengue virus in human epidemics in Brazil

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    Degallier Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 60,500 dengue cases were reported in the state of Espírito Santo (ES, Brazil, between 1995 and 1998. The study's purpose was to identify whether Aedes albopictus was transmitting the dengue virus during an epidemic in the locality of Vila Bethânia (Viana County,Vitória, ES. From April 3 to 9, 1998, blood and serum samples were collected daily for virus isolation and serological testing. Four autochthonous cases were confirmed through DEN 1 virus isolation and two autochthonous cases through MAC ELISA testing. Of 37 Ae. aegypti and 200 Ae. albopictus adult mosquitoes collected and inoculated, DEN1 virus was isolated only from a pool of two Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes. The study results suggest that Ae. albopictus still cannot be considered an inter-human vector in dengue epidemics in Brazil.

  18. Sobre carnes y vidas desnudas en Tiempo de Silencio de Luis Martín-Santos

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    Erika Almenara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el contexto del franquismo, este ensayo analiza la des-subjetivización del sujeto español que dicho periodo se propuso efectuar. A partir de la lectura de Tiempo de Silencio de Luis Martín-Santos, el artículo intenta demostrar que el Estado franquista redujo al sujeto y su cuerpo en carne moldeable a partir de la cual dar nacimiento al nuevo sujeto español. Under the context of the historical period known as “franquismo español,” this essay analizes the desubjectification of the Spanish subject. Through an examination of the novel Tiempo de silencio by Luis Martín-Santos, this essay demonstrates that the Franquista State, reduced the subject and its body in maleable and collective flesh to allow the emergence of the new Spanish subject.

  19. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piauí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Allan Paulo Moreira; Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Carvalho, Alcimar do Lago; Sampaio, Brunno Henrique Lanzellotti; Clarkson, Bruno; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Avelino-Capistrano, Fernanda; Gonçalves, Inês Corrêa; Cordeiro, Isabelle da Rocha Silva; Câmara, Josenir Teixeira; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; de Souza, W. Rafael Maciel; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Diversity and distribution of Neotropical aquatic insects is still poorly known, with many species to be recorded and many others to be described, due to the small number of taxonomists and sparse faunistic studies. This knowledge is especially poor in the Caatinga Domain in Northeastern Brazil, even though, this region may have played an important historical role in the spatial evolution of faunas of forested areas in northern South America. New information Aquatic insect checklists of 96 species from Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Ceará State, Brazil) and 112 species from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades (Piauí State, Brazil) are presented, representing the following taxa: Elmidae, Epimetopidae, Hydrophilidae, and Torridincolidae (Coleoptera), Hemerodromiinae (Diptera: Empididae), Ephemeroptera, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Hemiptera), Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Because of the scarce number of biological inventories in Northeastern Brazil, several new distributional records (of species, genera, and families) for Brazil, Northeastern Brazil, and Ceará and Piauí states are provided. In addition, several undescribed species were detected, being 26 from Ubajara and 20 from Sete Cidades. Results represent a significant increase to the known fauna of these states, ranging from 13%-70% increase for Ceará and 41% to 91% increase for Piauí. Although both parks are relatively close to each other and within the Caatinga domain, their aquatic fauna display a very high complementarity (89% species), possibly due to structural differences of water bodies sampled in each park. Rarefaction curves based on quantitative light trap samples suggest a much higher expected species richness of aquatic insects at Sete Cidades than at Ubajara National Park. Discussion on biogeographical affinities of this sample of the Caatinga fauna is provided. PMID:27660528

  20. Gestão dos serviços de água e esgoto nos municípios de Campinas, Santo André, São José dos Campos e Santos, no período de 1996 a 2000 The management of water and sewage services in Campinas, Santo André, São José dos Campos and Santos, from 1996 to 2000

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    Rita de Cássia Ogera

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a gestão dos serviços de água e esgoto nos Municípios de Campinas, Santo André, São José dos Campos e Santos, no período 1996 - 2000. Nos Municípios de Campinas e Santo André, a gestão desses serviços encontra-se na esfera de governo municipal, enquanto nos Municípios de São José dos Campos e Santos, a gestão encontra-se na esfera de governo estadual. Os métodos adotados foram pesquisa bibliográfica, pesquisa documental, pesquisa descritiva e investigação explicativa fundamentada pela teoria, seguida de análise dos resultados. Políticas públicas e políticas de governo foram tomadas como parâmetros para analisar as diferenças na eficiência e na eficácia da gestão desses serviços. Como resultados foram apontadas características e diferenças na eficiência e na eficácia da gestão dos serviços de água e esgoto nos âmbitos municipal e estadual.This study intends to analyze the water and sewage services management in Campinas, Santo André, São José dos Campos and Santos, from 1996 to 2000. In Campinas and Santo André, the municipal government implements the management of these services. In São José dos Campos and Santos, it is a State-level operation. The methods used for this paper were bibliographic, descriptive, and documental researches, and a subsequent theoretical explanation followed by an analysis of the results. Public and government policies were used as parameters to analyze differences in efficiency and efficacy of those services managements. The results obtained show characteristics and differences between State-level and municipal-level managements of the water and sewage treatments.

  1. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae collected on tomato plants in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    C. H. Marchiori

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21º14'43"S; 44º59'59"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae, one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae, and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae. The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil.

  2. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  3. Congenital toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a neglected infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carellos, E V M; Caiaffa, W T; Andrade, G M Q; Abreu, M N S; Januário, J N

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of congenital toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil and describe the demographic and socioeconomic profile of the municipalities associated with the disease. An ecological study was conducted using socioeconomic indicators of a database (MGSSRI) created by Fundação João Pinheiro (a government technical support agency of Minas Gerais), in order to show the development of the municipalities in the state. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was the outcome and the items of the MGSSRI were the explanatory variables. Of 146,307 newborns screened (November 2006 to May 2007), 190 had congenital toxoplasmosis, yielding a prevalence of 1·3/1000, ranging from 0 to 76·9/1000 in the municipalities. The multivariate model indicated a higher occurrence of toxoplasmosis in municipalities with smaller populations and worse indexes of tax performance. Congenital toxoplasmosis appears to be a neglected disease in the state of Minas Gerais, given the high prevalence found and its concentration in municipalities with worse socioeconomic indexes.

  4. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  5. Ecological interactions of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Italo A Sherlock

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory and field observations summarized in this paper on visceral leishmaniasis ecology in the State of Bahia, Brazil are based on the author's observations over the past 35 years in a number of state's foci, public health records and literature citations. The disease is endemic with epidemic outbreaks occurring every ten years and its geographical distribution is expanding rapidly in the last years. Leishmania chagasi is the main ethiologic agent of the visceral leishmaniasis but Le. amazonensis s. lato was the only leishmania isolated by other authors from some visceral leishmaniasis human cases in the state. Lutzomyia longipalpis (with one or two spots on tergites III and IV and two sized different populations was epidemiologically incriminated as the main vector. It was found naturally infected with promastigotes, and it was infected with four species of leishmanias in the laboratory. Although the experimental transmission of Le. amazonensis by the bite of Lu. longipalpis to hamsters was performed, the author was not successful in transmitting Le. chagasi in the same way. The dog is the most important domestic source for infection of the vector, however it is not a primary reservoir. The opossum Didelphis albiventris was found naturally infected with Le. chagasi but its role as reservoir is unknown. Foxes and rodents were not found infected with leishmanias in Bahia.

  6. [Characterization of the family health strategy in Amazonas state, Brazil: an analysis of implementation and impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon; Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Pires, Rodrigo Otávio Moretti

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP) in municipalities (counties) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, analyzing potential population coverage, evidence of change in the health care model, and impact (2004 and 2008). Implementation was classified as fair versus unsatisfactory. The findings showed an increase in the number of municipalities with the FHP implemented, as well as in the program's coverage (which nevertheless was less than 50% of the population). Concerning change in the health care model, no municipalities were observed with a high rate of change. As for impact, there was a decrease in low impact and an increase in high impact. The final classification did not show a statistically significant change from one year to the next, and unsatisfactory implementation prevailed in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas. Evaluation of the FHP is not simple, since there are various factors involved in the issue. Further studies could reveal the factors that explain the program's suboptimal implementation in the State of Amazonas.

  7. Characterization of cattle raising in Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

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    Inácio José Clementino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the cattle raising in Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. The State was divided into three cattle production regions according to its mesoregions: production region 1 (Sertão mesoregion, production region 2 (Borborema mesoregion and production region 3 (Agreste and Zona da Mata mesoregions. Overall, 689 rural properties from the three production regions were randomly selected. The variables used in the characterization were production system, farming system, type of milking, use of artificial insemination, milk cooling, number of lactating cows, daily milk production, herd size and number of bovine females > 24 months of age. It was found that most farms in Paraíba State are family or subsistence farms, predominantly mixed production, semi-intensive farming, with utilization of hand milking and natural mating, without use of milk cooling, low number of lactating cows and daily milk production. It were found differences and similarities among production regions so that it is suggested that such aspects must be taking into account in livestock development public policy planning, as well as in the implementation of disease control strategies.

  8. Retrospective Study on Dengue in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil

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    Cunha RV da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective serologic study was carried out in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, in order to detect the dengue virus activity before recognizing the epidemic of 1994. Mac-Elisa was performed by using a mixture of specific DEN-1 and DEN-2 antigens on serum samples from the Emilio Ribas Laboratory collection. Samples were obtained from 1,224 patients with exanthematic febrile disease and negative serological results for rubella. All specimens were taken during November 1993 to May 1994. The results confirmed dengue infections in Fortaleza by November 1993, approximately six months before the beginning of the epidemic, proving how misleading diagnosis of dengue infection are still troublesome, in spite of the strong dengue activity in Ceará. The authors stress the urgent necessity to implement the active surveillance system in order to prevent another extensive dengue fever epidemics in the state. Epidemiological background of the dengue activity in the State of Ceará is also described.

  9. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

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    Denise Amaro da SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease.

  10. Three decades of meningococcal disease in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puricelli, Rubens C B; Kupek, Emil; Westrupp, Maria Helena Bittencourt

    2004-06-01

    Consolidation of data on meningococcal disease surveillance for the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, has provided new insight about the evolution of this disease during the period of 1971-2000. A descriptive epidemiological study, based on retrospective analysis of all cases of meningococcal disease notified in the state of Santa Catarina, linked the surveillance data from the Secretary of the State of Health, magnetic tape records and the data from the national surveillance of diseases of obligatory notification. Following World Health Organization guidelines, cumulative incidence exceeding five cases per 100,000 inhabitants was considered indicative of an epidemic. Official population data from the Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística were used for the incidence denominator. During the 1971-2000 period, 7,893 cases and 1,354 deaths caused by meningococcal disease were reported. This corresponds to a mean of 263 cases and 45 deaths per year, with a mean incidence of 6.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and a fatality rate of 17.2%. Three distinct epidemiological periods were identified, two of which can be considered epidemic. Two of three distinct epidemiological periods were characterized by an epidemic of meningococcal disease, covering 20 of the 30 years analyzed. Identification of the epidemics and preventive actions, such as vaccination and health education, contributed to the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to this disease.

  11. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha(-1)⋅year(-1) for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha(-1)⋅year(-1) for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  12. Genetic variability of Leishmania infantum in naturally infected dogs in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Albuquerque, George Rêgo; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, Leishmania infantum mainly affects humans and dogs. The state of Bahia presents many dogs that are positive for this parasite. Despite the importance of epidemiology in this region, there are still very few studies that have assessed the genetic characteristics of L. infantum. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic variability of L. infantum isolated identified in naturally infected dogs, in order to verify occurrence of subpopulation of this parasite in the different biomes existing in the state of Bahia. Thirty-two samples of L. infantum were analyzed, which were obtained isolated in dogs from the Mata Atlântica (rainforest), Caatinga (semi-arid scrub forest), and Cerrado (a vast tropical savannah eco-region) Bahia municipalities' biomes. All animals presented with clinical changes suggestive of Leishmania spp. and they exhibited positive reactions to serological tests. kDNA analysis with RFLP markers revealed the presence of genetic variability and gene flow in subpopulations of L. infantum; samples from the Mata Atlântica areas were genetically more similar to those from the areas of Caatinga and they were less likely to resemble those of the Cerrado. This data may be used to investigate the dissemination of parasite in the canine population of state of Bahia.

  13. Official information systems for cryptococcal meningitis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimann, Beatriz Consuelo Quinet; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The study aimed to compare the epidemiological profile of crytococcal meningitis in different information systems, thus assessing to what extent the profile available in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) reflected cryptococcal meningitis occurrences in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2004. That database was compared to a new database comprised of cryptococcal meningitis cases from this System, from the Assessoria de Meningite da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (State Department of Health Meningitis Advisory Committee), and from the Instituto Estadual de Infectologia São Sebastião (State Institute of Infectious Diseases) laboratory records. The System detected 65.7% of the cases present in the new database. The percentage of patients with AIDS as a pre-existing disease was similar in both databases (26% and 24.9%). Thus, even though cryptococcal meningitis incidence is underreported in the System, the profile of notified cases reflects the profile of the total number of cases.

  14. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  15. Production strategy and technological challenges arisen with the low permeability gas reservoirs in the Mexilhao, Urugua and Tambau Fields, Campos Basin, Southeast, Brazil; Estrategia de producao e desafios tecnologicos no desenvolvimento da producao de gas nos reservatorios de baixa permeabilidade dos Campos de Mexilhao, Urugua e Tambau, Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Alberto da Silva; Silva, Celso Tarcisio de Souza; Pires, Luis Carlos Gomes; Damasceno, Luis Carlos; Filoco, Paulo Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Mexilhao, Urugua and Tambau Fields are located in the North part of the Santos Basin will produce together 18 106 m3/d of gas and 45 000 bbl/d of oil and condensate. Besides the contribution to attend the country gas demand the production of these fields starts the establishment of a minimum gas production, transportation and processing infra-structure, that are flexible enough to permit increasing in production from possible upsides. This new production pole has a strategic importance because it will increment gas production close to the main brazilian consumer center. Mexilhao, Urugua and Tambau Fields are located in the North part of the Santos Basin will produce together 18 106 m3/d of gas and 45 000 bbl/d of oil and condensate. Besides the contribution to attend the country gas demand the production of these fields starts the establishment of a minimum gas production, transportation and processing infra-structure, that are flexible enough to permit increasing in production from possible upsides. This new production pole has a strategic importance because it will increment gas production close to the main brazilian consumer center.(author)

  16. Comparative analysis of death by suicide in Brazil and in the United States: descriptive, cross-sectional time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuabara, Alexander; Abuabara, Allan; Tonchuk, Carin Albino Luçolli

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes suicide as a public health priority. Increased knowledge of suicide risk factors is needed in order to be able to adopt effective prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the association between the Gini coefficient (which is used to measure inequality) and suicide death rates over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in Brazil and in the United States (US). The hypothesis put forward was that reduction of income inequality is accompanied by reduction of suicide rates. Descriptive cross-sectional time-series study in Brazil and in the US. Population, death and suicide death data were extracted from the DATASUS database in Brazil and from the National Center for Health Statistics in the US. Gini coefficient data were obtained from the World Development Indicators. Time series analysis was performed on Brazilian and American official data regarding the number of deaths caused by suicide between 2000 and 2013 and the Gini coefficients of the two countries. The suicide trends were examined and compared. Brazil and the US present converging Gini coefficients, mainly due to reduction of inequality in Brazil over the last decade. However, suicide rates are not converging as hypothesized, but are in fact rising in both countries. The hypothesis that reduction of income inequality is accompanied by reduction of suicide rates was not verified.

  17. Rabies in tamarins (Callithrix jacchus in the State of Ceará, Brazil, a distinct viral variant?

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    Nélio Batista-Morais

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the State of Ceará reports the largest percentage of human rabies cases originated from wild animals in Brazil, transmitted by the principal simian species, the tamarin (Callithrix jacchus, found in various locations throughout the State, but concentrated along the coast. Epidemiological studies indicated that possibly the same virus caused the deaths in humans and non-human primates. This rabies virus seem to be different from all other identified so far.

  18. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-09-06

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured.

  19. Friendship and Internal Migration in Brazil: Vulnerability and Coping

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    Agnaldo Garcia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been investigated in the context of international migration, but little is known about the subject in relation to internal migration, a phenomenon of great social importance in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to present and discuss data obtained in an investigation on the relations between internal migration and friendship as perceived by citizens from the state of Espírito Santo who were living in other states of Brazil, in the North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast regions. Twenty adults born in the state and who had migrated to another Brazilian state participated in the investigation. The participants have been interviewed about how they perceived the relationship between friendship and migration and the data were subjected to thematic content analysis. Among the results difficulties to maintain friendships with people of the place of origin as well as difficulties in forming new friendships were observed. Friends were considered relevant for adaptation to the new state, affecting the perception of the same. The article also discusses the origin of friends, the perception of cultural differences and difficulties to make friends in another state. It is concluded that friends play a relevant role in the lives of Brazilian internal migrants and further investigations are necessary.

  20. Ethnoveterinary knowledge and practices at Colares Island, Pará state, eastern Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Rhuan Amorim; Monteiro, Maria Vivina Barros; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Rodrigues, Silvane Tavares; Soares, Marina Lira; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Palha, Maria das Dores Correia; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Tourinho, Manoel Malheiros

    2012-11-21

    The lack of ethnoveterinary surveys in Brazil, especially in the Amazon region, results in losses in the veterinary phytopharmacology field and in scientific documentation of the cultural traditions of plant use in the treatment of animal diseases. To catalog, analyze and disseminate the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Colares Island, Pará state, eastern Amazon, Brazil. A total of 72 interviews were conducted, and semi-structured questionnaires were answered by 18 men and 54 women. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed using the informant consensus factor (ICF) and use value (UV). The plants with a reported medicinal use for domestic animals were harvested, herbalized and botanically identified. Fifty-six plants, distributed in 49 genera and 35 families, were indicated to have 23 different medicinal uses, divided into six categories of use. The highest ICF (0.80) was obtained for the antiparasitic class. The Euphorbiaceae family exhibited the highest number of citations, and the species with the highest UVs were Caladium cf. bicolor, Bixa orellana, Carapa guianensis, Jatropha curcas and Cymbopogon citratus. The parts of the 56 plants that were most frequently used to prepare ethnoveterinary medications were the leaves (46%), bark (15%), roots and fruit (10%). The use of the macerated leaves was the most common method of application, used by 43% of the interviewees, and the majority of the preparations (87.3%) used a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, the interviewees reported the use of products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the establishment of an inventory of plants used in ethnoveterinary practices in this region of the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Future phytochemical and pharmacological studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of the identified plants, enabling communities to use them in a more economic, effective and safe manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

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    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  2. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  3. Lugar e veneração dos santos hoje

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    Zilles, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A veneração dos santos, na América Latina, extrapola as fronteiras do catolicismo. Na igreja distancia o catolicismo da hierarquia do catolicismo do povo. O autor justifica, dentro de limites, a veneração dos santos, a partir de intercomunicação e do amor, sem desviar-se do cristocentrismo de fé cristã

  4. 洗錢犯罪與犯罪收益之定義──從United States v. Santos案看美國反洗錢法之新發展 “Proceeds” of Crime in Money Laundering: A New Breakthrough from U.S. v. Santos

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    林志潔 Chih-Chieh Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 打擊組織型的財經犯罪,為世界各國面臨的重要挑戰。由於此類犯罪往往涉及大量資金移轉,如未能阻止犯罪收益透過洗錢管道漂白,將持續給予犯罪行為人繼續犯罪的誘因,更可能資助後續犯罪的發生。為此,美國國會於1986 年通過洗錢控制法,惟因「犯罪收益」一詞未經定義,而造成各級法院適用上見解分歧。一派認為收益一詞係指扣除犯罪成本後之所得,另一派則認為犯罪收益不應扣除犯罪成本方能有效阻斷不法誘因。本文藉由分析美國聯邦最高法院United States v. Santo 乙案,釐清近期美國洗錢防制法制中因 「犯罪收益」一詞所引發之重大爭議,並對國會後續做出之修法回應予以評述,期能藉此作為我國未來財經犯罪防制之參考。 How to prevent and combat large-scale financial crimes has become the most critical criminal issue in many countries. To combat financial crimes, U.S. Congress passed Money Laundering Control Act of 1986, which prohibits the use of the “proceeds” of criminal activities for various purposes, including engaging in, and conspiring to engage in, transactions intended to promote the carrying on of unlawful activity. However, what “proceeds” mean was undefined in the act. Various interpretations of “proceeds” by the Circuits caused the disorder of law enforcement. This article analyzes the latest issue of the Money Laundering Control Act through analyzing U.S. v. Santos and the following response from the U.S. Congress, and hopes to respond to the challenges of financial crimes in the contemporary Taiwanese society.

  5. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

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    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  6. The dynamics of dengue virus serotype 3 introduction and dispersion in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Paulo Roberto Santana de Melo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By 2002, dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1 and DENV-2 had circulated for more than a decade in Brazil. In 2002, the introduction of DENV-3 in the state of Bahia produced a massive epidemic and the first cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Based on the standardized frequency, timing and location of viral isolations by the state's Central Laboratory, DENV-3 probably entered Bahia through its capital, Salvador, and then rapidly disseminated to other cities, following the main roads. A linear regression model that included traffic flow, distance from the capital and DENV-1 circulation (r² = 0.24, p = 0.001 supported this hypothesis. This pattern was not seen for serotypes already in circulation and was not seen for DENV-3 in the following year. Human population density was another important factor in the intensity of viral circulation. Neither DENV-1 nor DENV-2 fit this model for 2001 or 2003. Since the vector has limited flight range and vector densities fail to correlate with intensity of viral circulation, this distribution represents the movement of infected people and to some extent mosquitoes. This pattern may mimic person-to-person spread of a new infection.

  7. Snakebite cases in the municipalities of the State of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Hellyson Fidel Araujo De Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical profile of snakebite cases reported from 2007 to 2012 in the municipalities of the Curimataú region, State of Paraíba, in northeastern Brazil. Methods Data were collected from the Health Department of the State of Paraíba using the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry. Results A total of 304 snakebite cases were studied. The cases occurred most frequently from April to June. The genera Bothrops, Crotalus, and Micrurus were responsible for 74.6%, 6.2%, and 1.3% of cases, respectively. Snakebite cases predominated in males living in rural areas and between 10 and 19 years old. The highest incidence of bites occurred on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3h after being bitten. With regard to severity, 48% of the cases were classified as mild, 26% as moderate, and 2.6% as severe. Successful cures predominated, and no deaths were reported. The average antivenom ampoule dose used for the treatment in some snakebite cases was lower than that recommended by the Health Ministry. Conclusions Although our results show that Paraíba has a good level of medical care, there are serious deficiencies in recording snakebite information. These data indicate the need to improve the recording process for snakebite cases. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to optimize their skills in treating snakebite victims.

  8. FRESH FISH TRADE NETWORKS IN THE STREET MARKETS OF PALMAS, TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

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    Kelly Bessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on fresh fish trade networks found in the street markets of Palmas, capital of Tocantins state, Brazil, so as to identify the economic agents involved and the various geographical spaces which interact as a result of these networks. Fresh fish trade in Palmas takes place in distributor warehouses, grocery stores, supermarkets and hypermarkets, fish shops, and fishing communities, but it is street markets that constitute the most popular sale venues. Market sellers establish upstream supply networks with sectors in the fish food system (suppliers in primary and secondary production, distribution, and retail, whose interactions generate connections in Palmas (fishermen, distributors, retailers on a local scale, as well as connections with locations in Tocantins and Pará states (fishermen, fisheries, cold storage companies on a regional scale. Sellers also establish downstream trade networks with the end consumer at markets and with establishments in the food and small retail sectors, whose interactions produce mostly local connections, in Palmas and in the Luzimangues district (close to Palmas. Such connections are marked by consumption processes in these urban areas. Key-words: network, fresh fish trade, street markets.

  9. The Battle Over Abortion Rights in Brazil's State Arenas, 1995-2006.

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    De Assis Machado, Marta Rodriguez; Maciel, Débora Alves

    2017-06-01

    This article proposes a relational approach to the study of abortion law reform in Brazil. It focuses on the interaction of pro-choice and anti-abortion movements in different state arenas and political contexts. It details the emergence of a strategic action field on abortion during the Brazilian re-democratization process and the National Constituent Assembly. We offer analysis on pro-choice and anti-abortion mobilization in state arenas-mainly in the executive and legislative powers-during the two terms of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC), 1995-1998 and 1999-2002, and the first term of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula), 2003-2006. We then map political resources for mobilization, such as legislative bills, public policy norms, and judicial decisions, and track legal continuities and changes. Finally, we analyze anti-abortion reaction, which was consolidated through an increased conservative presence in congress after 2006, and discuss how the abortion debate has migrated from congress to the Supreme Court and the public sphere.

  10. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

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    Tiago Oliveira de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09 and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices.

  11. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  12. [International migration, health, and work: an analysis of Haitians in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

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    Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa; Muraro, Ana Paula; Palos, Cássia Carraco; Martins, Maria Angela C; Borges, Fabiano Tonaco

    2017-07-27

    This article addresses the relations between immigration, health, and work in Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, emphasizing their work conditions. This was an exploratory study based on primary data collected through a survey of the Haitian population in Cuiabá in 2014-2015. A total of 452 Haitians were interviewed, living in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande (373 men and 79 women), and the findings point to the precarious social situation of Haitian immigrants in Mato Grosso State, marked by high unemployment. Of the immigrants interviewed, 52.7% were currently working and 26.5% reported a workweek greater than 48 hours. The two main occupations for Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá were construction and services, and most were working below their original level of training, skills sets, and job experience in Haiti. The main risks identified in these two sectors were physical (53.2% and 63.4%, respectively) and accidents (23.4% and 17.1%, respectively), in addition to reports of physical and psychosocial distress. The study points to the precarious social, economic, and labor conditions of the Haitian population in the capital of Mato Grosso.

  13. American Visceral Leishmaniasis: Factors Associated with Lethality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Geraldine Madalosso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify factors associated with death in visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases. Patients and Methodology. We evaluated prognostic factors for death from VL in São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. A prognostic study nested in a clinical cohort was carried out by data analysis of 376 medical files. A comparison between VL fatal cases and survivors was performed for clinical, laboratory, and biological features. Association between variables and death was assessed by univariate analysis, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to determine adjusted odds ratio for death, controlling confounding factors. Results. Data analysis identified 53 fatal cases out of 376 patients, between 1999 and 2005 in São Paulo state. Lethality was 14.1% (53/376, being higher in patients older than fifty years. The main causes of death were sepsis, bleeding, liver failure, and cardiotoxicity due to treatment. Variables significantly associated with death were severe anemia, bleeding, heart failure, jaundice, diarrhea, fever for more than sixty days, age older than fifty years, and antibiotic use. Conclusion. Educational health measures are needed for the general population and continuing education programs for health professionals working in the affected areas with the purpose of identifying and treating early cases, thus preventing the disease evolution towards death.

  14. Socioeconomic diagnosis of cheese producers of Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil

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    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to diagnose the socioeconomic conditions of cheese producers from three municipalities of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil. Manufacture process, hygienic-sanitary conditions in handmade cheese production and its commercialization were some features analysed for both cream-type and butter-type cheeses. During the survey, conducted from March to September 2012 questionnaires were applied to ten Marajó’s cheese producers. The cheese fabrication was characterized as a handmade process, employing family labor, most over ten years of experience. The production has a small scale, uses rudimentary technologies, lacks proper infrastructure for the processing of the product and has unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions. Commercialization is mainly by direct sale on the ship that travels to Belém city, capital of Pará state. Interviewed producers showed good reception to knowledge that can improve quality of the product, but they need a better guidance. In this context, the transfer of information is essential to sustain the production of these cheeses and preserve local culture, contributing to the economic and social development of producers regions.

  15. Breast cancer in Brazil: epidemiology and treatment challenges

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    Cecilio AP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adma Poliana Cecilio,1 Erika Tomie Takakura,1 Jaqueline Janaina Jumes,1 Jeane Wilhelm dos Santos,1 Ana Cristina Herrera,2 Vanessa Jacob Victorino,3 Carolina Panis11Laboratory of Inflammatory Mediators, State University o West Paraná, UNIOESTE, Campus Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil; 2Pontifícia Universidade Católica (PUC, Campus Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; 3School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University (FM-USP, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Notwithstanding the advances in tumor research, diagnosis, and treatment, breast cancer is still a challenge worldwide. This global burden of disease has been associated with population aging and the persistence of cancer-related behaviors. The number of women diagnosed with breast cancer has been estimated as increasing, especially in middle-income countries such as Brazil. Estimates from the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA point to breast cancer as the major malignant neoplasia in Brazilian women and the main cause of death from cancer in the country. This fact has been associated with increased life expectancy, urbanization, and cancer-related behaviors. Given this scenario, it is clear that there is a need for identifying and discussing which factors have substantially contributed to this growing number of cases in Brazil, including access to treatment, prevention and early diagnosis, weaknesses of the local health policy, and intrinsic genetic peculiarities of the Brazilian population. This review aims to address the role of such factors.Keywords: breast cancer, treatment, prevention, epidemiology, Brazil, cancer screening, mammograms, health policies

  16. Neritic Jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa from the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast of Brazil

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    Matthews-Cascon, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the entire Brazilian coast, there are 22 published records of scyphozoans. On the other hand, only 35 species ofcubozoans were described worldwide, four of them reported for the Brazilian coast. However, little is known about thespecies of cubozoans and scyphozoans in the Northeastern states of Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform asurvey of the jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeast ofBrazil. Specimens were collected using trawl net on beaches in the counties of Natal (in 2003 and Tibaú (in 2004. Forthe Rio Grande do Norte coast there were few records of large jellyfish, and new records of the following cubozoan andscyphozoan species were verified: Chiropsalmus quadrumanus; Chrysaora lactea; Lychnorhiza lucerna andStomolophus meleagris. The studied species had their distributions expanded in the coast to the State of Rio Grande doNorte.

  17. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine brucellosis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Erivânia Camelo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The state was divided into three regions, and in each region, approximately 300 properties were randomly sampled. From these selected properties, a pre-established number of animals were randomly selected and blood serum samples were obtained. A total of 3,901 animals were selected from 900 properties. For each selected property, an epidemiological questionnaire was administered to assess the type of farming, the animal husbandry practices and the sanitary practices that could be associated with the presence of brucellosis infection. The testing protocol consisted of screening the samples with a buffered acidified plate antigen test and retesting the positive samples with a complement fixation test (CF. One positive animal was enough to define an infected herd. The prevalence rates of infected herds and animals in the state were 4.5% [3.2; 6.4%] and 1.4% [0.7; 2.7%], respectively. By region, the prevalence rates of infected herds and animals, respectively, were as follows: Zona da Mata, 3.3% [1.8; 6.1%] and 1.7% [0.5; 3.0%]; Agreste, 7.4% [4.9; 10.9%] and 1.9% [0.8; 3.0%]; and Sertão, 1.3% [0.5; 3.5%] and 0.7% [0.0; 1.6%]. Flooded pastures (OR = 2.86 [1.37; 6.42] and the presence of 13 or more females in the herd (3rd quartile (OR = 2.65 [1.19; 5.89] were identified as risk factors. The existence of veterinary care emerged as a protective factor against bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco (OR = 0.24 [0.10; 0.58].

  18. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil